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MLA Format: The Complete MLA Citation Guide. The 8th edition of essay on christmas, MLA format provides researchers with guidance on how to document the use of papers, others’ work responsibly. Published in April 2016, the new handbook illustrates examples of citations made in the revised style, and explains how to essay on christmas break, create two types of citations: full citations that are placed in a works cited list, and in-text citations, which are abbreviated versions of tips good, full citations and located in the body of the work. With the new and improved MLA citation format, a major change was made to how full citations are created and how MLA works cited pages are formatted. Overall, the style presents a much simpler way to create accurate citations for students and researchers compared to past versions.
1. One standard citation format that applies to every source type. In previous editions of the style, researchers were required to locate the citation format for essay on christmas break the source type that they were citing. For instance, they were trying to cite a scholarly journal article, they would have to reference the rules for citing journals. This has become inefficient in modern writing, however, as we are digesting information for a wider variety of sources than ever before. With information readily available in tweets, Facebook posts, blogs, etc., it has become unrealistic for to to be, create citation formats for every source type. To address this, there is now one universal format that researchers can use to create their citations. To properly use this new format, the researcher is required to essay on christmas break, locate the “Core Elements” of their sources. These are what make up the laws are meant to be essay information that will populate the citation.
These core elements can be found in the forms in the MLA citation generator. The “Core Elements” of a citation, along with their corresponding punctuation marks, include the on christmas following (in this order): The appropriate punctuation mark must follow each core element, unless it is the final piece. In that situation, the punctuation mark should always be a period. These core elements are then placed within the tips to write research papers citation, and generally follow this format: Author. Title. Title of the container.
Other contributors, Version, Number, Publisher’s name, Date of publication, Location. Here is an on christmas break, example of how an actual source (in this case, a book) looks when cited using the communication and relationships 8th edition style: Goodwin, Doris. Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln . Essay Break. Simon Shuster, 2012. For more help with creating citations with these core elements, try the MLA citation maker on essays on advantages of mass, EasyBib.
2. Inclusion of “containers” in citations. When the source you are referencing is actually a small part of essay, a larger source, such as a chapter within a book, the larger source is called the “container,” as it “contains” the smaller source. Generally, the container is italicized and is followed by a comma. For more details on this, see the examples below. You can also create citations with containers in the MLA citation machine. MLA citation format for citing a title within a container might looks as follows: Source Author(s) Last Name, First Name. “Title of Source.” Container Title , Container Contributor(s) First Name Last Name, Publisher, Date Published, page numbers. Here is an example full citation of how to cite a book chapter using the 8th edition format: Uenten, Wesley Iwao. “Rising Up from a Sea of Discontent: The 1970 Koza Uprising in U.S. Essays On Advantages Of Mass Media. Occupied Okinawa.” Militarized Currents: Toward a Decolonized Future in Asia and the Pacific , edited by on christmas, Setsu Shigematsu and Keith L. Camacho, University of Minnesota Press, 2010, pp.
91-124. 3. The ability to use pseudonyms for are meant to be broken essay author names. In order to more efficiently create accurate citations for new source types, it is now acceptable to use online handles or screen names in place of authors’ names. @TwitterHandle. “Content of Tweet.” Twitter, Date, Time, URL (omit http:// or https://). @realDonaldTrump. Essay On Christmas Break. “I will be having a general news conference on big essay, JANUARY ELEVENTH in N.Y.C. Thank you.” Twitter , 3 Jan. 2017, 6:58 p.m., twitter.com/realDonaldTrump/status/816433590892429312.
4. Adding the abbreviations vol. and no. to magazine and essay break journal article citations. In previous versions of the style, there was no indication that the numbers in periodical citations referred to the volume and issue numbers. This has changed in the 8 th edition to be clearer to the reader. O’Carol, John. “The Dying of the Epic.” Anthropoetics 30.2 (2011): 48-49. Tips Papers. Print. O’Carol, John. “The Dying of the Epic.” Anthropoetics , vol. Essay On Christmas. 30, no. 2, 2011, pp. Gender Education. 48-49. Unlike previous editions, the inclusion of URLs in citations highly recommended by the 8 th edition. Omit “http://” or “https://” from the URL when including it in a citation.
6. Omitting the city of essay on christmas break, publication. In previous versions of the mfa poetry thesis citation style, researchers included the city where the publisher was located. Today, this information generally serves little purpose and the city of publication can often be omitted. Only include the city of publication if the version of the source differs when published in a different country (Example: British editions of books versus versions printed in the United States). 7. Flexibility in break citation formatting. In addition to one universal format for all source types, the 8th edition now allows for more flexibility in citation presentation than previous versions of the style. For example, there is technically no right or wrong way to document a source, and education certain aspects of essay break, a source can be included or excluded, depending on the focus of the work. For example, if you are citing the essays media movie, Casablanca , and your research project focuses on the main character, Rick Blaine, it would be beneficial to your reader for on christmas you to essay, include the name of the actor, Humphrey Bogart, in your citation. Other writers who instead focus on the whole movie in their paper may elect to just include the name of the director in essay on christmas break their works cited page.
To create the best and most effective citations, you always should think about which pieces of about gender, information will help readers easily locate the source you referenced themselves. Your teacher may want you to format your paper using the on christmas break guidelines specified in the 8th edition. If you were told to create your citations in this format, your paper should be formatted using the essay gender new MLA guidelines as well. Use white 8 ? x 11” paper. Make 1 inch margins on the top, bottom, and sides The first word in every paragraph should be indented one half inch. Indent set-off quotations one inch from the left margin Use any type of font that is break easy to read, such as Times New Roman.
Make sure that italics look different from the about gender education regular typeface Use 12 point size Double space the entire research paper, even the works cited page. Leave one space after periods and other punctuation marks, unless your instructor tells you to make two spaces. You can either create a title page using EasyBib’s Title Page creator or omit the title page completely and use a header. To create a MLA header, follow these steps: Begin one inch from the top of the first page and flush with the left margin.
Type your name, your instructor’s name, the course number, and the date on separate lines, using double spaces between each. Double space once more and center the title. Break. Do NOT underline, bold, or type the title in essay about all capital letters. Only italicize words that would normally be italicized in the text. Example: Character Development in essay on christmas The Great Gatsby. Tips To Write Good Research Papers. Do not place a period after the title or after any heading. Double space between the title and first lines of the text. Placed in break the upper right-hand corner, one half inch from the top, flush with the right margin. Type your last name before the page number. Big Essay On Pollution. (To make this process easier, set your word processor to automatically add the last name and essay break page number to each page).
Do not place p. before the page number. Many instructors do not want a page number on the first page. Ask your instructor for about their specific preferences. Should be placed as close as possible to the text that they most closely refer to. Label tables with: “Table,” an arabic numeral, and create a title for it. Essay On Christmas. This information should be located above the table, flush left, on separate lines.
Format the big essay on pollution title the same way as the title of the paper. Underneath the essay table, provide the on advantages and disadvantages source and any notes. Notes should be labeled with a letter, rather than a numeral, so the on christmas reader is able to differentiate between the communication notes of the text and the notes of the table. Use double spacing throughout. Label illustrations with: Fig. (short for figure), assign an arabic number, and provide a caption. The label and caption should appear underneath the illustration. **If the on christmas table or illustration’s caption gives complete information about the source and the source isn’t cited in the text, there is no need to include the citation in the works cited page.
Label musical scores with: Ex. (short for Example), assign it an essay, Arabic numeral, and provide a caption. The label and caption should appear below the musical illustration. The 8th edition recommends that numbers are spelled out if the number can be written with one or two words. For larger numbers, write the number itself. One, forty four, one hundred, 247, 2 ?, 101. If the project calls for frequent use of numbers (such as a scientific study or statistics), use numerals that precede measurements. 247 milligrams, 5 pounds.
Here are some other formatting tips to keep in mind: Do not start sentences with a numeral, spell out the number. Always use numerals before abbreviations or symbols, ex. 6 lbs. In divisions, use numbers, ex: In page 5 of the study.
The purpose of an MLA works cited list is to display the essay sources that were used for a project, and to give credit to the original authors of the works that were consulted for a project. Works Cited lists are typically found at the very end of a project. Citations are what make up a works cited list. Here are some tips on how to create a works cited list for your citations: Citations are listed in alphabetical order by the first word in big essay on pollution the citation, which is typically the last name of the author. Each citation should have a hanging indent. When there are two or more sources with the same author, only include the author’s name in the first citation.
In the second or subsequent citations, use three hyphens in essay on christmas break place of the author’s name, followed by a period. Middlekauff, Robert. The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution. Oxford UP, 2007. – – -. Colonial America . Oxford UP, 1999. Connell, James. “The Battle of Yorktown: What Don’t We Know?” The American History Journal, vol. 19, no. 6, 2005, pp. 36-43.
Middlekauff, Robert. The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution. Oxford UP, 2007. – – -. Colonial America . Oxford UP, 1999. The Patriot.
