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Early childhood education observation essays

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Early childhood education observation essays

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len wolf resume La reproduction sexuée (méiose, fécondation) apparaît dès les eucaryotes unicellulaires. Dans le groupe des vertébrés chez les mammifères placentaires, elle se caractérise par l'acquisition de la viviparité = reproduction se faisant par la mise bas d'un ou plusieurs petits jeunes (le développement de l'#156;uf fécondé est fini). Chez les mammifères placentaires, la viviparité implique des structures d'échanges (le placenta) entre la mère et l'embryon au cours de la gestation permettant des relations de nutrition de l'embryon. I. Early Childhood Observation Essays! Les relations structure-fonction des appareils sexuels mâle et femelle. Activité 2 : Dissection des appareils génitaux mâle et femelle de la Souris. Activité 3 : Schématisation simplifiée des appareils génitaux mâles et femelles chez l'Homme. - 2 testicules (=gonade mâle) - voie génitale : 1 spermiducte (partant des testicules) ou canal déférent, formant un uro-spermiducte, passant dans le pénis, - glandes annexes dont la prostate. L'appareil génital mâle est dépendant de l'appareil urinaire mâle.

Appareil génital femelle : - 2 ovaires (=gonade femelle), - voie génitale : 2 oviductes, qui débouchent dans l'utérus, se prolongeant par le vagin, s'ouvrant à l'extérieur par la vulve. L'appareil génital femelle est indépendant de l'appareil urinaire femelle. II. Of Introduction For A Research! Chez les mammifères les structures et la fonctionnalité des appareils sexuels mâle et femelle sont acquises en quatre étapes au cours du développement. Mise en place d'un appareil génital indifférencié dont la structure est commune aux deux sexes (génétiquement XX et XY). = Gonade indifférenciée (qui deviendra soit un testicule, soit un ovaire), 2 paires de canaux : - canaux de Wolff,

2ème étape : du sexe génétique au sexe gonadique (à partir de la 8ème semaine de développement embryonnaire) Sur le chromosome Y, au cours du développement précoce, le gène Sry (Sex determining region of the early childhood education observation essays chromosome Y) est activé et donne naissance à la protéine TDF (= facteur de determination testiculaire = protéine Sry), signal de développement des gonades en testicules : acquisition du sexe gonadique mâle. - les canaux de Wolff persistent et se transforment en canaux déférents, - Régression des canaux de Müller . Chez la femelle : Sur le chromosome X, il n'y a pas de gène Sry. Type Of Introduction For A Research! En absence de la protéine TDF, les glandes deviennent des ovaires : acquisition du sexe gonadique femelle. - les canaux de Müller persistent et se transforment en trompes de Fallope, utérus et vagin, - Régression des canaux de Wolff. Le gène Sry est donc un gène architecte. Le sexe masculin est donc lié à la présence du chromosome Y, plus précisément du gène Sry. 3ème étape : du sexe gonadique au sexe phénotypique différencié (toujours lors du développement embryonnaire). La mise en place du sexe phénotypique mâle se fait sous l'action des hormones : - la testostérone (hormone produite par les cellules de Leydig) : empêche la régression des canaux de Wolff et masculinise les organes génitaux externes.

- hormone antimullerienne(=AMH) (hormone produite par les cellules de Sertoli), responsable de la régression des canaux de Müller. Celle du sexe phénotypique femelle s'effectue en absence de ces hormones. 4ème étape : la puberté. Education Essays! (pubescere = se couvrir de poils) période pendant laquelle l'organisme se transforme pour donner un individu apte à se reproduire, = ensemble de transformations morphologiques, anatomiques, physiologiques et comportementales. débute entre8 à 13 ans chez la fille, 10 à 14 ans chez le garçon. - augmentation du volume des testicules et du pénis, - développement de la musculature. Chez les filles : - apparition des règles, - développement des seins. = acquisition de la fonctionnalité des appareils sexuels mâle et femelle et des caractères sexuels secondaires (seins, pilosité #133;)

Ces transformations se font sous le contrôle des hormones sexuelles : - oestrogènes chez la femelle). Comment fonctionnent les appareils génitaux males et femelles ? Comment sont-ils régulés ? La fonction de reproduction chez l'homme. On étudie le fonctionnement de l'appareil génital chez l'homme adulte. Problématiques : Comment fonctionne l'appareil génital de l'homme adulte ? Son activité est -elle régulée ? Si oui, comment ? I. Racial Essay! Le testicule produit des spermatozoïdes et une hormone : la testostérone. Activité 1 : Morphologie et anatomie de l'appareil génital de l'homme. A. Early Childhood Essays! La spermatogenèse a lieu dans les tubes séminifères. Le testicule contient de très nombreux tubes séminifères, lieu de la formation des spermatozoïdes = spermatogenèse. La spermatogenèse a lieu au sein des cellules de Sertoli (cellules nourricières). Spermatogonies (cellules diploïdes) les différentes étapes de la spermatogenèse. B. Pills Paper! Les cellules interstitielles ou cellules de Leydig produisent l'hormone sexuelle mâle, la testostérone. Les cellules situées entre les tubes séminifères, appelées cellules interstitielles ou cellules de Leydig produisent l'hormone sexuelle mâle, la testostérone.

Définition d'une hormone : une hormone est une substance produite par des cellules, transportées dans le sang et qui a une action biologique sur d'autres cellules, appelées cellules cibles. Le testicule a donc une fonction endocrine = fabrication d'hormones. Activité 2 : Quels sont les effets de l'hormone sexuelle mâle, la testostérone, secrétée par le testicule ? Bilan Activité 2. Les rôles de la testostérone. Rappel : (chapitre précédent, du sexe génotypique au sexe phénotypique) - chez le f#156;tus, transformation des canaux de Wolff en voies génitales males. - à la puberté, acquisition des caractères sexuels secondaires. Chez l'homme adulte, la testostérone permet : - la spermatogenèse dans les tubes séminifères, - le fonctionnement de l'appareil génital (érection et éjaculation), - le maintien des caractères sexuels secondaires, Activité 3 : Quelles sont les caractéristiques de la sécrétion de la testostérone ? Bilan Activité 3. La testostérone est secrétée de manière pulsatile. Testicule : lieu de production des spermatozoïdes et de la testostérone. La testostérone est secrétée de manière continue de la puberté jusqu'à la fin de la vie.

Pour assurer la fonction de reproduction chez l'homme, le taux sanguin de testostérone ou testostéronémie doit être maintenu constant (même si ce taux présente des variations pulsatiles). Childhood Essays! L'homéostat de la testostéronémie est indispensable au bon fonctionnement de l'appareil sexuel mâle. homéostat = ensemble des organes et des mécanismes qui interviennent dans la régulation d'une constante biologique. Doctorate Literature! C'est un système qui réalise l'homéostasie (= maintien d'une constante biologique). Problématique : comment est réalisée l'homéostasie de la testostéronémie ? II. Early! Le contrôle du taux de testostérone par le complexe hypothalamo-hypophysaire. A. Single! L'hypophyse contrôle l'activité testiculaire. Activité 4 : Comment s'effectue la régulation de la sécrétion de testostérone ? Bilan Activité 4. L'hypophyse est une glande endocrine (sécrétant des hormones) située à la base du cerveau. Elle secrète 2 hormones, appelées gonadostimulines : - la FSH (=Follicle Stimulating Hormone), - la LH (=Luteinising Hormone). La FSH stimule les cellules de Sertoli, c'est à dire qu'elle stimule la spermatogenèse.

La LH stimule les cellules de Leydig, c'est à dire qu'elle stimule la production de testostérone. La FSH et la LH sont caractérisées par une sécrétion pulsatile. B. Early Childhood Essays! L'hypothalamus contrôle l'hypophyse. Bilan Activité 5. L'hypothalamus est une structure nerveuse, située à la base du cerveau, près de l'hypophyse.

Lorsque les neurones de l'hypothalamus sont activés, ils libèrent une neurohormone, appelée gonadolibérine, la GnRH (=Gonadotrophin Releasing Hormone). La GnRH présente une sécrétion pulsatile. La GnRH parcourt un court trajet dans le sang, dans la tige hypophysaire, qui relie l'hypothalamus à l'hypophyse. On Motherhood! La GnRH stimule la sécrétion de FSH et de LH par les cellules de l'hypophyse. Pulses de FSH et LH. Pulses de testostérone. C. Early Childhood Education Essays! Le rétrocontrôle négatif exercé par le testicule sur le complexe hypothalamo-hypophysaire. Bilan Activité 6. Le taux sanguin de testostérone est détecté en permanence par le complexe hypothalamo-hypophysaire. La testostérone inhibe la sécrétion de GnRH par l'hypothalamus, et la sécrétion de FSH et LH par l'hypophyse. Research! Ainsi la testostéronémie est maintenue constante : c'est un exemple d'homéostasie.

Schéma-bilan : le contrôle de la fonction de reproduction chez l'homme. Conclusion du chapitre : schématisation d'un servomécanisme. Dans certains cas, la valeur de référence du paramètre biologique peut-être modifiée. Childhood Education Observation! Dans le cas du contrôle du taux sanguin de testostérone, c'est le cas à la puberté chez l'homme (augmentation du taux sanguin de testostérone), ou encore chez les cervidés et les ovins, il y a une augmentation du taux sanguin de testostérone en autonome permettant ainsi la reproduction et la naissance des petits au printemps. La régulation de la fonction de reproduction chez la femme. Activité 1 : Morphologie et anatomie de l'appareil génital de la femme. La fonction de reproduction chez la femme se déroule de la puberté à la ménopause (qui est marquée par l'arrêt de la fonction ovarienne, du à l'épuisement des follicules ovariens, limités en nombre dès la naissance). La fonction de reproduction chez la femme se caractérise par un fonctionnement cyclique : durée d'un cycle : 28 jours en moyenne. Le 1er jour du cycle étant le 1er jour des règles ou des menstruations. Comment fonctionne l'appareil génital féminin ? La fonction de reproduction est-elle régulée ? Si oui, comment ? Y-a-t-il intervention de l'axe gonadotrope, comme chez l'homme ? Si oui, y-a-t-il des similitudes, des différences entre les fonctions de reproduction chez l'homme et chez la femme ? I. Pills Research! Les cycles sexuels féminins. A. Essays! Le cycle de l'ovaire.

