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Black Feminist Collectivity in Ntozake Shange’s for colored girls who have considered suicide / when the rainbow is enuf. Ntozake Shange’s for colored girls who have considered suicide / when the rainbow is enuf opens with a poem entitled “dark phrases.” The first stanza reads: dark phrases of elementary research papers womanhood. of never havin been a girl. without rhythm/ no tune. distraught laughter fallin. over a black girl’s shoulder. it’s funny/ it’s hysterical. the melody-less-ness of her dance. don’t tell nobody don’t tell a soul. Of Divorce? she’s dancin on beer cans #038; shingles  Shange’s for colored girls produces and elementary, idealizes black feminist collectivity from the opening stanza to the final “laying on act generosity essay, of hands.” Implicitly, if nationalist rhetoric and patriotic action aspire and move toward a more perfect union, that union remains an ideal that is always set at a distance from the teaching elementary research papers, lived experience of the citizen. for colored girls presents an aspirational black feminist collectivity as an essay of divorce, alternative to the heteronormative domesticity that is the primary organizing social logic of the state. As an ideal, the black feminist collective destabilizes state fantasies including the American dream. Elementary? Drama seeks to imagine a world that may be inspired by the mundane, but is not bound by reality. Therefore drama participates in crafting national, communal, personal, and social ideals. Ideals are important precisely because they are aspirational—because they provide a vision of essay worlds we wish to elementary research papers, inhabit and possibilities worth fighting to realize. for colored girls cultivates black feminist collectivity through the form of the choreopoem, which integrates poetics and scripted movement. Essay? Robin Bernstein has argued persuasively for the way objects as things inspire relationships with individuals, prescribing a set of actions, scripting behavior. Research Papers?  Bernstein suggests that objects create social cues that motivate certain actions from individuals: red lights encourage drivers to stop their cars, wailing alarm clocks provoke individuals to decision, wake from their slumber, beeping iPhones prompt users to check their messages. Using thing theory, Bernstein explains that in the moment when the object inspires action, it transforms from an object into a thing and blurs the strict hierarchy between humans and objects.
Bernstein’s formulation of scriptive things uses the dramatic text—the script—as its ideal object-turned-thing, calling attention to the way the teaching elementary research papers, dramatic text participates in encouraging social relations. Essay? I would further suggest that the imaginary and teaching elementary research, sometimes visionary process that the dramatic text scripts differentiates artistic endeavors from quotidian ones. This means that the script as a thing not only calls forth social relations but imagines them as well. In this essay, I explain how scripted actions create fantasies and first resume, attachments that sustain intellectual, political, and social projects. Teaching? Shange’s for colored girls presents and establishes alternative socialities for theater practitioners and audiences as well as students and scholars reading and studying the play in classrooms and intellectual communities. My analysis focuses on analysis, the way storytelling through poetics becomes intertwined with the touch in teaching papers the first and final scenes of the choreopoem. Act Generosity? The touching that opens and research papers, closes the drama creates links across and emerson essay analysis, between the individual poems, enabling individual innovation and expression within collectivity. Elementary Research? The touching in for colored girls imagines a nonsexual but yet still intimate mode of act generosity essay racialized communal formation. In the choreopoem, bodies become conduits for producing social relationships.
Instead of emerging as props in the social drama, the women, through touch, express feeling, cultivate community, confront pain, and engage in play and pleasure. The movements that facilitate touch work against the demonization of elementary black women because of their bodily difference. Through the touching bodies, the women demonstrate the humanity of black women, disrupting subject-object relations by paraphrases in research, having the body express itself. Moreover, the structuring of for colored girls through touch purposefully engages with the black feminist calls for intersectionalist approaches to elementary papers, literary and cultural studies that emerged during the black women writers’ renaissance of the late-twentieth century because the writing making, choreopoem as a formal innovation demands an understanding of how intimate contact produces race. While Bernstein’s essay “Dances with Things” calls attention to how the enlivened object as thing may create racist interactions, I am suggesting that Shange’s dramatic text functions as a liberatory object by drawing subjects formerly known as objects into intimate relationships as humans. Figure 1. for colored girls playbill. As Michael Awkward’s thoughtful analysis of the opening lines of for colored girls explains, the dramatic work foregrounds “the struggle to make articulate a heretofore repressed and silenced black female’s story and voice. Against a backdrop of patently stereotypic misreadings of black women (‘are we ghouls?/children of teaching research horror?/the joke?/…are we animals? Have we gone crazy?”), Shange’s woman in brown plaintively cries out for accurate, revelatory representations of Afro-America women’s lives.”  Awkward draws attention to the discursive designations that shape black women’s social roles in the United States. Alongside the call for storytelling that will narrate a social drama that does not demonize black women, lady in brown describes the distorted movements that accompany the mischaracterizations, “half-notes scattered / without rhythm/ no tune / distraught laughter fallin / over a black girl’s shoulder / it’s funny / it’s hysterical / the melody-less-ness of first her dance / don’t tell nobody don’t tell a soul / she’s dancin on beer cans #038; shingles.”  The imagery in the opening lines suggests that colored girls diffuse pain with laughter, dance, and secrecy, which, considering the teaching elementary research papers, hostile environment, is only partially effective in producing the joy of act generosity essay dancing.
At the same time, the imagery calls attention to a history of black dancing in the midst of circumstances that range from unfriendly to dangerous. From the plantation to the Broadway stage, black dancers have co-opted spaces to perform and elementary research, transform environmental dissonance into syncopation. Figure 2. Hattie McIntosh, George Walker, Ada Overton Walker, Bert Williams, and Lottie Williams in In Dahomey (1902).  Black women often provide the essay, supplemental, ghostly, and elementary research, unappreciated labor necessary to maintain the nation-state as an papers, ideal and lived reality. The controversy over Beyonce Knowles lip-synching the national anthem at the second presidential inauguration of Barack Obama recalls Farah Jasmine Griffin’s analysis in “When Malindy Sings: A Meditation on Black Women’s Vocality.” Griffin asserts, “Since Marian Anderson, the voice and the spectacle of the singing black woman often has been used to suggest a peacefully interracial version of America. In the majority of these spectacles there is the teaching, suggestion that the black woman singer pulls together and helps to heal national rifts. This singing spectacle offers an first resume, alternative vision of a more inclusive America.”  When Beyonce stood before the podium on January 21, 2013, to sing the national anthem she became a part of teaching research papers “the voice and first job and, the spectacle of the singing black woman.” Beyonce’s choice not to elementary papers, lay her body on the line—not to emerson fate essay analysis, risk damaging her vocal chords by singing in the cold—in the service of nation-building caused a flurry of speculation and criticism as it called attention to a particular national intimacy with black women’s bodies.  The events that followed, including the teaching elementary research, press conference where Knowles clarified her actions and sang the anthem a cappella , reinforced the notion that black women must pay a national debt and therefore owe the populace an explanation for the deployment of essays places their bodies. The persistent questioning of her choice may be understood as a demand for her ongoing excess labor in nation-building. “A figure,” according to Griffin, “that serves the unit, who heals and nurtures it but has no rights or privileges within it—more mammy than mother.”  Figure 3. Beyonce Knowles singing at the second presidential inauguration of Barack Obama. The designation of black women as social outcasts, more mammies than mothers, provides insight into what Lauren Berlant calls the cruel optimism that results from black women investing in institutions—the patriarchal family and teaching elementary, nation-state—that offer access to limited measures of national belonging, but only in the midst of danger and pain (dancing on beer cans and places, shingles).
Berlant explains, “A relation of cruel optimism exists when something you desire is actually an obstacle to elementary research papers, your flourishing.”  The object, whether the patriarchal family or the neoliberal state, is desirable by of divorce, definition and exists as a site of longing in advance of late-twentieth-century black women’s subject formation. The first two lines of for colored girls (“dark phrases of womanhood / of never havin been a girl”) reveal how subject positions emerge in relationship to preexisting social configurations—values, systems of desire, and structures of teaching elementary research papers disenfranchisement. Therefore, establishing an fate, alternative object of desire not only elementary papers requires an act of will but it also entails restructuring desire itself through word and deed. While Berlant offers a rubric for of divorce understanding the precarity of the late-twentieth century and the waning appeal of what she calls “the good life,” one may suggest that at least since Lorraine Hansberry’s A Raisin in the Sun appeared on the Great White Way in 1959, the United States has been depicted as a site of deferred dreaming for teaching elementary research papers black folks as a result of the state’s continual deferment of equal rights. The state’s false promise of equality places black folks in a perpetual state of longing that calls attention to the necessity of creating alternative sites of belonging.
One may read the alternative ideal of act generosity feminist collectivity that for papers colored girls provides in relationship to writing decision making, the tenuous hold of the elementary papers, twenty-first century of essay of divorce American exceptionalism, which seems to be losing its grip everywhere. At the elementary research papers, same time, one may also understand Shange’s play as a response to the call for dreaming that A Raisin in the Sun issued in 1959. for colored girls sings a black girl’s song in a way that interrupts deferral and prevents the dream from essays about to visit drying up like a raisin. The choreopoem creates collectivity based on the intertwining of bodies in teaching space and words in rhythm in order to counter the in research, displacement and dehumanization of black women’s voice, bodies, and experiences. Footnotes Ntozake Shange, for colored girls who have considered suicide / when the rainbow is enuf (New York: Scribner, 2010). [Return to text] Robin Bernstein, “Dances with Things: Material Culture and the Performance of Race,” Social Text 27.4 (2009): 67-94. [Return to text] Michael Awkward, Inspiriting Influences: Tradition, Revision, and Afro-American Women’s Novels (New York: Columbia UP, 1989), 1-2. [Return to text] Shange, for colored girls 2010: 17. [Return to text] Daphne Brooks, Jayna Brown, and I provide histories of the cakewalk dance that demonstrate how the dance’s deployment shifted the elementary papers, relationship between the papers, performers and the space in which they performed and opened up new sites of performance for black dancers. See Daphne Brooks, Bodies in Dissent: Spectacular Performances Freedom, 1850-1910 (Durham: Duke UP, 2006) ch. 4; Jayna Brown, Babylon Girls: Black Women Performers and the Shaping of the Modern (Durham: Duke UP, 2008) ch.4; and Soyica Diggs Colbert, The African American Theatrical Body: Reception, Performance and the Stage (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2011) ch. 3. Elementary Papers? [Return to text] Farah Jasmine Griffin, “When Malindy Sings: A Meditation on Black Women#8217;s Vocality,” Uptown Conversation: The New Jazz Studies eds.
Robert G. Resume? O#8217;Meally, Brent Hayes Edwards, and Farah Jasmine Griffin (New York: Columbia UP, 2004) 102-125, 104. [Return to text] A similar expression of intimacy occurred in the regulatory responses to Janet Jackson’s “wardrobe malfunction” at papers, the 2004 Super Bowl halftime show. For a cogent reading of the media response to Jackson’s exposed breast see chapter three of Nicole Fleetwood’s Troubling Vision: Performance, Visuality and Blackness (Chicago: U of Chicago P, 2011). [Return to text] Griffin, “When Malindy Sings,” 104. [Return to text] Lauren Berlant, Cruel Optimism (Durham: Duke UP, 2011) 2. Essay Of Divorce? [Return to text]
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Teaching Research Writing Elementary Essays - …
25 Activities for Reading and Writing Fun. Doing activities with your children allows you to promote their reading and teaching elementary, writing skills while having fun at the same time. These activities for paraphrases, pre-readers, beginning readers, and teaching elementary research, older readers includes what you need and what to first resume, do for research papers, each one. These activities have been developed by national reading experts for you to use with children, ages birth to Grade 6. First Resume! The activities are meant to be used in addition to reading with children every day. In using these activities, your main goal will be to develop great enthusiasm in the reader for reading and writing. You are the child's cheerleader. It is less important for the reader to get every word exactly right. It is more important for the child to learn to love reading itself. If the reader finishes one book and asks for elementary, another, you know you are succeeding! If your reader writes even once a week and comes back for more, you know you have accomplished your beginning goals. We wish you many wonderful hours of reading and essay writing decision making, writing with children!
Activities for birth to preschool: The early years. Babies love to listen to the human voice. What better way than through reading! Some books written especially for babies (books made of cardboard or cloth with flaps to elementary papers, lift and holes to peek through). Start out by singing lullabies and folk songs to your baby. Act Generosity! When your baby is about six months old, choose books with brightly colored, simple pictures and lots of teaching rhythm in the text. (Mother Goose rhymes are perfect.) Hold your baby in your lap so he/she can see the colorful pages of the book. Include books that show pictures and names of familiar objects. As you read with your baby, point out objects in the pictures and make sure your baby sees all the things that are fun to do with books. (Pat the Bunny by Dorothy Kunhardt is a classic touch-and-feel book for babies.) Vary the tone of your voice with different characters in the stories, sing nursery rhymes, make funny faces, do whatever special effects you can to stimulate your baby's interest. Allow your child to touch and hold cloth and sturdy cardboard books. When reading to a baby, keep the sessions brief but read daily and often.
As you read to your baby, your child is forming an association between books and what is most loved – your voice and closeness. Allowing babies to handle books deepens their attachment even more. What's old hat to you can be new and exciting to toddlers and essays about to visit, preschoolers. When you talk about everyday experiences, you help children connect their world to language and enable them to go beyond that world to new ideas. Yourself and your child. As you get dinner ready, talk to teaching research papers, your child about paraphrases in research, things that are happening. When your 2- or 3-year-old helps by taking out all the teaching, pots and pans, talk about them. Which one is the biggest? Can you find a lid for that one? What color is act generosity, this one?
When walking down the teaching elementary research papers, street and first resume, your toddler or preschooler stops to collect leaves, stop and ask questions that require more than a yes or no answer. Which leaves are the same? Which leaves are different? What else grows on teaching papers trees? Ask what if questions.
What would happen if we didn't shovel the snow? What if that butterfly lands on your nose? Answer your child's endless why questions patiently. When you say, I don't know, let's look it up, you show how important books are as resources for answering questions. After your child tells you a story, ask questions so you can understand better. In Research! That way children learn how to tell complete stories and know you are interested in what they have to elementary research, say. Expose your child to varied experiences – trips to the library, museum, or zoo; walks in essays about places to visit the park; or visits with friends and teaching elementary, relatives. Surround these events with lots of comments, questions, and answers. Talking enables children to paraphrases papers, expand their vocabulary and understanding of the world. The ability to carry on a conversation is important for reading development.
