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APA Format Examples, Tips, and Guidelines. APA format is the official style used by the American Psychological Association and is commonly used in psychology, education, and other social sciences. Check out determines spread swap world, this gallery of examples, tips, and guidelines for writing papers in APA format. Your title page should include a running head, page number, article title, author name, and author affiliation. The sixth edition of the APA Publication Manual contained a few changes to the format of an APA style title page.
Your title page should contain a running head that is role of language in communication, flush left at the top of the page and a page number that is flush right at the top of the page. The title should be at the top half of the page and should be centered between margins. Use both upper-case and lower-case letters. This page should include the title of your paper, your name, and your school affiliation. The APA suggests that your title is no more than 12 words in length. Determines Papers Spread Swap World! Avoid using titles or degree info (such as Dr. or Ph.D.) before and essay favorite teacher, after your name. Your title should be a very concise statement of what the reader will find in the paper. In many cases, your title will identify the determines spread world, major variables and ms bi resume, the relationships between them. For example, #34;Effect of Sleep Deprivation on Math Performance#34; is an determines spread u.s working, example of a succinct title that clearly describes what the paper is about. The APA style guide also advises writers to avoid phrases such as #34;An Experimental Investigation on. #34; or #34;A Study of. #34;.
You should also avoid any extraneous words that do not add meaning to your title. Make Longer! All sources cited in your psychology paper should be included in the reference page. Papers Swap U.s Working World! The reference page should appear at the end of thesis, your APA paper. The purpose of this page is to provide a list of sources used in your paper so that the reader can easily look up all of the materials you cited. One of the first rules you should observe on your reference page: If you cited the article in your paper, it must appear in the reference list. Conversely, if a source appears on your reference page, it must be cited somewhere in your paper. Your references should begin on a new page with the title References centered at bank the very top. Do not underline, italicize or place quotation marks around the References title. Some More Basic Reference Page Rules. Your references should be alphabetized by the last names of the first author of each source. All references should be double-spaced.
Each reference should use a hanging indentation: the first line of the reference should be flush left, but each additional line of the reference needs to be indented. In article titles, only the first letter should be capitalized. If a colon appears in the title, the first letter after the colon should also be capitalized. Ms Bi Resume! The title should not be placed in quotations, underlined or italicized. All major words in the title of a journal should be capitalized; i.e. The Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Bank Determines Papers Swap U.s Working World! Longer works such as books and journals should appear in thesis italics. Bank Determines Swap! In the case where the on impact of terrorism in india, same author is cited multiple times for different works, start by listing these references in chronological order with the oldest reference appearing first and working your way up to bank papers swap u.s working world, the most recent one. Learn more about APA references: Tables are a great way to on impact of terrorism, display a great deal of information in a concise, clear and easy to read format. In APA format papers, tables are generally used to describe the determines swap u.s working, results of statistical analysis and role of language in communication essay, other pertinent quantitative data.
However, it is bank determines papers spread world, important to note that tables are not simply used to ms bi resume, replicate data that has already been presented in the text of the paper and not all data should be presented in spread a table. If you have little numeric information to present, it should be described in the text of your paper. The official APA publication manual recommends designing your table with the favorite teacher, reader in mind. Strive to communicate data in a way that is determines spread u.s working world, clear and easy to on impact in india, understand. Bank Determines Papers Swap U.s Working World! Basic Rules for Tables in APA Format. All tables should be numbered (e.g.
Table 1, Table 2, Table 3). Each table should have an of language in communication essay, individual title, italicized and presented with each word capitalized (except and bank determines papers, , in ms bi resume , of , with , etc.). For example, Correlations Between Age and Test Scores. Try to ensure that your title is neither too general nor too specific. Each table should begin on a separate page. Horizontal lines can be used to separate information and determines papers spread u.s working, make it clearer. Do not use vertical lines in an APA format table.
According to the new sixth edition of the APA manual, a table can be either single-spaced or double-spaced. The key is to essay longer, keep the table readable and the spacing consistent. All tables should be referenced in the text of the determines papers spread swap world, paper. Tables should be last, after your reference list and appendixes. You should use a font that is large enough to read without magnification Focus on keeping your table concise. Too much extraneous information can overwhelm and confuse the reader. Stick to reporting the most important data. Remember that your table is there to essay on impact of terrorism, supplement rather than replicate the text of your paper.
Do not feel the need to discuss every element of your table in your text. Instead, mention key highlights and tell the reader what to look for in your table. Table headings should be located flush right. Each column should be identified using a descriptive heading. The first letter of each heading should be capitalized. Abbreviations for standard terms (e.g. M, SD, etc.) can be used without explanation. Uncommon definitions should be explained in u.s working a note below the table. Of Language In Communication! Additional Notes to an APA Format Table. If additional explanation is needed, a note can be added below the table.
There are three kinds of notes: General notes, specific notes, and probability notes. General notes refer to some aspect of the entire table; specific notes refer to a particular column or row; probability notes specify the probability level. Is the table needed to present data or could the data simply be presented in the text? Does the bank papers u.s working world, title of your table clearly but briefly explain what it is about favorite, about? Is the spacing consistent throughout the determines papers u.s working world, table? Does the body of the paper refer to the table? Is each column of the table clearly labeled? If your paper contains more than one table, are they similar in format and presentation? Are any special or uncommon abbreviations explained in notes? American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.
Author: Washington, DC. Cheats Essay! Journal articles should appear in alphabetical order in your APA format reference list. Consult the image below for examples of journal articles in APA format. Capitalize the first word in the title, subtitle, and proper nouns. Italicize the name of the publication and the volume number. The basic format of a journal article reference involves listing authors by their last names followed by their initials. Next, the publication year is enclosed in parentheses and followed by determines spread swap a period.
The title of the article should then follow, with only the first word and any proper nouns capitalized. The title of the journal should then follow along with the thesis, volume number, both of which should be italicized, and the page numbers of the article should also be included. Swap! Finally, a DOI number should be included if one is available. Referencing electronic sources in APA format requires special style concerns. Electronic References Are Similar to make essay longer, Other References.
The basic format of an electronic reference is very similar to that of any other reference. However, you do need to include the bank spread, date the reference was retrieved from the on impact of terrorism, Internet as well as the u.s working world, online location of the document. As you perform research and accumulate sources, always be sure to note the date you found a particular source as well as its exact location on the Web. Use a Digital Object Identifier When Possible. Because online URLs can change, the APA recommends utilizing a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) in your references whenever possible.
A DOI is a unique alphanumeric string that begins with a 10 as well as a prefix (a four digit number assigned to organizations) and a suffix (a number assigned by ms bi resume the publisher). Bank Determines Papers Swap World! Many publishers will include the DOI on the first page of an electronic document. If a DOI is vietnam introduction, available, simply include it at the end of the papers spread swap, reference as follows - doi:10.0000/00000000000.
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How to determines papers spread u.s working Give a Killer Presentation. For more than 30 years, the TED conference series has presented enlightening talks that people enjoy watching. Favorite Teacher! In this article, Anderson, TED’s curator, shares five keys to bank determines papers spread swap world great presentations: Frame your story (figure out where to start and where to end). Plan your delivery (decide whether to memorize your speech word for thesis, word or develop bullet points and then rehearse it—over and determines swap u.s working, over). Work on stage presence (but remember that your story matters more than how you stand or whether you’re visibly nervous).
Plan the multimedia (whatever you do, don’t read from PowerPoint slides). Put it together (play to your strengths and vietnam war essay introduction, be authentic). According to Anderson, presentations rise or fall on the quality of the idea, the spread swap u.s working, narrative, and the passion of the cheats make longer, speaker. It’s about substance—not style. Determines Papers Swap World! In fact, it’s fairly easy to “coach out” the problems in a talk, but there’s no way to “coach in” the basic story—the presenter has to have the raw material.
So if your thinking is on failure, not there yet, he advises, decline that invitation to speak. Instead, keep working until you have an idea that’s worth sharing. A little more than a year ago, on determines swap world a trip to Nairobi, Kenya, some colleagues and I met a 12-year-old Masai boy named Richard Turere, who told us a fascinating story. His family raises livestock on the edge of a vast national park, and one of the biggest challenges is protecting the animals from lions—especially at night. Richard had noticed that placing lamps in a field didn’t deter lion attacks, but when he walked the make essay longer, field with a torch, the lions stayed away.
From a young age, he’d been interested in electronics, teaching himself by, for example, taking apart his parents’ radio. He used that experience to bank determines swap devise a system of lights that would turn on and off in sequence—using solar panels, a car battery, and a motorcycle indicator box—and thereby create a sense of vietnam war essay introduction, movement that he hoped would scare off the lions. He installed the lights, and the lions stopped attacking. Soon villages elsewhere in Kenya began installing Richard’s “lion lights.” The story was inspiring and worthy of the broader audience that our TED conference could offer, but on the surface, Richard seemed an unlikely candidate to give a TED Talk. He was painfully shy. His English was halting.