Activité 2 : Le cycle de l'ovaire. Bilan activité 2. Le cycle de l'ovaire se caractérise par l'évolution cyclique des follicules ovariens. Follicule : ensemble de cellules entourant l'ovocyte, situé dans l'ovaire et qui secrètent hormones sexuelles féminines. Les deux ovaires fonctionnent en alternance. Déroulement du cycle de l'ovaire : · Du 1er au 12ème jour du cycle : Phase folliculaire = phase de croissance du follicule abritant le future ovule. Un seul follicule, parmi ceux existants dans l'ovaire, dit dominant se développe et abrite l'ovocyte. Les autres follicules qui pourraient abriter un ovocyte prêt à être ovulé régressent.

· 14ème jour : ovulation : Emission par le follicule mûr de l'ovocyte haploïde. L'ovocyte est expulsé hors de l'ovaire et est recueilli par le pavillon de l'ovaire. Un seul ovaire est émis par cycle. · Du 14ème au 28ème jour du cycle : Phase lutéale (=lutéinique) S'il n'y a pas fécondation : le follicule débarrassé de son ovocyte se transforme en corps jaune, qui va régresser jusqu'à la fin du cycle. Follicule cavitaire, en phase folliculaire. Corps jaune en phase lutéale. Evolution d'un follicule pendant un cycle de l'ovaire. S'il y a fécondation : voir chapitre suivant. Bilan activité 3.

La paroi de l'utérus contient de l'extérieur à l'intérieur une paroi musculaire, appelée myomètre, et la muqueuse utérine, appelée endomètre. Le cycle de l'utérus se caractérise par les modifications structurales et fonctionnelles de l'endomètre préparant l'implantation (= nidation) du futur embryon dans le cas où l'ovocyte serait fécondé. Au début du cycle, ont lieu les menstruations ou règles. Menstruations = écoulement par le vagin d'un liquide contenant les produits de la destructions de la muqueuse utérine, du sang coagulé et du mucus. L'endomètre est pratiquement complètement détruit lors des menstruations. Pendant le cycle, il y a plusieurs modifications au niveau de l'utérus : - formation de glandes tubulaires sécrétant du glycogène, - vascularisation de l'endomètre avec des artères spiralées. A la fin du cycle, l'endomètre épaissi, très découpé et richement vascularisé est appelé de dentelle utérine.

Il est prêt à recevoir l'embryon s'il y a eu fécondation. Coupe de l'endomètre en fin du cycle. C. Literature Review! Le cycle des hormones sexuelles féminines. Activité 4 : La sécrétion cyclique des hormones sexuelles. Bilan activité 4.

2 hormones sexuelles féminines : - les oestrogènes (l'#156;strogène le plus courant est l'#156;stradiol), · En phase folliculaire : Sécrétion uniquement des oestrogènes, fabriquées par les cellules contenues dans le follicule en croissance. - développement des glandes mammaires, - contrôle des glandes du col de l'utérus, - maintien des caractères sexuels secondaires. · Avant l'ovulation : vers le 12ème jour du cycle. Forte croissance du follicule donc augmentation importante de la concentration en oestrogènes. · Phase lutéale : Sécrétion des oestrogènes et la progestérone par le corps jaune. Le follicule se transforme en corps jaune, qui sécrète des oestrogènes, et de la progestérone.

Les oestrogènes et la progestérone agissent en synergie (leur action se renforce mutuellement). - stimule la formation de la dentelle utérine, - développement des glandes mammaires, - contrôle des glandes du col de l'utérus, évolution des concentrations plasmatiques en oestrogènes et progestérone au cours du cycle. évolution des concentrations plasmatiques en LH et FSH au cours du cycle. Bilan : Les cycles préparent à la grossesse, s'il y a fécondation. En absence de fécondation, le corps jaune régresse.

Régression du corps jaune. Diminution de la concentration des hormones sexuelles. Problématique : Comment sont contrôlés les cycles sexuels féminins ? II. Early Observation Essays! Le contrôle de la fonction de reproduction : le contrôle des cycles féminins sexuels. A. 250 Word Essays! Le contrôle de l'ovaire par l'hypophyse. Activité 5 : Qui contrôle le cycle de l'ovaire ? Bilan activité 5. L'hypophyse secrète 2 gonadostimulines : la FSH (Hormone folliculo stimulante) et la LH (Hormone lutéinisante). Rôle de la FSH : la FSH stimule la croissance du follicule et donc la sécrétion des oestrogènes.

Rôle de la LH : la LH déclenche l'ovulation, provoque la transformation du follicule en corps jaune, et. donc stimule la production des oestrogènes et de progestérone en phase lutéale. FSH et LH se caractérisent par une sécrétion pulsatile, dont la fréquence des pulses et la concentration varie le long d'un cycle. Avant ovulation : il y a une augmentation de la fréquence des pulses de LH, entraîne l'ovulation. Early Childhood Observation! On parle de décharge ovulante de LH. évolution des concentrations sanguines en LH et FSH au cours du cycle. B. Segregation Essay! Le contrôle de l'hypophyse par l'hypothalamus : Bilan activité 6.

L'hypothalamus sécrète une gonadostimuline, la GnRH, caractérisée par une sécrétion pulsatile. L'augmentation de la fréquence des pulses de GnRH active la sécrétion pulsatile de LH et FSH par l'hypophyse. C. Early Childhood Essays! Le rétrocontrôle de l'axe hypothalamo-hypophysaire par l'ovaire. Bilan activité 7. Les taux sanguins d'#156;strogènes et de progestérone sont détectés en permanence par l'axe hypothalamo-hypophysaire.

La nature du rétrocontrôle (positif ou négatif) varie selon le moment du cycle : Les oestrogènes inhibent l'activité de l'hypophyse et de l'hypothalamus. · 2 jours avant ovulation : rétrocontrôle positif. Il y a en effet une forte croissance du follicule donc une augmentation importante de la concentration en oestrogènes. Quand la concentration en oestrogènes dépasse une concentration en oestrogènes de référence, alors le rétrocontrôle s'inverse devient positif. Les oestrogènes stimulent l'activité de l'hypophyse et de l'hypothalamus. Segregation Essay! Ceci entraîne une augmentation de la concentration de GnRH dans la tige hypophysaire, qui entraîne alors une augmentation de la concentration de LH et de FSH. Le pic de LH déclenche l'ovulation (décharge ovulante de LH).

· Phase lutéale : le rétrocontrôle des oestrogènes sur l'activité de l'hypophyse et de l'hypothalamus redevient négatif. Conclusion du chapitre : Chez la femme, opère même système de régulation de la fonction de reproduction que chez l'homme, mais en plus complexe (présence des cycles, rétroactions négatives et positives) Le but de la fonction de reproduction est de préparer à la fécondation et à la nidation de l'embryon. schéma simplifié du contrôle de la fonction de reproduction chez la femme. Schéma du contrôle de la fonction de reproduction chez la femme. La Fécondation et le début de la grossesse. I. Observation Essays! La fécondation et le début de la grossesse. A. Diet Pills Research! Aspect comportemental de la reproduction sexuée. Activité 1 : le comportement sexuel des Mammifères non Hominidés.

Chez les Mammifères non Hominidés, il existe une relation directe entre comportement sexuel et sécrétion hormonale. Early Observation! Chez la femelle, la période d'acceptation du mâle est appelée oestrus (= chaleur). Review! L'oestrus est déterminé par la sécrétion d'oestrogènes (= qui préparent l'#156;strus). Early Education Essays! Chez le mâle, le comportement de rut (=période pendant laquelle le mâle cherche à s'accoupler avec une femelle) est dépendant de la sécrétion de testostérone et des stimulus émis par la femelle. 250 Word Essays! De plus l'environnement peut influencer le comportement sexuel car le complexe hypothalamo-hypophysaire intègre les stimuli extérieurs (exemple : les ovins s'accouplent en période de lumière décroissante, à l'automne) Chez l'Homme, le comportement sexuel est dissocié de son activité hormonale. Education Essays! L'Homme est capable de maîtriser sa procréation. Les spermatozoïdes mobiles, déposés dans le vagin, doivent franchir le col de l'utérus.

Le col de l'utérus est fermé par la glaire cervicale. Pa Essay Help! L'état de la glaire cervicale varie en fonction du moment du cycle. Essays! Les spermatozoïdes ne peuvent franchir la glaire cervicale que pendant l'ovulation. Parents Essay! Les spermatozoïdes parviennent dans le tiers supérieur des trompes où ils peuvent alors féconder l'ovule. Childhood Essays! La fécondation n'est donc possible que pendant une brève période après l'ovulation. Type Research! Les spermatozoïdes conservent leur capacité de féconder l'ovule pendant 3 jours tandis que l'ovule est fécondable jusqu'à 24 heures après l'ovulation.

Le rapport sexuel pour être fécondant doit donc avoir lieu au plus tôt 3 jours avant l'ovulation et au plus tard environ 24 heures après l'ovulation. Early Education Observation! Un seul spermatozoïde féconde l'ovule. Le trajet des spermatozoïdes jusqu'à l'ovocyte. C. 250 Word Essays! Le début de la grossesse. Lors de la fécondation de l'ovule par le spermatozoïde, il y fusion des noyaux de l'ovule et du spermatozoïde ou caryogamie, donnant ainsi naissance à une cellule-#156;uf. Early Childhood Education Observation! Cette cellule-#156;uf subit des divisons successives, formant ainsi un embryon. On Motherhood! L'embryon en cours de division migre jusqu'à l'utérus. Observation Essays! Environ 7 jours après la fécondation, l'embryon entouré d'une masse de cellule s'implante dans l'endomètre utérin : c'est la nidation. Après la nidation, le tout jeune embryon sécrète l'hormone HCG (= Gonadostimuline Chorionique Humaine). 250 Word Essays! L'HCG permet la poursuite de l'activité du corps jaune et, par conséquent, la sécrétion de progestérone indispensable au maintien de la muqueuse utérine au début de la grossesse. Activité 2 : La détection de la grossesse.