Remember, it is better to talk too much rather than too little with a small child. Activity 3: R and R – repetition and teaching papers, rhyme. Repetition makes books predictable, and young readers love knowing what comes next. Books with repeated phrases (Favorites are: Alexander and the Terrible, Horrible, No Good, Very Bad Day by Judith Viorst; Brown Bear, Brown Bear, What Do You See? by Bill Martin, Jr.; Horton Hatches the Egg by Dr. Essay! Seuss; and The Little Engine That Could by Watty Piper. Short rhyming poems. Pick a story with repeated phrases or a poem you and your child like. For example, read: (Wolf voice:) Little pig, little pig, let me come in. (Little pig:) Not by the hair on my chinny-chin-chin.
(Wolf voice:) Then I'll huff and I'll puff and I'll blow your house in! After the wolf has blown down the first pig's house, your child will soon join in with the refrain. Read slowly, and with a smile or a nod, let your child know you appreciate his or her participation. As the research, child grows more familiar with the story, pause and job and resume, give him or her a chance to teaching elementary, fill in the blanks and phrases. Encourage your child to pretend to read, especially books that contain repetition and rhyme. Most children who enjoy reading will eventually memorize all or parts of essay a book and imitate your reading. This is a normal part of reading development.
When children anticipate what's coming next in teaching elementary papers a story or poem, they have a sense of mastery over first job and, books. When children feel power, they have the teaching research, courage to try. Pretending to read is an important step in the process of emerson fate essay analysis learning to read. When children act out a good poem, they learn to love its rhyme, rhythm, and the pictures it paints with a few well-chosen words. They grow as readers by connecting feelings with the written word. Poems that rhyme, tell a story, and/or are written from a child's point of teaching elementary research view.
Read a poem slowly to paraphrases in research, your child, and bring all your dramatic talents to the reading. (In other words, ham it up.) If there is a poem your child is particularly fond of, suggest acting out a favorite line. Be sure to award such efforts with delighted enthusiasm. Suggest acting out a verse, a stanza, or the entire poem. Ask your child to make a face the way the character in the poem is feeling. Remember that facial expressions bring emotion into the performer's voice. Be an teaching elementary research papers enthusiastic audience for your child. Applause is always nice. If your child is comfortable with the idea, look for a larger setting with an attentive, appreciative audience. Perhaps an after-dinner recital for in research, family members would appeal to your child. Mistakes are a fact of life, so ignore them.
Poems are often short with lots of white space on the page. Teaching Elementary Research Papers! This makes them manageable for new readers and helps to emerson fate essay, build their confidence. Talking about what you read is another way to teaching research, help children develop language and thinking skills. You won't need to act generosity essay, plan the talk, discuss every story, or expect an answer. Read slowly and pause occasionally to teaching elementary, think aloud about a story. You can say: I wonder what's going to happen next! Or ask a question: Do you know what a palace is? Or point out: Look where the little mouse is now. Answer your children's questions, and if you think they don't understand something, stop and ask them.
Don't worry if you break into the flow of a story to essays places to visit, make something clear. But keep the story flowing as smooth as possible. Talking about elementary, stories they read helps children develop their vocabularies, link stories to everyday life, and use what they know about the world to essay, make sense out of stories. Children are great mimics. Elementary Research Papers! When you tell stories, your child will begin to tell stories, too.
Have your child tell stories like those you have told. Ask: And then what happened? to urge the story along. Paraphrases In Research! Listen closely when your child speaks. Be enthusiastic and responsive. Teaching Research! Give your child full attention. Essay! If you don't understand some part of the story, take the time to get your child to teaching, explain. This will help your child understand the relationship between a speaker and a listener and an author and a reader. Encourage your child to express himself or herself. This will help your child develop a richer vocabulary. It can also help with pronouncing words clearly.
Having a good audience is about to visit, very helpful for a child to improve language skills, as well as confidence in speaking. Parents can be the best audience a child will ever have. Television can be a great tool for education. The keys to successful TV viewing are setting limits, making good choices, taking time to watch together, discussing what you view, and encouraging follow-up reading. A weekly TV schedule. Limit your child's TV viewing and make your rules and reasons clear.
Involve your child in choosing which programs to watch. Teaching Elementary Research Papers! Read the TV schedule together to choose. Monitor what your child is emerson fate analysis, watching, and whenever possible, watch the teaching research, programs with your child. When you watch programs with your child, discuss what you have seen so your child can better understand the programs. Look for programs that will stimulate your child's interests and encourage reading (such as dramatizations of children's literature and programs on wildlife and first resume, science.)
Many experts recommend that children watch no more than 10 hours of TV each week. Limiting TV viewing frees up time for teaching elementary research papers, reading and fate essay, writing activities. It is worth noting that captioned TV shows can be especially helpful for children who are deaf or hard-of-hearing, studying English as a second language, or having difficulty learning to read. Activities for preschool through grade two: Moving into reading. Check out teaching elementary Reading Rockets' new summer website, Start with a Book . You'll find a treasure trove of themed children's books, parent–child activities, and other great resources for summer learning. Here are a few ways to essay of divorce, create a home rich in elementary words. Paper Pencils, crayons, markers Glue Newspapers, magazines Safety scissors. Hang posters of the alphabet on the bedroom walls or make an alphabet poster with your child. Of Divorce! Print the letters in large type. Capital letters are usually easier for young children to learn first. Papers! Label the things in your child's pictures.
If your child draws a picture of a house, label it with This is a house. and essays places, put it on the refrigerator. Research! Have your child watch you write when you make a shopping list or a what to do list. Say the words aloud and carefully print each letter. Emerson Fate Analysis! Let your child make lists, too. Help your child form the letters and research, spell the words. Look at newspapers and magazines with your child. Find an interesting picture and show it to fate essay, your child as you read the caption aloud.
Create a scrapbook. Cut out pictures of people and places and label them. By exposing your child to words and letters often, your child will begin to recognize the shapes of research papers letters. The world of words will become friendly. Writing helps a child become a better reader, and reading helps a child become a better writer. Pencils, crayons, or markers Paper or notebook Chalkboard and chalk. Ask your child to dictate a story to essay writing decision making, you. It could include descriptions of research your outings and paraphrases, activities, along with mementos such as fall leaves and flowers, birthday cards, and photographs.
Older children can do these activities on their own. Teaching Elementary Research! Use a chalkboard or a family message board as an exciting way to act generosity essay, involve children in teaching research writing with a purpose. Keep supplies of paper, pencils, markers, and the like within easy reach. Encourage beginning and developing writers to keep journals and write stories. Ask questions that will help children organize the act generosity, stories, and teaching research papers, respond to their questions about letters and spelling. Suggest they share the activity with a smaller brother, sister, or friend.
Respond to essay, the content of teaching elementary children's writing, and emerson essay analysis, don't be overly concerned with misspellings. Over time you can help your child concentrate on research learning to spell correctly. When children begin to write, they run the job and resume, risk of criticism, and it takes courage to continue. Our job as parents is to help children find the courage. We can do it by papers expressing our appreciation of fate analysis their efforts. The main thing is to find books you both love. They will shape your child's first impression of the world of reading. Ask friends, neighbors, and teachers to share the titles of their favorite books. Visit your local public library, and as early as possible, get your child a library card. Ask the teaching elementary papers, librarian for help in selecting books.
Have your child join you in browsing for books and making selections. Look for award-winning books. Each year the American Library Association selects children's books for the Caldecott Medal for first resume, illustrations and the Newbery Medal for writing. Check the book review section of the newspapers and magazines for the recommended new children's books. If you and your child don't enjoy reading a particular book, put it aside and teaching elementary research, pick up another one. Keep in mind that your child's reading level and listening level are different. When you read easy books, beginning readers will soon be reading along with you. When you read more advanced books, you instill a love of stories, and you build the motivation that transforms children into emerson fate lifelong readers. It's important to read to your child, but equally important to listen to them read to you. Children thrive on having someone appreciate their developing skills. Books at your child's reading level.
Listen carefully as your child reads. Take turns. Teaching Research! You read a paragraph and paraphrases in research, have your child read the next one or you read half the page and your child reads the other half. As your child becomes more at ease with reading aloud, take turns reading a full page. Keep in mind that your child may be focusing more on how to read the teaching research, words than what they mean, and your reading helps to keep the story alive. If your child has trouble reading words, you can help him or her in several ways: Ask the child to skip over the word, read the rest of the first, sentence, and then say what would make sense in the story for the missing word.
Guide the elementary, child to essay, use what he or she knows about letter sounds. Supply the correct word. Tell your child how proud you are of his or her efforts and skills. Listening to your child read aloud provides opportunities for you to express appreciation of his or her new skills and for them to practice their reading. Most importantly, this is another way to enjoy reading together. Family stories enrich the relationship between parent and child. Time set aside for talking with your child. Tell your child stories about your parents and grandparents. You might even put these stories in a book and add old family photographs.
Have your child tell you stories about what happened on special days, such as holidays, birthdays, and papers, family vacations. Reminisce about essay of divorce, when you were little. Describe things that happened at teaching elementary school involving teachers and subjects you were studying. Talk about your brothers, sisters, or friends. Write a trip journal with your child to create a new family story. Recording the day's events and job and resume, pasting the photographs into the journal ties the family story to a written record. You can include everyday trips like going to the market or the park. It helps for children to know that stories come from real people and elementary research papers, are about real events. Making! When children listen to stories, they hear the voice of the teaching papers, storyteller. This helps them hear the first, words when they learn to read aloud or read silently.
Something important happens when children receive and write letters. They realize that the printed word has a purpose. Send your child little notes (by putting them in teaching elementary research papers a pocket or lunch box, for example). When your child shows you the note, read it aloud with expression. Some children will read the notes on their own. When your child expresses a feeling or a thought that relates to a person, have your child write a letter. Have your child dictate the words to act generosity, you if your child doesn't write yet.
I like it when you make ice cream. It's better than the kind we buy at the store. Ask the papers, people who receive these notes to respond. An oral response if fine – a written response is even better. Explain the writing process to your child: We think of ideas and put them into words; we put the words on paper; people read the words; and people respond. Language is speaking listening, reading, and writing. Each element supports and enriches the of divorce, others. Sending letters will help children become better writers, and writing will make them better readers.
Activities for grades three through six: Encouraging the young reader. Activity 14: Good books make reading fun. Stories for young children should be of teaching research all kinds – folktales, funny tales, exciting tales, tales of the wondrous and stories that tell of everyday things. A variety of act generosity interesting books. An essential step in learning to read is elementary research papers, good books read aloud. Parents who read aloud to their children are teaching literacy concepts simply by sharing books. Encourage your children to listen, ponder, make comments, and ask questions. In Research Papers! Be flexible enough to research papers, quickly abandon a book that does not appeal after a reasonable try at reading it. No one is essay, meant to enjoy every book.
And no one, especially a child, should be forced to read or listen to books that bore. Even after children have outgrown picture books they still enjoy hearing a story read aloud. Papers! Hearing a good story read well, especially if it is just a little beyond a child's own capabilities, is an excellent way to encourage independent reading. Not all books are best read aloud; some are better enjoyed silently. There are plenty of essay children's books that are twice as satisfying when they are shared a chapter at a time before bed or during long car rides. There are some books that children should not miss, books that they will want to hear many times and ultimately read for themselves. Young children want to read what makes them laugh or cry, shiver and gasp. They must have stories and poems that reflect what they themselves have felt. Teaching Elementary Research Papers! They need the thrill of imagining, of being for a time in some character's shoes for a spine-tingling adventure. Places To Visit! They want to teaching elementary research papers, experience the delight and amazement that comes with hearing playful language. For children, reading must be equated with enjoying, imagining, wondering, and reacting with feeling.
If not, we should not be surprised if they refuse to read. So let your child sometime choose the story or book that they want you to read to them. Give your child many opportunities to read and write stories, lists, messages, letters, notes, and paraphrases, postcards to relatives and friends. Since the skills for teaching papers, reading and writing reinforce one another, your child's skills and proficiency in reading and writing will be strengthened if you help your child connect reading to writing and writing to reading. Children love to be creative when it comes to drawing, and illustrations add visual imagery to stories. Drawing paper Pens and essay of divorce, pencils Magic markers or crayons. Find a fable, fairy tale, or other short story for teaching research papers, your child to read. Then ask your child to essay making, illustrate a part of the story he or she likes best or describe a favorite character.
Have the teaching elementary research, child dictate or write a few sentences that tell about this picture. Activity 16: Shopping your way with words. Use your weekly shopping trip as an opportunity to help your child develop reading and job and, writing skills. Paper and pencils Newspaper ads Supermarket coupons. As you make out your grocery shopping list, give your child a sheet of elementary research papers paper and read the items to him or her.
If the child asks for spelling help, write the words correctly for him or her to copy or spell the words aloud as your child writes them. Ask your child to look through the about to visit, newspaper ads to find the prices of as many items as possible. Your child can write these prices on the list and then look through your coupons to select the ones you can use. Take your child to the supermarket and teaching research, ask him or her to essay, read each item to you as you shop. Cooking is always a delight for children, especially when they can eat the results! Easy-to-read recipes Cooking utensils Paper and pencils. Show your child a recipe and elementary, go over it together. About! Ask your child to read the recipe to you as you work, and tell the child that each step must be done in a special order. Let your child help mix the ingredients.
Allow your child to teaching elementary, write down other recipes from the cookbook that he or she would like to help make. A dictionary is a valuable learning tool, especially if your child makes up his or her own booklet of act generosity essay words that are challenging. Paper and pencils A stapler Old magazines Newspaper and supplements. Encourage your child to make a dictionary by putting together several sheets of paper for a booklet. Teaching Elementary! Ask your child to write at the top of each page a new word he or she has recently learned. If the word can be shown in essay a picture, have him or her look through magazines and newspapers to elementary papers, find pictures that illustrate the words and paste them on the correct pages. Have your child write the meaning of each word and a sentence using each new word. Your child can then use some or all of emerson fate essay analysis these sentences as the basis for a creative story. Have your child read this story to teaching research, you and other family members. Keeping a journal is a way for your child to write down daily events and record his or her thoughts.
Two notebooks - one for your child and one for you! Help your child start a journal. Essay! Say what it is and discuss topics that can be written about, such as making a new friend, an elementary papers interesting school or home activity just completed, or how your child felt on the first day of school. Encourage your child to come up with other ideas. Keep a journal yourself and compare notes at the end of the week. You and your child each can read aloud parts of your journals that you want to share. Activity 20: Greetings and salutations. Everyone loves to essays to visit, get mail, especially when the card has been personally designed. Paper and teaching elementary research papers, pencils Crayons and magic markers Stamps and envelopes. Ask your child to list the birthdays of paraphrases in research papers family members, relatives, and friends. Show your child some store-bought birthday cards with funny, serious, or thought-provoking messages.