When he tried to describe his invention, the sentences tumbled out incoherently. And frankly, it was hard to imagine a preteenager standing on a stage in front of bank determines papers u.s working, 1,400 people accustomed to hearing from polished speakers such as Bill Gates, Sir Ken Robinson, and Jill Bolte Taylor. But Richard’s story was so compelling that we invited him to cheats make speak. Spread Swap U.s Working! In the months before the 2013 conference, we worked with him to of language in communication frame his story—to find the right place to bank determines papers u.s working world begin, and to develop a succinct and logical arc of events. On the back of his invention Richard had won a scholarship to one of Kenya’s best schools, and there he had the chance to practice the talk several times in about favorite front of a live audience. It was critical that he build his confidence to bank papers spread u.s working world the point where his personality could shine through. When he finally gave his talk at thesis TED, in Long Beach, you could tell he was nervous, but that only made him more engaging—people were hanging on determines swap u.s working world his every word. The confidence was there, and every time Richard smiled, the audience melted. When he finished, the response was instantaneous: a sustained standing ovation. Since the first TED conference, 30 years ago, speakers have run the gamut from political figures, musicians, and TV personalities who are completely at thesis on failure ease before a crowd to lesser-known academics, scientists, and writers—some of whom feel deeply uncomfortable giving presentations.
Over the years, we’ve sought to develop a process for bank determines u.s working, helping inexperienced presenters to frame, practice, and deliver talks that people enjoy watching. It typically begins six to nine months before the event, and involves cycles of vietnam war essay introduction, devising (and revising) a script, repeated rehearsals, and plenty of papers spread u.s working, fine-tuning. We’re continually tweaking our approach—because the art of public speaking is evolving in real time—but judging by cheats public response, our basic regimen works well: Since we began putting TED Talks online, in bank determines u.s working world 2006, they’ve been viewed more than one billion times. On the basis of this experience, I’m convinced that giving a good talk is highly coachable. In a matter of ms bi resume, hours, a speaker’s content and delivery can be transformed from muddled to mesmerizing. And while my team’s experience has focused on TED’s 18-minutes-or-shorter format, the determines swap, lessons we’ve learned are surely useful to ms bi resume other presenters—whether it’s a CEO doing an IPO road show, a brand manager unveiling a new product, or a start-up pitching to VCs.
There’s no way you can give a good talk unless you have something worth talking about. Papers Spread! Conceptualizing and framing what you want to ms bi resume say is the determines u.s working, most vital part of preparation. Find the Perfect Mix of Data and Narrative. by Nancy Duarte. Most presentations lie somewhere on the continuum between a report and essay on impact of terrorism, a story. A report is data-rich, exhaustive, and informative—but not very engaging.
Stories help a speaker connect with an audience, but listeners often want facts and information, too. Great presenters layer story and information like a cake, and understand that different types of talks require differing ingredients. From Report: Literal, Informational, Factual, Exhaustive… If your goal is to communicate information from a written report, send the full document to bank spread u.s working the audience in advance, and limit the presentation to key takeaways. Vietnam Introduction! Don’t do a long slide show that repeats all your findings. Swap World! Anyone who’s really interested can read the report; everyone else will appreciate brevity. Financial audiences love data, and they’ll want the details. Satisfy their analytical appetite with facts, but add a thread of narrative to appeal to their emotional side.
Then present the key takeaways visually, to thesis on failure help them find meaning in papers swap u.s working the numbers. Instead of covering only specs and features, focus on the value your product brings to the world. Tell stories that show how real people will use it and why it will change their lives. For 30 minutes with a VC, prepare a crisp, well-structured story arc that conveys your idea compellingly in vietnam introduction 10 minutes or less; then let QA drive the rest of the determines papers spread, meeting. Essay! Anticipate questions and bank swap u.s working world, rehearse clear and concise answers. Formal talks at big events are high-stakes, high-impact opportunities to take your listeners on a transformative journey. Use a clear story framework and aim to engage them emotionally. …to Story: Dramatic, Experiential, Evocative, Persuasive. Nancy Duarte is the author of HBR Guide to Persuasive Presentations, Slide:ology, and Resonate.
She is the CEO of Duarte, Inc., which designs presentations and essay of terrorism in india, teaches presentation development. We all know that humans are wired to listen to stories, and metaphors abound for the narrative structures that work best to bank determines engage people. When I think about compelling presentations, I think about taking an audience on a journey. A successful talk is essay, a little miracle—people see the bank papers spread, world differently afterward. If you frame the talk as a journey, the biggest decisions are figuring out where to start and essay on impact of terrorism, where to end. Spread World! To find the thesis, right place to determines papers spread swap u.s working start, consider what people in of language in communication the audience already know about bank determines spread u.s working your subject—and how much they care about it. If you assume they have more knowledge or interest than they do, or if you start using jargon or get too technical, you’ll lose them.
The most engaging speakers do a superb job of very quickly introducing the topic, explaining why they care so deeply about it, and convincing the audience members that they should, too. The biggest problem I see in first drafts of presentations is that they try to cover too much ground. War Essay! You can’t summarize an entire career in determines u.s working a single talk. If you try to cram in everything you know, you won’t have time to include key details, and your talk will disappear into abstract language that may make sense if your listeners are familiar with the subject matter but will be completely opaque if they’re new to it. Ms Bi Resume! You need specific examples to flesh out your ideas. Bank Determines Swap World! So limit the scope of your talk to essay longer that which can be explained, and determines spread u.s working, brought to life with examples, in role the available time. Much of the early feedback we give aims to correct the impulse to sweep too broadly.
Instead, go deeper. Give more detail. Don’t tell us about your entire field of study—tell us about your unique contribution. A successful talk is swap, a little miracle—people see the world differently afterward. Of course, it can be just as damaging to overexplain or painstakingly draw out the implications of a talk. And there the remedy is different: Remember that the people in the audience are intelligent. Let them figure some things out for themselves. Let them draw their own conclusions. Many of the best talks have a narrative structure that loosely follows a detective story.
The speaker starts out by presenting a problem and then describes the search for a solution. There’s an “aha” moment, and the audience’s perspective shifts in cheats make essay a meaningful way. If a talk fails, it’s almost always because the speaker didn’t frame it correctly, misjudged the audience’s level of interest, or neglected to tell a story. Even if the topic is important, random pontification without narrative is determines papers spread swap world, always deeply unsatisfying. There’s no progression, and you don’t feel that you’re learning. I was at an energy conference recently where two people—a city mayor and a former governor—gave back-to-back talks. The mayor’s talk was essentially a list of impressive projects his city had undertaken. It came off as boasting, like a report card or an advertisement for his reelection. It quickly got boring. When the governor spoke, she didn’t list achievements; instead, she shared an idea.
Yes, she recounted anecdotes from her time in office, but the ms bi resume, idea was central—and the stories explanatory or illustrative (and also funny). It was so much more interesting. Bank Determines Papers U.s Working World! The mayor’s underlying point seemed to be how great he was, while the governor’s message was “Here’s a compelling idea that would benefit us all.” As a general rule, people are not very interested in talks about organizations or institutions (unless they’re members of make essay, them). Bank Swap! Ideas and stories fascinate us; organizations bore us—they’re much harder to make essay longer relate to. Spread World! (Businesspeople especially take note: Don’t boast about your company; rather, tell us about the essay favorite teacher, problem you’re solving.) Once you’ve got the framing down, it’s time to focus on your delivery. Determines Papers U.s Working World! There are three main ways to deliver a talk.
You can read it directly off a script or a teleprompter. You can develop a set of thesis on failure, bullet points that map out what you’re going to say in each section rather than scripting the whole thing word for word. Or you can memorize your talk, which entails rehearsing it to determines u.s working the point where you internalize every word—verbatim. My advice: Don’t read it, and thesis on failure, don’t use a teleprompter. Papers Spread Swap U.s Working! It’s usually just too distancing—people will know you’re reading. And as soon as they sense it, the way they receive your talk will shift. Suddenly your intimate connection evaporates, and everything feels a lot more formal. On Impact In India! We generally outlaw reading approaches of any kind at TED, though we made an exception a few years ago for a man who insisted on bank spread world using a monitor. We set up a screen at the back of the auditorium, in the hope that the audience wouldn’t notice it. At first he spoke naturally. But soon he stiffened up, and you could see this horrible sinking feeling pass through the audience as people realized, “Oh, no, he’s reading to ms bi resume us!” The words were great, but the talk got poor ratings.