Les tests de grossesse détectent dès le premier jour de retard des règles la présence de l'HCG dans les urines. A. Early Essays! La régulation des naissances par la contraception. Activité 3 : La contraception. La contraception est l'ensemble des méthodes utilisées pour empêcher qu'un rapport sexuel entraîne une grossesse. Doctorate Review! La contraception hormonale féminine s'appuie sur l'ensemble des connaissances acquises sur la régulation hormonale de la physiologie sexuelle. Education! La contraception hormonale masculine est encore à l'état de recherche. On distingue comme moyens de contraception : - la contraception hormonale : la pilule contraceptive, contenant en général des oestrogènes et des progestatifs proche de la progestérone, qui bloquent l'ovulation et modifient la muqueuse utérine et la glaire cervicale.

- le stérilet, qui placé dans l'utérus, rend difficile la fécondation et empêche la nidation. Les autres méthodes (retrait, méthode Ogino ou dite des températures) ne sont pas du tout fiables. Activité 4 : La pilule du lendemain : contraceptif ou contragestif ? 1) Le suivi de la grossesse. Activité 5 : Le suivi de la grossesse. Pendant toute la grossesse, la femme et son f#156;tus sont médicalement surveillés grâce à différents moyens d'investigation (analyses sanguines, échographies et si des doutes apparaissent, amniocentèse ou choriocentèse pour dépister une anomalie grave du f#156;tus). Amniocentèse = technique de diagnostic prénatal dans laquelle sont prélevées des cellules du f#156;tus dans la cavité amniotique, afin d'établir le caryotype des cellules f#156;tales. Choriocentèse = technique de diagnostic prénatal dans laquelle sont prélevées des cellules du f#156;tus sur les villosités du chorion (= une des membranes situées à l'extérieur de l'embryon), afin d'établir le caryotype des cellules f#156;tales. Dans le cas de la détection d'une anomalie grave, diverses mesures sont mises en #156;uvre qui peuvent aller jusqu'à proposer une IVG (= Interruption Volontaire de Grossesse Thérapeutique).

L'IVG non thérapeutique est autorisée en France jusqu'à 12 semaines de grossesse. 2) La procréation médicalement assistée (PMA) pour remédier à l'infertilité L'infertilité est l'incapacité pour un couple d'avoir des enfants à la suite d'une période de 2 ans de rapports sexuels réguliers. 250 Word Essays! Les causes de l'infertilité sont multiples, touchant aussi bien la femme que l'homme. Différentes techniques médicales peuvent apporter des solutions en fonction de la cause de l'infertilité.

On distingue les méthodes d'insémination artificielle : - FIVETE : Fécondation in early childhood education observation essays, vitro et transfert d'embryons. Pa Essay Help! La fécondation est réalisée in early childhood, vitro à partir d'ovules et de spermatozoïdes issus du couple ou donnés par d'autres couples puis l'#156;uf fécondé est implanté dans l'utérus de la femme. - ICSI : injection de spermatozoïde intra-cytoplasmique : même principe que précédemment mais le spermatozoïde est injecté directement dans le cytoplasme de l'ovule. Il existe d'autres traitements, que l'on peut combiner ou non aux méthodes d'insémination artificielle (stimulation ovarienne par traitement hormonal, . Type Of Introduction Paper! ).

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Observing and Assessing Early …

The 6 Most Impressive Resume Liars. If we've ever made you laugh or think, we now have a way where you can thank and support us! It's a tough world out there for education observation the job hunter. And who among us hasn't stretched the diet pills research paper, truth just a little bit in the resume department? Working at education observation Subway counts as a sales job, right? Actually, your problem may be that you're just not thinking big enough.

Sit back and take a lesson from the all-time-great resume bullshitters . Highly decorated retired Lt. Col. Jay Cafasso worked as an racial segregation essay expert consultant for Fox News during their coverage of the invasion of Afghanistan. And who better to help Fox producers navigate the byzantine insider world of the early essays, U.S. military than a man who had served in type research paper Vietnam and was honored with the Silver Star for early essays bravery? Cafasso's resume didn't end with the war in Vietnam, either -- in 1980, he was part of Operation Eagle Claw, the failed secret mission to rescue U.S. hostages in Iran. So he was a member of some losing teams, but you probably can't blame him for that. The point was the man knew war and counter-terrorism first-hand. The only thing he feared was a toothbrush. Unfortunately, he was also a bit of a know-it-all dick and his demeanor began to wear on the nerves of some staff members. The Washington bureau chief for Fox News, Kim Hume, finally decided to let him go.

Still, his employers held him in high regard -- in an email message to the staff, Hume wrote that Fox's military and pa essay help counter-terrorism consultant, Mr. Early Education Observation Essays! Cafasso, made crucial contributions to diet pills research our coverage of the early childhood observation, war on terror and helped take Fox's war coverage to the next level. Brit and Kim Hume play a friendly game of Dueling Strokes for research the camera. Cafasso had been let go due to his brusque personality, but what the news hounds at early childhood education Fox failed to uncover was that Cafasso was a complete fraud. His only segregation military experience had been 44 days of boot camp in childhood education observation essays 1976, after which he had been discharged -- presumably for being a dick. He also claimed he was The Rock, but he totally wasn't.

It wasn't until an pa essay help outside researcher who had worked with Cafasso hired investigators to look into his background and brought his findings to the network that the ruse was revealed, after which we can only assume the minds behind Fox News tried to fire Cafasso again . But, hey, at least he was just acting as a war expert for observation cable news, and didn't have an racial important job in homeland security or anything . Dr. Laura Callahan literally held one of the most important IT positions in the country as the childhood observation, Department of Homeland Security's Deputy Chief Information Officer. We're talking about the person who managed databases full of information on segregation terrorists here. And for good reason: She had spent years holding that position with the Department of Labor and childhood observation had a Ph.D. in computer science along with multiple other degrees. She's been playin' since beta, bitches! And if you didn't know that, she'd be happy to tell you. She made it more than clear to 250 word essays everyone within earshot of her that she was the childhood education, preeminent expert in her field. She led with a My Way or the doctorate literature, Highway management style and even the slightest questioning of early education observation, her knowledge or authority could lead to a reprimand or termination. She demanded to be addressed as Doctor at all times and review mentioned her degree nine times in her single-page biography. And why not?

She earned that shit. Eh, maybe not. After years of this, a low-level employee in the government did some digging and found out that Callahan's Ph.D., and education observation essays actually all three of her degrees, had been purchased from an online diploma mill within the space of one year. In a cunning move that would impress the single parents essay, highest pedigree of master criminals, Callahan had them all back dated to make it appear she received them at the appropriate points in her career. Let us remind you: Department of Homeland Security's Deputy Chief Information Officer . That meant Callahan was privy to highly classified material and education was responsible for kind of important things like, well, homeland security. All thanks to pa essay help three fake degrees that managed to fool the federal government but were no match for some random guy with Google. Gonna have to narrow that down.

Of course this has to make you wonder if other high-level federal employees pulled the same trick. Thankfully the Government Accountability Office looked into it and only found about education 500 people who did the same thing, more than half in the Department of Defense. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, or MIT, is known for two things: being incredibly difficult to get into and having the single essay on motherhood, nerdiest undergrads in the country. So as Dean of Admissions at MIT, Marilee Jones was the gatekeeper for a school known for early education essays rigorous admission standards, and 250 word essays as such, had a pretty impressive pedigree herself. She boasted of early childhood observation, degrees from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Union College and Albany Medical College, which is more than most evil geniuses.

Had to settle for his second choice of Sioux Falls Cosmetology School. In 2001, Jones received MIT's Excellence Award for Leading Change, which recognized Jones' leadership as dean of admissions. 250 Word Essays! She also co-authored the book Less Stress, More Success: A New Approach to Guiding Your Teen Through College Admissions and Beyond. We're just going to early education observation essays assume that the 250 word essays, other author was Nikki Sixx of Motley Crue. In an observation eerily prescient quote from the book, Jones said, Holding integrity is segregation sometimes very hard to do because the temptation may be to cheat or cut corners.

But just remember that 'what goes around comes around,' meaning that life has a funny way of giving back what you put out. And while still holding the position of dean of admissions at MIT, Jones delivered a speech at her daughter's 2006 commencement from Middlesex School, advising the graduates to create your own reality. Yeah, you know where this is early education going. After an essay on motherhood anonymous tip to the university, it was revealed that Jones had made up her entire educational history -- she had no degree from any of the three schools she claimed. She had been fudging her credentials while making sure others didn't do the same . for 28 freaking years . That's bullshitting since the early education, disco era, kids. Yes, not only did MIT fail to pa essay help catch her when she was hired, but also failed to notice her complete lack of qualifications in early essays all of the years since she started in 1979 . Jeffrey Papows was the single parents, President and CEO of early observation, Lotus Corp. and if you're picturing a geeky Bill Gates-looking dude in pa essay help glasses, think again.

Based on his backstory, if Top Gun and Jet Li somehow had sex, they would have produced Jeffery Papows. When asked for a picture of himself, he sent us this. His past was as noble as it was badass. He told of early education essays, his amazing rise from lonely orphaned child to daring Marine flier. He spoke of his black belt in tae kwon do and his Ph.d. from Pepperdine University.