Your child can then create his or her own birthday card by using a folded piece of paper, making an attractive cover, and writing a short verse inside. Then your child can mail the cards to friends and relatives for their birthdays. Activity 21: Giving the gift of reading. Reading a book is more fun when you have a homemade bookmark to mark your spot. Pieces of lightweight cardboard Pens and pencils Paper Crayons and magic markers.
Provide your child with a piece of cardboard about 6 long and 2 wide. On one side of the teaching elementary papers, bookmark, have your child draw a picture of a scene from a book he or she has read. First Job And! On the other side, ask your child to write the name of the book, its author, publisher, publication date, and a few sentences about the book. After making several of teaching elementary research papers these bookmarks, you might ask the child to send them to friends and relatives as gifts accompanied by a short note. Activity 22: Let your fingers do the walking. The telephone book contains a wealth of information and is a good tool for decision, reading and teaching papers, writing. A telephone book, including the yellow pages Paper and pencils. Have your child look through the yellow pages of the telephone directory, select a particular service, and write a clever or funny ad for first job and resume, it. Have your child read this ad to you. Help your child to find your own or a friend's listing in the white pages of the telephone book.
Explain the different entries (for example, last name and address), along with the abbreviations commonly used. Activity 23: Map your way to success. Children love to read road maps and this activity actually helps them with geography. A road map or atlas Paper and teaching elementary papers, pencil Stamps and envelopes. When planning a vacation, let your child see the road map and about to visit, help you plan where you will drive. Talk about where you will start and where you will end up. Papers! Let your child follow the route between these two points. Encourage your child to write to the Chamber of Commerce for making, brochures about places you will see on your trip. Newspapers are a form of teaching elementary research daily communication with the outside world, and act generosity, provide lots of learning activities for children.
Newspapers Scissors Colored pencils. Clip out an interesting news story and cut the paragraphs apart. Teaching Research Papers! Ask your child to read the paragraphs and put them in order. Essays To Visit! Ask your child to read a short editorial printed in teaching research your local newspaper and to underline all the facts with a green pencil and all the opinions with an orange pencil. Pictures fascinate children of all ages. Clip pictures in the newspaper. Ask your child to tell you about the places to visit, picture or list adjectives to describe the picture. Do you take your child to the movies?
Have your child first look up the movie page by using the index in the newspaper. After a movie has been chosen, have your child study the picture or text in the ad and tell you what he or she thinks the movie is about. Have your child pick a headline and turn it into teaching elementary research papers a question. Then the child can read the article to see if the question is answered. Ask your child to clip food coupons from the newspaper for your grocery shopping trips. First, talk about which products you use and which you do not. Then the child can cut out the right coupons and putt hem into categories such as drinks and breakfast items. About Places To Visit! You can then cash in the coupons at the store. Pick out an interesting article from the teaching elementary research papers, newspaper.
As you are preparing lunch or dinner, tell your child that you are busy and ask him or her to read the article to you. Many newspapers publish materials especially written for children, such as the syndicated Mini Page, Pennywhistle Press, and Dynamite Kids. Emerson Essay! In addition, some newspapers publish weekly columns for children, as well as tabloids and summer supplements written by educators. Activity 25: Using television to stimulate reading. What child doesn't enjoy watching TV? Capitalize on this form of teaching elementary papers entertainment and use TV to help rather than hinder your child's learning.
Some important ideas to consider before turning on paraphrases papers the TV: Limit in some way the amount of TV your child watches so as to leave time for reading and other activities. Teaching Papers! Decide how much time should be set aside for watching TV each day. Serve as an example by limiting the act generosity essay, amount of elementary research TV you yourself watch. Have time when the TV set is off and the entire family reads something. You may want to watch TV only for special shows. Before the TV set is turned on, encourage your child to select the emerson fate essay analysis, programs he or she wishes to watch. Ask your child to research papers, give you the reason for paraphrases in research papers, the choices made. In addition, watch some of the same TV programs your child watches. This helps you as a parent share in some of your child's daily activities. A TV A TV selection guide Colored highlighters A calendar page for each month Paper and elementary papers, pencils.
Ask your child to essays, tell you about favorite TV characters using different kinds of teaching elementary papers words. As your child watches commercials on television, ask him or her to invent a product and write slogans or an ad for act generosity essay, it. Encourage your child to watch such programs as Reading Rainbow. Urge older children to watch such programs as 60 Minutes and selected documentaries. These programs are informative. Discuss interesting ideas covered in the programs and direct your child to maps, encyclopedias, fiction, or popular children's magazines for teaching, more information. Have your child name 10 of his or her favorite shows. Essay! Ask your child to put them into papers categories according to the type of show they are, such as family shows, cartoons, situation comedies, sports, science fiction, or news and information. If you find the selection is not varied enough, you might suggest a few others that would broaden experiences. Prepare a monthly calendar with symbols such as a picture of the sun to represent an outdoor activity or a picture of a book to represent reading.
Each time your child engages in a daily free time activity, encourage him or her to paste a symbol on the correct calendar date. This will give you an idea of how your child spends his or her free time. Essay Decision! It also encourages a varied schedule. Ask each child in papers your family to pick a different color. Using the decision, TV listing, have each child use this color to teaching, circle one TV program that he or she wants to watch each day. Alternate who gets first choice. This serves two purposes. It limits the amount of about to visit time watching TV and it encourages discriminating viewing. Research! Devise a rating scale from 1 to 5. Ask your child to give a number to a certain TV program and to explain why such a rating was given. Of Divorce! Have your child keep a weekly TV log and write down five unfamiliar words heard or seen each week.
Encourage your child to papers, look up the meanings of these words in the dictionary or talk about them with you. Kameenui, E. J., Simmons, D. C. (May, 1997). Read*Write*Now! Activities for Reading and Writing Fun. A Joint Project of the U.S. First! Department of Education, the American Library Association, Pizza Hut, Inc., Scholastic, Inc., Reading Is Fundamental, Inc. i like what you have said. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on June 15, 2010 - 12:58pm. Even though these ideas were released in 1997, they are more timely than ever. We must spend some time reading with our children.
Do we really want to set the example that landing in front of a t.v. is teaching elementary research papers, more important than they are? Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on November 3, 2010 - 3:26pm. All of the activities are found to be very productive.Thanks a lot :) Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on December 13, 2010 - 12:02pm. this is really useful for us as parents and teachers.Thanks a lot. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on January 19, 2011 - 2:54am.
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the activities are very useful for teachers and parents as well. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on April 23, 2013 - 5:14am. It`s really important the information to improve the reading and writing of our children. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on April 23, 2013 - 10:08am. Great Ideas- Simple and Practical. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on June 23, 2013 - 8:16am. all the activities are great and useful especially for the elementary grade level thnx. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on August 12, 2013 - 1:49am. I love this web site it is so great for you children.
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The Filioque: A Church Dividing Issue?: An Agreed Statement. From 1999 until 2003, the North American Orthodox-Catholic Consultation has focused its discussions on teaching elementary research papers, an issue that has been identified, for more than twelve centuries, as one of the root causes of division between our Churches: our divergent ways of conceiving and speaking about the origin of the Holy Spirit within the inner life of the triune God. Although both of our traditions profess “the faith of Nicaea” as the normative expression of about places to visit our understanding of God and God’s involvement in papers, his creation, and take as the classical statement of that faith the revised version of the Nicene creed associated with the First Council of act generosity Constantinople of 381, most Catholics and other Western Christians have used, since at least the late sixth century, a Latin version of that Creed, which adds to its confession that the teaching elementary papers Holy Spirit “proceeds from the Father” the word Filioque : “and from the Son”. For most Western Christians, this term continues to be a part of the central formulation of their faith, a formulation proclaimed in essay writing making, the liturgy and used as the basis of catechesis and research theological reflection. It is, for Catholics and of divorce most Protestants, simply a part of the ordinary teaching of the research papers Church, and as such, integral to their understanding of the dogma of the Holy Trinity.
Yet since at least the late eighth century, the presence of this term in the Western version of the Creed has been a source of scandal for Eastern Christians, both because of the Trinitarian theology it expresses, and because it had been adopted by essays to visit a growing number of research papers Churches in emerson analysis, the West into the canonical formulation of a received ecumenical council without corresponding ecumenical agreement. As the medieval rift between Eastern and Western Christians grew more serious, the theology associated with the papers term Filioque , and essay the issues of Church structure and authority raised by its adoption, grew into a symbol of difference, a classic token of research papers what each side of divided Christendom has found lacking or distorted in the other. Our common study of this question has involved our Consultation in much shared research, prayerful reflection and intense discussion. It is our hope that many of the papers produced by our members during this process will be published together, as the scholarly context for essay decision our common statement. A subject as complicated as this, from both the research papers historical and the theological point of view, calls for first detailed explanation if the real issues are to be clearly seen. Our discussions and our common statement will not, by themselves, put an end to centuries of disagreement among our Churches. We do hope, however, that they will contribute to the growth of elementary research mutual understanding and respect, and that in God’s time our Churches will no longer find a cause for separation in the way we think and about speak about the origin of that Spirit, whose fruit is love and peace (see Gal 5.22). I. The Holy Spirit in the Scriptures. In the Old Testament “the spirit of God” or “the spirit of the Lord” is presented less as a divine person than as a manifestation of God’s creative power – God’s “breath” ( ruach YHWH ) - forming the elementary papers world as an ordered and habitable place for his people, and raising up individuals to writing decision making lead his people in the way of holiness. Teaching Elementary Papers? In the opening verses of Genesis, the spirit of in research God “moves over the face of the waters” to bring order out of chaos (Gen 1.2).
In the historical narratives of Israel, it is the same spirit that “stirs” in the leaders of the people (Jud 13.25: Samson), makes kings and military chieftains into prophets (I Sam 10.9-12; 19.18-24: Saul and David), and enables prophets to “bring good news to teaching research papers the afflicted” (Is 61.1; cf. 42.1; II Kg 2.9). The Lord tells Moses he has “filled” Bezalel the craftsman “with the spirit of God,” to enable him to fashion all the furnishings of the tabernacle according to God’s design (Ex 31.3). In some passages, the “holy spirit” (Ps 51.13) or “good spirit” (Ps 143.10) of the Lord seems to signify his guiding presence within individuals and essays places the whole nation, cleansing their own spirits (Ps. 51.12-14) and helping them to keep his commandments, but “grieved” by their sin (Is 63.10). In the prophet Ezekiel’s mighty vision of the restoration of teaching Israel from the death of defeat and exile, the places “breath” returning to the people’s desiccated corpses becomes an image of the action of God’s own breath creating the nation anew: “I will put my spirit within you, and you shall live. ” (Ezek 37.14). In the New Testament writings, the Holy Spirit of God ( pneuma Theou ) is usually spoken of in a more personal way, and is inextricably connected with the person and teaching elementary mission of Jesus. Matthew and Luke make it clear that Mary conceives Jesus in her womb by the power of the essay writing making Holy Spirit, who “overshadows” her (Mt 1.18, 20; Lk 1.35). All four Gospels testify that John the teaching elementary Baptist – who himself was “filled with the Holy Spirit from his mother’s womb” (Lk 1.15) – witnessed the descent of the same Spirit on Jesus, in a visible manifestation of God’s power and election, when Jesus was baptized (Mt 3.16; Mk 1.10; Lk 3.22; Jn 1.33).
The Holy Spirit leads Jesus into the desert to struggle with the devil (Mt 4.1; Lk 4.1), fills him with prophetic power at the start of his mission (Lk 4.18-21), and manifests himself in Jesus’ exorcisms (Mt 12.28, 32). Essays Places? John the Baptist identified the mission of Jesus as “baptizing” his disciples “with the Holy Spirit and with fire” (Mt 3.11; Lk 3.16; cf. Jn 1.33), a prophecy fulfilled in the great events of Pentecost (Acts 1.5), when the research papers disciples were “clothed with power from on high” (Lk 24.49; Acts 1.8). Essays About Places To Visit? In the elementary narrative of Acts, it is the job and Holy Spirit who continues to teaching papers unify the community (4.31-32), who enables Stephen to bear witness to Jesus with his life (8.55), and whose charismatic presence among believing pagans makes it clear that they, too, are called to baptism in Christ (10.47). In his farewell discourse in the Gospel of John, Jesus speaks of the essay Holy Spirit as one who will continue his own work in research papers, the world, after he has returned to paraphrases papers the Father. He is “the Spirit of truth,” who will act as “another advocate ( parakletos )” to teach and teaching research papers guide his disciples (14.16-17), reminding them of all Jesus himself has taught (14.26). Resume? In this section of the Gospel, Jesus gives us a clearer sense of the relationship between this “advocate,” himself, and his Father.
Jesus promises to teaching elementary send him “from the Father,” as “the Spirit of truth who proceeds from the Father” (15.26); and the truth that he teaches will be the truth Jesus has revealed in his own person (see 1,14; 14.6): “He will glorify me, for he will take what is mine and first declare it to you. All that the Father has is mine; therefore I said that he will take what is mine and declare it to elementary you.” (16.14-15) The Epistle to the Hebrews represents the Spirit simply as speaking in the Scriptures, with his own voice (Heb 3.7; 9.8). In Paul’s letters, the Holy Spirit of first resume God is identified as the one who has finally “defined” Jesus as “Son of elementary God in of divorce, power” by acting as the agent of elementary research papers his resurrection (Rom 1.4; 8.11). It is this same Spirit, communicated now to us, who conforms us to the risen Lord, giving us hope for resurrection and life (Rom 8.11), making us also children and heirs of God (Rom 8.14-17), and forming our words and even our inarticulate groaning into a prayer that expresses hope (Rom 8.23-27). “And hope does not disappoint us because God’s love has been poured into our hearts through the Holy Spirit which has been given to us.” (Rom 5.5) II.
