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Integrative assessments/critical thinking

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APA Essay Format: Help with Writing Your Essay Paper. An APA , American Psychological Association, style is assessments/critical a standard of writing academic papers in a variety of in africa essay, subjects relevant to the social sciences. This allows to write essays and research papers according to the same generally accepted standard in Sociology, Psychology, Education, Political Science, Business and other disciplines. APA Style is notable for integrative thinking certain requirements related to paper format, font, margins and essay on race discrimination, headings, as well as referencing. We designed this page to integrative assessments/critical thinking guide you through all the theme, peculiarities of formatting a paper in APA style . Learning about APA style will be a very rewarding experience for you, as you will be able to reply it in all of your next writing assignments. Quick Navigation through the APA Essay Format Page: The Fundamentals of an APA Essay Format. What comprises the APA style ? Does it provide requirements only to referencing the sources or to whole essay? In their published guide book, the American Psychological Association, provides APA standards on the following issues: Title page. Unlike MLA style which doesn#8217;t require a title page, it is assessments/critical a must in APA essay format . It usually contains such standard elements as the title of the paper, the student#8217;s name, teachers or course name, and the due date. In Essays Underlined? The APA title page can be easily distinguished by the running header, the integrative assessments/critical, page number on the title page and two titles (a short one is discrimination followed by the full title). Abstract . Abstract is integrative a single paragraph usually a half page long, and is written on a separate sheet.

An abstract summarizing the entire paper has the same copyrights as the whole paper. It should provide the main ideas/results of the in essays are novels underlined, paper and mention the methodology used to achieve them. Page format . Page format recommendations in APA style concern page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing. In-text references . The format of references in APA format is the integrative assessments/critical, foremost subject of student#8217;s concerns. You may pick up citations, quotations and summaries from various sources to support your statements. When you use the idea or results that are not yours, they are to be referenced correctly. APA style approves of in essays are novels underlined, in-text references.

The author and the year of publication should be included within the parenthesis in the essay. Page numbers also need to be mentioned when picking up lines from a book. Use of quotations . Thinking? APA style recommends to put short quotations in in essays are novels, quotation marks. If the quotations used exceed the word limit of 40 words, then the writer should indent 5 spaces from the margin and it should be double spaced. Also, in assessments/critical, case of a long quotation, quotation marks should not be used, instead it should be ended with a full stop. Headings . Though it may be not required for in a an essay, but if you will write a research paper or thesis in APA format you#8217;ll need to structure it. Headings are used to separate and classify paper sections. Integrative Assessments/critical Thinking? Thus use different heading styles for headings of sections and research, subsequent subsections. Integrative? Reference list . Reference list is a must when you use in-text references, for you need to present the full information about the sources used.The reference list includes all sources used in the essay writing and cited in the paper, and it is arranged according to the alphabetical order by author. It is also of great importance to know how exactly different sources are cited as books, journals, magazines, and web pages are cited in a different way with certain requirements to each type of a source. You may consider how the basic APA requirements are met in APA Essay sample . APA Essay Template (Cick the Image to Enlarge) When using APA style there are a few standards to keep in mind: double spaced; have all the margins set to one inch; it’s recommended to use the heuristic research, font serif typeface for the text and sans serif typeface for any labels; use 10-12 for the font size; always have page numbers; a header with the title of the paper should also be used.

So, you may either format your essay in APA format yourself or download APA Template in rtf file from P rof E ssays.com . Our expert writers will format your paper for integrative assessments/critical free when you place an poverty order on our website. Your essay will come to you in the APA format with a free bibliography and proper in-text citations. Other free extras that are included are a free outline, free plagiarism report and free title page. Try our services and get 15 percent off your first order! Just put the code FPE15OFF in the order form to get the discount, and request the free add-ons that you need.

We know the integrative thinking, feeling, it#8217;s like a 300 lb weight on your shoulders. The paper#8217;s due date is fast approaching, you think about the work all the time but haven#8217;t started yet and in essays are novels, you spend hours staring at a blank piece of paper waiting for inspiration to integrative assessments/critical strike while your friends are all out having fun. Well, that can all change in an instant. Theme Essay? P rof E ssays.com is a reliable academic writing service service providing professional essay help. Integrative Assessments/critical Thinking? Our qualified experts genuinely understand how to compare school bullies write an A+ essay in APA Format. Use our interactive calculator to see how much it will cost you to gain your freedom back. Within 10 minutes, you can be out integrative assessments/critical thinking, having the are novels underlined, time of your life while we write an A+ paper for you and deliver it to your inbox always on time! Learn More. Why choosing us to help?

P rof E ssays.com has been providing custom writing services to students for the past eight years. Integrative Thinking? Thousands of students have benefited from our services, achieving excellence in their courses and and contrast school, education. The evident testimony to the excellence of our services and the trust our customers have in us is that 65% of our customers come back with repeat orders. Your privacy is important to P rof E ssays.com , none of your personal information or details, such as credit card or banking details, will ever be compromised or disclosed to any third party. You are always on the save side with P rof E ssays.com ! Click here to place your order. References are obligatory in a body of the integrative assessments/critical, essay if you use some external sources, and especially when you cite them in the APA essay . In-text references are used instead of footnotes in APA format. The sources are indicated by the last name of an author, a year of publication and a page number (if possible). In-text references are put in parenthesis (round brackets) within the sentence. Thus the standard in-text reference in APA style will have the following format (Author, year) or (Author, year, page) . But there may be variations: 1. If you are referring to an idea from another work, summarize it findings, or tell about the authors viewpoint you are referring to the whole book and compare and contrast essay school to dictators, should use (Author, year) format. Thinking? Example : T. E. Lawrence, a British intelligence officer, became regarded as the man who was in charge of the Arab revolt (Thomas, 1924).

2. If you are quoting the source or bring in in africa, figures provided in it, you need to include the page number in your in-text reference. Like: (Author, year, page). Example : Lawrence was compared to #8220;a caliph who had stepped out from the pages of #8216;The Arabian nights'#8221; (Thomas, 1924, 16) 3. If the author or the year of publication is already mentioned in the sentence there is no need to repeat this information in the in-text citation again. Examples: With Lawrence in Arabia was published in 1924 (Thomas). Lawrence of Arabia became famous due to thinking the book of Lowell Thomas (1924).

4. Multiple authors reference . If the source is written by multiple authors, then you should state last names of all of them, at least in the first reference within the essay. Later in the essay, one can use the name of the first author with et al for height others. Example: (Morris, Raskin, 1993) first in-text reference. Assessments/critical? (Morris et al., 1993) subsequent in-text reference. 5. In case of no author . In some cases the author may be an organization or department, so the stating of their name will complete the APA essay format . Or else the mention of the book will also fulfill the need. Titles of books in the in-text references should be italicized, titles of compare, articles, chapters, and web pages are in assessments/critical thinking, quotation marks. Organization: (ProfEssays.com, 2009) Book: (The correspondence, 1914) The reference list includes all sources used in the course of the essay and cited in the paper.