And while Papows was tough as nails, he also had a compassionate side -- he talked about how he helped support the widow of a fellow flier who died ejecting from the same disabled F-4 Phantom jet in literature which Papows survived. Is that the face of a man who would lie to y- HEY, WAIT A MINUTE! After it was revealed that Papows wasn't a Marine Corps captain and had zero flight time while in education observation the service, Papows had lots of backpedaling to doctorate literature review do. No, he didn't burst an eardrum when ejecting from a Phantom F-4 and no, there was no dead co-pilot and no widow. Early Childhood Essays! It seems he also didn't, as he had claimed, save a buddy by throwing a live grenade out of a trench. Papows was also not a tae kwon do black belt, and he didn't have a Ph.D. from Pepperdine University (his degree was from a correspondence school). And to the great relief of at doctorate literature least two people, Papows was not an orphan.

His parents were alive and well, living not too far away from his offices in Massachusetts. They declined to comment. It's all pretty funny, the idea of this pompous blowhard running a Fortune 500 company on fumes of manufactured glory from yesteryear. Wait, did we mention that Papows used his war hero claims to secure sales to the U.S. military? They really just don't check up on anybody, do they? If you ever wondered what Ferris Bueller would be like if he grew up and went to work at a law firm, we're pretty sure Brian Valery has shown us.

Yeah, we can actually see that. When it came to avoiding long hours at the office, Brian Valery had it all figured out. While working as legal assistant for the prestigious law firm Anderson, Kill Olick, Valery informed his bosses that he would be attending Fordham law school at night, and therefore needed to childhood observation leave work early each day. After three years, Valery told his bosses that he finally passed the single parents on motherhood, bar exam and was admitted to the New York State Bar. Anderson Kill promoted him and Valery began representing clients, including a high profile drug company in an Oxycontin lawsuit. Oxycontin was pissed, and early observation essays someone was going to have to type pay up. Somehow, the education, very strict vetting process at Anderson Kill failed to uncover that Valery not only doctorate literature review wasn't a member of the observation, Bar, there's no record that he ever applied or sat for the bar exam in New York or even set foot in a Fordham Law School classroom , for which he was clocking out review, early each night to attend. It was only childhood essays through a tip by an old undergraduate classmate (from a university that Valery didn't graduate from either) that Valery's ruse was exposed. The bar Valery actually sat for. According to pa essay help later accounts, Valery did a very good job portraying a typical first or second year lawyer, in early childhood education observation essays that he pretty much sucked. After cutting through his bullshit, Anderson Kill fired him and paper then sued him for $284,000, claiming the early essays, amount of racial segregation essay, money he defrauded them in salary differential.

Valery was also prosecuted and indicted on education observation essays 32 counts of fraud, including grand larceny. Holy crap! Don't screw over a law firm, kids. An interview with an eight-year-old heroin addict entitled Jimmy's World landed Washington Post reporter Janet Cooke the coveted Pulitzer Prize for 250 word essays Journalism. Just a year earlier, Cooke had applied at the Post with an impressive resume that included a Phi Beta Kappa degree from Vassar College. Executive editor Ben Bradlee was so taken with this fact that he underlined it before forwarding the early education observation, resume to managing editor, Bob Woodward (yes, that Bob Woodward), who in turn hired Cooke. Hell, on top of doctorate literature, everything else, the early childhood observation essays, woman even spoke three languages -- English, French and Spanish.

You can't fool the greatest investigative reporter who ever lived . can you? Immediately after Cooke's gripping tale of the eight-year-old dope addict was published, Washington, D.C., went apeshit searching for little Jimmy. Mayor Marion Barry assigned a special task force to locate the young boy -- presumably to ask him if they shared the same dealer. All schools, social services and police contacts were put on high alert. Word went out on the streets that big reward money was available for tips leading to the pint-size addict's whereabouts, presumably after the of introduction for a paper, idea to early leave a trail of type of introduction, heroin baggies into a cleverly disguised net trap was unanimously voted down. But after a 17 day exhaustive search, Jimmy still couldn't be located. When pressed, Cooke refused to divulge any information that would help find him. She explained that she needed to protect her sources and essays was also worried about pa essay help her own safety from vindictive drug dealers.

Vindictive drug dealers were not available for comment. Finally, rumors began to circulate that Jimmy didn't exist and early childhood observation essays that Cooke had simply made him up. Even though Cooke wouldn't reveal her source and was quite dodgy about how/where the interview came to be, Woodward and the Washington Post stood firmly behind her. Bob Woodward. The man who took down the Nixon administration. In the midst of all this heat coming down on her, when it came time to fill out her Pulitzer application Cooke swung for 250 word essays the fences, scrutiny be damned. While Cooke's original resume cited her ability to speak French and early childhood education observation Spanish, on of introduction research her new one Portuguese and Italian were added to her growing linguistic repertoire. Her single (fake) award from the Ohio Newspaper Women's Association blossomed into six separate awards, along with another from the childhood observation essays, Ohio AP. The newly improved bio also showed that she graduated magna cum laude from Vassar in 1976 (she was only there one year) and attended the Sorbonne in pa essay help 1975.

And also, I invented the childhood education, modern map. After winning the Pulitzer, Cooke's newly enhanced biography appeared on the AP wire. Noting that the Pulitzer resume was even more fantabulous than the pills paper, one they saw when hiring her, the childhood essays, higher-ups at the Washington Post finally decided to question her. Even after a lengthy interrogation, Cooke stuck firmly to her story. So what finally caused her to come clean, causing her Pulitzer to be revoked and her to pa essay help resign from the Washington Post ? Someone finally thought to early childhood observation essays ask her some simple questions in French and it was obvious that she had no idea what was being said.

And . no one thought to do that before? Why the doctorate, hell aren't our employers this trusting? You can read more from Diana on her Tumblr or follow her on Twitter. If we've ever made you laugh or think, we now have a way where you can thank and support us! Modern America, Explained With Charts.

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Early Childhood essays

5 Tips for Creating a Photo Essay with a Purpose. Education Observation! As a photographer, you are a storyteller. The nouns are your subject matter; the doctorate verbs are the childhood color and contrast that keep the story moving. A cast of characters all working together to get your point across. Instead of single, proper grammar, you ensure proper exposure.

Instead of spelling errors, you watch for tack-sharp focus. For those times when the story is especially important and meaningful, or for when one image doesn’t say it all, there is the early childhood essays photographic essay. With blogging and social media, photo essays are more popular than ever: humorous or emotionally relevant, sparking debate or encouraging compassion, each with a story to tell. I’ve mentioned before that taking on pa essay help a photo project is one of early education observation, my favorite ways to pa essay help, reignite my love for photography, but beyond that, it’s a great way to get your message across and have your work seen by a larger group. A photo essay is early childhood observation essays, intriguing; it’s something to talk about after people hear that you’re a photographer and want to know about the glitz and glamour of it all. It’s the perfect thing to tell them after you’re done going on and on about all of the red carpets, the single parents essay on motherhood celebrities, the fame, and the fortune. It also can be extremely satisfying and early essays kick-start your creative wonderment.

By definition, a photographic essay is a set or series of photographs intended to tell a story or evoke emotions. It can be only images, images with captions, or images with full text. In short, it can be almost anything you want it to be. Which is where I struggle mostwhen the options are limitless. In this freelance world we live in, I love a little guidance, a little direction. Ideally, someone to tell me exactly what they want and doctorate review promise to early essays, be thrilled with whatever I produce, for 250 word essays, my fragile artist ego can’t take any less. Early Essays! While I continue my quest for that, I offer you these 5 tips for creating your own, completely without bounds, photographic essay: Each time I’ve had a very specific concept in mind before I started shooting, it’s never been the end result. An example: for diet paper, a hot minute, I offered a “day in early childhood essays the life” session to my clients.

I was photographing so many of the same clients year after year that I wanted to be able to offer them a different spin on the portrait sessions I was doing for them. I asked a long-time client if her family could be my guinea pigs for this and told them that we could do whatever they wanted. Diet Pills Research! We went out for ice cream, had a mini dance party in their living room, and I photographed a tooth that had been lost that very morning. Then, very last, I photographed the two young daughters with notes they had written, which to be honest, I’m not even sure how they had come about. Early Childhood Education Observation Essays! I rushed home after the session and edited those last note pictures first just because they were so different from single essay, what I usually shoot, and early observation essays posted them on my personal Facebook page the heading Notes Girls Write . Within minutes a dear friend, and fellow photographer, commented that this was big. Bigger than just the racial segregation two pictures. Early Childhood Education Observation Essays! She and I would spend the next year working on paper a photo essay that became a blog, that in early education essays turn became a book entitled Notes Girls Write . Pa Essay Help! We photographed hundreds of early childhood observation, women of all ages with their notes, each one later expressing having their portrait taken with their own words was an extremely powerful moment for them. Beyond my beautiful children, the 250 word essays fact that I can make a bed with hospital corners like no one’s business, and the award I won in the 4th grade for “Most Patient”, Notes Girls Write is one of my proudest accomplishments. It evolved on its own, starting from a few similar photographs that struck a cord in education essays viewers and becoming a large and powerful project, one of the essay biggest markers in my career so far. TIP: Don’t be so set in early education observation your idea that your project can’t outgrow your original concept. Your images will guide you to your end result, which may end up being different than you originally envisioned it.

2) If you think there’s something there, there’s likely something there. For the last year I have been a “foster mom” with a dog rescue group. Volunteers transport dogs that would otherwise be put down from overpopulated shelters, or seized from doctorate literature review, terrible situations, to my area, where dog adoption rates are much higher. These dogs live in foster homes while they receive medical care and early education essays basic training so that they can be adopted out to loving homes. It’s incredibly rewarding. Especially when I had hardwood floors. I knew from the 250 word essays first time I met the education observation transport van I wanted to document what it looked like: a van full of dogs that just narrowly escaped death arriving to temporary homes where they will experience a level of love and care which they’ve likely never known. I tear-up every time I see it.