Historical Considerations. Throughout the early centuries of the Church, the Latin and Greek traditions witnessed to act generosity the same apostolic faith, but differed in their ways of elementary papers describing the relationship among the persons of the Trinity. Writing Decision Making? The difference generally reflected the various pastoral challenges facing the Church in the West and in teaching elementary, the East. The Nicene Creed (325) bore witness to the faith of the about places to visit Church as it was articulated in the face of the elementary Arian heresy, which denied the full divinity of Christ. In the years following the Council of Nicaea, the Church continued to be challenged by views questioning both the full divinity and the full humanity of first job and resume Christ, as well as the divinity of the Holy Spirit. Papers? Against these challenges, the fathers at the Council of Constantinople (381) affirmed the faith of Nicaea, and decision making produced an expanded Creed, based on the Nicene but also adding significantly to it. Of particular note was this Creed’s more extensive affirmation regarding the Holy Spirit, a passage clearly influenced by Basil of Caesaraea’s classic treatise On the Holy Spirit , which had probably been finished some six years earlier. The Creed of Constantinople affirmed the faith of the Church in the divinity of the Spirit by saying: “and in the Holy Spirit, the Lord, the Giver of life, who proceeds ( ekporeuetai ) from the Father, who with the Father and elementary research papers the Son is worshipped and glorified, who has spoken through the prophets.” Although the text avoided directly calling the Spirit “God,” or affirming (as Athanasius and Gregory of Nazianzus had done) that the Spirit is act generosity essay “of the same substance” as the Father and teaching elementary papers the Son – statements that doubtless would have sounded extreme to some theologically cautious contemporaries - the Council clearly intended, by in research papers this text, to make a statement of the Church’s faith in the full divinity of the teaching elementary Holy Spirit, especially in opposition to those who viewed the Spirit as a creature. At the same time, it was not a concern of the essay of divorce Council to specify the teaching research manner of the Spirit’s origin, or to elaborate on the Spirit’s particular relationships to the Father and the Son.
The acts of the Council of Constantinople were lost, but the text of its Creed was quoted and formally acknowledged as binding, along with the Creed of Nicaea, in the dogmatic statement of the Council of Chalcedon (451). Within less than a century, this Creed of fate 381 had come to play a normative role in elementary, the definition of faith, and by the early sixth century was even proclaimed in about places to visit, the Eucharist in Antioch, Constantinople, and other regions in the East. In regions of the Western churches, the elementary research papers Creed was also introduced into the Eucharist, perhaps beginning with the third Council of Toledo in 589. It was not formally introduced into the Eucharistic liturgy at Rome, however, until the eleventh century – a point of some importance for essays to visit the process of official Western acceptance of the Filioque . No clear record exists of the process by which the word Filioque was inserted into the Creed of 381 in research, the Christian West before the sixth century. The idea that the Spirit came forth “from the Father through the job and Son” is asserted by a number of earlier Latin theologians, as part of their insistence on the ordered unity of all three persons within the single divine Mystery (e.g., Tertullian, Adversus Praxean 4 and 5). Tertullian, writing at the beginning of the third century, emphasizes that Father, Son and Holy Spirit all share a single divine substance, quality and power ( ibid . 2), which he conceives of as flowing forth from the elementary research papers Father and being transmitted by the Son to the Spirit ( ibid . 8). Hilary of Poitiers, in the mid-fourth century, in the same work speaks of the Spirit as ‘coming forth from the Father’ and being ‘sent by the Son’ ( De Trinitate 12.55); as being ‘from the Father through the Son’ ( ibid . 12.56); and as ‘having the Father and the Son as his source’ ( ibid . 2.29); in another passage, Hilary points to John 16.15 (where Jesus says: “All things that the Father has are mine; therefore I said that [the Spirit] shall take from what is mine and declare it to you”), and wonders aloud whether “to receive from the emerson Son is the same thing as to proceed from the Father” ( ibid . 8.20). Ambrose of Milan, writing in the 380s, openly asserts that the Spirit “proceeds from (procedit a) the papers Father and the Son,” without ever being separated from act generosity essay, either ( On the Holy Spirit 1.11.20).
None of teaching elementary research these writers, however, makes the Spirit’s mode of origin the object of special reflection; all are concerned, rather, to emphasize the equality of status of all three divine persons as God, and all acknowledge that the Father alone is the source of God’s eternal being. [ Note: This paragraph includes a stylistic revision in emerson fate analysis, the reference to Hilary of Poitiers that the Consultation agreed to at its October 2004 meeting. ] The earliest use of Filioque languagein a credal context is in the profession of faith formulated for the Visigoth King Reccared at the local Council of Toledo in 589. This regional council anathematized those who did not accept the decrees of the research first four Ecumenical Councils (canon 11), as well as those who did not profess that the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father and the Son (canon 3). It appears that the Spanish bishops and King Reccared believed at that time that the Greek equivalent of essay Filioque was part of the original creed of Constantinople, and apparently understood that its purpose was to oppose Arianism by affirming the intimate relationship of the Father and Son. Elementary Research? On Reccared’s orders, the Creed began to essay analysis be recited during the Eucharist, in imitation of the Eastern practice. From Spain, the use of the teaching elementary research papers Creed with the Filioque spread throughout Gaul. Nearly a century later, a council of English bishops was held at Hatfield in 680 under the presidency of Archbishop Theodore of Canterbury, a Byzantine asked to serve in England by Pope Vitalian. According to the Venerable Bede ( Hist. Eccl. Gent.
Angl. 4.15 ), this Council explicitly affirmed its faith as conforming to essay the five Ecumenical Councils, and also declared that the Holy Spirit proceeds “in an ineffable way ( inenarrabiliter )” from the Father and the Son. By the seventh century, three related factors may have contributed to a growing tendency to include the Filioque in the Creed of 381 in the West, and to the belief of some Westerners that it was, in fact, part of the teaching original creed. Writing Decision? First, a strong current in the patristic tradition of the teaching research West, summed up in the works of Augustine (354-430), spoke of the Spirit’s proceeding from the Father and the Son. (e.g., On the emerson essay analysis Trinity 4.29; 15.10, 12, 29, 37; the significance of this tradition and its terminology will be discussed below.) Second, throughout the fourth and elementary research papers fifth centuries a number of credal statements circulated in the Churches, often associated with baptism and paraphrases in research papers catechesis. The formula of 381 was not considered the only binding expression of apostolic faith. Within the West, the most widespread of these was the Apostles’ Creed, an early baptismal creed, which contained a simple affirmation of belief in the Holy Spirit without elaboration. Third, however, and of particular significance for later Western theology, was the so-called Athanasian Creed ( Quicunque ). Thought by Westerners to be composed by Athanasius of teaching elementary Alexandria, this Creed probably originated in Gaul about 500, and is cited by Caesarius of Arles (+542).
This text was unknown in essays places to visit, the East, but had great influence in teaching elementary research, the West until modern times. Relying heavily on Augustine’s treatment of the Trinity, it clearly affirmed that the Spirit proceeds from the Father and the Son. A central emphasis of this Creed was its strong anti-Arian Christology: speaking of the Spirit as proceeding from the Father and the Son implied that the Son was not inferior to the Father in substance, as the Arians held. The influence of this Creed undoubtedly supported the use of the Filioque in the Latin version of the Creed of Constantinople in Western Europe, at least from the sixth century onwards. The use of the Creed of writing 381 with the addition of the Filioque became a matter of controversy towards the end of the eighth century, both in discussions between the Frankish theologians and the see of Rome and in the growing rivalry between the Carolingian and Byzantine courts, which both now claimed to be the teaching elementary research papers legitimate successors of the Roman Empire. In the wake of the iconoclastic struggle in Byzantium, the Carolingians took this opportunity to challenge the Orthodoxy of Constantinople, and put particular emphasis upon about, the significance of the term Filioque , which they now began to identify as a touchstone of right Trinitarian faith. An intense political and cultural rivalry between the Franks and the Byzantines provided the background for the Filioque debates throughout the eighth and ninth centuries. Charlemagne received a translation of the decisions of the Second Council of teaching elementary Nicaea (787). Essay Of Divorce? The Council had given definitive approval to the ancient practice of venerating icons. The translation proved to elementary be defective.
On the essay basis of this defective translation, Charlemagne sent a delegation to Pope Hadrian I (772-795), to research present his concerns. Among the points of objection, Charlemagne’s legates claimed that Patriarch Tarasius of Constantinople, at his installation, did not follow the Nicene faith and profess that the act generosity Spirit proceeds from the Father and the Son, but confessed rather his procession from the Father through the Son (Mansi 13.760). The Pope strongly rejected Charlemagne’s protest, showing at length that Tarasius and the Council, on this and other points, maintained the faith of the Fathers ( ibid . 759-810). Following this exchange of letters, Charlemagne commissioned the so-called Libri Carolini (791-794), a work written to challenge the teaching elementary papers positions both of the iconoclast council of 754 and of the Council of essay writing decision making Nicaea of 787 on the veneration of icons. Again because of poor translations, the Carolingians misunderstood the actual decision of the latter Council. Within this text, the elementary research papers Carolingian view of the Filioque also was emphasized again. Arguing that the word Filioque was part of the Creed of 381, the Libri Carolini reaffirmed the Latin tradition that the Spirit proceeds from the Father and the Son, and rejected as inadequate the teaching that the Spirit proceeds from the in research papers Father through the Son.
While the teaching papers acts of the local synod of Frankfurt in 794 are not extant, other records indicate that it was called mainly to counter a form of the heresy of “Adoptionism” then thought to be on the rise in Spain. The emphasis of a number of Spanish theologians on the integral humanity of Christ seemed, to the court theologian Alcuin and others, to imply that the man Jesus was “adopted” by the Father at to visit his baptism. In the presence of Charlemagne, this council – which Charlemagne seems to elementary research papers have promoted as “ecumenical” (see Mansi 13.899-906) - approved the Libri Carolini , affirming, in the context of maintaining the full divinity of the person of Christ, that the Spirit proceeds from the Father and the Son. As in the late sixth century, the Latin formulation of the about places to visit Creed, stating that the Spirit proceeds from the Father and the Son, was enlisted to combat a perceived Christological heresy. Within a few years, another local council, also directed against “Spanish Adoptionism,” was held in teaching elementary, Frejus (Friuli) (796 or 797). At this meeting, Paulinus of Aquileia (+802), an of divorce, associate of Alcuin in Charlemagne’s court, defended the use of the elementary papers Creed with the Filioque as a way of opposing Adoptionism. Emerson Essay Analysis? Paulinus, in fact, recognized that the Filioque was an addition to the Creed of 381 but defended the interpolation, claiming that it contradicted neither the meaning of the teaching elementary papers creed nor the intention of the Fathers. The authority in the West of the Council of Frejus, together with that of first job and resume Frankfurt, ensured that the Creed of 381 with the Filioque would be used in teaching and in the celebration of the papers Eucharist in first job and resume, churches throughout much of Europe. The different liturgical traditions with regard to the Creed came into contact with each other in early-ninth-century Jerusalem. Western monks, using the Latin Creed with the teaching elementary research papers added Filioque , were denounced by their Eastern brethren.
Writing to Pope Leo III for guidance, in first job and, 808, the Western monks referred to the practice in Charlemagne’s chapel in Aachen as their model. Pope Leo responded with a letter to “all the churches of the teaching elementary research East” in which he declared his personal belief that the Holy Spirit proceeds eternally from the Father and the Son. In that response, the essays places to visit Pope did not distinguish between his personal understanding and the issue of the legitimacy of the addition to the Creed, although he would later resist the addition in liturgies celebrated at Rome. Taking up the issue of the Jerusalem controversy, Charlemagne asked Theodulf of Orleans, the principal author of the Libri Carolini , to write a defense of the use of the word Filioque . Appearing in 809, De Spiritu Sancto of Theodulf was essentially a compilation of patristic citations supporting the theology of the Filioque . With this text in hand, Charlemagne convened a council in Aachen in 809-810 to affirm the elementary research papers doctrine of the Spirit’s proceeding from the Father and the Son, which had been questioned by Greek theologians. Following this council, Charlemagne sought Pope Leo’s approval of the use of the creed with the Filioque (Mansi 14.23-76). A meeting between the Pope and a delegation from Charlemagne’s council took place in Rome in 810.
While Leo III affirmed the orthodoxy of the act generosity essay term Filioque , and approved its use in catechesis and personal professions of faith, he explicitly disapproved its inclusion in teaching elementary papers, the text of the act generosity Creed of 381, since the Fathers of teaching research papers that Council - who were, he observes, no less inspired by the Holy Spirit than the bishops who had gathered at Aachen - had chosen not to include it. Pope Leo stipulated that the use of the Creed in job and resume, the celebration of the Eucharist was permissible, but not required, and urged that in the interest of elementary papers preventing scandal it would be better if the Carolingian court refrained from including it in the liturgy. Around this time, according to the Liber Pontificalis , the Pope had two heavy silver shields made and fate analysis displayed in St. Peter’s, containing the original text of the Creed of 381 in both Greek and Latin. Despite his directives and this symbolic action, however, the Carolingians continued to use the Creed with the Filioque during the Eucharist in their own dioceses. The Byzantines had little appreciation of the various developments regarding the Filioque in the West between the sixth and ninth centuries. Communication grew steadily worse, and their own struggles with monothelitism, iconoclasm, and the rise of Islam left little time to follow closely theological developments in the West.
However, their interest in the Filioque became more pronounced in the middle of the 9th century, when it came to be combined with jurisdictional disputes between Rome and teaching research papers Constantinople, as well as with the activities of Frankish missionaries in Bulgaria. When Byzantine missionaries were expelled from Bulgaria by King Boris, under Western influence, they returned to Constantinople and reported on Western practices, including the job and use of the Creed with the papers Filioque . Patriarch Photios of Constantinople, in 867, addressed a strongly worded encyclical to the other Eastern patriarchs, commenting on the political and ecclesiastical crisis in Bulgaria as well as on the tensions between Constantinople and Rome. In this letter, Photios denounced the Western missionaries in Bulgaria and criticized Western liturgical practices. Most significantly, Patriarch Photios called the addition of the Filioque in the West a blasphemy, and first presented a substantial theological argument against teaching, the view of the Trinity which he believed it depicted. Photios’s opposition to the Filioque was based upon his view that it signifies two causes in the Trinity, and diminishes the monarchy of the Father. Writing Decision Making? Thus, the Filioque seemed to him to detract from the distinctive character of each person of the Trinity, and to confuse their relationships, paradoxically bearing in itself the seeds of both pagan polytheism and Sabellian modalism ( Mystagogy 9, 11).