The references should always be organized in alphabetical order . This gives an organized look to the essay. It is also important to know exactly how different sources, such as books, journals, magazines, and web pages should be shown in the reference list. As certain requirements differ for each type of source: Book : Author, A. (Year of publication). Title of wuthering height, work: SUBTITLE. Location: Publisher. Note: if you have several books by assessments/critical thinking the same author in in a, the reference list, you should list them in chronological order. Article : Author, A. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number (issue number), pages. on-line source : Author, A. Integrative Assessments/critical Thinking? A. (Year, Month Date if availiable). Title of article. Name of the web-site.

Retrieved from http://www.url/ on Year, Month Date. Readers and writers alike can find headings as a useful tool in writing. Aside from providing order, essay headings can function as an poverty essay ID – in the sense that it can provide identification on the ideas that are presented below. Headings function as a guide for your readers, as it will clue them in on your thought flow. The APA style allows five levels of headings when writing. Level one is the integrative, first category, while the subsequent levels are provisions for succeeding sub-categories. What To Write In A Scholarship Essay? In the APA essay format it is of the utmost importance to integrative use the discrimination, titles and integrative assessments/critical, headings appropriately. APA makes recommendations on height the APA essay headings format, where information on font, punctuation and position are provided, all of which can be viewed at integrative assessments/critical thinking, ProfEssays.com : heading level 1: Centered, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 2: Left-adjusted, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 5: Indented, italicized, with a period . Note : in APA format headings #8220; Introduction #8221; and #8220; Conclusion #8221; are not required! Only the discrimination, parts of the main body should have headings! Title page should be numbered in APA format. A “running header” should be placed in the right corner at the top of the assessments/critical, page next to the page number.

A “running header” in APA style contains a short title of the essay. The essay title should be placed one-third of the page down from the top. APA styles requires to write a short title first, put a colon and write the full title underneath. Author#8217;s name is usually several lines underneath. The name of the in africa essay, course, the name of integrative thinking, professor, and the date of essay, submission are printed at the bottom of the assessments/critical thinking, APA title page. To Write In A Scholarship Essay? APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and thinking, figures. You may not need it in your APA essay , but there are APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and figures.

Abbreviations can be used later in the essay after the full form is mention in the first time. Wuthering Essay? This saves space, but makes a mention of the assessments/critical, author, book or organization each time it is used. In APA papers both tables and figures should be presented on separate pages, with the wuthering essay, caption at the bottom of the page. What to remember with the APA essay writing format. The main thrust of assessments/critical thinking, documenting guidelines is to avoid plagiarism. To do so, several citing outlines have been created by many academics or groups – one of compare and contrast essay school, which is the American Psychological Association or the assessments/critical, APA. As with other documenting guidelines, the APA generally recommends in-text citations. These types are enclosed in a parenthesis and placed immediately after the borrowed thought or idea. When beginning with the APA essay writing format , P rof E ssays.com suggests that the student should always remember to take note of the to write essay, reference material’s author(s), publication house, publication year and the page number where the idea was taken from. APA essay format may sound tricky and troublesome to assessments/critical some, but is wuthering height theme actually an easy way to organize a written work. The APA Essay Format is entirely designed to structure the flow of integrative, thoughts throughout the essay.

It is said that the citing is complicated, but only has a few rules and and contrast essay school, guidelines that need to be followed. The format can be adapted depending on the nature and the topic of a custom essay. Assessments/critical? It particularly helps in essay, cases where many writers are involved in the writing process at the same time, giving symmetry and a logical presentation without a miss to the readers. When writing an essay, citing your reference(s) is considered a critical part of the writing process. Integrative? This fundamental element of writing helps students avoid plagiarism.

In an heuristic research academe, plagiarism is integrative assessments/critical a very serious offense that can sometimes lead to expulsion. The American Psychological Association or the compare and contrast essay school bullies to dictators, APA style is the formatting guide that is integrative assessments/critical used when writing a paper on the Social Sciences. Research? As with all documenting styles, the APA has recommendations on essay format, headings and integrative assessments/critical thinking, citing references. Information on formatting your APA essay now easier because there are a number of on-line sites, such as P rof E ssays.com , which can provide you with key points in documentation. Anyone and any company can claim to offer its essay help, but not every company can offer high-quality and result-oriented essay help. The appropriate APA format for your manuscript. Many professors recommend strict compliance with manuscript formatting guidelines when writing any type of academic paper. Following the format not only ensures organization for poverty essay each essay written by an individual student, but it also provides uniformity in appearance for all students’ academic papers. In writing a paper regarding the social sciences, APA makes several recommendations and guidelines on assessments/critical the format of in essays are novels underlined, essays . Though these elements may seem trivialon the use of the title page, the assessments/critical, format of essay, headings, page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing. Though these elements may seem trivial, P rof E ssays.com believes that compliance remains a must. College essay format: writing effectively in the collegiate level.

What differentiates a college essay from a high school or a junior high school essay is the level of professionalism it exudes. As more complex topics are discussed, the need for further research becomes a necessity. Another important factor to consider is the format of the essay. APA college essay format requires thorough referencing and citing as well as structuring of the assessments/critical thinking, essay . While college academic papers follow the essay bullies, basic essay format of assessments/critical thinking, introduction, body and conclusion, it is important to remember that the APA college essay format must be more encompassing and underlined, more extensive. Integrative Thinking? The APA college essay format differs from simple APA style so we provide specific essay help in this type of writing. P rof E ssays.com believes that many academes actually require a five paragraph essay on discrimination the college level, where the body consumes 60% of the whole essay. P rof E ssays.com is professional and reliable essay writing service which provides 24/7 customer essay help. Write Effectively With the Right Essay Format.

A standard essay format provides order to any academic paper. Though this is merely a superficial element of essay writing, its importance is undeniable, as many established documenting styles provide recommendations for the format of any academic paper. The American Psychological Association, APA, also has suggestions for your APA college essay format .

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Integrative Assessments/Critical …

Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Computer technology made its way into writing instruction and integrative thinking, assessment with spelling and grammar checkers decades ago, but more recently it has done so with automated essay evaluation (AEE) and diagnostic feedback. And although many programs and theme, tools have been developed in the last decade, not enough research has been conducted to assessments/critical support or evaluate the claims of the in essays underlined, developers. This study examined the effectiveness of automated writing instructional programs in consistent scoring of essays and appropriate feedback to student writers. It examined the scoring and instructional program called MY Access! Home Edition , which has an error feedback tool called My Editor to address these issues. The study combined a quantitative study of integrative thinking, agreement and correlational analyses with an analysis of content and topic. Participants included 114 English language learners who wrote 147 essays to three writing prompts, which were graded by trained EFL raters and MY Access . Compare And Contrast Bullies. From the sample, 15 randomly selected essays were also used for assessments/critical, an error analysis comparing My Editor with human annotations to examine My Editor ’s accuracy.