Many of our best and most popular TED Talks have been memorized word for word. Determines Papers Spread U.s Working World! If you’re giving an important talk and you have the time to make essay do this, it’s the spread swap u.s working, best way to essay on impact in india go. But don’t underestimate the work involved. One of our most memorable speakers was Jill Bolte Taylor, a brain researcher who had suffered a stroke. Bank Papers Swap U.s Working World! She talked about what she learned during the eight years it took her to recover. After crafting her story and undertaking many hours of solo practice, she rehearsed her talk dozens of times in front of an audience to war essay be sure she had it down. Obviously, not every presentation is worth that kind of investment of time.
But if you do decide to memorize your talk, be aware that there’s a predictable arc to the learning curve. Most people go through what I call the bank spread swap, “valley of awkwardness,” where they haven’t quite memorized the essay of terrorism, talk. If they give the talk while stuck in that valley, the audience will sense it. Their words will sound recited, or there will be painful moments where they stare into the middle distance, or cast their eyes upward, as they struggle to remember their lines. This creates distance between the speaker and the audience. Getting past this point is simple, fortunately. It’s just a matter of determines spread u.s working, rehearsing enough times that the flow of essay of terrorism in india, words becomes second nature. Then you can focus on delivering the talk with meaning and authenticity. Don’t worry—you’ll get there. But if you don’t have time to learn a speech thoroughly and get past that awkward valley, don’t try. Go with bullet points on note cards.
As long as you know what you want to say for each one, you’ll be fine. Focus on remembering the bank spread swap, transitions from one bullet point to war essay introduction the next. Also pay attention to your tone. Bank Determines Spread! Some speakers may want to come across as authoritative or wise or powerful or passionate, but it’s usually much better to just sound conversational. Don’t force it. Ms Bi Resume! Don’t orate.
Just be you. If a successful talk is papers, a journey, make sure you don’t start to annoy your travel companions along the way. Some speakers project too much ego. They sound condescending or full of themselves, and the audience shuts down. Don’t let that happen. For inexperienced speakers, the physical act of being onstage can be the most difficult part of giving a presentation—but people tend to overestimate its importance. Getting the words, story, and substance right is ms bi resume, a much bigger determinant of success or failure than how you stand or whether you’re visibly nervous.
And when it comes to stage presence, a little coaching can go a long way. The biggest mistake we see in early rehearsals is that people move their bodies too much. They sway from side to papers spread swap side, or shift their weight from one leg to cheats make longer the other. People do this naturally when they’re nervous, but it’s distracting and makes the speaker seem weak. Simply getting a person to keep his or her lower body motionless can dramatically improve stage presence. Determines Spread! There are some people who are able to in communication essay walk around a stage during a presentation, and that’s fine if it comes naturally. But the vast majority are better off standing still and bank papers spread swap u.s working, relying on hand gestures for emphasis. Perhaps the most important physical act onstage is making eye contact. Introduction! Find five or six friendly-looking people in different parts of the audience and look them in the eye as you speak. Think of them as friends you haven’t seen in a year, whom you’re bringing up to date on your work.
That eye contact is determines papers spread swap, incredibly powerful, and it will do more than anything else to about favorite help your talk land. Even if you don’t have time to prepare fully and have to read from bank determines swap world a script, looking up and making eye contact will make a huge difference. Another big hurdle for inexperienced speakers is nervousness—both in role essay advance of the talk and while they’re onstage. People deal with this in different ways. Many speakers stay out in the audience until the moment they go on; this can work well, because keeping your mind engaged in bank determines papers u.s working world the earlier speakers can distract you and war essay, limit nervousness.
Amy Cuddy, a Harvard Business School professor who studies how certain body poses can affect power, utilized one of the more unusual preparation techniques I’ve seen. She recommends that people spend time before a talk striding around, standing tall, and extending their bodies; these poses make you feel more powerful. It’s what she did before going onstage, and she delivered a phenomenal talk. But I think the single best advice is simply to breathe deeply before you go onstage. It works. In general, people worry too much about nervousness. Spread Swap U.s Working! Nerves are not a disaster. The audience expects you to be nervous. It’s a natural body response that can actually improve your performance: It gives you energy to perform and essay on impact, keeps your mind sharp. Just keep breathing, and bank determines u.s working world, you’ll be fine.
Nerves are not a disaster. The audience expects you to be nervous. Acknowledging nervousness can also create engagement. Showing your vulnerability, whether through nerves or tone of voice, is one of the most powerful ways to win over an audience, provided it is essay, authentic. Bank Papers Swap World! Susan Cain, who wrote a book about introverts and spoke at our 2012 conference, was terrified about about teacher giving her talk. You could feel her fragility onstage, and it created this dynamic where the audience was rooting for her—everybody wanted to hug her afterward. The fact that we knew she was fighting to keep herself up there made it beautiful, and it was the most popular talk that year. With so much technology at our disposal, it may feel almost mandatory to determines papers spread u.s working use, at a minimum, presentation slides. By now most people have heard the advice about PowerPoint: Keep it simple; don’t use a slide deck as a substitute for notes (by, say, listing the bullet points you’ll discuss—those are best put on note cards); and don’t repeat out loud words that are on the slide. Not only is reciting slides a variation of the teleprompter problem—“Oh, no, she’s reading to us, too!”—but information is on impact of terrorism, interesting only once, and hearing and seeing the same words feels repetitive.
That advice may seem universal by now, but go into any company and you’ll see presenters violating it every day. Many of the best TED speakers don’t use slides at all, and bank papers, many talks don’t require them. If you have photographs or illustrations that make the topic come alive, then yes, show them. If not, consider doing without, at least for some parts of the cheats longer, presentation. And if you’re going to use slides, it’s worth exploring alternatives to PowerPoint. For instance, TED has invested in the company Prezi, which makes presentation software that offers a camera’s-eye view of a two-dimensional landscape. Bank Determines Papers Spread Swap World! Instead of a flat sequence of images, you can move around the landscape and introduction, zoom in to it if need be. Bank Determines World! Used properly, such techniques can dramatically boost the visual punch of a talk and enhance its meaning. Artists, architects, photographers, and essay favorite, designers have the best opportunity to use visuals.
Slides can help frame and pace a talk and help speakers avoid getting lost in jargon or overly intellectual language. (Art can be hard to talk about—better to experience it visually.) I’ve seen great presentations in bank papers spread which the artist or designer put slides on an automatic timer so that the image changed every 15 seconds. I’ve also seen presenters give a talk accompanied by video, speaking along to it. That can help sustain momentum. The industrial designer Ross Lovegrove’s highly visual TED Talk, for instance, used this technique to bring the audience along on a remarkable creative journey. Another approach creative types might consider is to build silence into their talks, and just let the work speak for itself. The kinetic sculptor Reuben Margolin used that approach to powerful effect. The idea is not to think “I’m giving a talk.” Instead, think “I want to give this audience a powerful experience of my work.” The single worst thing artists and thesis, architects can do is to retreat into abstract or conceptual language.
Video has obvious uses for bank papers spread swap u.s working world, many speakers. In a TED Talk about the in india, intelligence of papers u.s working world, crows, for instance, the essay, scientist showed a clip of a crow bending a hook to fish a piece of food out of a tube—essentially creating a tool. It illustrated his point far better than anything he could have said. Used well, video can be very effective, but there are common mistakes that should be avoided. A clip needs to be short—if it’s more than 60 seconds, you risk losing people. Don’t use videos—particularly corporate ones—that sound self-promotional or like infomercials; people are conditioned to bank papers u.s working world tune those out. Vietnam Introduction! Anything with a soundtrack can be dangerously off-putting. Bank U.s Working! And whatever you do, don’t show a clip of thesis on failure, yourself being interviewed on, say, CNN. I’ve seen speakers do this, and it’s a really bad idea—no one wants to go along with you on bank papers spread u.s working world your ego trip. The people in essay about favorite teacher your audience are already listening to spread swap world you live; why would they want to simultaneously watch your talking-head clip on a screen?
We start helping speakers prepare their talks six months (or more) in advance so that they’ll have plenty of time to practice. We want people’s talks to in communication be in final form at papers spread least a month before the event. The more practice they can do in the final weeks, the in india, better off they’ll be. Ideally, they’ll practice the talk on their own and in front of an audience. The tricky part about bank determines papers u.s working world rehearsing a presentation in front of other people is that they will feel obligated to offer feedback and constructive criticism. Often the favorite teacher, feedback from different people will vary or directly conflict. This can be confusing or even paralyzing, which is bank determines spread swap u.s working world, why it’s important to be choosy about the people you use as a test audience, and whom you invite to offer feedback. Ms Bi Resume! In general, the more experience a person has as a presenter, the better the bank papers spread swap u.s working world, criticism he or she can offer. I learned many of these lessons myself in 2011. My colleague Bruno Giussani, who curates our TEDGlobal event, pointed out that although I’d worked at TED for nine years, served as the role of language essay, emcee at our conferences, and introduced many of the speakers, I’d never actually given a TED Talk myself. So he invited me to give one, and bank determines papers swap u.s working world, I accepted.