In his letter of 867, Photios does not, however, demonstrate any knowledge of the Latin patristic tradition behind the use of the Filioque in the West. His opposition to the Filioque would subsequently receive further elaboration in elementary papers, his Letter to the Patriarch of act generosity essay Aquileia in 883 or 884, as well as in his famous Mystagogy of the Holy Spirit , written about 886. In concluding his letter of 867, Photios called for an ecumenical council that would resolve the issue of the interpolation of the Filioque , as well as illuminating its theological foundation. A local council was held in Constantinople in 867, which deposed Pope Nicholas I - an teaching elementary, action which increased tensions between the two sees. In 863, Nicholas himself had refused to recognize Photios as Patriarch because of his allegedly uncanonical appointment. With changes in the imperial government, Photios was forced to resign in 867, and was replaced by Patriarch Ignatius, whom he himself had replaced in 858.
A new council was convened in Constantinople later in 869. With papal representatives present and with imperial support, this Council excommunicated Photios, and was subsequently recognized in the Medieval West, for reasons unrelated to the Filioque or Photios, as the Eighth Ecumenical Council, although it was never recognized as such in the East. The relationship between Rome and Constantinople changed when Photios again became patriarch in 877, following the death of essays about to visit Ignatius. Elementary Research Papers? In Rome, Pope Nicholas had died in 867, and was succeeded by writing decision making Pope Hadrian II (867-872), who himself anathematized Photios in 869. His successor, Pope John VIII (872-882), was willing to recognize Photios as the legitimate Patriarch in Constantinople under certain conditions, thus clearing the way for a restoration of better relations. Research? A Council was held in Constantinople in 879-880, in the presence of representatives from Rome and the other Eastern Patriarchates. This Council, considered by some modern Orthodox theologians to be ecumenical, suppressed the decisions of the earlier Council of 869-870, and recognized the status of Photios as patriarch.
It affirmed the ecumenical character of the Council of 787 and its decisions against iconoclasm. Essay? There was no extensive discussion of the Filioque , which was not yet a part of the Creed professed in Rome itself, and no statement was made by the Council about teaching elementary its theological justification; yet this Council formally reaffirmed the original text of the Creed of essay 381, without the Filioque , and anathematized anyone who would compose another confession of faith. The Council also spoke of the Roman see in terms of great respect, and allowed the Papal legates the traditional prerogatives of teaching papers presidency, recognizing their right to begin and to close discussions and to job and sign documents first. Nevertheless, the research papers documents give no indication that the emerson bishops present formally recognized any priority of jurisdiction for the see of elementary research Rome, outside of the framework of the Patristic understanding of the communion of first Churches and the sixth-century canonical theory of the Pentarchy. The difficult question of the elementary competing claims of the Pope and the Patriarch of Constantinople to jurisdiction in Bulgaria was left to be decided by the Emperor. After the Council, the Filioque continued to be used in the Creed in parts of Western Europe, despite the intentions of Pope John VIII, who, like his predecessors, maintained the text sanctioned by the Council of 381. A new stage in the history of the controversy was reached in the early eleventh century. During the synod following the fate essay analysis coronation of King Henry II as Holy Roman Emperor at Rome in 1014, the Creed, including the teaching elementary papers Filioque, was sung for places the first time at a papal Mass.
Because of this action, the liturgical use of the Creed, with the Filioque , now was generally assumed in the Latin Church to have the sanction of the research papacy. Its inclusion in the Eucharist, after two centuries of papal resistance of the in research practice, reflected a new dominance of the German Emperors over the papacy, as well as the elementary research papers papacy’s growing sense of its own authority, under imperial protection, within the entire Church, both western and eastern. The Filioque figured prominently in essay of divorce, the tumultuous events of 1054, when excommunications were exchanged by representatives of the Eastern and Western Churches meeting in Constantinople. Within the context of research papers his anathemas against Patriarch Michael I Cerularios of Constantinople and certain of his advisors, Cardinal Humbert of essay Silva Candida, the legate of Pope Leo IX, accused the Byzantines of improperly deleting the Filioque from the Creed, and criticized other Eastern liturgical practices. Elementary Research? In responding to these accusations, Patriarch Michael recognized that the anathemas of Humbert did not originate with Leo IX, and cast his own anathemas simply upon the papal delegation. Leo, in fact, was already dead and his successor had not been elected.
At the same time, Michael condemned the Western use of the Filioque in the Creed, as well as other Western liturgical practices. This exchange of limited excommunications did not lead, by itself, to a formal schism between Rome and Constantinople, despite the views of resume later historians; it did, however, deepen the growing estrangement between Constantinople and teaching elementary papers Rome. The relationship between the Church of Rome and the Churches of Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem were seriously damaged during the essay writing making period of the crusades, and especially in the wake of the infamous Fourth Crusade. In 1204, Western Crusaders sacked the city of Constantinople, long the commercial and political rival of Venice, and Western politicians and clergy dominated the life of the city until it was reclaimed by Emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos in teaching research papers, 1261. The installation of Western bishops in the territories of Constantinople, Antioch and Jerusalem, who were loyal to paraphrases Rome and to the political powers of Western Europe, became a tragically visible new expression of schism. Elementary Research? Even after 1261, Rome supported Latin patriarchs in these three ancient Eastern sees. For most Eastern Christians, this was a clear sign that the papacy and its political supporters had little regard for the legitimacy of their ancient churches. Despite this growing estrangement, a number of notable attempts were made to address the issue of the Filioque between the early twelfth and mid-thirteenth century.
The German Emperor Lothair III sent bishop Anselm of Havelberg to Constantinople in 1136, to negotiate a military alliance with Emperor John II Comnenos. While he was there, Anselm and Metropolitan Nicetas of Nicomedia held a series of public discussions about subjects dividing the Churches, including the Filioque , and concluded that the differences between the two traditions were not as great as they had thought (PL 188.1206B – 1210 B). A letter from Orthodox Patriarch Germanos II (1222-1240) to Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241) led to further discussions between Eastern and Western theologians on the Filioque at Nicaea in 1234. Subsequent discussions were held in 1253-54, at act generosity essay the initiative of Emperor John III Vatatzes (1222-1254) and elementary research papers Pope Innocent IV (1243-1254). In spite of these efforts, the continuing effects of the Fourth Crusade and the threat of the Turks, along with the jurisdictional claims of the papacy in the East, meant that these well-intentioned efforts came to essay writing no conclusion. Against this background, a Western council was held in Lyons in 1274 (Lyons II), after the restoration of Constantinople to Eastern imperial control.
Despite the consequences of the teaching elementary papers crusades, many Byzantines sought to heal the wounds of division and looked to the West for support against the growing advances of the Turks, and Pope Gregory X (1271-1276) enthusiastically hoped for reunion. Among the topics agreed upon for discussion at the council was the essays about places to visit Filioque . Yet the two Byzantine bishops who were sent as delegates had no real opportunity to present the Eastern perspective at the Council. The Filioque was formally approved by the delegates in the final session on July17, in teaching research papers, a brief constitution which also explicitly condemned those holding other views on the origin of the Holy Spirit. Already on July 6, in accord with an agreement previously reached between papal delegates and the Emperor in Constantinople, the reunion of the Eastern and Western Churches was proclaimed, but it was never received by the Eastern clergy and faithful, or vigorously promoted by the Popes in the West. In this context it should be noted that in his letter commemorating the 700th anniversary of this council (1974), Pope Paul VI recognised this and added that “the Latins chose texts and formulae expressing an ecclesiology which had been conceived and developed in the West.
It is understandable […] that a unity achieved in essay of divorce, this way could not be accepted completely by the Eastern Christian mind.” A little further on, the Pope, speaking of the future Catholic-Orthodox dialogue, observed: “…it will take up again other controverted points which Gregory X and the Fathers of Lyons thought were resolved.” At the Eastern Council of Blachernae (Constantinople) in 1285, in fact, the decisions of the Council of elementary research Lyons and the pro-Latin theology of former Patriarch John XI Bekkos (1275-1282) were soundly rejected, under the leadership of Patriarch Gregory II, also known as Gregory of Cyprus (1282-1289). At the same time, this council produced a significant statement addressing the theological issue of the Filioque . While firmly rejecting the “double procession” of the Spirit from the Father and the Son, the statement spoke of an “eternal manifestation” of the Spirit through the Son. Patriarch Gregory’s language opened the way, at least, towards a deeper, more complex understanding of the relationship between Father, Son, and Holy Spirit in both the East and the West. (see below) This approach was developed further by Gregory Palamas (1296-1359), in the context of his distinction between the essence and the energies of the divine persons. Unfortunately, these openings had little effect on essay of divorce, later medieval discussions of the origin of the Spirit, in either the Eastern or the Western Church.
Despite the elementary papers concern shown by Byzantine theologians, from the time of Photios, to oppose both the places idea of the Filioque and its addition to the Latin creed, there is no reference to teaching it in essay of divorce, the Synodikon of Orthodoxy , a collection containing more than sixty anathemas representing the teaching elementary papers doctrinal decisions of of divorce Eastern councils through the fourteenth century. One more attempt was made, however, to elementary research papers deal with the act generosity essay subject authoritatively on an ecumenical scale. The Council of Ferrara-Florence (1438-1445) again brought together representatives from the teaching research papers Church of Rome and the Churches of Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch and Jerusalem, to discuss a wide range of controversial issues, including papal authority and the Filioque . This Council took place at a time when the Byzantine Empire was gravely threatened by the Ottomans, and when many in the Greek world regarded military aid from the West as Constantinople’s only hope. Following extensive discussions by experts from both sides, often centered on the interpretation of patristic texts, the union of the first resume Churches was declared on July 6, 1439. The Council’s decree of reunion, Laetentur caeli , recognized the legitimacy of the Western view of the Spirit’s eternal procession from the Father and the Son, as from a single principle and in teaching papers, a single spiration. Essays? The Filioque was presented here as having the same meaning as the position of some early Eastern Fathers that the Spirit exists or proceeds “through the Son.” The Council also approved a text which spoke of the teaching papers Pope as having “primacy over the whole world,” as “head of the whole church and father and teacher of all Christians.” Despite Orthodox participation in these discussions, the decisions of Florence – like the union decree of Lyons II - were never received by a representative body of bishops or faithful in the East, and were formally rejected in Constantinople in 1484.
The Fall of in research Constantinople in 1453 and the fracturing effect of the Protestant Reformation in the West, as well as subsequent Latin missions in teaching, the former Byzantine world and the establishment of Eastern Churches in communion with Rome, led to a deepening of the schism, accompanied by much polemical literature on each side. For more than five hundred years, few opportunities were offered to the Catholic and Orthodox sides for serious discussion of the Filioque , and of the related issue of the primacy and teaching authority of the bishop of Rome. Orthodoxy and Roman Catholicism entered into a period of essay formal isolation from elementary papers, each other, in which each developed a sense of being the only ecclesiastical body authentically representing the apostolic faith. For example, this is expressed in Pius IX’s encyclical In Suprema Petri Sede of January 6, 1848, and in Leo XIII’s encyclical P raeclara Gratulationis Publicae of June 20, 1894, as well as the encyclical of the Orthodox Patriarchs in essays to visit, 1848 and the encyclical of the Patriarchate of Constantinople of 1895, each reacting to the prior papal documents. Ecumenical discussions of the Filioque between the elementary research Orthodox Churches and representatives of the Old Catholics and Anglicans were held in Germany in essay, 1874-75, and were occasionally revived during the century that followed, but in general little substantial progress was made in moving beyond the hardened opposition of traditional Eastern and Western views. A new phase in the relationship between the Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church began formally with the teaching elementary Second Vatican Council (1962-1965) and the Pan-Orthodox Conferences (1961-1968), which renewed contacts and essay dialogue. From that time, a number of theological issues and historical events contributing to the schism between the churches have begun to receive new attention. In this context, our own North American Orthodox-Catholic Consultation was established in 1965, and the Joint International Commission for Theological Dialogue between the teaching research Orthodox and essay Catholic Churches was established in 1979. Although a committee of elementary papers theologians from many different Churches, sponsored by the Faith and Order Commission of the World Council of Churches, studied the Filioque question in depth in 1978 and 1979, and concluded by issuing the “Klingenthal Memorandum” (1979), no thorough new joint discussion of the issue has been undertaken by representatives of our two Churches until our own study.
The first statement of the act generosity Joint International Commission (1982), entitled “The Mystery of the Church and of the Eucharist in the Light of the Mystery of the Trinity,” does briefly address the issue of the Filioque , within the context of an extensive discussion of the relationship of the persons of the Holy Trinity. The Statement says: “Without wishing to resolve yet the elementary papers difficulties which have arisen between the East and the West concerning the relationship between the Son and the Spirit, we can already say together that this Spirit, which proceeds from the Father (Jn. 15:26) as the writing sole source of the Trinity, and elementary research papers which has become the Spirit of our sonship (Rom. 8:15) since he is already the decision Spirit of the Son (Gal.4:6), is communicated to us, particularly in the Eucharist, by this Son upon whom he reposes in time and eternity (Jn. 1:32).” (No. 6). Several other events in recent decades point to a greater willingness on the part of Rome to teaching elementary research recognize the normative character of the original creed of first resume Constantinople. When Patriarch Dimitrios I visited Rome on December 7, 1987, and again during the visit of Patriarch Bartholomew I to Rome in June 1995, both patriarchs attended a Eucharist celebrated by Pope John Paul II in St. Peter’s Basilica. On both occasions the Pope and Patriarch proclaimed the Creed in teaching elementary research papers, Greek (i.e., without the writing making Filioque ). Pope John Paul II and Romanian Patriarch Teoctist did the same in Romanian at a papal Mass in Rome on October 13, 2002. Teaching Elementary? The document Dominus Iesus: O n the Unicity and Salvific Universality of Jesus Christ and the Church, issued by the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith on August 6, 2000, begins its theological considerations on the Church’s central teaching with the text of the creed of essay writing 381, again without the teaching elementary papers addition of the Filioque . While no interpretation of these uses of the about places to visit Creed was offered, these developments suggest a new awareness on the Catholic side of the unique character of the original Greek text of the Creed as the most authentic formulation of the faith that unifies Eastern and Western Christianity.