The main findings were that MY Access scoring was only correlated moderately with human ratings. Furthermore, because MY Access scoring is limited to the recognition of compare school to dictators, content words, not how these words are organized at the discourse level, it did not detect slightly off-topic essays and plagiarism. Finally, My Editor ’s error feedback, with 73% precision and 30% recall, did not meet the expectations of an accurate tool. Assessments/critical. In conclusion, the home edition of what scholarship essay, MY Access was not found to be useful as an integrative assessments/critical independent instructional tool. These findings give us pause regarding the underlined, effectiveness of MY Access . Computer technology is increasingly becoming part of language learning and assessments/critical, writing, despite initial rejections and lingering skepticism over underlined the last few decades (Dikli, 2006 Dikli, S. ( 2006 ). An overview of automated scoring of integrative, essays . The Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment , 5(1). Retrieved from http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1640/1489 [Google Scholar] ; Xi, 2010 Xi, X. ( 2010 ). Automated scoring and feedback systems: Where are we and where are we heading? Language Testing , 27, 291 – 300 . Discrimination. doi: 10.1177/0265532210364643 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). It was first used in integrative thinking, writing classes with spelling and grammar checkers, which eased worries about what to write “minutiae (such as how to spell minutiae) while composing, or even when revising and polishing” (Calfee, 2000 Calfee, R. Integrative Thinking. ( 2000 , September ). Height Theme. To grade or not to grade . In M. Integrative Assessments/critical. A. Hearst (Ed.), The debate on automated essay grading ( pp. 35–37 ). IEEE Intelligent Systems, 15 , 22–37. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Educational Activities Department. [Google Scholar] , p. 35).

Recently, it has taken on a bigger role in writing assessment in the form of automated evaluation of essays. This has attracted much attention from the assessment industry, writing instructors, and other stakeholders in an ongoing debate about the value of automated essay scoring, now known as automated essay evaluation (AEE). AEE applications include scoring engines with instructional programs in Criterion, MY Access , and WriteToLearn . What To Write Scholarship Essay. These programs, with their combination of automated scoring, automated feedback, and writing instruction tools, have gained ground at integrative assessments/critical different educational levels in the United States. Since the pioneering work on the Project Essay Grade by Ellis Page in 1965, many automated essay evaluation initiatives have emerged. Essay On Race Discrimination. These included ETS’ e-rater , Pearson’s Intelligent Essay Assessor (IEA), Bayesian Essay Test Scoring System (BETSY), and Vantage Learning’s IntelliMetric . A review of AEE developmental and research histories shows a tilted playing field toward the assessment industry that has dominated the debate. As Warschauer and Ware ( 2006 Warschauer, M. , Ware, P. ( 2006 ). Automated writing evaluation: Defining the classroom research agenda . Language Teaching Research , 10, 157 – 180 . doi: 10.1191/1362168806lr190oa [Crossref], [Web of integrative assessments/critical thinking, Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) noted, the majority of research validating different AEE systems is vendor funded and carried out to “demonstrate that it [AES software] ‘works’ either in the sense that its ratings correlate with those of on race discrimination, human ratings or that particular features or aspects function as desired” (p. 166). However, voices from the instructional side were first heard in Ericsson and Haswell’s book (2006) Machine Scoring of Student Essays: Truth and Consequences in which many writing instructors reported AEE failures in scoring essays satisfactorily. This study emerged from a similar concern: that AEE systems are not able to do a satisfactory job as writing instructors would expect. Assessments/critical. It examined this concern with a study of MY Access , which uses Vantage Learning’s proprietary IntelliMetric scoring system.

We selected MY Access for analysis because it is a popular program in the United States. Researchers have adopted different terminology to categorize AEE systems, depending on how they were developed. Brent and wuthering height theme essay, Townsend categorized ( 2006 Brent, E. , Townsend, M. ( 2006 ). Automated essay grading in the sociology classroom: Finding common ground . In P. F. Thinking. Ericsson , R. H. Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of student essays: Truth and essay on race, consequences ( pp. 177–198 ). Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . [Google Scholar] ) AEE systems as statistics-based and rule or knowledge-based approaches, whereas Ben-Simon and Bennett ( 2007 Ben-Simon, B. , Bennett, R. E. ( 2007 ). Toward more substantively meaningful automated essay scoring. The Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment, 6 (1). Retrieved from http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1631/1475 [Google Scholar] ) categorized them based on methods, namely, brute-empirical and integrative assessments/critical thinking, hybrid methods.

Statistics-based programs create scoring models based on a large set of pre-scored essays of essay on race discrimination, 300 or more. This input is assessments/critical, processed by the scoring system, such as IntelliMetric or e-rater , which extracts the predictive features from what to write scholarship essay, texts that lead to thinking the assigned ratings for what to write in a scholarship, new essays. The primary focus in statistics-based programs remains on linguistic considerations, such as mechanics, syntax, and writing conventions. The extracted features (usually more than 50) are then boiled down to 8–12 most dominant ones that are analyzed by integrative, using linear multiple regression equations to decide their best weightings in theme essay, predicting the ratings for new essays. Integrative Thinking. The set of finalized predictive features varies from one scoring model to another. In Essays Underlined. Until now, these models are prompt-based as the integrative thinking, system is trained using different sets of graded essay responses to specific prompts.

By this definition, ETS’ e-rater and Vantage Learning’s IntelliMetric are statistics-based because they extract features and their optimal weightings using statistical calculations instead of building on theory and height, indicators of good writing. Therefore, IntelliMetric belongs to the brute-empirical method . Rule-based or knowledge-based systems are trained on a large domain-representative text, such as textbooks or articles. Integrative Assessments/critical. The input for these systems is an expert knowledge base that results in a grading rubric detailing the criteria to score constructed essay responses. IEA, a scoring machine for discipline-specific courses (now known as Knowledge Analysis Technologies), has at its core Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA), a machine-learning method that characterizes a word used in a sentence, passage, or essay based on semantic associations (Landauer, Foltz, Laham, 1998 Landauer, T. K. , Foltz, P. W. , Laham, D. ( 1998 ). The intelligent essay assessor: Applications to educational technology. Interactive Multimedia Educational Journal of Computer-Enhanced Learning, 1 (2). On Race Discrimination. Retrieved from http://imej.wfu.edu/articles/1999/2/04/ [Google Scholar] ). Integrative Thinking. LSA claims to essay be the only evaluation system in which meaning is integrative assessments/critical thinking, dominant.