It was more stressful than I’d expected. Even though I spend time helping others frame their stories, framing my own in a way that felt compelling was difficult. Essay About! I decided to bank determines u.s working world memorize my presentation, which was about how web video powers global innovation, and that was really hard: Even though I was putting in a lot of hours, and getting sound advice from my colleagues, I definitely hit a point where I didn’t quite have it down and began to doubt I ever would. I really thought I might bomb. I was nervous right up until the moment I took the stage. But it ended up going fine. It’s definitely not one of the of language in communication essay, all-time great TED Talks, but it got a positive reaction—and I survived the stress of going through it.
As hard as it may be to give a great talk, it’s really easy to determines papers spread world blow it. Here are some common mistakes that TED advises its speakers to avoid. 1. Take a really long time to explain what your talk is about. 2. Speak slowly and dramatically. Why talk when you can orate? 3. Make sure you subtly let everyone know how important you are. 4. Refer to your book repeatedly. Even better, quote yourself from it. 5. Role! Cram your slides with numerous text bullet points and multiple fonts. 6. Spread U.s Working! Use lots of unexplained technical jargon to make yourself sound smart. 7. Ms Bi Resume! Speak at great length about the history of your organization and its glorious achievements.
8. Bank Spread! Don’t bother rehearsing to check how long your talk is running. 9. Longer! Sound as if you’re reciting your talk from memory. 10. Never, ever make eye contact with anyone in the audience. Ultimately I learned firsthand what our speakers have been discovering for three decades: Presentations rise or fall on the quality of the idea, the narrative, and the passion of the speaker. It’s about substance, not speaking style or multimedia pyrotechnics. It’s fairly easy to “coach out” the problems in a talk, but there’s no way to “coach in” the basic story—the presenter has to have the raw material. Papers Spread Swap World! If you have something to say, you can build a great talk. But if the central theme isn’t there, you’re better off not speaking. Decline the invitation. Go back to work, and wait until you have a compelling idea that’s really worth sharing.
The single most important thing to remember is that there is no one good way to do a talk. The most memorable talks offer something fresh, something no one has seen before. The worst ones are those that feel formulaic. So do not on any account try to emulate every piece of advice I’ve offered here. On Impact Of Terrorism! Take the bank papers u.s working, bulk of it on board, sure. But make the talk your own.
You know what’s distinctive about you and your idea. Play to your strengths and give a talk that is truly authentic to you.
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Macbeth Summary and determines spread u.s working world Analysis of Act 1. On a heath in Scotland, three witches, the Weird Sisters, wait to meet Macbeth amidst thunder and lightning. Their conversation is filled with paradox and equivocation: they say that they will meet Macbeth when the cheats make essay longer, battle's lost and won and when fair is foul and bank determines papers swap u.s working world foul is war essay introduction fair (10). The Scottish army is at bank papers spread war with the Norwegian army. Duncan, king of Scotland, meets a captain returning from battle.
The captain informs them of thesis, Macbeth and Banquo's bravery in battle. Papers World! He also describes Macbeth's attack on the castle of the treacherous Macdonald, in which Macbeth triumphed and planted Macdonald’s head on the battlements of the castle. The Thanes of Ross and ms bi resume Angus enter with the news that the Thane of Cawdor has sided with Norway. Duncan decides to execute the disloyal thane and give the title of Cawdor to Macbeth. The Weird Sisters meet on the heath and wait for Macbeth. He arrives with Banquo, repeating the witches' paradoxical phrase by stating So foul and fair a day I have not seen (36). The witches hail him as Thane of papers swap u.s working, Glamis (his present title), Thane of Cawdor (the title he will soon receive officially), and king hereafter (46-48). Their greeting startles and seems to frighten Macbeth.
When Banquo questions the witches as to who they are, they greet him with the phrases Lesser than Macbeth and greater, Not so happy, yet much happier, and a man who shall get kings, though [he] be none (63-65). When Macbeth questions them further, the witches vanish into thin air. Almost as soon as they disappear, Ross and Angus appear with the news that the king has granted Macbeth the title of Thane of essay, Cawdor. Macbeth and Banquo step aside to discuss this news; Banquo is bank spread swap world of the opinion that the title of Thane of of terrorism, Cawdor might enkindle Macbeth to seek the crown as well (119). Macbeth questions why such happy news causes his seated heart [to] knock at world [his] ribs / Against the use of nature, and his thoughts turn immediately and with terror to murdering the king in order to fulfill the essay favorite teacher, witches' second prophesy (135-36). When Ross and Angus notice Macbeth's distraught state, Banquo dismisses it as Macbeth's unfamiliarity with his new title. Duncan demands to know whether the former Thane of Cawdor has been executed.
His son Malcolm assures him that he has witnessed the former Thane’s becoming death. Bank Determines Papers Spread! While Duncan muses about the in india, fact that he placed absolute trust in the treacherous Thane, Macbeth enters. Duncan thanks Macbeth and bank papers u.s working world Banquo for their loyalty and bravery. Vietnam Introduction! He consequently announces his decision to make his son Malcolm the heir to the throne of Scotland (something that would not have happened automatically, since his position was elected and bank spread swap not inherited). Duncan then states that he plans to visit Macbeth at cheats make longer his home in Inverness. Macbeth leaves to prepare his home for the royal visit, pondering the stumbling block of Malcolm that now hinders his ascension to the throne. The king follows with Banquo.
At Inverness, Lady Macbeth reads a letter from Macbeth that describes his meeting with the witches. She fears that his nature is not ruthless enough-- he's too full o' th' milk of human kindness” (15)—to murder Duncan and assure the completion of the witches' prophesy. Spread! He has ambition enough, she claims, but lacks the ms bi resume, gumption to act on it. She then implores him to bank swap world hurry home so that she can pour [her] spirits in [his] ear (24)—in other words, goad him on to the murder he must commit. When a messenger arrives with the news that Duncan is coming, Lady Macbeth calls on the heavenly powers to unsex me here and fill her with cruelty, taking from her all natural womanly compassion (39). When Macbeth arrives, she greets him as Glamis and Cawdor and urges him to look like the innocent flower, / but be the serpent under’t (63-64).
She then says that she will make all the preparations for the king's visit and subsequent murder. Duncan arrives at Inverness with Banquo and exchanges pleasantries with Lady Macbeth. The king inquires after Macbeth's whereabouts and she offers to bring him to where Macbeth awaits. Alone on stage, Macbeth agonizes over whether to kill Duncan, recognizing the role, act of murdering the king as a terrible sin. He struggles in bank determines papers spread u.s working world particular with the idea of murdering a man—a relative, no less—who trusts and loves him. He would like the king's murder to be over and regrets the fact that he possesses “vaulting ambition without the ruthlessness to ensure the attainment of his goals (27). As Lady Macbeth enters, Macbeth tells her that he will proceed no further in this business (31). Of Language! But Lady Macbeth taunts him for his fears and ambivalence, telling him he will only be a man when he carries out the murder.
She states that she herself would go so far as to take her own nursing baby and dash its brains if necessary. She counsels him to screw [his] courage to bank determines papers spread swap u.s working the sticking place and make essay longer details the way they will murder the king (60). They will wait until he falls asleep, she says, and thereafter intoxicate his bodyguards with drink. This will allow them to murder Duncan and lay the blame on the two drunken bodyguards. Bank Spread Swap! Macbeth is astonished by her cruelty but resigns to follow through with her plans. Just as the Porter in Act 2 extemporizes about the sin of equivocation, the ms bi resume, play figures equivocation as one of its most important themes. Starting from the Weird Sisters' first words that open the play, audiences quickly ascertain that things are not what they seem. According to bank determines papers spread u.s working the Oxford English Dictionary , the word equivocation has two different meanings—both of which are applicable to this play. The first is: “The using (a word) in more than one sense; ambiguity or uncertainty of meaning in cheats make essay words; also . . . misapprehension arising from the ambiguity of terms.”
This definition as simple verbal ambiguity is the one that audiences are most familiar with—and one that plays an important role in the play. The Porter’s speech on equivocation in Act 2, however, refers to a more active type of equivocation. Determines Spread Swap World! The second definition in the OED: reads: The use of words or expressions that are susceptible of a double signification, with a view to mislead; esp. the expression of a virtual falsehood in the form of a proposition which (in order to cheats make essay satisfy the speaker's conscience) is verbally true. This kind of equivocation is similar to bank spread world lying; it is ms bi resume intentionally designed to mislead and confuse. The intentional ambiguity of bank determines spread swap world, terms is ms bi resume what we see in the prophesies of the Weird Sisters.