Directed by Roland Emmerich, performed by Mel Gibson and to write research papers Heath Ledger. Columbia Pictures, 2002. The 8th edition also has standardized rules regarding the formatting of essay, titles within citations. Here are some of the rules pertaining to on advantages and disadvantages of mass media, titles in break the new MLA format: When citing book titles, always enter the full title, in italics, followed by a period. See the media MLA format citation below: Last Name, First Name. Italicized Title . Publisher, Publication Year.
When citing periodicals, place the title of the article in quotes, with a period at the end of the title. The italicized title of the periodical follows, along with a comma. An MLA format example is below: Last Name, First Name. “Title of the Article.” Periodical Title.” Publication Year, Page Numbers. When citing a website, the title of the web page or article is placed in quotation marks, with a period before the end quotation. The title of the website is break written in italics followed by a comma. If the name of the publisher differs from the name of the website, include it after the title. Communication Essay. Immediately following the publisher is the date that the page or article was published, or posted. Finally, end with the URL. The URL is the essay website’s address. The citation format is as follows:
Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of the Article or Individual Page.” Title of the website, Name of the publisher, Date of publication, URL. Click here for additional information on website titles. Giving credit to mfa poetry thesis abstract, the author of works that you use in your research paper is essay not only important for citation accuracy, but will prevent plagiarism. In order to include the author’s name in your citation, follow the guidelines listed below: Author formatting: Olsen, Gregg. Citation example: Olsen, Gregg.
If I Can’t Have You: Susan Powell, Her Mysterious Disappearance, and the Murder of Her Children . Tips To Write Papers. St. Martin’s True Crime, 2015, pp. 18-22. Place the authors in the order in which they appear on the source. Note that only the lead author’s name is listed last name first; all additional authors are listed by their first name, middle initial if applicable, and then last name: Author formatting: Bernecker, Sven, and on christmas break Fred Dretske.
Citation example: Bernecker, Sven, and Fred Dretske. Knowledge: Readings in Contemporary Epistemology. Oxford: UP, 2007. List the author’s last name, first name, and tips research then middle initial if applicable. Essay. Follow it with a comma, and then add et al. in place of the additional authors: Author formatting: George, Michael L., et al.
Citation example: George, Michael L., et al. The Lean Six Sigma Pocket Toolbook. And Relationships. McGraw-Hill, 2005. In cases where the person responsible for essay on christmas break creating a work is someone other than the and disadvantages author, such as an editor, producer, performer, or artist, always include the individual’s role after the name: Kansaker, Tej Ratna, and Mark Turin, editors.
When citing works of entertainment, such as film or television, include the name and break role of the person on whom you’ve focused: Byrne, Rose, performer. *Note: If you are writing about a film or television show that does not focus on to be essay, an individual’s role, omit the author’s name and start the essay break citation with the title. If a corporation is the author of the tips research text, include the full name of the corporation: The American Heart Association. Treat the translator as the essay on christmas break author. You should do this only if the big essay focus of your paper is on the original translated work. Essay Break. Include the name of the good original creator after the title, preceded by the word “By”: Author formatting: Rabassa, Gregory, translator. Citation example: Rabassa, Gregory, translator. Essay On Christmas Break. One Hundred Years of Solitude.
By Gabriel Garcia Marquez, Random House, 1995. When no author is given in tips research papers a text, omit this section and on christmas start the citation with the title. Sources can be released in mfa poetry thesis abstract different versions, or forms. Essay On Christmas Break. For example, a book can have various versions – such as a first edition or a second edition, even an updated edition. A movie can have an communication and relationships essay, unrated or an uncut version. It is important to communicate to essay on christmas, the reader which version was used to are meant, help them locate the exact source themselves. For books, if it is a specific numbered edition, type out the numeral and use the abbreviation “ed.” for edition. If no specific version is mentioned or located, omit this information from the citation. Examples of 8th edition citations for sources with various versions: Weinberger, Norman M. “The Auditory System and Elements of Music” The Psychology of Music, edited by Diana Deutsch, 2nd ed., Academic Press, 1999, p.61. Google Books, books.google.com/books?id=A3jkobk4yMMClpg=PP1dq=psychologypg=PR6#v=onepageq=psychologyf=false.
JFK. Performance by essay, Kevin Costner, directed by Oliver Stone, director’s cut ed., Warner Home Video, 2008. When including the date of mfa poetry, publication, there aren’t any set rules to how the on christmas date should be input into the citation. For example, you can use May 5, 2016 or 5 May 2016. What does matter is consistency.
Whichever way the essays on advantages of mass media date is placed in one citation, the same format should be used in the other citations in your project. Names of months that use more than four letters are written with abbreviations. Regarding new MLA in text citations, the on christmas rules are the same as in previous versions of the style. When using a direct quote or paraphrasing an author’s work, place an in-text citation after the borrowed information. Generally, the in text citation is found immediately following the direct quote or paraphrase, but it is acceptable to insert it in a place, soon after, that allows for a natural pause while reading. (Author Last Page Number[s]).
Ready to start citing? See the information and essay examples below to get started creating citations for on christmas break the most popular source types. Author’s Last name, First name. Title of the work, translated by or edited by mfa poetry thesis abstract, First Name Last name, vol. number, Publisher, Year the book was published, page number(s). Roth, Veronica. Divergent. Katherine Tegen Books, 2011.
Olsen, Gregg, and Rebecca Morris. If I Can’t Have You: Susan Powell, Her Mysterious Disappearance, and the Murder of Her Children. Essay On Christmas. St. Martin’s True Crime, 2015, pp. 18-22.
Matthews, Graham, et al. Disaster Management in Archives, Libraries, and Museums. Ashgate, 2009. Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of chapter or section.” Title of the work, translated by or edited by First Name Last name, vol. number, Publisher, Year the book was published, page number(s). Montrose, Louis. “Elizabeth Through the Looking Glass: Picturing the Queen’s Two Bodies.” The Body of the Queen: Gender and Rule in the Courtly World, 1500-2000, edited by Regina Schulte, Berghahn, 2006, pp. 61-87. How to Cite an E-book Found Online:
Author’s last name, First name. “Title of the chapter or section.” Title of the e-book, translated by or edited by First name Last name, vol. Communication Essay. number, Publisher, Year of publication, page number(s). Title of the web site or database, URL. Austen, Jane, and Seth Grahame-Smith. Pride and Prejudice and Zombies. Quirk, 2015. Google Books, books.google.com/books?id=x5xPaPeZzmUClpg=PP1dq=zombiespg=PP1#v=onepageq=zombiesf=false. Poe, Edgar Allan. “The Gold Bug.” Short Stories for English Courses, Edited by Rosa M.R. Mikels, 2004. Project Gutenberg, www.gutenberg.org/cache/epub/5403/pg5403-images.html. Author’s last name, First name. “Title of the essay on christmas chapter or section.” Title of the e-book, translated by or edited by First name Last name, Name of e-reader device, vol. number, Publisher, Year of publication, page number(s). Doer, Anthony.
All the essays on advantages and disadvantages media Light We Cannot See. Kindle ed., Scribner, 2014. Author’s Last name, First name. Essay On Christmas Break. “Title of the Article or Individual Page.” Title of the website, Name of the to be broken publisher, Date of publication, URL. White, Lori. “The Newest Fad in People Helping People: Little Free Pantries.” Upworthy, Cloud Tiger Media, 3 Aug. 2016, www.upworthy.com/the-newest-fad-in-people-helping-people-little-free-pantries?g=2c=hpstream. MLA Citation Website with no author: “Title of the Article or Individual Page.” Title of the website, Name of the publisher, Date of publication, URL. “Giant Panda.” Smithsonian National Zoological Park, Smithsonian Institute, 2004, nationalzoo.si.edu/animals/giantpandas/pandafacts.
How to Cite a Website with no webpage title: Webpage Description. Title of the on christmas website, Name of the publisher, Date of publication, URL. General Information on the New York Mets. NYCData, The Weissman Center for International Business Baruch College/CUNY, www.baruch.cuny.edu/nycdata/sports/nymets.htm. How to Cite a Journal Article found on communication, a Database: Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of the article.” Title of the journal , First name Last name of essay break, any other contributors (if applicable), Version (if applicable), Numbers (such as a volume and issue number), Publication date, Page numbers.
Title of the database, URL or DOI. Brian, Real, et al. To Write Research Papers. “Rural Public Libraries and Digital Inclusion: Issues and Challenges.” Information and Technology Libraries , vol. 33, no. 1, Mar. Essay Break. 2014, pp. 6-24. ProQuest, ezproxy.nypl.org/login?url=http://search.proquest.com.i.ezproxy.nypl.org/docview/1512388143?accountid=35635. How to Cite a Journal Article found in are meant Print:
Author’s Last name, First name ” Title of the article.” Title of Journal , Volume, Issue, Year, pages. Bagchi, Alaknanda. “Conflicting Nationalisms: The Voice of the Subaltern in essay break Mahasweta Devi’s Bashai Tudu .” Tulsa Studies in Women’s Literature, vol. 15, no. 1, 1996, pp. 41-50. Follow the formula for essays on advantages of mass citing a book. Essay Break. Cite the author of the essay, the name of the essay, the essay name of the collection, the editor of the collection, the essay break publication information, and the page number(s) of the essay.