Simply put, “it promises to help teachers and learners by evaluating essays based on what their authors appear to poverty in africa essay know about a topic” (McGee, 2006 McGee, T. ( 2006 ). Assessments/critical. Taking a spin on essay on race the intelligent essay assessor . In P. F. Thinking. Ericsson , R. H. Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of underlined, student essays: Truth and consequences ( pp. Assessments/critical Thinking. 79–92 ). Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . [Google Scholar] , p. 83). Finally, IEA and wuthering essay, the later versions of e-rater , with their smaller set of theoretically grounded features linked to good writing characteristics, are hybrid method- based systems. Hybrid methods start with a set of thinking, features that are judged by writing experts to be indicative of good writing skills. These features serve as the blueprint on wuthering essay which the scoring rubric of automated scoring systems is generated. Either a set of pre-scored essays or an integrative assessments/critical expert knowledge base is used to extract the optimal weightings for different features in the final scoring rubric. The combination between theoretically based features and statistical calculations to height theme generate a scoring model leads to what is called “hybrid approaches.”

Objections to computer-automated essay evaluation. Despite all the assessments/critical thinking, advances, objections to computer-automated essay evaluation have been formidable. There are two main objections: humanist and defensive objections. To Write In A. First, there is the assessments/critical thinking, well-known objection from the Conference on College Composition and Communication ( 2004 Conference on what to write College Composition and Communication. ( 2004 ). CCCC position statement on teaching, learning, and assessing writing in digital environments . Retrieved from http://www.ncte.org.ezp.lib.unimelb.edu.au/cccc/resources/positions/digitalenvironments [Google Scholar] ): “Because all writing is social, all writing should have human readers, regardless of the purpose of integrative assessments/critical, writing” (p. 36; cited in Carr, 2014 Carr, N. ( 2014 ). Computer-automated scoring of writing responses . In A. J. Kunnan (Ed.), The companion to language assessment ( pp. 1063–1078 ). Essay. Malden, MA : Wiley . [Google Scholar] ). Generally, various studies on AEE systems have responded to integrative assessments/critical humanist objections, mainly challenging the poverty in africa essay, validity of fairly strong relationships between human ratings and AEE ratings in several corporate-conducted studies. But the correlations and thinking, agreement studies have not always shown high indices.

Liu and Kunnan ( 2016 Liu, S. , Kunnan, A. J. ( 2016 ). Investigating the applications of automated writing evaluation to Chinese undergraduate English majors: A case study of WritetoLearn . Poverty In Africa. CALICO Journal , 33, 71 – 91 . Integrative Assessments/critical Thinking. [Google Scholar] ) reported that correlations between human ratings and in africa, automated scoring by three AEE systems are high: .79 to .87 for e-rater (Burstein et al ., 1998 Burstein, J. Integrative Assessments/critical. , Braden-Harder, L. , Chodorow, M. , Hua, S. , Kaplan, B. , Kukich, K. , … Wolff, S. What In A Scholarship. ( 1998 ). Computer analysis of essay content for automated score prediction (Research Report 98-15). Princeton, NJ : Educational Testing Service . Assessments/critical Thinking. [Google Scholar] ), .93 (average) for Intellimetric (Vantage Learning, 2006 Vantage Learning. In Essays Underlined. ( 2006 ). Research summary: Intellimetric scoring accuracy across genres and grade levels . Retrieved from http://www.vantagelearning.com/docs/intellimetric/IM_ResearchSummary_IntelliMetric_Accuracy_Across_Genre_and_Grade_Levels.pdf [Google Scholar] ), and .76 to .95 for IEA (Foltz, Lochbaum, Rosenstein, 2011 Foltz, P. W. , Lochbaum, K. E. , Rosenstein, M. R. Thinking. ( 2011 , April). Analysis of compare and contrast essay school to dictators, student ELA writing performance for a large scale implementation of formative assessment. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Council of Measurement in Education , New Orleans, Louisiana . [Google Scholar] ). She also noted that exact agreement percentages are 45–59% for e-rater and 76% for Intellimetric (Attali Burstein, 2006 Attali, Y. , Burstein, J. ( 2006 ). Automated essay scoring with e-rater® v.2 . Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment , 4(3). Retrieved from http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1650/1492 [Google Scholar] ) and 50–81% for IEA (Foltz et al ., 2011 Foltz, P. W. , Lochbaum, K. Integrative Assessments/critical. E. , Rosenstein, M. R. ( 2011 , April). Analysis of student ELA writing performance for a large scale implementation of are novels underlined, formative assessment. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Council of Measurement in integrative assessments/critical, Education , New Orleans, Louisiana . [Google Scholar] ) but for adjacent agreements the percentages are very high: 87–97% for underlined, e-rater , 99% for integrative thinking, Intellimetric , and 91–100% for IEA (from the same authors). Furthermore, it is widely known that high reliability or agreement does not equal validity. Landauer, Laham, and Foltz ( 2003 Landauer, T. In Essays Underlined. K. , Laham, D. Assessments/critical Thinking. , Foltz, P. ( 2003 ). Automated essay assessment . In Essays Are Novels. Assessment in Education , 10, 295 – 308 . doi: 10.1080/0969594032000148154 [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ) commented on this problem, “The fact that all these disparate methods [human judges and automated essay scoring] produce similar results at least raises the suspicion that one could get acceptable reliability results with the use of integrative assessments/critical thinking, variables that are not conceptually valid [emphasis added]” (p. 305–306). As Koskey and school to dictators, Shermis ( 2013 Koskey, K. L. K. , Shermis, M. D. ( 2013 ). Scaling and norming for automated essay scoring . In M. D. Shermis , J. Burstein (Eds.), Handbook of automated essay evaluation: Current applications and new directions ( pp.

199–220 ). New York, NY : Routledge . [Google Scholar] ) pointed out, the scoring of assessments/critical, essays by automated essay evaluation is based on mainly quantitatively assessing the observed variables in essays. These variables are often referred to as “proxies” as opposed to “trins,” which are the latent and real underlying variables that we are interested in measuring. They cited a system that claims to height theme count the assessments/critical, number of times “but” is used in an essay as a proxy for sentence complexity. Moreover, because developers usually publicize scoring rubrics but choose to keep the weightings of these variables confidential, Coniam ( 2009 Coniam, D. ( 2009 ). Experimenting with a computer essay-scoring program based on ESL student writing scripts . To Write. ReCALL , 21, 259 – 279 . doi: 10.1017/S0958344009000147 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) commented in his study with BETSY that “despite high correlations with a human rater, computer programs still lack transparency in terms of how they achieve the integrative thinking, grades they award. This creates a validity problem as we do not know how ratings are achieved” (p. 276). Second, defensive objections are more problematic.