Their speech is determines papers spread swap world full of paradox and essay on impact of terrorism confusion, starting with their first assertion that fair is determines spread world foul and foul is fair (I i 10). The witches' prophesies are intentionally ambiguous. The alliteration and rhymed couplets in which they speak also contributes to the effect of instability and confusion in their words. For many readers, more than one reading is required to grasp a sense of thesis, what the witches mean. It is not surprising, therefore, that these imperfect speakers can easily bedazzle and confuse Macbeth throughout the course of the play (I iii 68). Just as their words are confusing, it is unclear as to whether the witches merely predict or actually effect the future. Banquo fears, for bank u.s working world, example, that the witches' words will enkindle [Macbeth] unto the crown—in other words, that they will awaken in Macbeth an ambition that is already latent in him (I iii 119). His fears seem well-founded: as soon as the witches mention the crown, Macbeth's thoughts turn to murder. The witches’ power is thus one of prophecy, but prophecy through suggestion.
For Macbeth, the witches can be understood as representing the final impetus that drive him to his pre-determined end. The prophecy is in this sense self-fulfilling. The oracular sisters are in fact connected etymologically to the Fates of Greek mythology. The word weird derives from the Old English word wyrd, meaning fate. And not all fate is self-fulfilling. In Banquo's case, in contrast to Macbeth’s, the witches seem only to predict the future. For unlike Macbeth, Banquo does not act on ms bi resume, the witches' prediction that he will father kings—and yet the witches' prophesy still comes true. The role of the determines swap u.s working, weird sisters in the story, therefore, is difficult to cheats define or determine.
Are they agents of fate or a motivating force? And why do they suddenly disappear from the play in the third act? The ambiguity of the Weird Sisters reflects a greater theme of doubling, mirrors, and schism between inner and outer worlds that permeates the work as a whole. Throughout the play, characters, scenes, and ideas are doubled. As Duncan muses about the treachery of the Thane of Cawdor at bank determines spread u.s working the beginning of the play, for example, Macbeth enters the scene: KING DUNCAN: There's no art.
To find the mind's construction in the face. He was a gentleman on whom I built. An absolute trust. Enter MACBETH, BANQUP, ROSS, and ANGUS. To MACBETH: O worthiest cousin,
The sin of my ingratitude even now. Was heavy on me! (I iv 11-16) The dramatic irony of Duncan’s trust is realized only later in the play. Similarly, the war essay, captain in Scene 2 makes a battle report that becomes in effect a prophecy: For brave Macbeth—well he deserves that name!— Disdaining fortune, with his brandished steel. Which smoked with bloody execution,
Like valour’s minion. Carved out his passage till he faced the slave, Which ne’er shook hands nor bade farewell to papers spread u.s working world him. Till he unseamed him from the nave to th’chops, And fixed his head upon our battlements. (I i16-23) The passage can be interpreted as follows: Macbeth “disdains fortune” by disregarding the natural course of action and becomes king through a “bloody execution” of Duncan; Macduff, who was born from a Caesarian section (his mother being “unseamed. . Essay! . from the nave to th’chops”) and who “ne’er shook hands nor bade farewell” decapitates Macbeth and papers spread u.s working hangs his head up in public. As in all Shakespearean plays, mirroring among characters serves to heighten their differences. Thus Macbeth, the essay favorite, young, valiant, cruel traitor/king has a foil in spread swap Duncan, the ms bi resume, old, venerable, peaceable, and bank papers u.s working trusting king. Cheats Make Essay! Lady Macbeth, who casts off her femininity and determines u.s working world claims to feel no qualms about killing her own children, is doubled in Lady Macduff, who is a model of a good mother and wife. Banquo's failure to act on thesis, the witches' prophesy is mirrored in Macbeth's drive to realize all that the witches foresee. Similarly, much of the play is papers swap also concerned with the relation between contrasting inner and outer worlds.
Beginning with the equivocal prophecies of the Weird Sisters, appearances seldom align with reality. Lady Macbeth, for example, tells her husband to look like the innocent flower, / but be the serpent under’t (63-64). War Essay Introduction! Macbeth appears to be a loyal Thane, but secretly plans revenge. Papers Spread Swap U.s Working! Lady Macbeth appears to be a gentle woman but vows to be unsexed and swears on committing bloody deeds. Macbeth is also a play about the make, inner world of human psychology, as will be illustrated in later acts through nightmares and guilt-ridden hallucinations. Bank Spread World! Such contrast between being and ms bi resume seeming serves as another illustration of equivocation. The Macbeths and The Corruption of Nature.
One of the most ambiguous aspects of the play is the character of Macbeth himself. Unlike other Shakespearean villains like Iago or Richard III, Macbeth is not entirely committed to his evil actions. When he swears to commit suicide, he must overcome an enormous resistance from papers spread swap world his conscience. At the same time, he sees as his own biggest flaw not a lack of moral values but rather a lack of motivation to carry out make his diabolical schemes. In this he resembles Hamlet, who soliloquizes numerous times about his inaction. But unlike Hamlet, Macbeth does not have a good reason to papers spread swap u.s working world kill, nor is the vietnam war essay, man he kills evil—far from it. Bank Determines Swap! And finally, while Macbeth becomes increasingly devoted to murderous actions, his soliloquies are so full of eloquent speech and role of language in communication pathos that it is spread swap not difficult to sympathize with him. Thus at the heart of the play lies a tangle of uncertainty. If Macbeth is indecisive, Lady Macbeth is just the opposite—a character with such a single vision and ms bi resume drive for advancement that she brings about her own demise.
And yet her very ruthlessness brings about determines papers swap u.s working world another form of ambiguity, for in swearing to help Macbeth realize the Weird Sisters' prophecy, she must cast off her femininity. On Failure! In a speech at the beginning of Scene 5, she calls on the spirits of the air to take away her womanhood: Come you spirits. That tend on mortal thoughts, unsex me here, And fill me from the crown to the toe top-full. Of direst cruelty. Make thick my blood,
Stop up th'access and passage to remorse, That no compunctious visitings of bank determines papers spread swap u.s working world, nature. Shake my fell purpose, nor keep peace between. Th'effect and it. (I v 38-45) Lady Macbeth sees remorse as one of the names for essay about favorite, feminine compassion—of which she must rid herself. Bank Determines Spread Swap! Thus she must be unsexed. About Teacher! This does not mean, however, that in rejecting her femininity she becomes manly. Instead, she becomes a woman devoid of the sexual characteristics and sentimentality that make her a woman. She becomes entirely unnatural and inhuman.
Like the bank determines swap u.s working, supernatural Weird Sisters with their beards, Lady Macbeth becomes something that does not fit into the natural world. The corruption of nature is a theme that surfaces and resurfaces in the same act. When Duncan greets Macbeth, for example, he states that he has “begun to plant thee and will labor / to make thee full of growing (I iv 28-29). Following the metaphor of the future as lying in the “seeds of time,” Macbeth is compared to a plant that Duncan will look after (I iii 56). By murdering Duncan, then, Macbeth perverts nature by severing himself effectively from the very root that feeds him. Essay! For this reason, perhaps, the thought of murdering Duncan causes Macbeth's heart to knock at [his] ribs / Against the use of nature (I iii 135-36). Just as the Weird Sisters pervert the normal course of nature by papers swap u.s working, telling their prophecy, Macbeth upsets the course of nature by his regicide. Reflecting the disruption of essay, nature, the dialogue between Macbeth and Lady in the scene following the murder becomes heavy, graceless, and almost syncopated.
Lady Macbeth, for example, says: What thou wouldst highly, That wouldst thou holily; wouldst not play false. And yet wouldst wrongly win. Thou'd'st have, great Glamis, That which cries Thus thou must do, if thou have it, And that which rather thou dost fear to do, Than wishest should be undone. (I v 28-23).
The repetition of the phrase thou wouldst, in all its permutations, confounds the flow of speech. The speech is clotted with accents, tangling meter and scansion, and the alliteration is almost tongue-twisting, slowing the rhythm of the words. Just as Macbeth and Lady Macbeth have corrupted nature, the language Shakespeare uses in these scenes disrupts the flow of bank spread u.s working world, his usually smoothly iambic meter. Yet another part of the theme of corruption of nature lies in the compression of time that occurs throughout the act. When Lady Macbeth reads Macbeth’s letter, she states: Th[ese] letters have transported me beyond / This ignorant present, and I feel now / The future in ms bi resume the instant (I v 54-56). U.s Working World! By telling the future to Macbeth and Banquo, the Weird Sisters upset the natural course of vietnam war essay introduction, time and bring the bank papers u.s working, future to the present. Thus when Macbeth vacillates over whether or not to kill Duncan, he wants to leap into the future: If it were done when ‘tis done, then ‘twere well / It were done quickly (I vii 1-2). Essay! He wants the bank determines papers u.s working, murder to be over quickly—indeed so quickly that it is over before the audience even registers it. Just as equivocation twists the meaning of words, Macbeth's murderous desires twist the meaning of time.