How to Cite an Image from a Website: If there is no title available for on advantages media the image, include a brief description of the image instead. Creator’s Last name, First name. “Title of the digital image.” Title of the website, First name Last name of essay, any contributors, Version (if applicable), Number (if applicable), Publisher, Publication date, URL.
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Water storage in the atmosphere: Water stored in the atmosphere as vapor, such as clouds and humidity. The water cycle is all about storing water and moving water on, in, and above the essay on christmas break, Earth. Although the atmosphere may not be a great storehouse of water, it is the superhighway used to to be essay move water around the globe. There is always water in the atmosphere. Clouds are, of course, the essay on christmas, most visible manifestation of atmospheric water, but even clear air contains waterwater in particles that are too small to be seen. Essay About. One estimate of the volume of water in the atmosphere at essay, any one time is and relationships essay about 3,100 cubic miles (mi 3 ) or 12,900 cubic kilometers (km 3 ). That may sound like a lot, but it is only about 0.001 percent of the total Earth's water volume. If all of the essay on christmas, water in the atmosphere rained down at once, it would only thesis abstract cover the ground to a depth of 2.5 centimeters, about essay on christmas 1 inch. More about water stored in the atmosphere. Condensation: The process by on pollution which water is on christmas break changed from vapor to liquid.
Condensation is the laws are meant broken, process in which water vapor in the air is changed into liquid water. Condensation is crucial to the water cycle because it is responsible for the formation of clouds. These clouds may produce precipitation, which is the primary route for water to return to the Earth's surface within the water cycle. Condensation is the opposite of evaporation. You don't have to look at something as far away as a cloud to on christmas break notice condensation, though. Condensation is responsible for ground-level fog, for your glasses fogging up when you go from a cold room to the outdoors on a hot, humid day, for the water that drips off the outside of laws to be essay your glass of iced tea, and for essay on christmas break, the water on the inside of your home windows on a cold day. Even though clouds are absent in a crystal clear blue sky, water is still present in the form of water vapor and droplets which are too small to be seen. Depending on meteorological conditions, water molecules will combine with tiny particles of dust, salt, and smoke in the air to form cloud droplets, which grow and laws are meant to be broken essay develop into break clouds, a form of water we can see. Cloud droplets can vary greatly in size, from 10 microns (millionths of a meter) to 1 millimeter (mm), and even as large as 5 mm. This process occurs higher in the sky where the air is cooler and more condensation occurs relative to evaporation.
As water droplets combine (also known as coalescence) with each other, and grow in size, clouds not only develop, but precipitation may also occur. Precipitation is tips to write research papers essentially water cloud in its liquid or solid form falling form the base of a cloud. This seems to happen too often during picnics or when large groups of people gather at swimming pools. You might ask . why is essay break it colder higher up? As we said, clouds form in the atmosphere because air containing water vapor rises and cools. The key to this process is that air near the Earth's surface is about warmed by solar radiation. Essay On Christmas Break. But, do you know why the atmosphere cools above the Earth's surface? Generally, air pressure, is the reason.
Air has mass (and, because of gravity on mfa poetry Earth, weight) and at sea level the weight of a column of air pressing down on your head is on christmas break about 14 ? pounds (6.6 kilograms) per square inch. The pressure (weight), called barometric pressure, that results is a consequence of the tips to write good, density of the air above. At higher altitudes, there is less air above, and, thus, less air pressure pressing down. The barometric pressure is on christmas break lower, and lower barometric pressure is associated with fewer molecules per unit volume. Therefore, the air at higher altitudes is less dense. Since fewer air molecules exist in a certain volume of air, there are fewer molecules colliding with each other, and as a result, there will be less heat produced. This means cooler air. Do you find this confusing?
Just think, clouds form all day long without having to understand any of this. Precipitation: The discharge of essay water, in liquid or solid state, out of the essay on christmas, atmosphere, generally upon a land or water surface. Precipitation is water released from clouds in the form of tips good research rain, freezing rain, sleet, snow, or hail. It is the on christmas, primary connection in the water cycle that provides for the delivery of atmospheric water to the Earth. Most precipitation falls as rain. The clouds floating overhead contain water vapor and cloud droplets, which are small drops of essays and disadvantages of mass condensed water.
These droplets are way too small to fall as precipitation, but they are large enough to form visible clouds. Water is continually evaporating and essay on christmas condensing in the sky. If you look closely at a cloud you can see some parts disappearing (evaporating) while other parts are growing (condensation). Most of the condensed water in clouds does not fall as precipitation because their fall speed is not large enough to overcome updrafts which support the clouds. For precipitation to mfa poetry thesis abstract happen, first tiny water droplets must condense on essay even tinier dust, salt, or smoke particles, which act as a nucleus.
Water droplets may grow as a result of additional condensation of water vapor when the particles collide. If enough collisions occur to produce a droplet with a fall velocity which exceeds the cloud updraft speed, then it will fall out of the cloud as precipitation. Mfa Poetry Thesis. This is not a trivial task since millions of cloud droplets are required to produce a single raindrop. Precipitation rates vary geographically and over time. Precipitation does not fall in the same amounts throughout the world, in a country, or even in a city. Here in Georgia, USA, it rains fairly evenly all during the year, around 40-50 inches (102-127 centimeters (cm)) per year. Summer thunderstorms may deliver an inch or more of rain on one suburb while leaving another area dry a few miles away. But, the rain amount that Georgia gets in one month is essay often more than Las Vegas, Nevada observes all year. The world's record for average-annual rainfall belongs to Mt. Waialeale, Hawaii, where it averages about 450 inches (1,140 cm) per year. A remarkable 642 inches (1,630 cm) was reported there during one twelve-month period (that's almost 2 inches (5 cm) every day!).
Is this the world record for thesis, the most rain in a year? No, that was recorded at Cherrapunji, India, where it rained 905 inches (2,300 cm) in 1861. Essay Break. Contrast those excessive precipitation amounts to Arica, Chile, where no rain fell for 14 years. The map below shows average annual precipitation, in millimeters and inches, for of mass, the world. The light green areas can be considered deserts.
You might expect the Sahara area in Africa to be a desert, but did you think that much of Greenland and Antarctica are deserts? On average, the 48 continental United States receives enough precipitation in one year to cover the land to a depth of 30 inches (0.76 meters). Water storage in ice and snow: Freshwater stored in frozen form, generally in glaciers, icefields, and snowfields. Although the break, water cycle sounds like it is describing the movement of water, in fact, much more water is in storage at any one time than is about gender actually moving through the cycle. By storage, we mean water that is locked up in its present state for a relatively long period of time, such as in ice caps and glaciers. The vast majority, almost 90 percent, of Earth's ice mass is in Antarctica, while the essay, Greenland ice cap contains 10 percent of the total global ice-mass. The Greenland ice cap is an interesting part of the water cycle.
The ice cap became so large over time (about 600,000 cubic miles (mi 3 ) or 2.5 million cubic kilometers (km 3 )) because more snow fell than melted. Over the millenia, as the snow got deeper, it compressed and became ice. The ice cap averages about 5,000 feet (1,500 meters) in thickness, but can be as thick as 14,000 feet (4,300 meters). The ice is so heavy that the land below it has been pressed down into mfa poetry thesis the shape of a bowl. In many places, glaciers on Greenland reach to the sea, and one estimate is on christmas break that as much as 125 mi 3 (517 km 3 ) of ice calves into the ocean each yearone of Greenland's contributions to the global water cycle. Ocean-bound icebergs travel with the currents, melting along the way. Some icebergs have been seen, in much smaller form, as far south as the island of essay gender education Bermuda.
The climate, on a global scale, is always changing, although usually not at a rate fast enough for people to essay on christmas notice. There have been many warm periods, such as when the dinosaurs lived (about 100 million years ago) and many cold periods, such as the last ice age of about 20,000 years ago. During the last ice age much of the to write papers, northern hemisphere was covered in ice and glaciers, and, as this map from the University of on christmas break Arizona shows, they covered nearly all of Canada, much of northern Asia and Europe, and extended well into the United States. Glacial ice covers 10 - 11 percent of all land. According to the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC), if all glaciers melted today the seas would rise about big essay on pollution 230 feet (70 meters).
During the last ice age (when glaciers covered more land area than today) the sea level was about 400 feet (122 meters) lower than it is today. At that time, glaciers covered almost one-third of the land. During the essay break, last warm spell, 125,000 years ago, the seas were about 18 feet (5.5 meters) higher than they are today. Essay Gender Education. About three million years ago the on christmas, seas could have been up to 165 feet (50.3 meters) higher. More about water storage in ice and snow. Snowmelt runoff to tips good streams: The movement of water as surface runoff from snow and ice to surface water.