McGee’s ( 2006 McGee, T. ( 2006 ). Taking a spin on what to write in a essay the intelligent essay assessor . In P. Integrative Thinking. F. Ericsson , R. H. Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of in africa essay, student essays: Truth and consequences ( pp. Assessments/critical. 79–92 ). Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . [Google Scholar] ) experiments challenged all the claims about IEA. He found the “meaning” implicated by IEA to totally disregard cohesion and coherence, which are of great importance to the meaning construction of any text. Such findings make sense, because the in africa, most well-known approach to assign ratings to essays in AEE systems is the regression approach to predict the quality of an essay. However, the assessments/critical, scoring of are novels underlined, content always poses a bigger challenge for these systems than other observed variables, such as the number of commas, the assessments/critical, number of sentences, or the use of verb/noun agreement. Essay On Race Discrimination. Thus, to evaluate the content of an assessments/critical essay, AEE systems use an additional technique, such as those used by LSA to supplement their prediction weightings of heuristic, this variable. They base their evaluation of content on an analysis of keywords and integrative assessments/critical, synonyms or sets of what to write, keywords and synonyms in an essay and compare their Euclidean distance to the words on integrative thinking a master list. On the basis of such an approach, the appropriacy of the factual content in an esssay is measured in terms of its similarity of lexical choices to thesis a corpus at integrative the expense of coherence and height, cohesion. The “meaningful factual content” carried by integrative assessments/critical thinking, the AEE system is, therefore, independent of any factual accuracy.

As a result, a “bad faith essay” can easily trick the system into assigning a high score for a mechanically written essay. Essay Discrimination. Such findings have resulted in resistance from writing instructors. The recent Handbook of automated essay evaluation (Shermis Burstein, 2013 Shermis, M. D. , Burstein, J. (Eds.). ( 2013 ). Handbook of automated essay evaluation . New York, NY : Routledge . Integrative Assessments/critical. [Google Scholar] ) showed the recent advances and continuing evolution in recent years and its awareness of the objections presented above. A few of the questions they raised were: “Can systems be gamed? Does the in essays underlined, use of thinking, AEE foster limited signaling effects by encouraging attention only to on race formal aspects of writing, excluding richer aspects of the writing construct?

Does AEE subvert the integrative, writing act fundamentally by depriving the heuristic research, student of a true ‘audience’?” (p. Assessments/critical. 2). In the last 45-year period of AEE systems, validation research of automated scoring has provided many findings. On Race Discrimination. Yang, Buckendahl, Juszkiewicz, and Bhola ( 2002 Yang, Y. , Buckendahl, C. Integrative Assessments/critical Thinking. W. , Juszkiewicz, P. Poverty Essay. J. , Bhola, D. S. Integrative Assessments/critical Thinking. ( 2002 ). A review of research, strategies for validating computer-automated scoring . Applied Measurement in Education , 15, 391 – 412 . doi: 10.1207/S15324818AME1504_04 [Taylor Francis Online], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) identified three broad approaches. First, much of the research on automated scoring systems has been devoted to demonstrating correlations or agreements between automated ratings and assessments/critical, human ratings. The second group of studies has investigated the relationship between AEE ratings and external indicators, such as teachers’ judgments of student writing skills or other test results (Coniam, 2009 Coniam, D. ( 2009 ). Experimenting with a computer essay-scoring program based on in africa essay ESL student writing scripts . ReCALL , 21, 259 – 279 . doi: 10.1017/S0958344009000147 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ; Vantage Learning, 2007 Vantage Learning. ( 2007 ). MY access!® efficacy report . New Hope, PA: Vantage Learning. Retrieved from http://www.vantagelearning.com/school/research/myaccess.html [Google Scholar] ; Weigle, 2002 Weigle, S. C. ( 2002 ). Assessing writing . Cambridge, UK : Cambridge University Press . [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ). Assessments/critical Thinking. External factors that have been researched include multiple-choice tests, grades in courses dependent on writing, teachers’ ratings of student writing skills, and essay discrimination, students’ self-evaluations (Ben-Simon Bennett, 2007 Ben-Simon, B. , Bennett, R. E. ( 2007 ). Toward more substantively meaningful automated essay scoring. The Journal of Technology, Learning, and integrative assessments/critical thinking, Assessment, 6 (1). Retrieved from http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1631/1475 [Google Scholar] ). The third approach has explored the scoring process and mental models used by AEE systems.

For example, one concern about poverty in africa AEE scoring is the weighting of length as a scoring trait because length was found to be a highly predictive feature in e-rater (Chodorow Burstein, 2004 Chodorow, M. , Burstein, J. ( 2004 ). Beyond essay length: Evaluating e-rater®’s performance on TOEFL essays (Research Report No. Thinking. 73). Princeton, NJ : Educational Testing Service . [Google Scholar] ). In Jones’s ( 2006 Jones, E. ( 2006 ). ACCUPLACER’s essay-scoring technology: When reliability does not equal validity . In P. F. And Contrast Essay School Bullies To Dictators. Ericsson , R. H. Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of student essays: Truth and consequences ( pp. 79–92 ). Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . [Google Scholar] ) study scored by assessments/critical thinking, WritePlacer Plus , ACCUPLACER’s program using IntelliMetric as its automated scoring system, 85% of the variance in essay ratings was accounted for by length. 1 1 In a recent competition, ETS invited people to write essays that could trick e-rater into assigning lower or higher ratings than deserved. The winner’s technique was simply to write a paragraph and repeat it 37 times. E-rater gave this essay the highest possible score of 6 while two human raters both scored it “1,” creating the maximum discrepancy of five points between automated and human scoring (Powers, Burstein, Chodorow, Fowles, Kukich, 2002 Powers, D. E. , Burstein, J. C. Essay. , Chodorow, M. , Fowles, M. Assessments/critical Thinking. E. , Kukich, K. Essay On Race Discrimination. ( 2002 ). Stumping e-rater : Challenging the validity of automated essay scoring . Computers in Human Behavior , 18, 103 – 134 . doi: 10.1016/S0747-5632(01)00052-8 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). View all notes.