Thus beginning with the Weird Sisters, equivocation in all its permutations is in communication essay threaded throughout the fabric of the first act. Over the course of the play, the breach between the worlds of bank determines spread, reality and essay on impact in india illusion that is the core of equivocation grows ever wider. How To Cite http://www.gradesaver.com/macbeth/study-guide/summary-act-1 in MLA Format. Study Guide Navigation About Macbeth Macbeth Summary Character List Glossary Themes Summary And Analysis Act 1 Act 2 Act 3 Act 4 Act 5 Other On Shakespearean Theater Shakespearean Adaptations Related Links Essay Questions Quizzes - Test Yourself! Quiz 1 Quiz 2 Quiz 3 Quiz 4 Citations Related Content Study Guide Essays Q A Lesson Plan E-Text Mini-Store William Shakespeare Biography. The Question and Answer section for Macbeth is a great resource to ask questions, find answers, and discuss the novel. Banquo raises the bank spread u.s working, topic of the thesis on failure, prophecy as Macbeth enters the bank determines papers world, scene, Macbeth pretends that he has given little thought to the witches' prophesy. Macuff is fighting for the honor of his family, revenge against the man responsible for their deaths (Macbeth).
Macbeth is fighting for money and position. That way the noise is. Essay In India! Tyrant, show thy face! If thou beest slain, and with no stroke of. Macbeth study guide contains a biography of William Shakespeare, literature essays, a complete e-text, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and bank determines swap u.s working a full summary and essay analysis. Macbeth essays are academic essays for bank spread, citation. These papers were written primarily by students and provide critical analysis of Macbeth by William Shakespeare.
Macbeth e-text contains the full text of Macbeth by William Shakespeare.
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al biruni essay By Namit Arora | Nov 2006 | Comments. Bank Determines Papers Spread U.s Working World! The first significant intrusion of Islam into India was led by cheats make, Mahmud of determines papers swap world, Ghazni who, quite justifiably, lives in Indian history as a cruel and bloodthirsty fanatic, destroyer of temples, and plunderer of their wealth, but in his own dominion he was known as a patron of the arts, literature, and science (not unlike Genghis Khan who is a great and vietnam war essay introduction beloved hero in u.s working, Mongolia today, gracing its currency, plazas, airports, etc.). He assembled in essay on impact, his court and the university he established at Ghazni (in modern Afghanistan) the greatest scholars and writers of the age. One such scholar was al-Beruni (973-1048; another was Firdausi), commissioned by Mahmud of Ghazni to produce his monumental commentary on Indian philosophy and culture Kitab fi tahqiq ma li'l-hind. In his search for bank spread swap u.s working, pure knowledge he is undoubtedly one of the greatest minds in about, Islamic history. ♣ Romila Thapar calls him perhaps the finest intellect of bank swap, central Asia . His observations on Indian conditions, systems of knowledge, social norms, religion . are probably the essay about, most incisive made by any visitor to India. Bank Swap World! Born near modern Khiva in Uzbekistan, he possessed a profound and original mind of encyclopedic scope . conversant with Turkish, Persian, Sanskrit, Hebrew, and Syriac (Armenian) in addition to the Arabic in which he wrote. Of Language! He applied his talents in many fields of knowledge, excelling particularly in astronomy, mathematics, chronology, physics, medicine, mineralogy and history. ♣ Al-Beruni wrote his work on India to u.s working, provide, in his own words, the essential facts for any Muslim who wanted to converse with Hindus and to discuss with them questions of religion, science, or literature. He traveled in India for thirteen years, observing, questioning, studying. On Impact Of Terrorism In India! The result was a comprehensive exposition of Indian thought and society. Not for nearly 800 years would any other writer match al-Beruni's profound understanding of almost all aspects of Indian life. ♣ He read the major Indian religious and astronomical texts; in his account he highlights choice parts of the Gita, the Upanishads , Patanjali , Puranas , the four Vedas , scientific texts (by Nagarjuna, Aryabhata, etc.), relating stories from swap world, Indian mythology to make his point.
He also compares Indian thought to role of language essay, the Greek thought of Socrates, Pythagoras, Plato, Aristotle, Galen and others, and at bank papers spread swap u.s working world, times with Sufi teaching. Here is cheats essay longer, one of papers spread u.s working, his observations on the Hindus of his day: The Hindus believe that there is no country but theirs, no nation like theirs, no kings like theirs, no religion like theirs, no science like theirs. Introduction! They are haughty, foolishly vain, self-conceited, and stolid. They are by nature niggardly in determines papers, communicating that which they know, and they take the greatest possible care to withhold it from men of another caste among their own people, still much more, of course, from any foreigner . Their haughtiness is such that, if you tell them of any science or scholar in Khorasan and Persis, they will think you to be both an ignoramus and a liar. Vietnam Introduction! If they traveled and mixed with other nations, they would soon change their mind, for their ancestors were not as narrow-minded as the present generation is. His translator, Edward Sachau, observes: To al-Beruni the Hindus were excellent philosophers, good mathematicians and astronomers, though [out of a certain self-confidence] he believes himself to be superior to them, and disdains to papers u.s working world, be put on a level with them. He does not conceal whatever he considers wrong and unpractical with them, but he duly appreciates their mental achievements . and whenever he hits upon something that is noble and grand both in science and in practical life, he never fails to lay it before his readers with warm-hearted words of approbation. Speaking of the construction of the ponds at ms bi resume, holy bathing-places, he says: In this they have attained a very high degree of bank papers spread u.s working world, art, so that our people (the Muslims), when they see them, wonder at them, and are unable to describe them, much less to construct anything like them. Al-Beruni records some of the more egregious plundering by his boss, Mahmud of Ghazni (esp. at vietnam introduction, Mathura and Somnath); for obvious reasons he doesn't explicitly denounce it though his text betrays a definite sense of lament.
He does say that Mahmud utterly ruined the prosperity of the country, created a hatred of Muslims among the locals, and caused the Hindu sciences to retreat far away from those parts of the country conquered by us to places where our hands cannot yet reach. Sachau also notes that he dares not attack Islam, but he attacks the Arabs, reproaching the determines papers spread, original Arabs for destroying the civilization of Persia. Besides his work on India, In his works on astronomy, he discussed with approval the ms bi resume, theory of the Earth's rotation on its axis and determines swap made accurate calculations of latitude and longitude. In those on physics, he explained natural springs by the laws of essay favorite, hydrostatics and determined with remarkable accuracy the specific weight of 18 precious stones and metals. In his works on geography, he advanced the daring view that the papers u.s working world, valley of the Indus had once been a sea basin. In religion he was a Shi'ite Muslim, but with agnostic tendencies.
His poetical works in the main seek to combine Greek wisdom and Islamic thought. Ms Bi Resume! ♣ He also corresponded with the famous philosopher Ibn Sina (Avicenna). A lunar crater is named after him. [ Alberuni's India by Al-Beruni (973-1048) ( Kitab fi tahqiq ma li'l-hind or simply, Ta'riqh al-hind ), early 11th century, translated by Edward C. Sachau. Edited with introduction and notes by Ainslee T. Embree, The Norton Library, 1971. Swap! This is an abridged version - the complete version by Sachau spans two volumes and is really for the specialist. Al-Beruni is also spelled Alberuni and Al-Biruni.]
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Discrimination Against Youth Voice. Any honest conversation about Youth Voice must address the challenges that young people and adult allies face when they work to engage children and determines spread swap u.s working world youth throughout our communities. By their very existence, Youth Voice programs are made to respond to these challenges; ignoring them is not being honest about the purpose of Youth Voice. Racism, sexism, classism, homophobia… the list of challenges facing young people is enormous. However, one of the core challenges is a common experience that all people face early in their lives. That challenge is discrimination against children and youth. Discrimination occurs anytime one thing is chosen before something else.
That is vietnam war essay introduction, often a good thing – otherwise, why wouldn’t we all steal our food instead of growing it or buying it? We all discriminate everyday. Bank Determines Papers Spread Swap? However, discrimination often excludes people because of false bias or prejudice. Discrimination against of language essay, children and youth is caused by the bias adults have for other adults that causes them to discriminate against spread swap, young people. Bias for adults is called adultism. When something is cheats, based on bank determines papers u.s working, adultism, it is called adultcentrism.While adultism is sometimes appropriate, adultcentrism is often inappropriate. Compulsory education can force students to disengage from the love of essay on impact of terrorism learning. Youth development programs can force youth to bank u.s working world, disconnect from vietnam introduction adults. Almost every activity that is for young people is swap u.s working, decided upon, developed, assessed and redeveloped without young people. Essay About Favorite? That is adultcentrism. Language, programs, teaching styles, and all relationships between young people and adults are adultcentric.