If you live in Florida or on the French Riviera you might not wake up everyday wondering how melting snow contributes to the water cycle. But, in essay on christmas break the world-wide scheme of the water cycle, runoff from snowmelt is a major component of the global movement of water. In the big essay, colder climates much of the on christmas, springtime runoff and streamflow in rivers is attributable to melting snow and ice. Essay About Gender. The effect of snowmelt on potential flooding, mainly during the spring, is something that causes concern for many people around the essay on christmas break, world. Besides flooding, rapid snowmelt can trigger landslides and on pollution debris flows. Contribution of snowmelt to streamflow. A good way to visualize the contribution of snowmelt to streamflow in rivers is to essay on christmas break look at the hydrograph below, which shows daily mean streamflow (average streamflow for each day) for four years for the North Fork American River at North Fork Dam in laws broken California (real-time data streamflow). The large peaks in the chart are mainly the result of melting snow, although storms can contribute runoff also. Essay Break. Compare the fact that minimum mean-daily streamflow during March of communication 2000 was 1,200 cubic feet per second (ft 3 ), while during August streamflows ranged from essay on christmas break 55-75 ft 3 . Note that runoff from snowmelt varies not only by season but also by essay about gender year. Compare the high peaks of streamflows for the year 2000 with the much smaller streamflows for 2001.
It looks like a major drought hit that area of California in 2001. The lack of water stored as snowpack in the winter can affect the availability of water (for streamflow) in streams the rest of the year. This can have an effect on the amount of water in reservoirs located downstream, which in turn can affect water available for on christmas break, irrigation and the water supply for cities and towns. More about snowmelt runoff to streams. Surface runoff: Precipitation runoff which travels over the soil surface to the nearest stream channel. Surface runoff is precipitation runoff over the landscape. Many people probably have an overly-simplified idea that precipitation falls on the land, flows overland (runoff), and runs into rivers, which then empty into the oceans. That is overly simplified because rivers also gain and lose water to tips to write research papers the ground. Still, it is true that much of the break, water in rivers comes directly from runoff from the land surface, which is defined as surface runoff. When rain hits saturated or impervious ground it begins to flow overland downhill.
It is easy to see if it flows down your driveway to essay about education the curb and into a storm sewer, but it is essay harder to notice it flowing overland in a natural setting. During a heavy rain you might notice small rivulets of water flowing downhill. Water will flow along channels as it moves into larger creeks, streams, and rivers. This picture gives a graphic example of how surface runoff (here flowing off a road) enters a small creek. The runoff in this case is flowing over bare soil and tips to write good research is depositing sediment into the river (not good for water quality). The runoff entering this creek is beginning its journey back to the ocean. As with all aspects of the water cycle, the interaction between precipitation and on christmas surface runoff varies according to time and geography.
Similar storms occurring in the Amazon jungle and in the desert Southwest of the United States will produce different surface-runoff effects. Surface runoff is affected by big essay on pollution both meteorological factors and the physical geology and topography of the land. On Christmas Break. Only about a third of the precipitation that falls over are meant to be essay land runs off into streams and rivers and essay on christmas break is returned to the oceans. The other two-thirds is evaporated, transpired, or soaks into groundwater. Surface runoff can also be diverted by humans for their own uses. More about surface runoff. Streamflow: The movement of water in a natural channel, such as a river. The U.S. On Advantages Of Mass. Geological Survey (USGS ) uses the term streamflow to refer to the amount of water flowing in a river.
Although USGS usually uses the essay, term stream when discussing flowing water bodies, in thesis these pages we'll use rivers more often to essay break describe flowing creeks, streams, and rivers, since that is probably what you are more familiar with. Rivers are invaluable to not only people, but to life everywhere. Not only are rivers a great place for people (and their dogs) to play, but people use river water for drinking-water supplies and big essay irrigation water, to produce electricity, to flush away wastes (hopefully, but not always, treated wastes), to transport merchandise, and to obtain food. Rivers are indeed major aquatic landscapes for all manners of plants and animals. Rivers even help keep the aquifers underground full of water by discharging water downward through their streambeds.
And, we've already mentioned that the oceans stay full of water because rivers and runoff continually refreshes them. When looking at the location of rivers and also the amount of streamflow in rivers, the key concept to know about is the river's watershed. What is a watershed? Easy, if you are standing on the ground right now, just look down. You're standing, and everyone is standing, in a watershed. A watershed is the area of land where all of the water that falls in essay break it and drains off of it goes into mfa poetry thesis the same place. Watersheds can be as small as a footprint in essay break the mud or large enough to encompass all the land that drains water into the Mississippi River where it enters the Gulf of Mexico.
Smaller watersheds are contained in bigger watersheds. It all depends of the outflow pointall of the on pollution, land above that drains water that flows to the outflow point is the break, watershed for that outflow location. Watersheds are important because the streamflow and the water quality of a river are affected by things, human-induced or not, happening in the land area above the essay about gender education, river-outflow point. Streamflow is always changing, from day to day and even minute to minute. Of course, the essay on christmas break, main influence on streamflow is precipitation runoff in the watershed. Big Essay On Pollution. Rainfall causes rivers to break rise, and a river can even rise if it only abstract rains very far up in the watershedremember that water that falls in a watershed will eventually drain by the outflow point. The size of a river is highly dependent on break the size of its watershed. Large rivers have watersheds with lots of essays and disadvantages surface area; small rivers have smaller watersheds.
Likewise, different size rivers react differently to storms and rainfall. Large rivers rise and fall slower and at a slower rate than small rivers. In a small watershed, a storm can cause 100 times as much water to essay on christmas break flow by each minute as during baseflow periods, but the river will rise and fall possibly in and relationships essay a matter of on christmas break minutes and hours. And Disadvantages Of Mass Media. Large rivers may take days to rise and fall, and flooding can last for a number of days. Essay On Christmas. After all, it can take days for mfa poetry thesis abstract, all the water that fell hundreds of miles upstream to drain past an outflow point. Freshwater storage: Freshwater existing on the Earth's surface. One part of the water cycle that is obviously essential to all life on Earth is the freshwater existing on the land surface. Just ask your neighbor, a tomato plant, a trout, or that pesky mosquito.
Surface water includes the streams (of all sizes, from large rivers to small creeks), ponds, lakes, reservoirs (man-made lakes), and freshwater wetlands. Essay Break. The definition of freshwater is water containing less than 1,000 milligrams per liter of dissolved solids, most often salt. The amount of water in our rivers and lakes is mfa poetry thesis abstract always changing due to inflows and outflows. Inflows to these water bodies will be from precipitation, overland runoff, groundwater seepage, or tributary inflows. Outflows from lakes and rivers include evaporation and discharge to groundwater. Break. Humans get into the act also, as people make great use of diverted surface water for big essay on pollution, their needs. Break. So, the amount and location of surface water changes over time and space, whether naturally or with human help. Big Essay On Pollution. Certainly during the last ice age when glaciers and essay break snowpacks covered much more land surface than today, life on Earth had to adapt to different hydrologic conditions than those which took place both before and after. And the layout of the essay, landscape certainly was different before and after the last ice age, which influenced the topographical layout of many surface-water bodies today. Glaciers are what made the Great Lakes not only great, but also such a huge storehouse of freshwater.
As this satellite picture of the Nile Delta in Egypt shows, life can even bloom in the desert if there is essay a supply of surface water (or groundwater) available. Water on good research the land surface really does sustain life, and this is as true today as it was millions of years ago. I'm sure dinosaurs held their meetings at the local watering hole 100 million years ago, just as antelopes in Africa do today. And, since groundwater is supplied by the downward percolation of surface water, even aquifers are happy for water on the Earth's surface. You might think that fish living in the saline oceans aren't affected by freshwater, but, without freshwater to replenish the oceans they would eventually evaporate and become too saline for even the fish to survive. Usable freshwater is break relatively scarce. Freshwater represents only about three percent of big essay on pollution all water on essay on christmas break Earth and freshwater lakes and tips to write good swamps account for a mere 0.29 percent of the Earth's freshwater. On Christmas Break. Twenty percent of all fresh surface water is in to write research papers one lake, Lake Baikal in Asia.
Another twenty percent is stored in the Great Lakes (Huron, Michigan, and Superior). Rivers hold only about 0.006 percent of total freshwater reserves. You can see that life on Earth survives on what is essentially only a drop in the bucket of Earth's total water supply! More about freshwater storage. Infiltration: The downward movement of water from the land surface into soil or porous rock. Groundwater begins as precipitation.
Anywhere in the world, a portion of the water that falls as rain and snow infiltrates into the subsurface soil and rock. How much infiltrates depends greatly on a number of factors. Infiltration of precipitation falling on the ice cap of Greenland might be very small, whereas, as this picture of a stream disappearing into a cave in southern Georgia, USA shows, a stream can act as a direct funnel right into groundwater! Some water that infiltrates will remain in the shallow soil layer, where it will gradually move vertically and horizontally through the on christmas break, soil and subsurface material. Eventually it might enter a stream by big essay seepage into the stream bank. Some of the water may infiltrate deeper, recharging groundwater aquifers.
If the aquifers are shallow or porous enough to allow water to move freely through it, people can drill wells into essay on christmas the aquifer and use the water for their purposes. Water may travel long distances or remain in groundwater storage for long periods before returning to the surface or seeping into other water bodies, such as streams and the oceans. In places where the water table (the top of the saturated zone) is close to the land surface and where the water can move through the aquifer at a high rate, aquifers can be replenished artificially. Groundwater storage: Water existing for communication and relationships, long periods below the Earth's surface. Stored water as part of the water cycle. Large amounts of water are stored in on christmas the ground. The water is still moving, possibly very slowly, and it is a part of the water cycle. Most of the water in communication and relationships essay the ground comes from precipitation that infiltrates downward from the land surface. On Christmas. The upper layer of the soil is the unsaturated zone, where water is present in varying amounts that change over time, but does not saturate the soil. Below this layer is the saturated zone, where all of the pores, cracks, and spaces between rock particles are saturated with water. The term groundwater is communication essay used to describe this area.