Xi ( 2010 Xi, X. ( 2010 ). Automated scoring and feedback systems: Where are we and where are we heading? Language Testing , 27, 291 – 300 . doi: 10.1177/0265532210364643 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) developed a list of thinking, validity questions related to poverty essay automated scoring, in the same way questions are asked in integrative assessments/critical thinking, a validity argument (as proposed by Chapelle, Enright, Jamieson, 2008 Chapelle, C. , Enright, M. , Jamieson, J. (Eds.). ( 2008 ). Building a validity argument for TOEFL . New York : Routledge/Taylor and Francis Group . [Google Scholar] ). These questions included underrepresentation or misrepresentation of constructs and wuthering height essay, writing tasks, validity and consistency of scoring, and whether test takers’ knowledge of the scoring algorithms would impact their writing. AEE systems and non-native student writers of English. Particularly relevant to this study is the performance of automated scoring systems on non-native (ESL and EFL) student essay responses. However, this dimension of AEE systems has received little attention (Coniam, 2009 Coniam, D. Assessments/critical. ( 2009 ). Experimenting with a computer essay-scoring program based on ESL student writing scripts . ReCALL , 21, 259 – 279 . doi: 10.1017/S0958344009000147 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). Instead of building systems to on race directly target non-native English speaker responses, models for native speaker essays have been used for comparisons with non-native counterparts. As Warschauer and Ware ( 2006 Warschauer, M. , Ware, P. ( 2006 ). Automated writing evaluation: Defining the integrative thinking, classroom research agenda . Language Teaching Research , 10, 157 – 180 . doi: 10.1191/1362168806lr190oa [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) noted, none of the AEE systems were originally built for what to write in a essay, the EFL/ESL population, but their development gradually has accommodated the needs of this population. This is integrative thinking, demonstrated in the various feedback options, including first language feedback now available for speakers of Spanish, Chinese, Japanese, and Korean in height theme essay, MY Access . Yet questions still remain whether these accommodations, well intentioned as they are, really help EFL/ESL students improve their writing skills. Weigle ( 2013 Weigle, S. ( 2013 ). Integrative Assessments/critical Thinking. English as a second language writing and automated essay evaluation . In M. D. On Race. Shermis , J. Burstein (Eds.), Handbook of automated essay evaluation ( pp. 36–54 ). Integrative Assessments/critical Thinking. New York, NY : Routledge . [Google Scholar] ) also pointed out the need for “the applicability of automated essay scoring (AES) systems to non-native speakers (NNSs)” (p. 36). Liu and Kunnan ( 2016 Liu, S. Compare Bullies. , Kunnan, A. Thinking. J. What To Write Scholarship. ( 2016 ). Investigating the applications of automated writing evaluation to Chinese undergraduate English majors: A case study of WritetoLearn . CALICO Journal , 33, 71 – 91 . [Google Scholar] ) found that WriteToLearn with Chinese undergraduate study participants was consistent but highly severe compared to the four trained human raters in scoring essays but, more importantly, it failed to integrative assessments/critical score seven essays.

EFL teachers and essay on race discrimination, independent researchers’ studies. A number of EFL researchers have recently reported results of their student writers’ reaction to MY Access and its instructional applications, including My Editor, MY Access ’ text analyzer and proofreading tool, and My Tutor , the writing instructional tool generating feedback. In Chen and Cheng’s ( 2006 Chen, C. E. , Cheng, W. ( 2006 , May ). The use of computer-based writing program: Facilitation or frustration? Paper presented at assessments/critical thinking the 23rd International Conference on English Teaching and heuristic, Learning , Republic of China . [Google Scholar] ) investigation of 68 students who reflected on their use of MY Access in their writing classes, students expressed concerns about integrative thinking two aspects: the are novels, unfairness of MY Access ’ grading and its inability to judge the content of essays. Assessments/critical. In addition, after the initial excitement, students started to feel the repetition and generality of the diagnostic feedback that they felt was not personalized enough to be useful for essay revision. Fang’s ( 2010 Fang, Y. ( 2010 ). Perceptions of the computer-assisted writing program among EFL college learners . Educational Technology Society , 13, 246 – 256 . Poverty Essay. [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) study focused on student perceptions about using different tools on MY Access among 45 junior college students. The students found MY Access a useful writing tool, especially its grammatical proofreading tool, My Editor , but they were not totally happy with its essay scoring system. Students also thought MY Access helped them more with locating and revising form than content. Such results were reinforced by Dikli’s ( 2010 Dikli, S. ( 2010 ). The nature of automated essay feedback . CALICO Journal , 28, 99 – 134 . doi: 10.11139/cj.28.1.99-134 [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ) investigation into integrative the nature of My Editor and heuristic research, My Tutor ’s feedback to ESL student essays. This study found significant differences between MY Access and assessments/critical, written teacher feedback as well as students’ more positive response to the latter. The cutting edge work of AEE systems may yet be in providing diagnostic feedback to writers.

Some error detection programs have been making improvements over the last few decades to improve their specificity together with precision. Leacock and what to write in a, Chodorow ( 2003 Leacock, C. , Chodorow, M. ( 2003 ). Automated grammatical error detection . In M. D. Shermis , J. Burstein (Eds.), Automated essay scoring: A cross-disciplinary perspective ( pp. 195–208 ). Mahwah, NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates . [Google Scholar] ) argued that the value of error diagnosis depends on how specific and informative it is. They take the position that generic responses, such as “something is wrong here,” are inferior to specific comments, such as “this is a subject-verb agreement error.” With the latter kind of feedback, students are provided more cues to integrative assessments/critical thinking improve their writing. Assessment of Lexical Knowledge is reported to height achieve a precision level of 80% in pointing out errors.

This still means that 20% errors flagged are actually well-formed constructions (Leacock Chodorow, 2003 Leacock, C. , Chodorow, M. ( 2003 ). Automated grammatical error detection . In M. D. Shermis , J. Burstein (Eds.), Automated essay scoring: A cross-disciplinary perspective ( pp. 195–208 ). Mahwah, NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates . [Google Scholar] ). Their study also showed that the four most predictive error types for student essays are agreement, ill-formed modals, ill-formed infinitive clauses, and ill-formed participles. MY Access has an error feedback tool called My Editor . It detects spelling, grammar, and assessments/critical thinking, punctuations errors. It also diagnoses vocabulary choice and sentential-level errors. As students click on My Editor when they work on their drafts or revise an already submitted essay, a computer screen shows the students their essays with errors.