Not long after the meeting in Rome between Pope John Paul II and Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew I, the Vatican published the document “The Greek and Latin Traditions Regarding the Procession of the Holy Spirit” (September 13, 1995). Elementary Research? This text was intended to be a new contribution to the dialogue between our churches on this controversial issue. Among the many observations it makes, the text says: “The Catholic Church acknowledges the conciliar, ecumenical, normative and essay decision irrevocable value, as the expression of one common faith of the Church and of all Christians, of the Symbol professed in Greek at Constantinople in 381 by the Second Ecumenical Council. No confession of faith peculiar to a particular liturgical tradition can contradict this expression of teaching papers faith taught and professed by the undivided Church.” Although the Catholic Church obviously does not consider the Filioque to be a contradiction of the essay creed of 381, the significance of this passage in the 1995 Vatican statement should not be minimized. It is in response to teaching this important document that our own study of the Filioque began in 1999, and we hope that this present statement will serve to carry further the positive discussions between our communions that we have experienced ourselves. III. Theological Reflections.
In all discussions about the origin of the Holy Spirit within the Mystery of God, and about the relationships of Father, Son and Holy Spirit with each other, the first habit of mind to be cultivated is doubtless a reverent modesty. Of Divorce? Concerning the divine Mystery itself, we can say very little, and elementary papers our speculations always risk claiming a degree of clarity and certainty that is more than their due. As Pseudo-Dionysius reminds us, “No unity or trinity or number or oneness or fruitfulness, or any other thing that either is a creature or can be known to essay decision any creature, is able to express the teaching elementary research Mystery, beyond all mind and first resume reason, of that transcendent Godhead which in teaching elementary papers, a super-essential way surpasses all things” ( On the Divine Names 13.3). That we do, as Christians, profess our God, who is radically and indivisibly one, to be the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit – three “persons” who can never be confused with or reduced to one another, and who are all fully and literally God, singly and in the harmonious whole of their relationships with each other - is simply a summation of making what we have learned from God’s self-revelation in human history, a revelation that has reached its climax in our being able, in the power of the Holy Spirit, to confess Jesus as the Eternal Father’s Word and Son. Surely our Christian language about God must always be regulated by the Holy Scriptures, and by the dogmatic tradition of the Church, which interprets the content of elementary Scripture in a normative way. Yet there always remains the difficult hermeneutical problem of applying particular Scriptural terms and texts to the inner life of God, and of knowing when a passage refers simply to God’s action within the “economy” of saving history, or when it should be understood as referring absolutely to God’s being in itself. The division between our Churches on the Filioque question would probably be less acute if both sides, through the centuries, had remained more conscious of the limitations of our knowledge of God.
Secondly, discussion of this difficult subject has often been hampered by essay decision making polemical distortions, in which each side has caricatured the position of the other for the purposes of argument. It is not true, for instance, that mainstream Orthodox theology conceives of the procession of the Spirit, within God’s eternal being, as simply unaffected by the relationship of the Son to the Father, or thinks of the Spirit as not “belonging” properly to elementary research the Son when the Spirit is sent forth in history. It is act generosity also not true that mainstream Latin theology has traditionally begun its Trinitarian reflections from an abstract, unscriptural consideration of the divine substance, or affirms two causes of the Spirit’s hypostatic existence, or means to assign the Holy Spirit a role subordinate to the Son, either within the teaching elementary Mystery of God or in God’s saving action in history. We are convinced from our own study that the Eastern and Western theological traditions have been in substantial agreement, since the patristic period, on a number of fundamental affirmations about the Holy Trinity that bear on the Filioque debate: both traditions clearly affirm that the Holy Spirit is a distinct hypostasis or person within the divine Mystery, equal in status to the Father and the Son, and is not simply a creature or a way of talking about God’s action in creatures; although the Creed of 381 does not state it explicitly, both traditions confess the essay Holy Spirit to be God, of the same divine substance ( homoousios ) as Father and Son; both traditions also clearly affirm that the Father is the primordial source ( arch ‘ ) and ultimate cause ( aitia ) of the divine being , and thus of all God’s operations: the “spring” from which both Son and teaching papers Spirit flow, the emerson essay analysis “root” of teaching research papers their being and fruitfulness, the “sun” from which their existence and their activity radiates; both traditions affirm that the three hypostases or persons in God are constituted in essay, their hypostatic existence and distinguished from one another solely by their relationships of origin , and not by teaching elementary research papers any other characteristics or activities; accordingly, both traditions affirm that all the operations of God - the activities by which God summons created reality into being, and to visit forms that reality, for its well-being, into a unified and ordered cosmos centered on the human creature, who is made in God’s image – are the teaching research papers common work of Father, Son and Holy Spirit , even though each of them plays a distinctive role within those operations that is determined by places their relationships to one another. Nevertheless, the Eastern and Western traditions of reflection on the Mystery of God have clearly developed categories and conceptions that differ in substantial ways from teaching elementary research papers, one another. These differences cannot simply be explained away, or be made to seem equivalent by facile argument. We might summarize our differences as follows:
The Filioque controversy is first of emerson essay all a controversy over words. As a number of recent authors have pointed out, part of the theological disagreement between our communions seems to be rooted in subtle but significant differences in the way key terms have been used to refer to the Spirit’s divine origin. The original text of the Creed of 381, in speaking of the Holy Spirit, characterizes him in terms of John 15.26, as the one “who proceeds ( ekporeuetai ) from the Father”: probably influenced by the usage of Gregory the Theologian (Or. 31.8), the Council chose to restrict itself to the Johannine language, slightly altering the papers Gospel text (changing to pneuma…ho para tou Patros ekporeuetai to: to pneuma to hagion… to ek tou Patros ekporeuomenon ) in order to emphasize that the in research “coming forth” of the Spirit begins “within” the Father’s own eternal hypostatic role as source of the divine Being, and so is best spoken of as a kind of “movement out of ( ek )” him. The underlying connotation of ekporeuesthai (“proceed,” “issue forth”) and its related noun, ekporeusis (“procession”), seems to have been that of a “passage outwards” from within some point of origin. Since the elementary papers time of the emerson fate essay analysis Cappadocian Fathers, at least, Greek theology almost always restricts the theological use of papers this term to the coming-forth of the Spirit from the Father, giving it the status of a technical term for the relationship of writing making those two divine persons. In contrast, other Greek words, such as proienai , “go forward,” are frequently used by the Eastern Fathers to refer to the Spirit’s saving “mission” in history from the Father and teaching elementary research papers the risen Lord. The Latin word procedere , on first, the other hand, with its related noun processio , suggests simply “movement forwards,” without the added implication of the starting-point of that movement; thus it is used to translate a number of teaching papers other Greek theological terms, including proienai , and is explicitly taken by Thomas Aquinas to be a general term denoting “origin of any kind” ( Summa Theologiae I, q. 36, a.2), including – in emerson fate essay analysis, a Trinitarian context - the Son’s generation as well as the breathing-forth of the Spirit and elementary research his mission in time. As a result, both the primordial origin of the Spirit in writing, the eternal Father and his “coming forth” from the risen Lord tend to be designated, in Latin, by the same word, procedere , while Greek theology normally uses two different terms.
Although the difference between the Greek and the Latin traditions of understanding the teaching research papers eternal origin of the Spirit is more than simply a verbal one, much of the original concern in in research, the Greek Church over the insertion of the teaching research papers word Filioque into essay analysis, the Latin translation of the teaching elementary research Creed of 381 may well have been due – as Maximus the first resume Confessor explained ( Letter to Marinus : PG 91.133-136) - to a misunderstanding on both sides of the different ranges of meaning implied in the Greek and Latin terms for teaching elementary “procession”. 2) The Substantive Issues. Clearly two main issues separate the Eastern and Western Churches in their history of paraphrases papers debating the Filioque : one theological, in the strict sense, and one ecclesiological. If “theology” is understood in its Patristic sense, as reflection on God as Trinity, the teaching research theological issue behind this dispute is whether the Son is to be thought of as playing any role in the origin of the Spirit, as a hypostasis or divine “person,” from the Father, who is the sole ultimate source of the divine Mystery. Paraphrases? The Greek tradition, as we have seen, has generally relied on John 15.26 and the formulation of the teaching research Creed of 381 to assert that all we know of the Spirit’s hypostatic origin is that he “proceeds from the job and resume Father,” in a way distinct from, but parallel to, the Son’s “generation” from the elementary papers Father (e.g., John of Damascus, On the Orthodox Faith 1.8). However, this same tradition acknowledges that the “mission” of the Spirit in the world also involves the Son, who receives the Spirit into his own humanity at his baptism, breathes the Spirit forth onto the Twelve on the evening of the essays places to visit resurrection, and sends the Spirit in power into the world, through the charismatic preaching of the Apostles, at Pentecost.
On the other hand, the Latin tradition since Tertullian has tended to assume that since the research order in which the Church normally names the persons in the Trinity places the Spirit after the Son, he is to be thought of as coming forth “from” the Father “through” the Son. Augustine, who in several passages himself insists that the Holy Spirit “proceeds from the Father,” because as God he is not inferior to the Son ( De Fide et Symbolo 9.19; Enchiridion 9.3), develops, in other texts, his classic understanding that the Spirit also “proceeds” from the Son because he is, in the course of sacred history, the Spirit and the “gift” of both Father and essay Son (e.g., On the Trinity 4.20.29; Tractate on Gospel of John 99.6-7), the gift that begins in their own eternal exchange of research papers love ( On the Trinity 15.17.29). In Augustine’s view, this involvement of the Son in the Spirit’s procession is not understood to contradict the Father’s role as the single ultimate source of both Son and Spirit, but is itself given by the Father in generating the Son: “the Holy Spirit, in turn, has this from the Father himself, that he should also proceed from the Son, just as he proceeds from the Father” ( Tractate on Gospel of John 99.8). Much of the writing decision making difference between the early Latin and Greek traditions on this point is clearly due to the subtle difference of the Latin procedere from the Greek ekporeuesthai : as we have observed, the Spirit’s “coming forth” is designated in a more general sense by research papers the Latin term, without the connotation of ultimate origin hinted at by the Greek. The Spirit’s “procession” from the Son, however, is conceived of in Latin theology as a somewhat different relationship from his “procession” from the Father, even when – as in the explanations of Anselm and emerson fate Thomas Aquinas – the relationship of Father and Son to the Holy Spirit is spoken of as constituting “a single principle” of the Spirit’s origin: even in breathing forth the Spirit together, according to these later Latin theologians, the Father retains priority, giving the Son all that he has and making possible all that he does. Greek theologians, too, have often struggled to find ways of expressing a sense that the Son, who sends forth the Spirit in time, also plays a mediating role of some kind in the Spirit’s eternal being and activity. Gregory of Nyssa, for instance, explains that we can only distinguish the research papers hypostases within the Mystery of God by “believing that one is the cause, the other is from the cause; and in that which is from the cause, we recognize yet another distinction: one is immediately from the first one, the other is through him who is immediately from the first one.” It is characteristic of the “mediation” ( mesiteia ) of the Son in the origin of the in research Spirit, he adds, that it both preserves his own unique role as Son and allows the Spirit to have a “natural relationship” to the Father. ( To Ablabius : GNO III/1, 56.3-10) In the thirteenth century, the Council of Blachernae (1285), under the leadership of Constantinopolitan Patriarch Gregory II, took further steps to interpret Patristic texts that speak of the Spirit’s being “through” the Son in a sense consistent with the Orthodox tradition. The Council proposed in its Tomos that although Christian faith must maintain that the Holy Spirit receives his existence and hypostatic identity solely from the Father, who is the single cause of the divine Being, he “shines from and is manifested eternally through the Son, in the way that light shines forth and is manifest through the intermediary of the teaching research papers sun’s rays.” (trans.
A. Papadakis, Crisis in Byzantium [St. Vladimir’s, 1996] 219) In the following century, Gregory Palamas proposed a similar interpretation of this relationship in essay analysis, a number of his works; in his Confession of 1351, for instance, he asserts that the Holy Spirit “has the Father as foundation, source, and cause,” but “reposes in the Son” and “is sent – that is, manifested – through the Son.” ( ibid . Teaching Research? 194) In terms of the transcendent divine energy, although not in terms of substance or hypostatic being, “the Spirit pours itself out from the Father through the essay writing decision Son, and, if you like, from the Son over all those worthy of it,” a communication which may even be broadly called “procession” ( ekporeusis ) ( Apodeictic Treatise 1: trans. J. Meyendorff, A Study of teaching Gregory Palamas [St. Vladimir’s, 1974] 231-232). The Greek and of divorce Latin theological traditions clearly remain in some tension with each other on the fundamental issue of the Spirit’s eternal origin as a distinct divine person. By the Middle Ages, as a result of the influence of Anselm and Thomas Aquinas, Western theology almost universally conceives of the identity of each divine person as defined by its “relations of opposition” – in other words, its mutually defining relations of origin - to the other two, and concludes that the Holy Spirit would not be hypostatically distinguishable from the Son if the Spirit “proceeded” from the Father alone.
In the teaching elementary Latin understanding of processio as a general term for “origin,” after all, it can also be said that the Son “proceeds from the Father” by being generated from him. Eastern theology, drawing on the language of John 15.26 and the Creed of 381, continues to understand the language of writing decision “procession” ( ekporeusis ) as denoting a unique, exclusive, and teaching elementary distinctive causal relationship between the Spirit and the Father, and job and resume generally confines the Son’s role to the “manifestation” and elementary research papers “mission” of the Spirit in the divine activities of creation and redemption. These differences, though subtle, are substantial, and papers the very weight of theological tradition behind both of them makes them all the more difficult to reconcile theologically with each other. The other issue continually present since the late eighth century in the debate over the Filioque is that of pastoral and teaching authority in the Church – more precisely, the teaching elementary research issue of the authority of the bishop of Rome to resolve dogmatic questions in a final way, simply in virtue of to visit his office. Since the Council of Ephesus (431), the dogmatic tradition of both Eastern and elementary research Western Churches has repeatedly affirmed that the final norm of orthodoxy in interpreting the Christian Gospel must be “the faith of Nicaea.” The Orthodox tradition sees the normative expression of that faith to be the Creeds and canons formulated by those Councils that are received by the Apostolic Churches as “ecumenical”: as expressing the continuing and universal Apostolic faith. The Catholic tradition also accepts conciliar formulations as dogmatically normative, and attributes a unique importance to act generosity essay the seven Councils that are accepted as ecumenical by the Catholic and Orthodox Churches. However, in recognizing the universal primacy of the bishop of research Rome in matters of faith and of the service of unity, the Catholic tradition accepts the about authority of the Pope to confirm the process of conciliar reception, and to define what does and elementary papers does not conflict with the “faith of Nicaea” and the Apostolic tradition. So while Orthodox theology has regarded the ultimate approval by the Popes, in the eleventh century, of the use of essay Filioque in the Latin Creed as a usurpation of the teaching dogmatic authority proper to ecumenical Councils alone, Catholic theology has seen it as a legitimate exercise of his primatial authority to proclaim and clarify the essays about places to visit Church’s faith. As our own common study has repeatedly shown, it is precisely at times in which issues of power and control have been of concern to our Churches that the question of the Filioque has emerged as a central concern: held out as a condition for improving relations, or given as a reason for allowing disunity to continue unhealed. As in the theological question of the origin of the Holy Spirit discussed above, this divergence of understanding of the structure and exercise of authority in the Church is clearly a very serious one: undoubtedly Papal primacy, with all its implications, remains the root issue behind all the questions of theology and practice that continue to divide our communions.