I am also put to single parents on motherhood, work every time I am there, so taking photos while holding onto a 100 pound German Shepard is early education essays, tough. It’s going to take me several trips to diet pills paper, have enough images to education essays, do anything with, but that’s fine. Pa Essay Help! I have no idea what I will be doing with these photos. I know they will find a home somewhere: maybe with the rescue group to raise awareness, or to early childhood observation, help bring in volunteers, or maybe they will do nothing more than document my own story with volunteering, or perhaps something more. I’m not sure yet, but the point is diet research, that I have the images, ready for their time, whenever that is. TIP: If you think there is early childhood observation essays, something to pa essay help, it, there likely is. Even if it’s just a personal passion project. Take photos until you find the direction or purpose and save them until your essay takes shape. You may not end up using all, or any of the images, but in continuing to early education observation, take photographs, your project will be defined. I’m the “World’s Worst Over-Shooter”. Need one image?

Let me take a hundred so we know we have it. Luckily for my bad habit, the photographic essay needs over shooting. Whether you know what your plan is, or have no idea want your end result will look like, the 250 word essays more coverage you have, the better. This is one of the few times I push my luck and ask my subjects to observation, work for single essay, me until they never want to education observation essays, see me again (I only photograph people though, so if you are photographing mountains or something, you have the added advantage of not pushing people until they cry or yell). 250 Word Essays! Don’t be shy. Shoot everything you know you don’t need, just in case you need it. Should your end product need supporting images or take a different direction than you originally thought, you’ll be ready. Take advantage of digital (if that’s how you shoot) and fill a memory card. You may end up trashing everything, or you may not. Childhood Education! I had no idea that my Notes Girls Write project would span for diet, as long as it did, but because I didn’t turn down anyone who was interested in the very beginning I ended up with some shots that told complete stories and expanded on the original concept.

TIP: Think big. If you are shooting an early childhood education observation essays essay where mountains are your subject matter, see the mountain in segregation essay pieces and childhood essays photograph the surrounding trees, rocks, and whatever else. Diet Pills Paper! This will save you having to return to the beginning of the project for supporting shots, or having to reshoot if your essay takes a different turn than you planned. 4) Ask for help with image selection. Essays! I struggle with this oneI let my personal feelings get involved. Throughout our Notes Girls Write project I was constantly picking images based on segregation essay my personal feelingsthe subjects that I had connected with more, and the girls that I knew were most interested in education observation essays the project. This is where it is so helpful to have someone else help. Someone who has no personal feelings towards the images and pa essay help will help you pick based only on the strength of the image and not your own feelings. Even if people were not involved as subjects, you tend to have personal feelings toward images that the early childhood observation essays general public may not see the power behind.

I recently photographed several dozen sexual assault survivors as part of a photographic essay for a victim advocacy’s annual gallery show. This event is meant to literature, put faces on the survivors and raise awareness, and has been a large local event for years. I was thrilled to be selected to be the childhood education observation exclusive photographer, though this was one of the hardest projects I’ve ever taken on. The photo sessions themselves, whether five minutes or 30, were extremely emotional for the survivors and in the time I spent with them, I often learned a lot about their journey and experience. This made it difficult for me to pick which final images would be used for the show, based only on the power of the image and not my personal feelings. In the end several select friends helped me narrow each survivor’s images down, and the subjects themselves selected which would be the final image used, as ultimately this is their story. TIP: All creative work is personal, and looking at photographs we take ourselves is incredibly hard to doctorate, do with clear eyes.

We see the mistakes, the personal feelings, the shot that could have been better. It’s impossible to always set these aside so when working on a project that is incredibly important to you, or large in scale. Observation! Have others help you decide what images to use for your final pieces. Bring in people who are interested in doctorate review photography and people that aren’t. People that know about your subject matter and people that don’t understand it at early education all. But above all, bring in people who will be honest and not tip-toe around your feelings.

Lastly, also bring a thick skin. 5) Tell your story, in fact shout it from the rooftops if you can. Maybe your original idea for literature, your photographic essay was to post it on your blog. Awesome, nothing wrong with that, but are you sure it can’t be more? Shop it around, who can it help? Does this benefit a group, an organization, or a person? Could it inspire people?

If you feel passionately about the early childhood photos, chances are that someone else will too. 250 Word Essays! Your photographic eye doesn’t stop when your shooting is done. If you felt compelled to observation, take the time to create a photographic essay, there are likely “readers” for your story. TIP: This isn’t the time to be humble. Taking on a photo essay is a large endeavour. While there’s nothing wrong with having it be something you only racial segregation essay did for your own personal growth, showing it around can be helpful both in early childhood observation essays experience and longterm benefit. Pa Essay Help! Post it on social media, find appropriate places your essay could be displayed, and think about how it helped you. Every single photo essay I have done has led to an outstanding connection, or more work, and there is nothing wrong with getting those things along with the childhood observation essays personal gain of type of introduction paper, accomplishing something you’re proud of. The ideas are truly for a photographic essay are limitless. Truly.

Want a few more ideas for projects, try these? Have you ever done a photographic essay? What is your experience? Share with in the comments if you have, or have considered it. If you haven’t, what are you waiting for? Read more from our Tips Tutorials category. Lynsey Mattingly photographs families, kids, couples, and other groups of people who, for whatever reason, kind of like each other. Her portrait work has been featured in People Magazine, Us Weekly, BBC Magazine, and on national TV including CNN, Oprah, and Ellen, but most importantly, in the personal galleries of clients across the country.

Her photography can be viewed at or on Facebook. Excellent post Lynsey. I suffer from the same challenges as you in tip #4. I get caught up in my personal meaning behind some of my pictures. Apparently, others feel the childhood observation essays same way. I have an idea for a photo essay I wanted to pursue, this article helped grow it further.

Thank you. Wonderful article. I liked the picture for #3. Single Parents Essay On Motherhood! This is the main reason why I think a blog is a much more interesting format than a photo sharing site such as flickr or 500px to show your work; for me, the images are just part of the story, but the words and early education texts can help define them, giving them context and body. For me, an image rarely works alone and usually comes in a set with a particular rhythm and literature flow; what precedes and what follows is early education observation essays, a very important element of pa essay help, each capture, as well. One example from education essays, my blog, a short walk that I took recently along a humble neighborhood in Bangkok: I think the issue in Tip #4 is common to 250 word essays, all creative endeavors: We all get too close to early childhood observation essays, the material. In a previous life, I was a writer and editor, but when it came time for research paper, me to childhood essays, edit my own stuff, I had somebody else look at it. 250 Word Essays! We have too much of ourselves tied up in the work to be objective sometimes. Wonderful article, thank you #128578; some of the early childhood education essays examples are awesome and thought-filling. Of Introduction! Thank-you for telling me about essays this!!

It pretty much rocks. I am so glad that I came across this article this morning. I am no pro photographer but just someone who loves capturing images to share. 250 Word Essays! I have been asked to volunteer my time to capture a group of students in Beijing, who would be traveling to Xian, the home of the terracotta warriors, to help out in a orphanage just 2 weeks from now. I have never done this before. They are not expecting much. Early Childhood Education Essays! Just pictures for the event. However, I wanted to tell a story. A story of racial, these volunteers as well as the orphans and I have been struggling over the past week of whether is that what I should do. After reading this article, I know that I am on early childhood observation the right path and hopefully help not to take pictures of people, but take pictures of the story behind the people.

Thank you again very much. Pills Research Paper! This is my first opportunity to use my hobby for a good cause, and I am very excited about it. Thank you again for this great article. Really good points and very motivational to get me on a riveting photo essay again. I did attempt one such photographic essay which I titled #8220;The World of Weeds.#8221; Would appreciate a few visits with any helpful comments or critiques. It#8217;s over at one of my blogs and early observation can be found here: you have some beautiful images there, but I would keep the focus similar. the shift in focus from 1, 2, 3 and 5 is radical. 5 the green plant on the corner and diet pills research paper then 7 seems another sudden change. The drain-pipe is beautiful because the eye follows the path of the pipe and early education essays so tightly focused. It seems to diet research paper, be erratic because you have the wonderful still life of dried plants against nearly solid backdrops like walls and then sudden change to green plants that don#8217;t seem to have the same focus.. Early Childhood Essays! but the essay dried plants and childhood essays wall work, the drain beautiful and interesting. The green plants against walls work well with dried plants because they have similar conceptual style.

Overall, is racial, interesting group and should be developed some more. I recently completed my first photo essay as an eBook. Childhood Education Observation Essays! It took me a long time to figure out how to work with iBooks Author, but it was a great platform to pa essay help, construct such a vehicle to display digital photographs in a meaningful way. Unfortunately, it only publishes to iBooks, which translates, effectively, to having the eBook only on iPads. Observation! Photo essays in black and white. Diet Pills Research! This post inspired me to start my website of childhood observation, photo essays. My current ongoing series is pills research paper, about a band I went on tour with and the different things I learned and encountered: I recently made a photo essay which was published in a mainstream web portal so I#8217;m quite happy about that. I agree that sometimes, photographs have to be put in context by childhood using words to string them together.

Also believe that any subject can be turned into of introduction for a paper, a photo essay. Education Observation Essays! The Photo Essay is a piece where its the photographer#8217;s voice through and through. Landscape Photography Tips. Photo Composition Tips. Beginner Photography Tips. 2006 - 2017 Digital Photography School, All Rights Reserved / Disclaimer.

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40 Useful Words and Phrases for early observation essays, Top-Notch Essays. The secret to a successful essay doesn’t just lie in the clever things you talk about and the way you structure your points. To be truly brilliant, an essay needs to utilise the right language. You could make a great point, but if it’s not intelligently articulated, you almost needn’t have bothered. Pa Essay Help. Developing the language skills to build an argument and to write persuasively is crucial if you’re to write outstanding essays every time. In this article, we’re going to equip you with the words and phrases you need to education essays, write a top-notch essay, along with examples of how to utilise them. It’s by no means an exhaustive list, and there will often be other ways of using the words and phrases we describe that we won’t have room to include, but there should be more than enough below to help you make an instant improvement to type paper, your essay-writing skills – whether you’re a native English speaker or taking your first steps into writing essays in English. Let’s start by education observation essays, looking at language for general explanations of complex points.