Another term for essay, groundwater is aquifer, although this term is usually used to describe water-bearing formations capable of yielding enough water to supply peoples' uses. Essay About Education. Aquifers are a huge storehouse of Earth's water and people all over the world depend on groundwater in their daily lives. To find water, look under the essay on christmas, table . the water table. I hope you appreciate my spending an hour in the blazing sun to dig this hole at the beach. Thesis. It is a great way to illustrate the concept of how at a certain depth the ground, if it is permeable enough to on christmas break hold water, is saturated with water.
The top of the pool of about water in this hole is the water table. The breaking waves of the ocean are just to the right of this hole, and the water level in essay the hole is the same as the level of the ocean. Of course, the water level here changes by the minute due to the movement of the and relationships, tides, and break as the tide goes up and down, the water level in the hole moves, too. In a way, this hole is like a dug well used to access groundwater, albeit saline in this case. Thesis Abstract. But, if this was freshwater, people could grab a bucket an supply themselves with the essay, water they need to live their daily lives. You know that at the beach if you took a bucket and tried to empty this hole, it would refill immediately because the sand is so permeable that water flows easily through it, meaning our well is very high-yielding (too bad the water is saline).
To access freshwater, people have to drill wells deep enough to tap into an aquifer. The well might have to be dozens or thousands of feet deep. But the concept is the same as our well at the beachaccess the water in the saturated zone where the voids in the rock are full of water. More about groundwater storage. Groundwater discharge: The movement of tips research water out of the ground. There's more water than just what you can see.
You see water all around you every day as lakes, rivers, ice, rain and snow. There are also vast amounts of water that are unseenwater existing in the ground. And even though groundwater is essay on christmas unseen, it is moving below your feet right now. As part of the water cycle, groundwater is a major contributor to flow in many streams and thesis rivers and on christmas break has a strong influence on river and wetland habitats for plants and essay animals. People have been using groundwater for thousands of years and essay continue to use it today, largely for tips good research papers, drinking water and irrigation. Life on Earth depends on groundwater just as it does on surface water. Some of the precipitation that falls onto the land infiltrates into the ground to become groundwater. Once in the ground, some of this water travels close to the land surface and emerges very quickly as discharge into streambeds, but, because of gravity, much of it continues to sink deeper into the ground. If the water meets the water table (below which the soil is saturated), it can move both vertically and on christmas break horizontally.
Water moving downward can also meet more dense and water-resistant non-porous rock and soil, which causes it to flow in a more horizontal fashion, generally towards streams, the ocean, or deeper into the ground. As this diagram shows, the direction and speed of communication and relationships groundwater movement is determined by the various characteristics of aquifers and essay break confining layers (which water has a difficult time penetrating) in the ground. And Relationships. Water moving below ground depends on the permeability (how easy or difficult it is for essay break, water to move) and on the porosity (the amount of open space in the material) of the subsurface rock. Research Papers. If the rock has characteristics that allow water to move relatively freely through it, then groundwater can move significant distances in a number of days. Essay On Christmas. But groundwater can also sink into deep aquifers where it takes thousands of years to move back into big essay on pollution the environment, or even go into deep groundwater storage, where it might stay for much longer periods.
More about groundwater discharge. Spring: A place where a concentrated discharge of groundwater flows at the ground surface. A spring is a water resource formed when the side of on christmas break a hill, a valley bottom or other excavation intersects a flowing body of essays on advantages media groundwater at or below the local water table. A spring is the result of an aquifer being filled to the point that the water overflows onto the land surface. They range in size from intermittent seeps, which flow only after much rain, to huge pools with a flow of hundreds of millions of liters per day. Springs may be formed in any sort of rock, but are more prevalent in limestone and dolomite, which fracture easily and can be dissolved by rainfall that becomes weakly acidic. Essay On Christmas. As the big essay, rock dissolves and fractures, spaces can form that allow water to flow. If the flow is horizontal, it can reach the land surface, resulting in a spring.
Water from springs usually is remarkably clear. Water from some springs, however, may be tea-colored. This picture shows a natural spring in southwestern Colorado. Its red iron coloring and metals enrichment are caused by groundwater coming in contact with naturally occurring minerals present as a result of ancient volcanic activity in the area. In Florida, many surface waters contain natural tannic acids from organic material in subsurface rocks, and the color from these streams can appear in essay break springs. If surface water enters the aquifer near a spring, the water can move quickly through the thesis, aquifer and discharge at essay, the spring vent. The discharge of abstract highly colored water from springs can indicate that water is essay on christmas flowing quickly through large channels within the aquifer without being filtered through the limestone. Thermal springs are ordinary springs except that the water is warm and, in some places, hot, such as in and disadvantages media the bubbling mud springs in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. Many thermal springs occur in regions of recent volcanic activity and are fed by water heated by break contact with hot rocks far below the surface. Even where there has been no recent volcanic action, rocks become warmer with increasing depth. In such areas water may migrate slowly to considerable depth, warming as it descends through rocks deep in the Earth.
If it then reaches a large crevice that offers a path of less resistance, it may rise more quickly than it descended. Water that does not have time to cool before it emerges forms a thermal spring. The famous Warm Springs of Georgia and Hot Springs of Arkansas are of this type. And, yes, warm springs can even coexist with icebergs, as these happy Greenlanders can tell you. For an estimated explanation of where Earth's water exists, look at the chart below. By now, you know that the water cycle describes the movement of Earth's water, so realize that the chart and table below represent the presence of Earth's water at a single point in time. If you check back in a thousand or million years, no doubt these numbers will be different! Notice how of the world's total water supply of about 332.5 million cubic miles of water, over to be 97 percent is saline. And, of the total freshwater, over break 68 percent is locked up in big essay on pollution ice and glaciers. Essay Break. Another 30 percent of freshwater is in the ground. Fresh surface-water sources, such as rivers and lakes, only constitute about 22,300 cubic miles (93,100 cubic kilometers), which is about 1/150th of one percent of total water.
Yet, rivers and lakes are the communication and relationships, sources of most of the break, water people use everyday. Source: Igor Shiklomanov's chapter World fresh water resources in Peter H. Gleick (editor), 1993, Water in Crisis: A Guide to the World's Fresh Water Resources (Oxford University Press, New York). (Percents are rounded, so will not add to mfa poetry thesis 100) To view PDF files, the latest version of Adobe Reader (free of charge) or similar software is needed. Page Contact Information: Howard Perlman.
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100 Easy Causal Analysis Essay Topics. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. Causal analysis essays answer the question, Why? Many times, answer to this question can't be proved absolutely, so sometimes this essay is called a speculating about causes essay.
To write it, you will describe what happens and then state your answer (aka thesis) about the essay on christmas break, cause, providing support for on advantages and disadvantages of mass, your answer with reasons and essay on christmas evidence. • Why do people do that? • Why does this happen? • Why is this a trend? • Why does it occur? What causes people to on pollution develop phobias? Why do some people become addicted to gambling when others can gamble and not become addicted? What causes people to rise above a disadvantaged background such as poverty, a single-parent household, or abusive parents? What are the on christmas break, chemical causes of falling in mfa poetry thesis love? What causes feeling of romantic attraction to fade? What causes love at first sight? Why do people lose their memories as they get older?
Why do people need to essay break sleep? Why do we develop muscle memory for some repetitive actions? Why do people experience nightmares? Why do some marriages last for a lifetime? Why do we have short and mfa poetry long term memory? Why do people get dyslexia? Why do we respond physically to fear?
Why do we yawn (or hiccup, or stretch)? Why can people, who have their eyes closed, sense objects they are approaching but not yet touching? What makes some people introverts and others extroverts? Why is break, methamphetamine so addictive? Why do people crave sugar? Why do some families look so much alike, while others don't? Why do first born children tend to be achievers? Why do people snore? Why do people lie? Why do people blush?
Why do people hate? Why do teenagers rebel against their parents? Why do teens get acne? Why do teens sleep so much? Why do teens cut themselves? Why do people commit suicide?
Why do teens engage in sexting? Why do young people start smoking when they know it causes cancer? Why do young people sometimes get cancer? or have heart attacks? Why do teenagers use drugs? Why do college students binge drink? Why do young people become homeless? Why do young people join gangs? Why do young people make graffiti?
Why do fewer young people vote (compared to older generations)? Why don't younger people donate blood? or become organ donors? Why don't teenage relationships last? Why don't teenagers read? Why don't teen marriages last?
Why are teenagers more optimistic than older people? Why are young people better at learning languages than older people? Why do adolescent girls need more iron than adults or boys their age? Why do teenage girls idolize male celebrities? Why do adolescents need protein? Why do adolescent girls mature faster than boys? Why do adolescents need to establish their own identity? What type of Why question most interests you? Why do animals have tails? Why do some animals like to be petted? Why do elderly people with pets live longer, healthier, and and relationships essay happier lives?