In the continuing discussion of the Filioque between our Churches, however, we have found it helpful to keep these two issues methodologically separate from one another, and to recognize that the mystery of the relationships among the persons in God must be approached in teaching papers, a different way from the issue of whether or not it is proper for the Western Churches to profess the faith of Nicaea in terms that diverge from the original text of the Creed of 381. 3) Continuing our Reflections. It has often been remarked that the theology of the Holy Spirit is an underdeveloped region of Christian theological reflection. This seems to hold true even of the issue of the origin of the Holy Spirit. Although a great deal has been written about the emerson fate essay reasons for and against the theology of the teaching elementary papers Filioque since the Carolingian era, most of it has been polemical in nature, aimed at justifying positions assumed by both sides to be non-negotiable. Places? Little effort has been made, until modern times, to look for new ways of expressing and explaining the teaching research Biblical and essay writing decision making early Christian understanding of the person and work of the Holy Spirit, which might serve to frame the discussion in a new way and move all the Churches towards a consensus on essential matters that would be in continuity with both traditions. Recently, a number of theologians, from elementary research, a variety of about places to visit Churches, have suggested that the time may now be at papers hand to return to this question together, in a genuinely ecumenical spirit, and to seek for new developments in our articulation of the essay Apostolic faith that may ultimately win ecumenical Christian reception.
Recognizing its challenges, our Consultation supports such a common theological enterprise. It is our hope that a serious process of reflection on teaching elementary papers, the theology of the Holy Spirit, based on the Scriptures and on act generosity essay, the whole tradition of Christian theology, and papers conducted with an openness to new formulations and conceptual structures consonant with that tradition, might help our Churches to discover new depths of common faith and to grow in respect for the wisdom of our respective forbears. Essays About Places? We urge, too, that both our Churches persist in their efforts to research reflect – together and separately – on the theology of primacy and paraphrases in research synodality within the elementary research papers Church’s structures of teaching and pastoral practice, recognizing that here also a continuing openness to emerson essay analysis doctrinal and practical development, intimately linked to the Spirit’s work in the community, remains crucially necessary. Gregory Nazianzen reminds us, in his Fifth Theological Oration on the divinity of the Holy Spirit, that the Church’s slow discovery of the Spirit’s true status and identity is simply part of the research papers “order of theology ( taxis tes theologias ),” by which “lights break upon of divorce, us gradually” in our understanding of the saving Mystery of God. Teaching Research Papers? (Or. 31.27) Only if we “listen to what the Spirit is saying to the Churches” (Rev 3.22), will we be able to remain faithful to the Good News preached by the Apostles, while growing in the understanding of that faith, which is theology’s task. We are aware that the problem of the in research papers theology of the Filioque , and its use in the Creed, is not simply an issue between the Catholic and teaching elementary Orthodox communions. Many Protestant Churches, too, drawing on the theological legacy of the Medieval West, consider the term to represent an integral part of the orthodox Christian confession. Although dialogue among a number of these Churches and the Orthodox communion has already touched on the issue, any future resolution of the resume disagreement between East and teaching elementary West on the origin of the Spirit must involve all those communities that profess the Creed of 381 as a standard of faith. Aware of its limitations, our Consultation nonetheless makes the following theological and essay of divorce practical recommendations to the members and the bishops of our own Churches:
- that our Churches commit themselves to a new and earnest dialogue concerning the origin and person of the Holy Spirit, drawing on the Holy Scriptures and on the full riches of the theological traditions of both our Churches, and to looking for constructive ways of expressing what is research central to our faith on paraphrases papers, this difficult issue; that all involved in such dialogue expressly recognize the limitations of our ability to make definitive assertions about the inner life of God; that in the future, because of the progress in mutual understanding that has come about in recent decades, Orthodox and Catholics refrain from labeling as heretical the traditions of the teaching research papers other side on the subject of the procession of the Holy Spirit; that Orthodox and Catholic theologians distinguish more clearly between the divinity and places hypostatic identity of the Holy Spirit, which is a received dogma of our Churches, and the manner of the Spirit’s origin, which still awaits full and final ecumenical resolution; that those engaged in papers, dialogue on this issue distinguish, as far as possible, the theological issues of the origin of the Holy Spirit from the ecclesiological issues of primacy and doctrinal authority in the Church, even as we pursue both questions seriously together; that the theological dialogue between our Churches also give careful consideration to the status of later councils held in both our Churches after those seven generally received as ecumenical. that the Catholic Church, as a consequence of the normative and irrevocable dogmatic value of the Creed of 381, use the original Greek text alone in making translations of essay that Creed for catechetical and liturgical use. that the teaching papers Catholic Church, following a growing theological consensus, and in particular the statements made by of divorce Pope Paul VI, declare that the elementary research papers condemnation made at the Second Council of Lyons (1274) of those “who presume to deny that the Holy Spirit proceeds eternally from the Father and the Son” is no longer applicable. We offer these recommendations to our Churches in writing, the conviction, based on our own intense study and discussion, that our traditions’ different ways of teaching elementary papers understanding the procession of the Holy Spirit need no longer divide us. We believe, rather, that our profession of the ancient Creed of Constantinople must be allowed to become, by our uniform practice and of divorce our new attempts at mutual understanding, the basis for a more conscious unity in the one faith that all theology simply seeks to clarify and to papers deepen. Although our expression of the truth God reveals about his own Being must always remain limited by the boundaries of human understanding and essay of divorce human words, we believe that it is the very “Spirit of truth,” whom Jesus breathes upon papers, his Church, who remains with us still, to “guide us into all truth” (John 16.13).
We pray that our Churches’ understanding of this Spirit may no longer be a scandal to us, or an obstacle to unity in Christ, but that the one truth towards which he guides us may truly be “a bond of peace” (Eph 4.3), for us and for paraphrases all Christians.
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2 ways to resume print from last layer. Due to new filament extruder, my filament is far from perfect and gets jammed in the nozzle from time to papers time preventing me to complete my print 100%. So, to avoid having to reprint the model from essay, a scratch and replacing the tape and wait time to heat the bed and cry over wasted filament i decided to just resume the print from its last layer. CURA and CRAFTWARE making it really eazy so why not post a tutorial. My model was centered both times so i didnt have to know if new generated code will match models position on elementary research papers the bed. I recomend re-opening Gcode you used to print your model and making a copy of it.This will make sure that your model will resume in its original orientation and location. Yes you can turn off your printer and act generosity essay, come back doing it tomorrow. #1 Look at your model and find easiest spot from elementary, which to count layers. #2 Count layers from the eazy spot (as described in step #1) using a toothpick or a needle for of divorce, accuracy. Teaching Research Papers? #3 Open Gcode used to print this model (if you 100% sure orientation and writing, location are the same, you can generate new one, just make sure all parameters are the same) #4 Go into layer preview mode and find your easy to spot layer (as described in step #1) #5 Add what ever number of layers you counted (as in step #2) to currently viewing layer. #6 Due to the nature of CURA starting layers from 0 (Brim and Raft have negative values and need to be concidered as well when editing Gcode) drop 1 number. For example: Your print failed at layer 44. Drop 1 number and your target layer is 43. #7 Open Gcode in text editor (or what ever) and search for ;LAYER:X (X is the layer number you determined) #8 Delete everything before this layer leaving parameter values such as temperature/home for elementary research papers, XYZ etc all the way down to M117 Printing. Your code should now look something like this: pre class=_prettyXprint _lang-html M109 T0 S240.000000.
G28 X0 Y0 ;move X/Y to min endstops. G28 Z0 ;move Z to min endstops. G1 Z15.0 F13200 ;move the platform down 15mm. G92 E0 ;zero the extruded length. G1 F200 E3 ;extrude 3mm of act generosity, feed stock. G92 E0 ;zero the extruded length again. ;Put printing message on LCD screen. G0 F13200 X92.25 Y136.17 Z13.20. G1 F2700 X91.17 Y136.16 E4987.93047. G1 X84.75 Y136.16 E4988.28186. G1 X84.75 Y134.41 E4988.37760. G1 X101.42 Y134.51 E4989.29061.
G1 X123.58 Y134.51 E4990.50320. G1 X140.25 Y134.41 E4991.41615. Research? #9 Make sure that line with (below) pre class=_prettyXprint _lang-html G1 Z15.0 F13200 ;move the platform down 15mm. has Z value higher then Z value for the layer you resuming from (below) pre class=_prettyXprint _lang-html G0 F13200 X92.25 Y136.17 Z13.20. This is to prevent nozzle bumping into the model when it reaches its start point. #10 Save the Gcode and print using newlyu saved/modified Gcode. #1 Move nozzle away from the model allowing it to touch the essay, build platform. Research? #3 Using CURA or LCD controls, move and lift the nozzle right on top of the model. Write down the about places to visit, distance you had to lift the elementary research papers, nozzle. (for example 43.5mm) #4 Open Gcode used to print the model and search for (Z43) do not specify the 5 because it may be 3,4 or 6 or 7 depending on your print layer height. Found result shoud look like this. G0 F13200 X92.25 Y136.17 Z43.6/pre #5 If you print at 0.1mm layer height, then you need to act generosity match exact height, if not, then you need to pick the research papers, closest one. I print at 0.3mm so closes to my estimated 43.5 height is 43.6 and previous layer would be 43.3 (obviously -0.3) #6 You want to find the writing decision making, lilne where next layer start. This is becayse you dont want to start printing from elementary, this layer but from the next. So scroll down untill you find ;Layer:44 (in this example its 44) #7 Delete all layers before layer 44 leaving general print parameters (see example below) M109 T0 S240.000000.
G28 X0 Y0 ;move X/Y to min endstops. G28 Z0 ;move Z to min endstops. G1 Z15.0 F13200 ;move the platform down 15mm. G92 E0 ;zero the first resume, extruded length. G1 F200 E3 ;extrude 3mm of teaching, feed stock. First Job And Resume? G92 E0 ;zero the extruded length again.
;Put printing message on LCD screen. #8 Make sure that your Platform or Extruder initial lift or drop is greater then where you resume your print. In this example, print resumes at 43.6 mm so i want to make sure that my extruder gets above that height before it resumes the print. I do this by teaching research papers editing this line and changing Z15.0 to essay Z45. Nearly 2mm's higher. G1 Z15.0 F13200 ;move the platform down 15mm. #9 Save your file, reupload to research papers SD card or print from CURA, how ever you want. Paraphrases Papers? #10 Watch your print. If its too low, stop and UNDO 1 layer to make it start higher, otherwise delete another layer. Posts: 10133 Location: Boston, United States Printers: Ultimaker 2, Ultimaker Original, Ultimaker 2 Extended, Ultimaker 2 Go, Ultimaker 3. One problem with this: ;Put printing message on teaching LCD screen.
G0 F13200 X92.25 Y136.17 Z13.20. G1 F2700 X91.17 Y136.16 E4987.93047. The red part above will have the essay, extruder try to rotate 4.9 Meters of filament! So you should add a. just before this to tell the extruder that you are already at elementary, this position. Fate? I like your method #1. I have only teaching elementary papers, tried method #2. Act Generosity Essay? I never tried counting layers from teaching, a known layer! smart! Yes you can turn off your printer and come back doing it tomorrow. Well on the Ultimaker2 if your bed is act generosity not at room temperature then you must leave the printer on teaching research papers and keep the bed at decision making, the same temperature. Teaching Research? But yes, I've done this. Gone to bed and continued the papers, print the next day.
So if your bed is at 60C you MUST KEEP THE BED AT 60C UNTIL THE PRINT IS DONE. If not it will very likely pop off the teaching research papers, bed when it gets cold. Paraphrases In Research? Here's my version of the same thing: read all gr5 posts here: post #9 here has specific code change example for um2 (ultigcode): The red part above will have the extruder try to elementary papers rotate 4.9 Meters of filament! So you should add a. just before this to tell the extruder that you are already at this position. Essay? Most likely the prevent lengthy extrusion protection is elementary research kicking in, preventing problems in this case. But I wouldn't relay on essays about places to visit that and it would be better to add the G92. I update my program to allow users to select starting and ending layers (as range) to teaching elementary be removed from the code and saved as new file (preserving original code unchanged in case of need make changes) It also has height search function to find what layer has given height.
Newest version is here. Job And Resume? Hope you guys find it usefull. I'd also suggest slowing the printer down when it resumes, to make it more likely that the first new layer will adhere to the existing part. After the teaching elementary, first few layers are down, it should be okay to turn the emerson essay analysis, speed back up. And is there any way to compensate if the new layers are shifted out of position when the print resumes? I was having a nice and successful 40 hour print: . up until this thing (I think it's a piece of fur from the cat) managed to make it all the way to the nozzle and then decide that it wasn't going to go any further: I managed to teaching research track down the right layer to resume from and edit the first resume, Gcode, but the new layers are all shifted back a few mm from where they should be: Is there some way to correct that sort of thing when editing the teaching elementary papers, Gcode? Slowing down print ? I print large objects with cooling fan on. By the time 1/4 of the layer is printed, rest is already cold.
Dont think it matters. Layers shift because end stops were not triggered same as when print started. First Job And Resume? I had it happen to me few times. I forced the bed/extruder to teaching move to where i need. I was off by very little. Just push the bed/extruder one belt tooth over one way or another, thats your best bet. Otherwise you need to decision tweak your endstops.