Usage : “In order to” can be used to introduce an 250 word essays, explanation for the purpose of an argument. Example : “In order to early childhood observation, understand X, we need first to understand Y.” Usage : Use “in other words” when you want to racial essay, express something in early observation a different way (more simply), to make it easier to understand, or to emphasise or expand on a point. Example : “Frogs are amphibians. Pills. In other words, they live on the land and in childhood education essays the water.” Usage : This phrase is another way of saying “in other words”, and can be used in essay particularly complex points, when you feel that an alternative way of childhood, wording a problem may help the reader achieve a better understanding of diet research, its significance. Example : “Plants rely on early childhood, photosynthesis. To put it another way, they will die without the sun.” Usage : “That is” and racial essay, “that is to say” can be used to add further detail to your explanation, or to be more precise.

Example : “Whales are mammals. That is to say, they must breathe air.” Usage : Use “to that end” or “to this end” in a similar way to “in order to” or “so”. Example : “Zoologists have long sought to early education essays, understand how animals communicate with each other. To that end, a new study has been launched that looks at elephant sounds and their possible meanings.” Adding additional information to support a point. Students often make the mistake of using synonyms of “and” each time they want to racial, add further information in support of a point they’re making, or to build an argument. Childhood Education. Here are some cleverer ways of diet pills, doing this. Usage : Employ “moreover” at the start of a sentence to add extra information in support of early essays, a point you’re making. Example : “Moreover, the results of a recent piece of research provide compelling evidence in racial support of…”

Usage :This is also generally used at the start of observation essays, a sentence, to add extra information. Example : “Furthermore, there is evidence to suggest that…” Usage : This is used in the same way as “moreover” and “furthermore”. Example : “What’s more, this isn’t the only evidence that supports this hypothesis.” Usage : Use “likewise” when you want to 250 word essays, talk about early education essays, something that agrees with what you’ve just mentioned. Example : “Scholar A believes X. Likewise, Scholar B argues compellingly in favour of this point of view.”

Usage : Use “similarly” in the same way as “likewise”. Example : “Audiences at the time reacted with shock to Beethoven’s new work, because it was very different to what they were used to. Literature Review. Similarly, we have a tendency to react with surprise to the unfamiliar.” Usage : Use the phrase “another key point to remember” or “another key fact to remember” to introduce additional facts without using the word “also”. Example : “As a Romantic, Blake was a proponent of early childhood observation essays, a closer relationship between humans and racial, nature. Another key point to remember is that Blake was writing during the Industrial Revolution, which had a major impact on childhood, the world around him.” Usage : Use “as well as” instead of “also” or “and”. Example : “Scholar A argued that this was due to pa essay help, X, as well as Y.” Usage : This wording is used to add an extra piece of early childhood observation essays, information, often something that’s in 250 word essays some way more surprising or unexpected than the first piece of observation, information.

Example : “Not only did Edmund Hillary have the honour of being the review first to reach the childhood education summit of Everest, but he was also appointed Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire.” Usage : Used when considering two or more arguments at a time. Example : “Coupled with the literary evidence, the statistics paint a compelling view of…” Usage : This can be used to structure an argument, presenting facts clearly one after the racial segregation essay other. Example : “There are many points in childhood education observation essays support of this view. Firstly, X. Secondly, Y. And thirdly, Z. 16. Not to of introduction research, mention/to say nothing of. Usage : “Not to mention” and “to say nothing of” can be used to add extra information with a bit of emphasis.

Example : “The war caused unprecedented suffering to millions of people, not to childhood observation essays, mention its impact on the country’s economy.” Words and phrases for demonstrating contrast. When you’re developing an diet research paper, argument, you will often need to early childhood observation essays, present contrasting or opposing opinions or evidence – “it could show this, but it could also show this”, or “X says this, but Y disagrees”. Diet Paper. This section covers words you can use instead of the “but” in these examples, to education essays, make your writing sound more intelligent and interesting. Usage : Use “however” to introduce a point that disagrees with what you’ve just said. Example : “Scholar A thinks this. Literature. However, Scholar B reached a different conclusion.” Usage : Usage of early childhood, this phrase includes introducing a contrasting interpretation of the type of introduction paper same piece of early observation essays, evidence, a different piece of single on motherhood, evidence that suggests something else, or an opposing opinion. Example: “The historical evidence appears to suggest a clear-cut situation. On the other hand, the archaeological evidence presents a somewhat less straightforward picture of what happened that day.” Usage : Used in a similar manner to “on the other hand” or “but”.

Example : “The historians are unanimous in early education essays telling us X, an agreement that suggests that this version of events must be an racial, accurate account. Having said that, the archaeology tells a different story.” Usage : Use “by contrast” or “in comparison” when you’re comparing and contrasting pieces of evidence. Example : “Scholar A’s opinion, then, is based on early childhood education observation essays, insufficient evidence. By contrast, Scholar B’s opinion seems more plausible.” Usage : Use this to cast doubt on essay, an assertion.

Example : “Writer A asserts that this was the reason for what happened. Early Essays. Then again, it’s possible that he was being paid to say this.” Usage : This is used in the same way as “then again”. Example : “The evidence ostensibly appears to point to this conclusion. That said, much of the evidence is unreliable at best.” Usage : Use this when you want to introduce a contrasting idea. Example : “Much of pa essay help, scholarship has focused on this evidence. Yet not everyone agrees that this is the most important aspect of the situation.” Adding a proviso or acknowledging reservations. Sometimes, you may need to acknowledge a shortfalling in early observation essays a piece of pills research paper, evidence, or add a proviso. Early Childhood Education. Here are some ways of doing so.

Usage : Use “despite this” or “in spite of research, this” when you want to outline a point that stands regardless of a shortfalling in the evidence. Example : “The sample size was small, but the results were important despite this.” Usage : Use this when you want your reader to childhood, consider a point in the knowledge of something else. Example : “We’ve seen that the methods used in the 19th century study did not always live up to segregation, the rigorous standards expected in early observation essays scientific research today, which makes it difficult to draw definite conclusions. With this in mind, let’s look at a more recent study to doctorate review, see how the results compare.” Usage : This means “on condition that”.

You can also say “providing that” or just “providing” to mean the same thing. Example : “We may use this as evidence to support our argument, provided that we bear in mind the education essays limitations of the methods used to doctorate literature, obtain it.” Usage : These phrases are used when something has shed light on childhood education essays, something else. Example : “In light of the evidence from the 2013 study, we have a better understanding of…” Usage : This is similar to “despite this”. Example : “The study had its limitations, but it was nonetheless groundbreaking for parents essay, its day.” Usage : This is the same as “nonetheless”. Example : “The study was flawed, but it was important nevertheless.”

Usage : This is another way of saying “nonetheless”. Example : “Notwithstanding the limitations of the methodology used, it was an important study in the development of how we view the workings of the early childhood essays human mind.” Good essays always back up points with examples, but it’s going to get boring if you use the expression “for example” every time. Pills Research. Here are a couple of other ways of saying the same thing. Example : “Some birds migrate to avoid harsher winter climates. Childhood. Swallows, for instance, leave the UK in early winter and fly south…” Example : “To give an pills research, illustration of what I mean, let’s look at childhood observation, the case of…”

When you want to of introduction for a research paper, demonstrate that a point is particularly important, there are several ways of highlighting it as such. Usage : Used to introduce a point that is loaded with meaning that might not be immediately apparent. Example : “Significantly, Tacitus omits to childhood, tell us the kind of gossip prevalent in pills research paper Suetonius’ accounts of the same period.” Usage : This can be used to early childhood education essays, mean “significantly” (as above), and it can also be used interchangeably with “in particular” (the example below demonstrates the first of these ways of using it). Example : “Actual figures are notably absent from Scholar A’s analysis.” Usage : Use “importantly” interchangeably with “significantly”. Example : “Importantly, Scholar A was being employed by X when he wrote this work, and was presumably therefore under pressure to 250 word essays, portray the education situation more favourably than he perhaps might otherwise have done.” You’ve almost made it to single parents, the end of the early childhood observation essays essay, but your work isn’t over yet.

You need to end by wrapping up everything you’ve talked about, showing that you’ve considered the essay arguments on observation, both sides and reached the most likely conclusion. Here are some words and phrases to help you. Usage : Typically used to introduce the pa essay help concluding paragraph or sentence of an essay, summarising what you’ve discussed in a broad overview. Example : “In conclusion, the early childhood observation essays evidence points almost exclusively to Argument A.” Usage : Used to signify what you believe to be the most significant point, and the main takeaway from the essay. Example : “Above all, it seems pertinent to remember that…” Usage : This is single essay, a useful word to use when summarising which argument you find most convincing. Example : “Scholar A’s point – that Constanze Mozart was motivated by financial gain – seems to me to be the most persuasive argument for childhood education observation essays, her actions following Mozart’s death.”

Usage : Use in the same way as “persuasive” above. Example : “The most compelling argument is presented by Scholar A.” Usage : This means “taking everything into account”. Example : “All things considered, it seems reasonable to review, assume that…” How many of education observation essays, these words and phrases will you get into your next essay? And are any of your favourite essay terms missing from our list? Let us know in essay the comments below! 221 Responses to childhood essays, “40 Useful Words and type research, Phrases for early essays, Top-Notch Essays” January 09, 2015 at 250 word essays, 8:47 am, Jimmy Tan said: January 23, 2016 at early childhood observation, 1:13 am, AN INDIAN said: It is very useful for junior as well as to senior.It is awesome……………… thanks for doctorate literature, this.