Automated feedback can thus be used as an initial response to student writing. The possible quick generation of feedback to student essays also is better than the notoriously time-consuming nature of writing instructors giving feedback, especially in large classes. Heuristic Thesis. Of course, the expectation is that diagnostic feedback will help student writers, although the written error feedback literature poses some concerns. Research in the area of written corrective feedback (WCF) has not been conclusive in integrative thinking, what extent student writers benefit from WCF or even whether they benefit at all (see Ferris, 1999 Ferris, D. ( 1999 ). Essay. The case for grammar correction in L2 writing classes: A response to Truscott (1996) . Journal of Second Language Writing , 8, 1 – 11 . doi: 10.1016/S1060-3743(99)80110-6 [Crossref] [Google Scholar] , 2004 Ferris, D. ( 2004 ). The “grammar correction” debate in L2 writing: Where are we, and where do we go from here? (and what do we do in the meantime…?) . Journal of Second Language Writing , 13, 49 – 62 . doi: 10.1016/j.jslw.2004.04.005 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] , 2006 Ferris, D. ( 2006 ). Does error feedback help student writers? New evidence on the short- and long-term effects of written error correction . In K. Hyland , F. Hyland (Eds.), Feedback in second language writing: Contexts and issues ( pp. 81–104 ). Cambridge, UK : Cambridge University Press . [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ; Shintani, Ellis, Suzuki, 2014 Shintani, N. , Ellis, R. , Suzuki, W. Integrative Assessments/critical. ( 2014 ). Effects of written feedback and heuristic thesis, revision on learners’ accuracy in using two English grammatical structures . Language Learning , 64, 103 – 131 . doi: 10.1111/lang.2014.64.issue-1 [Crossref], [Web of integrative assessments/critical, Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). The picture is and contrast bullies to dictators, further complicated because most automated error feedback is in English, with a very limited range of first language options. This is in assessments/critical, line with Dikli’s ( 2010 Dikli, S. ( 2010 ). In Africa. The nature of automated essay feedback . CALICO Journal , 28, 99 – 134 . doi: 10.11139/cj.28.1.99-134 [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ) findings in assessments/critical thinking, her study, which suggested that systems need to essay improve their feedback to non-native essays by giving shorter and less redundant feedback using simpler language and integrative, adding feedback for off-topic or repetitive essays. Xi ( 2010 Xi, X. ( 2010 ). Automated scoring and wuthering height theme essay, feedback systems: Where are we and where are we heading? Language Testing , 27, 291 – 300 . Integrative. doi: 10.1177/0265532210364643 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) developed a list of validity questions related to automated feedback: whether automated feedback system accurately identifies writers’ errors, whether it can do this consistently, and whether the feedback is meaningful, and whether the feedback results in improved writing. Liu and Kunnan ( 2016 Liu, S. Compare Bullies. , Kunnan, A. J. ( 2016 ). Investigating the integrative, applications of automated writing evaluation to Chinese undergraduate English majors: A case study of WritetoLearn . CALICO Journal , 33, 71 – 91 . Essay Bullies To Dictators. [Google Scholar] ) found in their examination of thinking, WriteToLearn’s feedback, overall precision and recall of errors were only in essays underlined 49% and assessments/critical, 18.7% respectively.

These figures did not meet the minimum threshold of 90% precision (set by Burstein, Chodorow, Leacock, 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for compare and contrast essay bullies to dictators, automated evaluation of student essays . Proceedings of the integrative, 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ) for it to be considered a reliable error detecting tool. Furthermore, it had difficulty in identifying errors in the use of articles, prepositions, word choice, and thesis, expression. On the basis of the assessments/critical thinking, issues raised in automated scoring and diagnostic feedback, we decided to examine the research thesis, following research questions. What do the agreement and strength of the relationship between human ratings and MY Access ’ scores reveal about MY Access ’ rating? How does MY Access address content as a scoring trait? How does it treat off-topic essays? How accurate is My Editor ’s feedback when compared to that of integrative, writing instructors?

Data were collected from a total of scholarship essay, 114 EFL and ESL student writers. The participants contributed 147 essays from three prompts, 105 essays based on two prompts from the integrative, list of 90 preloaded prompts on MY Access! Home Edition and 42 essays based on heuristic thesis one end-of-term essay prompt that was not a pre-loaded prompt. The sample included 97 Vietnamese EFL students and thinking, 17 ESL students in the United States. The Vietnamese EFL students were either second- or third-year English majors at a university in central Vietnam pursuing a 4-year BA program. The 17 ESL students were level four and five (intermediate to advanced) students in in africa, an Intensive English Program (IEP) at a State University in California. The large majority of these ESL students were Asian, with Chinese as the biggest group.

Three prompts were used in all. Two prompts from integrative, MY Access were selected from a list of 90 pre-loaded prompts based on their genres: one informative and one argumentative. Wuthering Height Essay. Prompt 1 was titled What have you learned? Prompt 2 was titled Internet classrooms vs. Traditional classrooms . The third writing prompt was not on the list of 90 pre-loaded topics on MY Access . It was an end-of-term exam prompt administered at integrative assessments/critical thinking the university in poverty in africa, Vietnam. Prompt 3 was titled Milestones . Prompts 1 and 2 as they appeared on MY Access are presented in integrative, Appendix A and Prompt 3 is heuristic, presented in Appendix B. Experimental prompts used by the researcher. A total of 42 end-of-term exam essays were submitted to three different MY Access prompts, two of which were pre-loaded topics on MY Access (one persuasive “Challenges of Parenthood” and thinking, one informative “Power sources in the Year 2050”) serving as “false” prompts for these essays, and the other was the teacher-created prompt (the real topic). The researcher used the teacher-created topic function on MY Access to add the following end-of-term exam prompt: “What are the poverty in africa essay, important milestones in a person’s life in your culture?

Give the reasons why they are important.” These essays submitted to this newly created prompt in the system produced a set of 42 scores. Afterward, these essays were submitted to the two false prompts, called the first and second experimental prompts. These experimental prompts and thinking, the teacher-created topic are presented in Appendix B. The two essay prompts from MY Access were administered as either homework practice or in-class essays, depending on the genres each class was working on in their curriculum and their class schedules. In Essays Are Novels. More specifically, the integrative, homework essays were keyed in by the student writers and sent to the teachers in the Word file, which were then forwarded to the researcher. The in-class essays were handwritten and submitted to the teachers. Afterward, these essays were typed up and double-checked for in a, fidelity to the original handwritten versions. The third group of assessments/critical, essays written to the teacher-created prompt included student essays written in a 90-minute exam for the previous semester. The variation in essay writing conditions among the participants does not interfere with the results of the study because MY Access is designed to facilitate self-conducted writing practice, and timing or the resources students get access to while writing are all acceptable, as long as the final essays are typed in and submitted online to the system. The scoring of the 105 essays written to the two prompts from MY Access was based on research thesis a holistic rubric posted on MY Access website (see Appendix C). The rubric used was a 1–6 scoring scale with five major traits of writing: Focus and integrative assessments/critical thinking, Meaning, Content and Development, Organization, Language Use and Style, Mechanics and Conventions.

Corresponding to each score point was a brief description of each trait. Essay. For example, to thinking achieve a “6,” an essay establishes and maintains “an insightful controlling or central idea and demonstrates a thorough understanding of the purpose and poverty in africa, audience [in terms of Focus and Meaning]” or “contains little or no errors in paragraphing, grammar and integrative thinking, usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics [in terms of Mechanics and Conventions].” On the other hand, “1” indicated an essay that inadequately communicated the writer’s message and failed to what to write essay support ideas with details and/or examples (in Content and Development). After the essays were put together, coded, and printed out, they were sent to two human raters for scoring. The raters were both non-native EFL instructors with MA degrees in TESOL with about 5 years of teaching experience at assessments/critical thinking the tertiary level in Vietnam. Prior to the actual scoring, the raters worked together to clarify the guidelines of the holistic scoring rubric posted on MY Access . They also went through some essays that had been rated by MY Access to get an overview of how Intellimetric rated these essays based on the set of criteria in the rubric.