Why are pets good for kids? Why do dogs eat strange things like grass and poop? Why do cats show pleasure by purring and kneading? Why do cats like to sleep in boxes and other strange places? Why do cats who are well-fed still hunt? Why do birds build elaborate nests? Why do monarch butterflies migrate long distances? Why do ants and bees live in colonies? Why do wolves howl?
Why did humans domesticate wolves and breed them to become dogs? Why do some insects and essay on christmas jellyfish glow? What causes tides? Or the wind? What causes insects like crickets and cicadas to make such loud noises? Why are animals used in research? Why are animals afraid of mfa poetry thesis, humans?
Why is larger size an advantage for essay on christmas break, animals in colder climates? Why do small dogs live longer than bigger dogs? Why are some animals becoming endangered? Why is nature so therapeutic? Why are insects attracted to essay education light?
Why are insects the most successful animals on earth? Why are microbes important to human beings? Why are so many Americans against on christmas the Affordable Care Act (Obamacare)? Why are some Euro countries like Greece in such economic turmoil? Why are rates of essays, AIDS transmission higher in Africa than elsewhere? Why do Japanese couples delay marriage? Why does Japan have higher suicides rates than many other countries? Why are large typhoons and hurricanes like Haiyan happening more frequently? What has caused the unrest in the Middle East which resulted in essay the Arab Spring Movement and Syria's civil war? What caused the Great Recession of 2008? Why are random shootings becoming more common in about education the U.S.?
What causes terrorist groups to essay break target certain countries? (You could choose a country.) What caused the essay, U.S. government shut down of 2013? Why is essay, North Korea so closed to the rest of the abstract, world? Or why is it becoming more belligerent toward other nations? Why are more and more people moving to large cities and away from essay on christmas, rural areas? (You could talk about this worldwide or apply this question to one country or region of the and relationships, world.) Why has the neo-conservative movement developed in on christmas American politics? Why has neo-Nazism been on essay gender education, the rise in Germany?
Why is China going to ease up on the one-child policy? Why did Donald Trump win in on christmas the 2016 election? Why have the police been targeted by gunmen recently in the U.S.? Why are terrorists choosing to use vehicles as weapons? Why did the to write research, Arab Spring movement not lead to successful democratic societies? Why is essay on christmas break, Twitter the to write good papers, medium of essay break, choice for big essay on pollution, Donald Trump? What caused the essay on christmas, French Revolution? What caused the development of American slavery system?
What caused the settlement of tips research, Australia by the English? What caused the colonization of Africa? Why does English have so many words of French origin? Why is break, English the main language used around the world in business and science? Why does India have a caste system? Why are the Chinese still interested in religion after years of mfa poetry, atheist communism? What caused the great Chinese famine in the Great Leap Forward? What caused the black plague of the Middle Ages to stop? What caused Great Britain to adopt the parliamentary system? Why does America have an educational system that is different from the European system used by most of the rest of the world?
Why, according to break the 2000 U.S. Census information, did more Americans identify with German ancestry (15%) than any other heritage (Irish was second at 10%, and African American was third at 8%)? Why did Japan attack the U.S. at Pearl Harbor? or Why did America drop an atomic bomb to end the war? Why is it important to study history? (Depending on how you answer, this could be worked into a causal essay topic.) After choosing your topic question, you can research online to get some ideas of possible answers. Title: The causal question makes a great title for big essay on pollution, your essay. However, you should probably make the question as short as possible for the title. Your answer to the question will be the thesis of your paper. Introduction: Start your introduction by interesting your reader in the topic and describing the essay on christmas, situation or effect. Communication Essay. See the chart for on christmas, easy introduction and conclusion ideas. Big Essay. The end of your introduction will be your cause question and on christmas break thesis.
Thesis: Start your thesis by asking your question and then answering it. To make your thesis into a clear roadmap of what you will talk about in your essay, add a because followed by to be, the three reasons you will give in essay the body of your essay. Body: Be careful to on pollution write the break, reasons in parallel format. Sample Thesis: Why do people enjoy being scared at a horror movie? Humans enjoy scary movies because they feel an emotional release in watching and talking with other people about the experience, and mfa poetry they get a vicarious thrill in seeing the forbidden on the screen. (Of course, you can have more than just three reasons, and you may have several paragraphs on essay break, one reason if you have several parts of essay gender, that reason to discuss.) Topic Sentences of break, Body: For your body paragraphs, take your three reasons and turn them into full sentences. Those are your topic sentences for tips to write good research, the body paragraphs of your essay. Gather evidence from your own observations and from research. Essay Break. Conclusion: In the conclusion, you want to either urge the broken essay, reader to believe your reasons or give a final point. See ideas in the chart below.
Easy Introductions and Conclusions. Essay Break. 100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by big essay, Virginia Kearney 42. Easy Argumentative Essay Topics for College Students. by Virginia Kearney 5. by Virginia Kearney 6. 100 Easy Illustration Essay Topics. by Virginia Kearney 3. 100 Argument or Position Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 37. Essay On Christmas Break. How to communication essay Write a Proposal Essay/Paper. by Laura Writes 40. Break. this really helped!
Virginia Kearney 23 months ago from laws are meant, United States. Breathing, I am glad that this post helped you. I have many more articles about on christmas break writing. Please look at my How to Write a Cause Essay for introduction and thesis abstract conclusion ideas and Technology Topics for Research Essays for more topics. Sajib 23 months ago from Bangladesh. Thanks a lot for posting such a wonderful and essay on christmas break helpful post!
It will help us a lot who always look to create great casual analysis essays. Really you have some excellent and breathtaking ideas! These questions always come to our mind but very few us are able to find the answers. I hope you will also shed some light on the following issues: 1. A few similar questions on the technology niche. 2. A few exciting ideas about the body like the essay about gender, introductory and concluding ideas.
If I get these things it will help me specially and lot of others. Essay. Hoping to have some more great things from you! Kathryn Lane 23 months ago. This was really helpful, thank you! Thank you so much! Kader 3 years ago from Algeria. Nice and helpful tips on which teach rely and reffer to.Thank you so much.
Maree Michael Martin 3 years ago from tips to write research papers, Northwest Washington on break, an Island. Very helpful. I love all these questions and essay topics, thanks. Dianna Mendez 3 years ago. Laws Are Meant. Another great post for essay on christmas break, teachers and students! I always learn to much from your sharing. Thank you! Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Thanks Hezekiah--I am hoping that I can help people. Tips To Write Research Papers. So many of the people who teach the beginning levels of college English are graduate students who are just beginning teachers themselves. I know how hard it can be to break come up with good lesson plans and essays of mass media instructions.
That is why I've decided to post my own notes and instructions that I've developed in teaching for over 20 years. Hezekiah 3 years ago from Japan. Nice tips there, I wish I would have known these while I was still at Uni or High School. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of essay on christmas, their respective owners. HubPages ® is essays, a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and essay break Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on good research papers, affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and essay others.
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Free Essays on Christmas Break …
essay lyrics First published in break, The Believer, July, 2003. The Genre Artist. If a story takes place, as we are told stories do, then who or what does it take that place from, and about gender why is an acquisition verb—take—necessary to describe the activity of stories? Maybe it’s an unfair, literalizing question. Not all figures of speech need to be prodded for accuracy (although shouldn’t a phrase relating to stories, which are made of language, have some passing precision?). Stories would keep taking place whether or not we worried about what it meant for them to do so, or worried about what stories actually did instead. But if we poked at essay, this strange phrase, which suggests a theft of mfa poetry thesis setting in order for narrative to occur, we might also deduce that if a place is taken for something to happen in it, then this taking must happen at a specific time (that’s what the on christmas word “happen” asks us to believe, anyway). The verb “take” presumes duration, implies a moment (unless we take a break from time or take the opportunity to no longer experience time , options that are difficult, at on pollution, best, to secure, unless we die).
It is this specific time that is meant to concern us when we encounter what is likely the essay most well known (i.e., terrifying) story opener of tips research papers all: once upon a time. Imbedded in this innocent phrase, which I would like to prod for the rest of essay on christmas break this paragraph until it leaks an interesting jelly, is a severally redundant claim of to write research occurrence, perhaps the first thing a reader, or listener, must be promised (reader: consumer of artificial time). For the sake of contrast, to look at a more rigorously dull example, the opener “I have an idea” does not offer the essay on christmas same hope, or seduction, or promise (particularly if I am the big essay on pollution “I”). Even the verb is break, static and suggests nothing approximating a moment. Time is about gender, being excluded, and essay on christmas look at all the of mass people already falling asleep. “Once upon essay on christmas break a time” is far more promising (something happened, something happened!). We might need to believe that the clock is media, ticking before we begin to on christmas break invest our sympathies, our attentions, our energy. Fiction has, of on pollution course, since dropped this ingratiating, hospitable opener in on christmas, favor of subtler seductions, gentler heraldings of story.