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They are causally related, i.e. one is a consequence of the other. I believe this is better, both logically and stylistically: ‘Romantic writers, including Blake, decried the negative impact of the Industrial Revolution on, amongst other things, society’s connectedness with the natural world. Consequently he foregrounded the importance of improving the early childhood education essays relationship between humankind and racial essay, nature.’ You also lace your examples with contractions and these have no place in early childhood observation academic writing. September 19, 2016 at 11:18 am, Helena said: March 23, 2017 at 5:33 pm, Dr. Jim Loving said: You are correct. Pills Paper. I have taught writing for 40-plus years, and I find many of these suggestions wordy and observation, unnecessary. For instance, “In order to” can simply to be “To.” June 02, 2015 at 1:48 am, phertauwete said:

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This is 250 word essays, helpful! Thanks for sharing! October 06, 2015 at early childhood observation essays, 10:59 pm, Joe said: Thanks for the list. I think it would also be helpful to include a list of words to help express the thoughts of the racial segregation essay writers being referenced in the essay, for early childhood observation, example, “Jacob states that teachers need to consider the learning abilities of all students” or “Williams asserts that reading English texts more often can increase the on motherhood writing skills of ESL learners”. It sometimes becomes boring to keep saying, “so-and-so states that…” October 12, 2015 at 9:07 am, faiz said: This was useful for early childhood observation, me. October 14, 2015 at 3:09 am, Lilow W. said:

This article was wonderful. Parents. Furthermore, I don’t think my world history grade, as well as my grades in language arts and science, would have been half of what they are now without it. All things considered, this was an early childhood observation, amazing article and paper, I recommend it to early education essays, anyone looking to give their essay an of introduction research paper, elegant twist. October 15, 2015 at 3:41 pm, Ayushi said: Thanks!! Really a very useful list! October 18, 2015 at 3:29 pm, Missy said: Really helpful ……………. Early Childhood Observation Essays. Thank you guys.

October 19, 2015 at 10:49 am, steven O'Donnell said: I would have also included “in fact” October 19, 2015 at 9:42 pm, Tom Howell said: *Gasp* As someone who has studied and takes a modicum of interest in the English language, and having spent a lifetime writing scientific essays, all I can say is this list of cliches will not aid you in diet pills research your academic pursuits. This is a categorical list of English don’ts that will undoubtedly be highlight with a sigh, and a comment something along the lines of “Please, no more” – paraphrased of childhood observation essays, course. Some of these are inescapable and are useful tools, but please use in moderation. Single. If you truly wish to improve your writing, consider the use of language in literature you may study as part of your academic endeavours – be it english or technical based. What makes a writing style worthy of childhood observation, note, and what makes it tedious and type research, monotonous? The use of structure, engaging writing styles, and early education observation, even metaphors can be true keys to essay success.

December 07, 2015 at racial segregation essay, 8:24 am, Jeff B. Early Childhood. said: Tom, I must agree. In my English class such cliches as listed here would be highlighted and returned to the student with an admonition to “please use your own words,” or something to that effect. As I like to doctorate, joke, “Cliches should be avoided like the plague.” October 20, 2015 at 8:22 pm, yoursif said: October 22, 2015 at 5:00 pm, nur amira said: thanks it was indeed helpful. November 02, 2015 at 1:11 pm, sania said: really..its very helpful. im unanimous in early childhood education asserting that how this has engendered an advantageous my result. November 12, 2015 at 10:59 am, Alex said: This is so great… thanks for the A grade.

November 16, 2015 at 1:22 pm, Chala said: Thanks a lot for pills research paper, this helpful article. One question though: The example given for phrase 12 “Scholar A argued that this was due to early, X, as well as Y.” has a comma included after “X”, but isn’t a serial comma incorrect in literature a series of two items? November 21, 2015 at essays, 9:05 pm, Yo said:

November 26, 2015 at 5:29 pm, courage said: thanks very much.very useful we look forward for other posts. November 29, 2015 at 1:13 am, Joey said: I don’t really feel comfortable using firstly, secondly, thirdly to introduce new points… does anyone else feel the same? December 07, 2015 at of introduction research paper, 7:58 am, Jeff B. Childhood Observation. said: While some of the type research suggestions in this article are valuable, I am going to have to agree with Tom Howell about the use of cliches. Many of the phrases suggested (e.g. “To put it another way” and “Another key thing to remember”) are cliches, and should be avoided in original writing. Another note: this article recommends the early childhood education observation essays use of “In conclusion” to introduce the 250 word essays conclusion. My suggestion is to avoid it, and I am not the only one who feels this way.

To quote the childhood observation essays Writing Center at research paper, Harvard University: summary,’ and ‘to sum up.’ These phrases can be. useful–even welcome–in oral presentations. But. readers can see, by the tell-tale compression of the. pages, when an essay is about to end.

You’ll irritate. your audience if you belabor the obvious.” If your readers cannot figure out education observation essays, that from reading your text that you are presenting your conclusion, then your conclusion has more problems than simply the introduction to 250 word essays, it. December 07, 2015 at 8:03 am, Jeff B. said: Note: In my comment above, I should have specified “for college-level writing… and above.” Further, I will say that sometimes, indeed, “In conclusion” can be a useful phrase, but in early education observation essays many if not most cases it should be avoided. December 07, 2015 at type of introduction for a research, 10:43 am, Jeff B. said: * Assuming, of course, that my “comment above” is actually posted after it undergoes “moderation.” Otherwise my note makes no sense…

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essay on the moon Essay on childhood education, Autism. Essay on Autism. Autism: Past, Present, Future, Speculative. Autism is all over the news right now, a very different situation than 18 years ago when we were looking for the cause of our son's developmental delay. Much of the media coverage, however, focusses on the sound-bite and tear-jerking opportunities that any problems with young children can provide. This is fine for the television crews, but it really does not inform the public, or help parents who are wondering whether their child could be autistic, or what to do with a child who is autistic.

Autism is a neurological condition, a developmental disorder. Increasingly, as the ability to of introduction for a research paper image brain structure and trace brain function improves, it's evident that autism results from physical differences in the structure and function of the brain. Although it used to be considered a psychiatric disorder with an emotional cause, it is early observation essays, instead a physical problem, in diet pills research, the same way that a missing limb or eye is a physical problem. Education Observation Essays! The autistic child's brain is not physically set up to process information the of introduction, same way as an average baby's brain. One of the most frustrating things for early education observation essays parents is that there is no single, obvious test for autism itself--there are only screening tests which look at children's behavior and skills, and research paper compare them to those of average children the same age. Early Education! These screening tests have improved (when our son was a toddler, we were told he could not be autistic because he clung to, and research paper showed affection for, family members--not true) but they are not good enough, or widely known enough, to be trusted by education essays, non-specialist physicians and by school personnel. Tragically, many autistic children are refused services they need because a physician or a school counselor refuses to accept that the child is autistic. It is easier for a school, for instance, to label a child disruptive, difficult, oppositional, lazy, naughty, etc., than to admit that he is autistic and that they have been mistreating him for years.

In our society, issues of causation and blame arise whenever there's a problem. Whose fault is type for a, it? is often the first question parents ask a doctor when a child has a developmental problem. Years ago, when autism was believed to be a psychiatric illness, an emotional illness, doctors told mothers that they were the essays, cause--it was the mother's style of parenting which made children autistic. Segregation! They were wrong. While abusive parenting can produce some autistic traits in normal children, autistic children nearly always arrive with their problem. Today, the education observation, loudest voices claim that immunizations cause autism.

Their main argument is that children exhibit symptoms shortly after a series of shots. Single Parents Essay! What they miss is that infants too young to have shots are also too young to observation look much different unless they have gross physical malformations or extremely low levels of behavior. An autistic infant and a non-autistic infant look the same at birth, and for some months after. Pills Paper! But then the education essays, non-autistic infant develops on the average timetable, and the autistic infant--who has looked normal up until then--falls behind. How can that be if something didn't happen right before the development slowed, ceased, or reversed? We are now learning things about the developmental process that show how a slowdown or halt could be pre-programmed to appear only later. Each stage in 250 word essays, the complex development of early education a human's nervous system requires completion of a previous stage--just as you have to have the foundation complete before starting to put up the walls of a building. During the previous stage, both biochemical precursors and physical structures prepare the child to continue to and through the next stage of development.

It's possible to 250 word essays have something go wrong--be missing, be chemically underfunded --at an childhood education early stage, which will not be needed until later. The problem shows up when there is essay on motherhood, a developmental need that can't be met. Imagine a builder working on a project who finds out, halfway through framing the childhood education observation essays, second floor, that he can't get any more lumber, or someone putting together a puzzle who doesn't know there's a missing piece until the puzzle is well along toward completion. It is clear from recent work on the structure and function of the for a paper, human brain that autism results from specific problems in childhood education observation essays, brain development which occur, in most cases, before birth, even though the results of those problems do not show up until the brain has reached the developmental stage where it needs the missing pieces. 250 Word Essays! In many cases, there is evidence of subtle (and sometimes obvious) neurological difference in family members, especially when the extended family of both biological parents is considered. Early Observation! This strongly suggests that most autism is genetic in origin. It also suggests that improved therapy for essay on motherhood autistic children, which helps them become more sociable and thus increases their chance of marriage and early observation parenthood, will result in 250 word essays, more autistic children being born to autistic parents. What is it like to be an autistic individual?

Only autistic individuals know for sure. Interviews with autistic people, their essays and books, all suggest that the autistic experience is just as varied as the non-autistic experience. Some people are happy. Some people are not happy. Education Observation! Some people have close friends. Some do not.

The similarities imposed by the condition do not impose an 250 word essays emotional tone or even a core personality in childhood education observation essays, the Myers/Briggs sense. Some autistic individuals, for instance, are extroverts; our son is single essay on motherhood, one of them. From my reading, and from correspondence with autistic individuals online, I've come to think that autistic people are much more like the rest of us than previously thought. Their emotional lives are very much like mine: they want to be with people they enjoy being around, people who accept them for who they are, people who understand them, people who like them . They want to childhood education observation eat the food that tastes good to for a them, wear clothes that are comfortable for them, be in temperatures they find comfortable, do the things they think are fun. They want their concerns to be understood and taken seriously. They like people to get their jokes. They want to childhood be respected. One of the things which impressed me about our son, even before he could communicate in signs, gestures, or words, was the healthy quality of his emotional life. Yes, he screamed when he was upset, and I would have preferred a Mom, I don't want to do that.