If you were printing angels, print would not get ruined. Elementary Research? Try printing something less satanic :mrgreen: I've already got success in restarting a printing job using method #2, however, I was just wondering why Cura does not log in a file the layers that were successfully completed. It would make our lives much easier when restarting a jog. Just open the log, check the last layer was printed, cut the portion of the original g-code file, reload and start the printing job again. What no log is created by emerson Cura while printing? (or if it's created. where it is?) Posts: 1332 Location: Montreal, Canada Printers: Ultimaker 2. It doesnt know the layer was properly printed. The human eye tell that its good or not but not the elementary papers, machine. In addition, cura is not even in job and resume the equation when printing from the sd card. In the coming version(s) extra info will be displayed on the UM2 print progress so you will be able to see what layer you are printing. What might be nice to elementary research papers have is instead of Print Finished a menu that says Troubleshoot Print or something that has some options like.. resume from layer, move to layer, set extent (set extent being setting the position of the head by finding the furthers point in one of essay, two directions and using the wheel to teaching research papers position X and Y over essays places that point, to avoid layer shifts when starting over) It's great we'll be able to teaching see the layer as it prints, but for me and other posts I've seen these problem occur when we walk away on papers very long running prints. Posts: 139 Location: Haren, Netherlands Printers: Ultimaker 2. Thanks, all my printing isues with warping were solved, and then the f. filaments tangles on the wheel.
This thread solved the problem. Great job. Posts: 1 Location: United States. If you were printing angels, print would not get ruined. Teaching Elementary Research? Try printing something less satanic :mrgreen: A human skull is satan? You must be Catholic.
Trying to resume a print in such a way just saved me hours. Has anyone tried to build this functionality into a cura 2 postprocessing plugin, yet? Posts: 1 Location: United Kingdom. Act Generosity? Has anyone done this with Cura 2? I have a large print which ran out of teaching research, filament overnight. Essay Decision? I've worked out elementary, I want to restart on layer 510.
Here's the start of the original file. I tried editing that like so ( changing the starting Z to essay decision be 20 mm above the print ) but it looked as though it was about to elementary papers crash before I switched off the power! Posts: 1 Location: United States. I have a problem that I believe is caused by my Z offset. Job And Resume? I have it set very high to compensate for an auto bed leveling sensor. (2.25 mm) and when I factor it into the equation and start at a layer plus the distance of teaching research papers, my offset it is much too high but if I don't factor it in, it crashed into the print.
I used a layer height of .2mm and when I don't factor in the offset I start at of divorce, layer 26, and when I do, I start at layer 36.
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Camping Trip Essay Essays and Research Papers. The Camping Trip . Teaching Elementary Research? By: Samantha Coles ? Turn the page and we can start. I wrote this for all my friends that love . Writing Decision Making? camping much as I do. Which is allot. “Samantha wake up” Mom said “Or do I have to come in there and elementary research drag your butt out of bed because you know I will!” I must’ve slept thou my alarms again today wait no alarms it’s the first day of first job and resume, summer “Coming mom” I said as I stumbled out of my room a littlie confused. “OMG what are you all doing here we don’t leave for that big. Camping , Tent 2030 Words | 5 Pages. responsibilities of the leader: • Responsible for the welfare of the teaching papers, children • Responsible to the Camp Director • Responsible for all of pre-camp . planning • Responsible for discipline • Responsible for organisation • Supervision of all on camping trip • Responsible for maintaining cleanliness • Responsible for camp clean-up • Responsible for medical matters 2) Equipment and supply list: Shelter • Tent • Ground cloth/tarp • Axe or hammer • Mat for essays about, tent entrance Bedding • Sleeping. Allergy , Butter , Camping 425 Words | 4 Pages.
The Trip Mrs. Research Papers? Quintis Period: 5 Jacob Walby The Trip As I grew up as a kid I never had any dangerous or really . scary encounters. I thought I was invincible and writing making nothing bad would ever happen to elementary research, me. When I was ten years old my family and I went on a magnificent camping trip , or so I thought it was going to be. The place we were going to camp at was by the Cannonball River. It was the last one of summer before school started again. We had planned to first, fish, roast marsh mellows, and have. Bed , Camping , Campsite 1286 Words | 4 Pages. A Camping Trip Gone Wrong It was our first camping trip together as a family, and it was . definitely not the fun filled experience we anticipated. Research Papers? After we got all the stuff loaded into the truck we were on our way to Baker Lake. It’s an hour and essay writing making a half drive and we were planning on a two day stay, our plan was to arrive early, set up our tent and papers get settled.
We would then familiarize ourselves with the area then go fishing. I couldn’t wait. It started to act generosity, go wrong when we arrived. Burn , Campfire , Camping 1249 Words | 3 Pages. ? A Good Camping Trip Why do so many people like going like going on elementary papers a camping trip ? What makes . a camping trip that people call it good? In English, students use 5Ws (what, when, where, why, and who) and 1H (how) to analysis, make their essays look good. The same is teaching elementary true on essay of divorce a camping trip . There are also three Ws that can make a good camping trip which are when, where, and who.
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The Narrator explains how her Brownie troop took a dislike on each. African American , Black people , Race 866 Words | 3 Pages. Camping is Fun People who love the paraphrases papers, wild and adventurous outdoors will totally enjoy camping . Teaching Elementary? Nothing beats taking a short or . Essay Analysis? long break away from those stressful, hair yanking days back at home sweet home than waking up to peace and tranquility. Beautiful ladies, handsome gentlemen, silly boys and girls of all ages are never too young or too old to go a few hot summer days and teaching cool breezy nights out camping with close friends and supportive families. Essay? It does not mean that it is appropriate to.
Backpacking , Camper , Campfire 823 Words | 3 Pages. ? ENG111-001 Compare/Contrast Essay Final Draft 25, June 2012 Camping or . Resort I have always wondered what would be the difference between camping at a state park and a resort vacation. Elementary Research Papers? I looked into paraphrases in research, two different vacations that a family might enjoy, comparing the difference between what it would take to prepare for, the prices for a week and teaching elementary research what is offered with both. Primitive camping consists of a tent, fire ring and a picnic table. Amusement park , Florida , Magic Kingdom 1029 Words | 5 Pages. Personal essay on trip to Florida. Keightley Bertram. I felt so lucky to act generosity, be included in such a trip , adopted for a week by Keightley's family to teaching elementary research papers, celebrate her birthday in style. Essay? . Such an awesome party it was going to elementary, be, with an unlimited amount of space, people, and lack of restrictions.
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Capital punishment , Jose Rizal , Josephine Bracken 2073 Words | 5 Pages. How to Have a Sucesful Camping Trip. have a successful camping trip Are you bored to be at home on holidays? Do you want to travel but you do not have enough . Elementary Research? money?. Well, the best option to this horrible problem is taking a camping trip . Essays To Visit? A camping trip can be wonderful for families and friends to spend time together in research, a relaxing setting at act generosity essay, a relatively low cost.
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destination and where they stay on the way. Tent camping and staying hotel are two of the most common ways of vacationing. Emerson Analysis? Some people prefer . camping over staying at a hotel because it is a good option for teaching elementary research, a limited budget, it is adventurous, and campsites are surrounded by resume, the great outdoors. Camping is a good option for a limited budget. Cost is often a key consideration. Camping is less expensive than staying at hotel.
The major cost of research papers, camping is the equipment such as tents, sleeping bag, camp. Camping , Hotel , Hotels 919 Words | 4 Pages. Section 2357 Camping vs. Resort People like to go on essay vacations and teaching elementary papers spend time with ones they enjoy being around. Essay Decision Making? When traveling people focus . most on where they would like to stay. Although camping in the woods and teaching elementary research staying in act generosity essay, a resort are the two most common ways to take a vacation, one should consider camping because it is less expensive, requires simple effort and teaching elementary papers its rejuvenating. There is a huge different in price range between camping in the woods to staying at decision, a resort. When camping deep in the. Campfire , Camping , Campsite 869 Words | 4 Pages. Lake Tahoe, CA. this is teaching research papers a descriptive essay about my camping trip to lake tahoe, CA durring the fourth of july cellebration.
lungs. The campground is essay packed full of random campers from all across California and Nevada. Teaching Elementary Research? This is defiantly the busiest time of the year for paraphrases in research papers, Lake Tahoe . Valley Camping Resort. Being so close to the big blue lake, there is research papers no way I am going to miss the most incredible display of fire works in all of California. Lake Tahoe Valley Camping Resort is located a few blocks down the street of South Shore Lake Tahoe. Paraphrases In Research Papers? When you enter through the resorts gateway, one feels as if he is visiting a small, remote. Arcade game , Camping , Lake Tahoe 1109 Words | 3 Pages. 1 Being in nature is the best place to be on teaching papers earth. If you go or have been camping you know what this means. Essay? Being in the . Research Papers? outdoors opens your mind to new things. Their's a lot that can be learned in essay, nature, if people took the time for elementary papers, it.
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How to Survive a Winter Camping Trip. How To Survive A Winter Camping Trip When you are planning a winter camping trip , you need to make . sure that you have all the necessary materials. If you don’t, then your trip may not go as smoothly as you think. First of all, I am going to elementary papers, tell you about places what outerwear you need to bring. Teaching? Stay warm, but control how warm you are. Pack clothing that can be easily layered and act generosity essay make sure each layer has good insulation and elementary will dry easily. This means that you should avoid packing cotton. Synthetic. Camping , Campsite , Need to know 674 Words | 2 Pages.
Camping Technology Could something designed to make life easier end up ruining everything we have worked to preserve? Technology can . sometimes be quite controversial. In my major, I have found that it can be almost more of a frustration than a blessing. In most industries, technological advancements are viewed as a positive step towards efficiency and essay of divorce economic growth. This is not always the case, however. In the camping industry, for teaching elementary research, example, the papers, constant “improvements” are often a source of. Camping , Frustration , Michigan 1375 Words | 4 Pages. all people said safety comes first.
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It is my first experience to go to essay, that. Campfire , Camping , Campsite 524 Words | 1 Pages. A Hunting Trip and Young Drivers: Two Essays. Sample Narrative Essay A Hunting Trip News of the tiger’s attack on a woman spread like wildfire. Elementary? This was not the tiger’s . first appearance in the village. Before this attack, the to visit, villagers had lost a few goats and elementary research papers poultry but the disappearances remained a mystery as nobody could confirm that they were a tiger’s doing. Then the tiger struck. This time, the victim was a 32-year-old woman who was washing clothes by Tasik Bina. Places To Visit? The villagers at once organized a hunting party.
Armed with machetes. Autobahn , Freeway , Road 766 Words | 3 Pages. Camping : Mountains and Desert A few times a year, I like to go camping . Research? Sometimes I go to emerson fate analysis, the mountains in Kern County, . California, whereas, other times I go to the desert in Brawley, California. Camping in the mountains, although similar in atmosphere, terrain and teaching elementary papers activities, has many more benefits than camping in the desert. There is nothing like taking a deep breath of cool, crisp mountain air, taking that narrow winding road that never seems to end until at last reaching the very spot that.
Campfire , Camping , Campsite 944 Words | 3 Pages. filled out my admission form and the lady on the Admiration told me that I have to take assessment test, after that I can enroll in classes. I was new in the . environment so I didn’t know what assessment test is. At that time my brother was on business trip so my mother told me not to bother him and essay try to figure out by myself. I was very sacred I didn’t know what I am going to do. I decided I am not going to sit here and do nothing. Next morning I went to college and asked the teaching elementary research, administration lady what.
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The first essay must . be 1,000–1,200 words, and the following essays must be 750–1,000 words each. Essay one corresponds to the essay one prompt as listed below. Essay two corresponds with the essay two prompt, etc. through all four essays . Each essay is a separate assignment. In Research? In completing each essay , research must be conducted through 2–4 peer-reviewed, scholarly sources in addition to the Bible and the. Bible , Religious text 990 Words | 3 Pages. Bankers Adda How to teaching papers, write Essay in essay, SBI PO Exam?
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Gotta keep going.’” In the short story, The Hiking Trip , Jeff has to travel through a canyon alone to seek help for his brother, Mark. The author reveals Jeff’s personal characteristics through his actions, revealing him to be caring, determined, and teaching brave. Of Divorce? Even though Jeff was really scared; he proved that he was very caring. In the beginning. English-language films , Family , Father 506 Words | 2 Pages. Ashley Hicks Hendren ENG 101 Essay 1 A Trip to Italy Vacation and travel is a phenomenon which strikes a chord with nearly . every human being on the planet. While true, there are many without the means to engage in elementary papers, such activity, there is little doubt that the fate, primal urge to escape one's everyday surroundings strikes all but the most reclusive of people. There are many different locales to which one may escape, as well as a large variety of teaching research papers, reasons for traveling.
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Argumentative Essay Social responsibility is an fate essay, ideal topic for elementary, debate; there have been mixed results for companies and papers individuals who have . pursued social responsibility. There is also the question of whether social responsibility should be motivated by a perceived benefit.This type of essay is based on teaching elementary papers philosophical theories on the necessity of act generosity essay, social responsibility backed up with facts about teaching elementary research previous social responsibility efforts. Essays About Places To Visit? For example, an essay could be about how giving support to papers, disaster. Essay , Essays , Qualitative research 555 Words | 3 Pages. create flashcards for free at fate, Cram.com Sign In | Sign Up StudyMode - Premium and Free Essays , Term Papers Book Notes Essays . Elementary Research Papers? Book Notes AP Notes Citation Generator More Code Napoleon and “Declaration of the Rights of Man” Comparison By wis2cool, april. 2013 | 5 Pages (1064 Words) | 1 Views | 4.5 12345 (1) | Report | This is a Premium essay for upgraded members Sign Up to access full essay DID YOU LIKE THIS? TELL YOUR FRIENDS. Send Code Napoleon and “Declaration. Age of job and resume, Enlightenment , Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen , French Revolution 632 Words | 4 Pages. ELEMENTS OF AN ESSAY Preliminary Remarks Following are some suggestions to help you write an acceptable academic- level essay . . Teaching Elementary Research? This is not the job and, only way to organize and teaching elementary papers develop an essays about places to visit, essay . It is, however, a tried and true system and will likely be what your TCC instructors require of you.
Audience and Purpose Before beginning, you should consider both your audience and purpose. Teaching Papers? For, before you can know how to approach the subject, you must determine whom you will be addressing, how much they already. 2005 albums , Essay , Five paragraph essay 1430 Words | 5 Pages. finished. If you choose to essay making, go to the toilet off a tree, make sure it is stable and make sure you are not going to fall. Teaching? When digging a hole, make sure it big . Making? enough and also make sure it is not dug to skinny, or too wide. Water- While hiking, or even camping ; always carry a camel pack full of water.
If you don't own a camel pack, bring plenty of water. Preferably around 2 or 3 litres. Teaching Elementary Research? Before putting water in camel pack or drink bottle, make sure it has been thoroughly cleaned out. To keep it cool while.