But it is rare not to feel the clock before the about gender first page is done, a verb moving the people and furniture around (whereas “having an idea” does not allow us to picture anything, other than, possibly, a man on a toilet). On Christmas! The physical verbs are waiting to assert themselves, to provide moments that we are meant to believe in, and big essay verbs, traditionally, are what characters use to essay on christmas stir up the trouble we call fiction. Without physical verbs we have static think pieces, essays, philosophical musings. There is no stirring, because generally there is nobody there holding a spoon. This will be an interesting distinction to remember. Maybe this is as it should be, since Proust said the to be broken duty of the literary artist was to tell the truth about time. Aside from blanching at the notion of duty, which is one of the required notions to blanch at, it seems clear to on christmas me that Proust’s edict, interpreted variously, has served as a bellwether for most thriving traditions of fiction (which held true, of course, before Proust articulated it). If fiction has a main theme, a primary character, an occupation, a methodology, a criteria, a standard, a purpose (is there anything else left for fiction to have?), it would be time itself. Fiction is the production of false time for essay gender, readers to experience. Most fiction seeks to become time . Without time, fiction is nonfiction.
Yes, that’s arguable—we have Borges, Roussel, Christine Brooke-Rose, and Robbe-Grillet, after all, among others, to tell us otherwise, and it is in part their legacy, their followers (witting or not), whose pages will be shaken here until we have something that counts for a portrait of this anti-story tradition. One basic meaning of narrative, then: to create time where there was none. Essay On Christmas! A fiction writer who tells stories is a maker of time. Not liking a story might be akin to communication and relationships essay not believing in its depictions of time. It sounds facile to say that stories occur, but it is on christmas break, part of the larger, relentless persuasion that time both is and envelops the practice we call story. We cannot easily separate the media two. Yet if time is the most taken-for-granted aspect of fiction writing, it would seem precisely like the good hard wall a young, ambitious writer would want to bang his head against, in order to walk and talk newly in on christmas, the world of fiction (that’s still the essay desire, right?).
To the writer searching for the obstacle to surpass , time would look plenty worthy a hurdle. If something must be overcome, ruined, subverted in order for on christmas break, fiction to stay matterful (yes, maybe the metaphor of progress in literary art is pretentious and tired at on pollution, this point (there’s time again, aging what was once such a fine idea)), then time would be the thing to beat, the on christmas thing fiction seemingly cannot do without, and therefore, to grow or change, must. John Haskell is among an intriguing new group of writers chiseling away at the forms of fiction writing without appearing exhaustingly experimental (read: unreadable). Haskell is working primarily without or around time, producing fiction that might appear more essayistic, discursive, inert, philosophical, and, well, literally timeless (which is not yet to say that his debut book is for the ages ). Yes, I said “inert,” because things do not have to and relationships move to essay on christmas break be interesting. Are Meant To Be Essay! Think mountain. Think dead person. Think thought. I say “think,” because Haskell is a thinker, and although he writes often about on christmas film, you could not film what he writes.
I Am Not Jackson Pollock contains some storylike moments, but it is primarily a new kind of fiction, one that, curiously, hardly seems interested in gender, fiction at all (which is not to suggest that it reads autobiographically—the opposite on christmas is true, which makes a great case for thesis abstract, secret-keeping). Haskell might be indebted to essay on christmas break Borges, but not in the way most so-called imaginative writers are. There’s no obsession with infinity and worlds within worlds, no conceptual masterminding at work to showcase a stoner’s tripped-out, house-of-Escher mentality, not much that would qualify as being made up. Tips To Write Good Research Papers! Haskell is more interested in using modest, unassuming forms of nonfiction, as did Borges or Sterne (albeit Haskell does not perpetrate extravagant untruths): the essay, the report, the biographical sketch, the character analysis (this last is Haskell’s favorite, from real people like Glenn Gould and Jackson Pollock, to essay break film characters like Anthony Perkins’s innkeeper in Psycho , to Topsy, the first elephant executed by electricity). Haskell does not write characters so much as he writes about them, and big essay on pollution it is this willful instinct toward exposition that is on christmas, so curiously distinctive and papers unusual in the story-driven world of on christmas break most new fiction. A fair question here might be this: where is the are meant broken fiction in this, if these “stories” of Haskell’s refuse story and then faithfully essay to supply information, respectable information, analysis, and reflection, just as nonfiction might? And one fair answer might be: John Haskell’s primary fiction, overriding his entire project, the place where his fiction is located, is precisely in his puzzling gesture of calling these pieces fiction in the first place. He is fictionalizing his genre. Or, in other words, his fiction is genre itself.
Haskell is essay break, not an artist in a particular genre, he is an artist of genre. To do what Haskell does is to big essay take several genuine risks, which occasions a word or two about risk. What could a writer in our country possibly be risking, other than his own pride, livelihood, or publishability, which are not exactly noble losses should they actually be lost? (Many of us began writing without pride and publishability anyway, and essay on christmas I’m not exactly clear what livelihood is.) Yet risk is the most urgent exhortation of what we are supposed to take when we write fiction (which is somehow different from the kind of mfa poetry abstract taking a story does when it takes place). On Christmas Break! Fiction is praised when it is called “risky,” but this sort of and relationships risk usually involves shattering, shameful disclosures. (I could fill the rest of this essay with examples of shattering, shameful disclosures, but maybe just one will do: while wrestling with my dog, experimenting on a new hold called “the Sumatra,” we ended up horizontal on the lawn, head to toe, and break thereupon commenced a directed nuzzling, a purposeful mouth-to-balls activity, that in some quarters of academe is referred to as the sixty-nine, which then became a standard “variation” on the “Sumatra,” well into adulthood (especially into on advantages and disadvantages adulthood)). With secret-telling having become its own lucrative industry, it’s hard to fathom what a risk of break subject-matter might be (though I’m certain better, scarier secrets are approaching in next season’s books, however ill-equipped my imagination is to conceive them). Risks of and relationships form, on the other hand, might seem more provocative, more inherently interesting to essay on christmas those attuned to on advantages and disadvantages media the established modes and means of fiction writing (Hey, you guys!), but the risk more often cited in these cases is the financial sort that a publisher takes in publishing such work. They risk not selling enough books.
And they are sorry but they cannot take that risk (it is interesting that the writer is supposed to be risky while the publisher is not). Risk might very well have a more palpable financial meaning than an artistic one. So while it is no longer clear what literary risk is—perhaps the term has been molested to death, like those other harassed words: edgy, innovative, startling, stunning—it could be more appropriate to say that within the larger, hapless chance-taking of writing at essay break, all (when indifference is about the scariest, and on pollution likeliest, response most of us might face), writing fiction without story seems especially curious, willfully self-marginalizing, and therefore very much worth considering. (No, not all obscure literary gestures are “interesting,” but something akin to playing golf without one’s body, as John Haskell might be doing, is.) The shopworn adage “show-don’t-tell” reinforces the on christmas break ethos that fiction must have a story, and warns a writer away from discursive, essayistic moments and exposition, which apparently amount to a kind of quicksand for the writer (a statement that presupposes motion as a valuable aspect of mfa poetry abstract fiction writing). Haskell’s quicksand is rich as a batter and quite worth getting trapped in, although so much inertia can feel confining. If we are to be cast in mud, and then smothered, we want our demise to essay on christmas be fascinating.
Telling is essay gender, supposedly insufficient, it cannot produce a quality demise, since it does not dramatize a moment, or in fact does not even supply a moment at all. Telling is stingy with time. Yet even though we “tell” a story, we only do it well when we do not actually tell it, but show that story occurring in time. Does telling fail because it discriminates against the notion of moments entirely? Take this paragraph in Haskell’s story, “The Faces of Joan of Arc.” Hedy Lamarr, through most of the movie, takes the side of those in authority, which is not the same as having authority. Obedience is a way of reconciling oneself to a lack of authority or a lack of choice. But it’s not the only way. This is a funny (read: not-so-funny) way to start a section in a story, but this is Haskell in his psychological mode, and it’s a tone he turns to frequently, which can make parts of this book sound eerily similar to the DSM-IV-TR Case Studies: A Clinical Guide to Differential Diagnosis . His exposition is on christmas break, dutiful and persistent, but he oddly does not seem to be using it to big essay on pollution generate sympathy, which is what a narrative writer might hope for after disclosing details of character. Minimalism in fiction, which at its best extracted psychology purely from surfaces, would be anathema to Haskell. One of essay his favorite things to essay gender education do, his pet point throughout the book, is to probe the interior conflicts within a character, but the effect is rather more coldly intellectual than warmly empathic:
She creates a space between what she does and who she feels she is, so at essay, least she can live with a little peace.He wanted to let whatever it was inside of him come out, and then change it, and by changing that he was hoping everything else would change. Inside that bubble he could relax and let who he was come out. She waited until what the camera wanted was fairly close to what she wanted, and big essay on pollution although this wasn’t a perfect arrangement, she could pretend to stand it. … the man wanted to bring out on christmas, whatever it was inside the boy. Haskell is expert at clarifying the moments when his characters feel estranged from themselves.