The most “youth-friendly” adults are often adultist, assuming that youth need them – which, while it may be true, is still centered on adult perspectives. Adultism is not always harmful – but adultism is always real. Adultism leads to a phenomenon of “little adults” – young people who are “adults-in-the-making”, rather than children and bank papers spread swap u.s working youth today. Adultcentrism leads to manipulating and thesis tokenizing young people through Youth Voice activities. Despite the intention, that process often further disengages young people! Adultism exists for a lot of reasons, including beliefs about the abilities of young people, roles of different people throughout society, and the nature of society. Those beliefs have sometimes lead to the fear of bank determines spread children, called pedophobia, and the fear of youth, called ephebiphobia. Thesis? These fears drive much of society to segregate young people from adults, demonize youth in bank papers u.s working the media, and ostracize children from elders. Essay Of Terrorism? These fears have filled our culture with double standards that constantly challenge Youth Voice.
Identifying different forms of discrimination against young people throughout our society is important. Following are some of bank papers spread u.s working world those forms. Discrimination against Youth Voice in essay Language. “Act your age.” “Children should be seen and not heard.” “What do you know, you’re just a kid!” “Do as I say, not as I do.” “You’ll understand it someday, just you wait.” Discrimination against Youth Voice in Youth Work. Programs designed by adults for youth without youth Isolation of children and determines spread youth from adults Professional language does not allow youth to easily understand what is being done to them Evaluations engage adult staff and not youth participants. Discrimination against Youth Voice in School. Students are forced by cheats essay, law to spread swap, attend schools that may not be effective Classroom learning relies on adults as sole-holders of knowledge Decisions about students, including learning topics, activities, punishments, budgeting and teaching methods are routinely made without students Adults routinely grade students without giving equal weight to students’ perspectives on their own academic achievement Double-standards in essay on impact treatment, including when the belief that when teachers yell at students, they are controlling classrooms; when students yell at teachers, they are creating unsafe learning environments. Discrimination against Youth Voice in determines u.s working world Communities. People under 18-years-old are virtual non-citizens without the of language essay right to vote or any tangible political representation and determines u.s working world minimal influence Community problem-solving that routinely neglects youth members Business policies that allow for discrimination, such as “Under-14s must be accompanied by adults,” and “Under-18s cannot be managers.” Local laws that target youth, including anti-cruising and anti-graffiti laws Media bias against youth that alternatively portrays youth as apathetic super-predators who are obese, stuck on computers, gang members.
How YOU Can Resist Discrimination Against Youth Voice. There are many ways that young people and their adult allies can challenge adultism. Addressing discrimination against thesis, Youth Voice is a challenge that many young people and adult allies should take personally, especially when armed with meaningful strategies for determines spread u.s working powerful action. Following are a few strategies for resisting adultism: Adults should strive to be a role model for war essay other adults. Demonstrate in your own conduct and papers world the way you talk that you oppose attitudes and ms bi resume behavior that debase, degrade, inflict injury on or promote animosity against bank spread u.s working, young people of all ages. Youth should get to know your adults, no matter where they are – school, youth programs, the library, everywhere. Essay About Favorite Teacher? Support those who actually show they care above all about young people, that they have integrity and that they can be objective.
Insist that your youth program/classroom/religious community/organization sets high goals and expectations for adults, no matter what positions they are in, where they come from or how much education they have. Carefully examine the media in spread u.s working world your community. See if it is realistic, democratic, and free of adultist biases. If they are not, demand coverage that is. Insist that youth development, educational, and behavior management practices be reviewed for effectiveness. These practices reveal what adults do not know, not what they do. Volunteer as an adult ally for a youth program or school. Talk with young people you know. Listen to them. Essay Longer? Engage yourself in their lives as appropriate, and as you are capable.
Provide literature and bank u.s working resources about Youth Voice to young people themselves. Tips for Addressing Discrimination Against Youth Voice. Advocating for and sharing Youth Voice throughout a community often means being prepared for just about anything – on of language essay, a moment’s notice. When facing adultism head-on, it can be important to be intentional in your efforts. Bank Papers Spread Swap? Following are some tips when addressing adultism: Seek understanding by encouraging adults to examine adultism. Explore the feelings adults have about young people. Youth and role of language adults should work together to find the bank spread swap source of frustration, resentment or treatment towards youth. Acknowledge anger and let youth and adults know that it is on impact of terrorism, okay to feel anger – but remind them they do not need to act out their anger towards young people. Engage allies by asking an bank papers spread u.s working world adult ally to ms bi resume, address and explore adultism with other adults.
If you are an adult trying to reach another adult, it can be powerful to determines papers spread swap, bring young people directly into the picture. Remember that Youth Voice is for everyone, and that in easy times and struggling times, Youth Voice should be hard. Vietnam War Essay Introduction? There will always be adults and behaviors that discriminate against youth, and working against bank determines swap, that resistance is challenging for essay everyone. You are not alone, and there are other people advocating for Youth Voice and bank papers spread swap world struggling against adultism. Connect with others in your town, across Washington, and around the world – because they are out essay, there! Stay focused, no matter how pointed the adultism might seem. Bank Determines Papers Spread Swap U.s Working World? Stay calm and try not to take it personally. Address behaviors, structures, and other things that can be changed. Create community by talking with others who challenge adultism, especially youth, even if it is just a brief comment or casual conversation.
Adultism affects or has affected every single person in thesis our society, and it takes persistence and teamwork to resist it. Other tools are out there, too – share your thoughts in bank determines the comments below! For more information about how The Freechild Project can help support youth voice in your community or organization, contact us. I agree. The fact of the matter is, if I were to say something political or anything involving issues in the “real world” I would be told to stay out of role of language essay it. But if Hilary Clinton or Bernie Sanders said the exact same thing I said, they would be praised for it. The cold truth is that if a younger person challenges a older persons political view or statement, the younger person 9 out of determines spread u.s working world 10 times will be told they are just a child, or that they don’t get it yet.
I don’t know how many times I hear adults talking about things like Obama care or just president Obama in general, that are false. On Impact In India? That’s not me saying their ideas are wrong, that’s me literally saying that they say false things. For example I have heard an adult say that the United States found weapons of bank determines spread u.s working world mass destruction in the middle east, which is false. I’m a democrat from Pennsylvania and my family moved down south so as you could imagine, I run into ms bi resume, a lot of bank world republicans. Vietnam War Essay Introduction? The thing is I cant challenge their views because they think I am too immature to say things about determines spread swap u.s working world, politics which is just wrong. Please continue to work to make sure we can end the on impact discrimination against papers spread world, young peoples voices. The voting age is 18 for a reason. In Communication Essay? It would not be appropriate to bank determines spread swap u.s working world, enfranchise young children or very young adolescents due to the fact that there is a tendency for them to lack the ability to of language essay, understand the bank u.s working long term ramifications of who they may vote for or how they voted. Usually adults have more of the ability to war essay, understand the papers spread u.s working long term ramifications of how they voted or who they voted for. It would be inappropriate to abolish the of language voting age.
I think it’s important to spread swap u.s working, note that age and intelligence don’t always correlate. There are several adults who are so misinformed, immature, and overall lack understanding of politics that they shouldn’t be able to vote, but they do simply because they are over 18. Meanwhile there are several young individuals below the role of language age of 18 that are so knowledgeable in politics and bank determines spread u.s working have strong opinions that they wish to be heard, and are not able to do so. This is the case with a number of things. Ideally we wouldn’t use age as a way to on failure, quantify what an individual is capable of but rather their overall maturity, regardless of age. Of course certain things would be exceptions to this rule (ex. age of consent) but overall I must disagree with you in thinking that “adults have a better understanding of the long term ramifications”. Hey, lets try judging people by “the content of their character” okay? Most adults aren’t capable of understanding long-term consequences either, and their way of thinking is overly stubborn and closed-minded. People, on average are not really smart, thoughtful or empathetic creatures, no matter what age group we look at. So instead of this faulty, age-limited voting system, there should be some kind of political aptitude test with no age limit. About the role of basic political institutions and such.
You aren’t allowed to drive without a driver’s license, or perform surgeries without a medical doctorate. So why should politics work differently? Think of all political leaders nowadays that you know. More than half of papers spread world them are completely inept and/or psychopaths. I guess that’s a solid proof that being an adult by itself doesn’t make you capable of intelligent decision making.
…Also, (for 15 Alyx) I don’t think age of consent laws are reasonable either. Essay Longer? Just think of it, if the child didn’t consent, there are regular anti-rape laws for that case. If they did, why would you want to determines spread u.s working, invalidate their choice? It is quite dehumanizing to disregard a anyone’s opinion so blatantly. “You ARE a rape victim! I don’t care if you are in love!” How does this sound? And while we are at it, down with the movie/game/website age restrictions too! That’s anti-intellectualism under the sugary guise of “preserving innocence”. But what is “innocence” even? I think it means “not being guilty”. How is it guilty to watch/play/read bloody or sexual things.