But the things he enjoyed were reasonable, healthy things to enjoy: food that tasted good, music he liked, running around on paper, the grass on a spring day. There was nothing weird about what he liked. His dislikes were harder to understand, but made sense once I realized that his sensory input was different than mine, and his responses were stronger. He felt hot when I barely felt warm. Tags in clothes (that I find only mildly irritating) bothered him a lot. He liked some colors more than others.

Certain textures and flavors in food bothered him more. He liked some people and didn't warm up to others. These are perfectly normal responses in a small child--just on a different scale. His likes and dislikes tended to be more intense (typical of an earlier developmental stage: infants are usually very intense in their likes and dislikes.) What is the central deficit in autism? This argument is still going on observation essays, among researchers. My background in computer programming led me to what is not one of the main contenders at present, but the most recent brain imaging is 250 word essays, beginning to lean my way. Although the childhood education essays, human brain is segregation essay, not *just* a computer, some of the early education observation, tools of 250 word essays information processing in observation essays, computers can be useful in looking at how the brain handles information. In my opinion, the so-called central deficit is pills paper, not central at all--in computer terms, it's not a problem with the main processor chip, but with something in education observation essays, the input/output stream: perhaps a buffer, perhaps an internal bus, perhaps a switching mechanism. Here's why I think this. All autistic individuals I know about--and the parents of autistic children--agree that autistic people perceive the world a little differently than the single essay, average at the sensory level.

That is, the primary raw sensory data is not getting to the central processor in the same way that it gets to the average brain. The odd patterns of extra sensitivity and insensitivity that autistic children display reflect this, as do the subtle (and sometimes obvious) differences in their patterns of attention and movement. From computers, we know that garbage in/garbage out education essays determines the computer's performance: the central processor will come up with wrong answers if the type of introduction for a research, information going into childhood observation it is wrong. If the 250 word essays, input device, a keyboard for early observation instance, is miswired or has a piece of potato chip under one key, then it may send the wrong signal to the processor when the user tries to send information in. If the input buffer--where information is stored temporarily before being sent on to the central processor--isn't big enough, information can be lost or transmitted out of type of introduction paper order.

If the early education essays, internal communications channels are too slow, information backs up and may be lost, or the central processor may get ahead of itself and try to compute without having all the pa essay help, data. Some programs may require a pre-processor which performs computations on early childhood education, incoming data before it goes to the central processor; if the pre-processor doesn't work right, then the central processor is handed bad data to work with. These are just a few of the ways in which a computer can go wrong without having a problem in the central processor. The human nervous system has analogues for all these and more. The peripheral nervous system--the nerves in pa essay help, fingers and skin and eyes and childhood education ears and tongue and pa essay help nasal cavity--collects the sensory information which becomes the data input to the brain. When you have a cold, you lose the ability to smell most things--your brain then gets corrupted smell data. When you have a sunburn, your skin tells your brain that a light touch is like a slap. Education! When an single on motherhood arm or leg goes to childhood education essays sleep and becomes numb, your brain may think it's not even there. We have all experienced small, temporary glitches in our sensory input. But there's another kind of problem that can arise, with the speed of transmission, not the accuracy of pickup. Racial Segregation Essay! Imagine a computer keyboard.

You press A and A appears on the screen; it has also reached the central processor, so that if A is a command (A for early education add, A for another, A for Aunt Alice's email address) the computer responds to that command. The speed of transmission of that electrical signal makes it possible to send commands, or type a message, as fast as you can type. Now imagine that the keyboard has a very slow connection. You type A, and nothing happens. The seconds tick by. Finally an doctorate literature A pops up on the screen.

It would take a long time to compose a message to Aunt Alice--or to give a series of commands for an accounting program--if you had such a slow connection. Or suppose the keyboard would not transmit an A at all unless you pressed on the A key for five seconds. That would also slow down the transmission of information, even if the actual transmission time were the childhood essays, same. The human nervous system can have similar glitches. Research has shown that some people have slower nerves than others--it takes longer for an electrical impulse to travel from the finger to the brain than it does for others. And it's also shown that some people need sensory impulses to racial last longer before they're captured (slow capture rate.) This can have serious consequences.

For instance, in normal speech, the sounds of early education essays many consonants are very brief--on the order of 75 milliseconds. Type Of Introduction For A Research! If an infant cannot capture such brief sounds--needs the education essays, sound to last, say, 200 or 300 milliseconds before it's caught--then the infant will not even hear the sounds of most consonants. If the infant doesn't hear them, then they don't become part of the pa essay help, library of speech sounds which the infant uses to build a model of speech, and understand which sounds are speech and which aren't. Some non-autistic children with severe language delay have exactly this problem. Some autistic adults who can now talk have described what speech sounded like to them when they were small--and they say it was like 'mooing' or 'groaning'--full of vowel sounds, not consonants. A problem with slow capture rate that affects more than one sensory channel would interfere in a number of ways with information processing and normal development.

Autistic individuals have problems with interpreting the early childhood observation, rapid changes in facial expression which modify verbal communication--recognizing the brief twitch of an eyebrow or quirk of the literature, lips that changes You stinker from an angry insult to a loving compliment, for instance. They often have difficulty interpreting similarly rapid changes in pitch, rate, prosody that interact with the words spoken. They may be unable to observation essays see the picture on a TV screen, because of the rapidly scanning raster. They may not feel a brief painful stimulus, or may feel a painful stimulus delayed from its actual onset. If the diet pills, slow capture rate and a slow transmission rate are combined, it's clear that the early childhood education observation, data available for processing on the inside would always be out of pa essay help phase with what's going on outside. Many parents report that autistic children are slow to respond even when they can respond appropriately: here is one physical model that might explain why they're like that. Sensory integration--the ability to early observation combine sound, sight, touch, and other senses into one coherent sensory experience--is another area in which most autistic persons have problems. Essay! Some autistic adults describe being unable to understand speech unless they deliberately shut off the early childhood education essays, visual channel (shut their eyes, look down.) In the average infant, sensory integration develops over 250 word essays, the first few years in a seamless way. Education! But if the capture rate and/or transmission rate of the senses are not synchronous--if the visual channel and the sound channel are out of synch, as you sometimes see on TV--the infant has no way to make them match. As an adult, you know how to adjust if the announcer's mouth and speech aren't in type of introduction for a research, synch. But an observation essays infant has no prior experience to work from.

If your mouth is making the motion for one sound while the infant hears another, then looking at you will not help him copy that sound. There's another complication which few computers possess. Most computers will sit passively waiting for information to come to them. Diet Pills! The silicon chip doesn't care if it's computing or not. The human brain, however, is education observation essays, not capable of sitting idle in the dark, so to essay speak; it will make things up and amuse itself while waiting for data to arrive. If the data from normal sensory channels doesn't arrive, something else will be going on--and when the sound or the sight or the essays, touch signal does arrive, the brain will work it into the pattern it had already created. Our brains are pattern-makers. Essay! The rigid patterns of play typical of early childhood education essays autistic kids--stacking blocks over and over, laying out objects in racial essay, repetitive sequences--are quite possibly the essays, result of the brain's pattern-making ability going to racial essay work on whatever is available. You see similar behavior in average kids and early education observation adults when they're bored--they swing their legs, tap pencils, doodle rows of similar designs. Adding to that complication is another.

The human brain is not only busy all the time, in racial, childhood it is also always growing. and education essays it grows in 250 word essays, response to its experience, both in terms of structure (the neurons and childhood education essays their connections) and research paper function (what it can do, what calculations it can make.) If its experience is limited, possibly because the data coming in are limited in comparison to the data that average children can acquire, then its growth will also be limited and aimed in the direction of the activity it *can* perform. What this means is early childhood education observation essays, that the diet pills research paper, brains of early childhood education observation essays adult autistic individuals are not necessarily representative of the brains (and potentials) of autistic infants and young children. It is diet pills research paper, not a good idea to reason backward from the structure of an adult autistic's brain to assume that the same structures are missing in the infant's brain. Observation! It's important to remember that the final structure and function of anyone's brain reflects both innate structure and developmental experience, just as the segregation, outward physical condition of a 60 year old reflects both inherited physical characteristics and how that body was used throughout life. The 60 year old ballet dancer will have a different body than a twin who never danced. Why am I so sure that the central aspects of cognition are not the problem in autism? Observation, both of autistic children and (through their writing) of adult autistic individuals, combined with a knowledge of how information processing works in complex systems like computers and humans. Where autistic individuals are presented with correct data in a sensory format they can use (such as math), they reason clearly and well; they understand cause and effect in physical (nonsocial) situations very well. Many if not most autistic children have no trouble learning letters, numbers, and they may pick up reading (simple decoding) even faster than the average child. But letters and numbers hold still on the page. Childhood! Where they clearly fall behind is in situations where the necessary data require sensory processing in multiple channels--which all social interaction definitely does.

Neurocognitive research on 250 word essays, brain function is already helping to define the way that typical brains work--how we convert our sensory input into a model of the world, how we use that model to communicate with each other and manipulate things around us. The next stage for research into autism will be to define how the early observation essays, brains of autistic people work. It will be important to go beyond defining different to 250 word essays discovering what the difference is, and what its implications are for development. Interventions to help autistic children should be based on their reality--on the childhood essays, way their brains actually do function, rather than on guesses. Once we know--at the biochemical, molecular level--how typical brains grow, develop, and function. and we know how the brain of an of introduction research paper autistic child grows, develops, and functions. precisely targeted intervention will become possible.