The defiance of Haskell’s title is a form of self-denial echoed throughout most of these stories. He is so shrewd at depicting this sort of moment, that for him it is apparently sufficient to carry whole stories. Once he has achieved the communication revelation, he seems ready to essay break end his story. If he has a deficiency, it’s his inability to convert his fascinations into whole pieces of on pollution writing that prove the artistic adequacy of his idea. Essay Break! If Haskell is desperate to show us how people hide from themselves and about education conspire against their own better interests, working as multiple identities in agonizing contexts—which is, after all, a familiar enough idea routinely explored, or dramatized, by on christmas break, many writers—then it’s upon him to make our experience of tips good this idea immediate, visceral, and potently refreshed. Maybe it’s not upon essay him , but when the idea is centralized, as it is in to write, Haskell’s work, and narrative is deliberately excluded, there is a risk when that idea does not seem novel. To be fair, Haskell has no real comforting tradition to on christmas break fall back on, to guide him in his efforts, so he must invent for communication and relationships essay, himself what an ending, in on christmas, this sort of writing, might look like.
It’s an original path he has chosen, and it will be rewarding to watch this exceptional writer as he navigates this new territory for fiction. When a prose writer such as Haskell surmises a distinction between story and fiction, as he so intriguingly has, a critic can safely ask after the absent story and not be upbraided for assuming that fiction must have one. A writer thus interested anyway in dividing the communication and relationships two projects risks an error of category, or at the least risks being read incorrectly (not that reading correctly sounds like a very compelling thing to on christmas break be doing). Communication! But when, for example, David Markson, an essay on christmas break expository novelist who fired the starting gun for fictions of information and proved that pure exposition can be alarmingly moving, who purposefully tells instead of shows, is dismissed in The New York Times for failing to provide a story in his novel Reader’s Block , no discussion follows about why, exactly, fiction must have one (at 150 words in the book review, how could any discussion follow?). Nor do we learn what a story might have looked like in such an exquisitely felt book that, to essay about gender education summarize, catalogs the various ways historical figures have hated whole races of people and/or died by their own hands. Essay On Christmas! (Yes, you should read this book.) Markson should have presumably, under the fiction-must-have-a-story criteria , zeroed in on one of gender education his hundreds of characters and essay on christmas break gone deep, doing that good old-time psychological work, the person-making stuff, dramatizing how such an interesting fellow had gone on to hate Jews and/or kill himself. Markson should have used more words like “then.” He should have sequenced.
He seems to have forgotten that literature is supposedly a time-based art. Markson’s amnesia is one of the tips to write research papers happy accidents of the last decade of fiction writing. By eschewing a fetishistic, conventional interest in character, or a dutiful allegiance to moment creation, to break occurrence itself, Markson accomplishes what a story, slogging through time and essays and disadvantages obedient to momentum, arguably could not: a commanding, obsessive portrait of single behaviors throughout history, a catalog of atrocity that overwhelms through relentless example. In truth, it’s a novel that can be read as an essay, but unlike most essays, it’s lyrically shrewd, poetry in the form of history, and it’s brave enough to on christmas break provide creepy, gaping holes where we normally might encounter context (the burden of the conventional essayist). This might explain a new category of writing, the about lyric essay, swelling special issues of essay break literary magazines (such as The Seneca Review ) and, in thesis, particular, a new, provocative anthology: The Next American Essay , edited (orchestrated, masterminded, realized) by John D’Agata, the form’s single-handed, shrewd champion.
The lyric essayist seems to enjoy all of the liberties of the essay break fiction writer, with none of a fiction writer’s burden of unreality, the and disadvantages media nasty fact that none of this ever really happened that a fiction writer daily wakes to. One can never say of the lyric essayist’s work that “it’s just fiction,” a vacuous but prevalent dismissal akin to criticizing someone with his own name. The lyric essay is a rather ingenious label, since the essayist supposedly starts out with something real, whereas the fiction writer labors under a burden to prove, or create, that reality, and can expect mistrust and doubt from a reader at the outset. In fiction, lyricism can look like evasion, special pleading, pretension. On Christmas Break! In the essay, it is tips to write good, apparently artistic, a lovely sideshow to The Real that, if you let it, will enhance what you think you know. Essay! The implied secret here is that one of the smartest ways to mfa poetry thesis write fiction today is to say that you’re not, and on christmas then do whatever you very well please. On Advantages And Disadvantages Media! Fiction writers take note. Some of the best fiction is these days being written as nonfiction. The Next American Essay proceeds chronologically from 1975 to essay break 2003, from John McPhee (a re-animated Monopoly game) to essays and disadvantages media Jenny Boully (all footnotes, no text), with D’Agata practicing his own artful transitions before each piece, waxing witty, smart, personal, mute, cleverly obtuse, passionate, lucid, myopic.
D’Agata’s transitions alone, which show how alive an anthology can be, and would make any editor envious, provide a toolbox of categorically adulterous leapfrogs that could outfit a whole new generation of writers with the break skills to launch an impressive and relevant movement of writing. About Education! D’Agata as editor seems capable of reconfiguring almost anyone’s writing, like Robert Ashley collating found music into his own opera. D’Agata decides what’s beautiful and makes it so through expert arrangement. There are writers here, Sherman Alexie among them, who must have been surprised to discover their stories qualified as lyric essays. D’Agata justifies the choice of Alexie by claiming that fiction is a protective term, providing shelter for on christmas, difficult material, which is really essayistic in nature. All fiction writers should be so lucky.
The flagship practitioner of the thesis abstract lyric essay, who seems early on to have inspired D’Agata’s editorial imagination, is the Canadian poet Anne Carson. Under the banner of poetry, Carson has produced some of the most rigorously intelligent and essay on christmas break beautiful writing of the last ten years: essays, stories, arguments, poems, most provocatively in her early collection, Plainwater . Her piece, “Short Talks,” which she describes as one-minute lectures, and on pollution which moves through the history of philosophy like a flip-book of essay on christmas civilization, offering stern commandments and mfa poetry thesis abstract graceful fall-aways, simultaneously qualifies as fiction, poetry, and essay, and is championed protectively by ambassadors from each genre. The loose criteria for the lyric essay seems to invoke a kind of nonfiction not burdened by research or fact, yet responsible (if necessary) to sense and essay poetry, shrewdly allegiant to gender no expectations of genre other than the essay break demands of its own subject. If that sounds strangely like fiction, several of the writers included here, Harry Mathews, Carole Maso, and Lydia Davis among them, first published their pieces in that genre, and will no doubt continue to. Others, like Carson or Boully or Joe Wenderoth, have consistently termed their work poetry.
Thalia Field has published her singular writing under the label of fiction, although it seems better read as poetry. Here, of and disadvantages media course, it is an essay, as are works of autobiography. Essay Break! David Antin shows up with more of his astonishingly boring diaries, continuing his decades-long ruse of consequence. Thankfully he cannot single-handedly ruin an thesis anthology. David Shields provides a Lishian catalog of essay on christmas break cliches that accrue curious meanings and expose how revealing banal language can actually be. And stalwarts like Joan Didion, David Foster Wallace, and essay Susan Sontag throw in with fierce, ambitious contributions that actually always were essays, although this lack of genre-hopping is in the minority. Sadly absent from what is otherwise one of the most significant anthologies published in years are a few true voices of the essay who would have fit right in with these other inspired eccentrics, among them: Daniel Harris, Lawrence Weschler, Joy Williams, and on christmas Dallas Wiebe. One instantly wonders how the chosen genre appellation liberates or constricts the writer, and and relationships essay whether or not John Haskell, absent from D’Agata’s all-star selection, would have fared better (whatever that might mean) under a different label, with someone like D’Agata warming-up for him. Essay! Might he be more appreciated as a lyric essayist, an artist of information not saddled by conventional readerly expectations? I ask because Haskell seems to suffer slightly when evaluated as a fiction writer, when one brings hopes of story to his book, which are hard not to tips good papers bring.
There’s the break implied tedium of tips good fiction not driven by story, particularly if a reader is break, expecting one (of course tedium, as Robbe-Grillet showed, can have its thrills). With storyless fiction, one suspects an intellectual lesson is at hand, instead of entertainment (this must either be fun or it must be good for me), with a reader’s pleasure not high on the author’s agenda. Expectation can flatten a reader’s willingness to communication forestall desires for story. It is similar to essay break feeling forever trapped in a flashback, waiting for the current scene. A reader saves attention and energy if he senses that what he’s reading is communication essay, not primary, the thing itself, and that the real story is break, ahead, and attention is the commodity the writer is striving to big essay on pollution create, at all costs. Haskell’s book could very nearly be shelved uncontested in essay on christmas break, the film studies section of the bookstore, and essay about gender education here it might perform its rogue fictionalizations with more astonishment, reversing his style of ambush, so to speak, since it is much more a collection of film studies with bursts of essay on christmas break unreality, than it is a burst of unreality with moments of film studies. It might just be that the genre bending fiction writers—John Haskell, David Markson among them—so far, lack a champion like John D’Agata, although there’s no reason to think that he won’t be luring more fiction writers into his protective, liberating fold, where these categories can cease to matter.
Once upon a time there will be readers who won’t care what imaginative writing is and relationships, called and will read it for its passion, its force of intellect, and for its formal originality.