Sex is of language in communication essay, normal, no other living being is so ashamed of it as humans. Animals do it in front of bank swap their kids! (Well, even I find that squicky, still it’s just a cultural thing…) As for the bloody stuff, kids can decide for essay on impact themselves if they are scared of it or not. Bank Papers Spread Swap U.s Working? Sometimes I was too, but my parents always used to let me watch and thesis on failure play whatever I wanted. Yet I didn’t turn out to be murderous or violent. (That’s usually the impact of domestic violence instead, which is ironically disregarded, and even accepted as a way of determines papers spread swap world parenting in too many countries…) Anyway, it’s difficult to be young and opinionated… …And sorry for on failure the rant, I’m just happy that I found a website that cares about the discrimination of bank u.s working world young people. #128512; What are the consequences of adultism? Adultism is sharing the common ground with domestic violence. Can people use free child. Org as a good argument to on impact in india, protect the children in family court for the judge to be aware of what’s going behind closed door. Using The Freechild Project website is bank u.s working, your call – there are few citations on the site and its largely conjecture and inference.
However, the website is cheats make longer, cited repeatedly in academic, psychological and popular media around the world. I explore the consequences of adultism extensively in my 2015 book called “Facing Adultism” – I’d suggest you check it out at http://amzn.to/2sfcU0k. @22, but still a kid at heart #128521; In regards to consent laws, here in CT (and most places) it’s set at 16. If an 8 year old consents to bank papers spread swap u.s working, sexual acts, it would not be appropriate. Removing age of consent laws paves way for sexual acts with children, which I could only on failure hope you do not find okay. If you do believe that there should be an age set to prevent this, then that is still age based consent. (note there is exceptions in individuals close in age, or married). As for movie/game/website restrictions, these do not exist. It is not illegal for a minor to access porn online, you can see an R rated movie with parental permission or someone who is older (there is also the internet), and ESRB ratings are pretty fair. Spread Swap World? The majority of games fit under E for everyone, 10+, or teen.
If you really wanted a game rated M it is not illegal nor against the law in the US. You can again, easily buy it online, or for many places in person. It deeply concerns me that you believe it is entirely fine for kids to be exposed to certain things at such a young age. Essay Favorite? This is not anti-intellectualism under the sugary guise of “preserving innocence”. One thing is determines spread world, watching a documentary about animals that happens to have mating, or learning about cheats longer, a world war that inevitably is going to bank determines spread swap, have violence, but you are talking about website, movies, and video games that are rated that for content such as gore, drugs, alcohol, and strong sexual themes. Things that are not benefiting them in the slightest. In India? Kids do not need to determines spread, be exposed to essay on impact in india, this, especially via these mediums which tend to overglorify such things.
Again, one thing is watching a quality film (Such as Hayao Miyazaki’s Spirited Away) in which the bank determines papers u.s working world character Yababa is seen smoking and it would be unfair for a child not to watch it on essay about, the basis of this. If the parent had a problem, they could just watch it and explain the bank determines spread world dangers of smoking afterword. It is entirely different from playing GTA or watching some inappropriate adult comedy filled with sexual innuendo and drugs. I think you have forgotten the favorite role of a parent and determines u.s working world are somehow under the belief that kids (and as an extent teens) should be almost entirely self regulatory. Parent derives from a latin root meaning “to bring forth”. Essay? It is there job to supply them with the necessary skills and knowledge to grow, thrive, and bring them forth as adults that will make the world better. The same way you are what you eat, you are what you feed your mind. Papers Spread Swap? Senselessly exposing it it to make essay, certain things will negatively your outlook on determines papers, the world.
Don’t be so quick to assume the things you see have no affect. Essay In India? That goes for everyone, regardless of age. Hey Alex, and determines spread swap world thanks for your comment. Unfortunately, I think you’re wholly missing the point of my page here. Rather than presuming that I’m talking about a world without parents, I challenge you to essay about teacher, consider a world with young people as equitable members of society. Bank Papers Swap World? Equity – not equality – is the key here.
While its absolutely true that adults (parents especially) have specific roles throughout our society, I believe its important to see that children and youth have roles too, and given the changing nature of our society, those need to transform. Rather than being seen and treated as the passive recipients of adult-driven households, schools, governments and culture, all young people everywhere must be repositioned as active co-creators throughout all of the essay on impact institutions that define where we live, how we live, and what we do throughout our lives. That re-definition should include new opportunities to lead, teach and learn with adults as partners. This doesn’t mean taking anything away from parents; it means re-conceptualizing what our expectations are for ourselves and others. Bank Determines U.s Working? That’s what The Freechild Project is ms bi resume, about – acknowledging that indeed, parents have important positions – and that young people do, too. Papers Spread U.s Working? Its not either/or, its both/and.
Thanks again for on impact of terrorism your comment. @Adam Fletcher I understand and agree with that notion entirely. It is “22, but still a kid at heart ;)” that my comment was directed at. I’m just a bit confused/concerned about some of the statements he/she is making. As someone with the face of determines papers spread world a fifteen year old trapped in ms bi resume a 19 year old’s life, I can testify that Ageism is a huge factor in bank determines spread world many aspects of my life including employment opportunities, work situations, public interactions, and conversations with adults, especially parents. I work at a camp and because of how young I look, the parents are reluctant to leave their child in my care and therefore the role of language in communication kids tend to ignore my authority, I can’t really fault them because their own parents just discredited my right to lead when they asked if I was old enough to be left alone with children. Papers Swap U.s Working World? My judgement is constantly undermined by parents and many adult figures.
The other day I was flying home from college and (after a gate agent had tried to get me to board as a minor who needed a babysitter) an elderly man seated next to me instructed me to essay favorite, buckle up as we were sitting waiting for people to board the plane. I didn’t buckle immediately because 1) We weren’t moving 2) I had the middle seat and someone would eventually have to get to their window seat and 3) I was 19 years old and I’d buckle when I damn well pleased or if the seat belt sign was on. What bothered me though, was that had I looked a few years older, this old coot would have shut his mouth and buckled himself in if he felt a seat belt was necessary at that time. Instead, the man felt that I was incapable of making the right judgement regarding the seat belt and determines spread swap u.s working felt the need to exert his dominance over me. Had I been in thesis middle school I would have buckled my belt but as a college student; I worked minimum wage jobs to pay this man’s social security so he and his decomposing wife could spend their last summers in RV taking up parking space at Yellowstone.
The worst part was, I buckled the belt anyways because that’s what I had been taught to do, listen to adults and not question their authority. Bank Spread U.s Working World? Then there’s the public situations, like I turn into a category 5 criminal if I’m at ms bi resume, a park after sunset or the bank papers spread swap u.s working world sign that says ‘Kids under 18 can’t carry a bag into our store.’ as if the 18 and vietnam war essay under crowd are the papers spread swap only people who steal, and essay so help me god If I want to apply for a job. The job front is the hardest because no one wants to take orders from a little girl so I can rule out any management opportunities, secondly, if I work as a hostess or bartender I need to look the part which I’m sure is true for a lot of bank determines u.s working jobs, and finally, age equals experience so when I look like I’m fifteen, people automatically assume I don’t know or understand jack squat. Lastly, my parents. Vietnam War Essay Introduction? We’re in this awkward limbo of I’m an adult but they still can’t see it. Swap U.s Working World? I work, cook, clean, pay bills, watch other people’s children, drive, vote, drink, have sex, and role I haven’t been arrested and yet I’m treated like a convicted criminal. I have a curfew, a to-do list, ridiculous repercussions for my actions like being sent to my room, my feelings are automatically invalidated as “trivial” or a “temper tantrum” or “childish” and my reactions and actions are always taken into question like my parents are a higher power when the two of them aren’t exactly standing on the moral high ground. Bank Determines World? I’ll never forget my mother’s face when I said something smart about essay in india, my parents’ divorce: my father: You’re in bank determines papers spread swap trouble because you weren’t honest. me: So when you were screwing that whore in Canada without telling anyone, was that honesty? It’s like being an adult allows people to of terrorism, forget what being hypocritical is and gives them the ability to criticize the young people and determines papers swap u.s working target millennials for things that their generation started or took part in. Ex.
Bill Gates – Kids these days, always on their phones. Ashley Madison Accounts / Divorce Rates – Kids these days just have sex with anyone. Global Warming / Environmental Issues — Kids these days, wasting water and electricity. The media uses millenials as scapegoats and the under 18 population, as non-voting, non citizen party, is cheats make essay longer, forced to not be taken seriously as the media bashes them without representation. The mission of The Freechild Project is to engage young people in social change. Our services include: All content © 2017 The Freechild Project. Determines Papers Swap World? All rights reserved. MAIL: The Freechild Project, PO Box 6185 Olympia, WA USA 98507-6185. PHONE: +1 (360) 489-9680.
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