After that, the raters piloted their ratings on what a small set of four essays and analyzed the differences in assessments/critical, their ratings to resolve any problems regarding their interpretation of the rubric. The scoring rubrics were examined to see if there were high agreements between human ratings and MY Access ratings. Double ratings from two trained EFL teachers were obtained and averaged for the set of essays written to poverty in africa the two prompts on MY Access . An inter-rater agreement analysis (exact, adjacent, and integrative assessments/critical, discrepant) and correlation analyses were conducted. In addition, the effects of prompts and raters on ratings and the effect of poverty, essay length on ratings were examined by using ANOVA. Forty-two essays written for integrative assessments/critical thinking, the end-of-term exam were collected. Because these essays were written to in africa essay a topic other than the 90 ones pre-loaded on MY Access , they provided a tool to reveal the way IntelliMetric deals with content in assigning ratings. Pearson correlations were calculated between the ratings these essays received when they were submitted to the real topic (using the teacher-created function on MY Access ) and integrative assessments/critical thinking, the ratings MY Access generated as these same essays were submitted to the two experimental (or false) topics on the system. In addition, with the help of the corpus-based vocabulary tool Compleat Lexical Tutor (Lextutor at theme http://www.lextutor.ca/), which uses the one-million-word Brown corpus, quantitative statistics were generated for word frequencies and integrative thinking, keywords used in the texts created from the essays. This analysis provided clues regarding how MY Access dealt with off-topic essays by examining data from the content analysis of the compare essay to dictators, 42 end-of-term essays. Two theoretical concepts termed precision and recall were examined for this question.

Specifically, precision is the number of cases in which My Editor and the human annotator agree are errors divided by the total number of cases that My Editor flags as errors (Burstein et al ., 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. Assessments/critical. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for thesis, automated evaluation of student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ). Recall is the integrative assessments/critical thinking, number of cases correctly identified by My Editor (the hits) divided by the total human annotator-flagged cases. Scholarship Essay. That is, the thinking, number of My Editor ’s hits divided by the total of hits and misses (i.e., cases identified by the human annotator but overlooked by My Editor ). In this analysis, 15 essays were randomly selected from the sample. The first EFL teacher annotated errors using the same system of error tags adopted by My Editor . Essay Bullies To Dictators. Error tagging was based on four major trait feedback categories: grammar, usage, mechanics, and style. Only the first three traits were focused on. The trait of style was intentionally left out of assessments/critical, this analysis because it constitutes an wuthering essay ambiguous aspect of writing (Burstein et al ., 2003 Burstein, J. Thinking. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of school to dictators, student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ). Integrative Assessments/critical Thinking. For the purpose of what, this basically quantitative analysis, judgments about good or bad writing style may be too subjective to be suitable. Errors identified were tallied for the calculation of precision and integrative thinking, recall . Before the actual coding of underlined, errors took place, the human annotator underwent a self-training process to familiarize herself with MY Access ’ error tagging system.

She submitted 10 essays from the collected data (other than the thinking, 15 essays in compare bullies to dictators, the subsample) to MY Access to have a thorough look at the feedback generated by My Editor . Through this, a list of error tags were noted down, including 16 categories: spelling, capitalisation, article, preposition, run-on sentence, fragment, consistency, contraction, punctuation, subject-verb agreement, word form, mass and count nouns, wrong word choice, confused word, comparative, and superlative. The actual error annotation was done with constant reference to reliable sources of grammar and English language use, some of which include Raymond Murphy’s ( 1994 Murphy, R. Integrative Assessments/critical Thinking. ( 1994 ). English grammar in use: A self-study reference and practice book for intermediate students ( 2nd ed .). Cambridge, UK : Cambridge University Press . [Google Scholar] ) English Grammar in Use , Michael Swan’s ( 2005 Swan, M. ( 2005 ). Practical English usage ( 3rd ed .). Oxford, UK : Oxford University Press [Google Scholar] ) Practical English Usage , and height theme, John Eastwood’s ( 1999 Eastwood, J. ( 1999 ). Oxford practice grammar ( 2nd ed .). Oxford, UK : Oxford University Press . Assessments/critical Thinking. [Google Scholar] ) Oxford Practice Grammar . Research question 1: MY Access ’s rubrics for scoring essays. Descriptive statistics of human ratings and MY Access ratings. Descriptive statistics for the three sets of ratings by human Ratings 1 and 2 and MY Access are shown in Table 1. The results show very similar mean ratings from the poverty in africa essay, two human raters, while MY Access appears to be more generous. Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 1. Descriptives ( N = 105). In general, ratings from the two human raters, their averaged ratings, and MY Access ratings met the necessary assumptions regarding normal distribution, linearity, and range on the 1–6 scale.

Therefore, correlations, ANOVA, and simple linear regression could be calculated. Table 2 reports the exact and adjacent agreement percentages (Attali Burstein, 2006 Attali, Y. , Burstein, J. ( 2006 ). Integrative. Automated essay scoring with e-rater® v.2 . Journal of Technology, Learning, and discrimination, Assessment , 4(3). Thinking. Retrieved from essay, http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1650/1492 [Google Scholar] ; Chodorow Burstein, 2004 Chodorow, M. , Burstein, J. ( 2004 ). Beyond essay length: Evaluating e-rater®’s performance on TOEFL essays (Research Report No. 73). Princeton, NJ : Educational Testing Service . [Google Scholar] ) between the two human ratings and between the averaged human ratings with MY Access ratings. Generally, there was better agreement between the two human ratings than their agreement with MY Access . An exact plus adjacent agreement statistic of thinking, 71.4% and a disparate statistic of 28.6 % between human and heuristic research, MY Access scoring are not very convincing results.

Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 2. Human inter-rater and rater- MY Access agreement ( N = 105). Correlations between human ratings and MY Access’s scoring. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated between the two human ratings and between the assessments/critical, human ratings and MY Access ratings. Table 3 shows a fairly strong correlation between Human Rater 1 and Rater 2 ( r = .783, p .05), but the correlations between Human Rater 1 and MY Access ( r = .672, p .05) and Human Rater 2 and MY Access ( r = .629, p .05) were both moderate. Furthermore, correlation between Averaged human Rater 1 and Rater 2 ratings and MY Access ’ ratings was also moderate ( r = .688, p .05).

Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 3. Correlations between two human ratings and MY Access ratings. Difference between human ratings’ average and MY Access ratings. A paired-samples t- test was computed to compare the essay discrimination, means of thinking, human ratings’ average and MY Access ratings. The mean of the averaged human ratings’ was 3.76 (SD = 1.18), and the mean of MY Access ratings was 4.09 (SD = 1.19).

The t -test showed that there is a statistically significant mean difference between the human ratings and MY Access : ( t (104) = ?3.538, p .05). The effects of prompts and raters on ratings. A 2 ? 3 mixed-design ANOVA was calculated to to write in a scholarship examine the effects of the assessments/critical thinking, prompts (Prompt 1 and Prompt 2) and poverty, ratings (Rater 1, Rater 2, and MY Access ) on ratings. The dependent variables (Rater 1, Rater 2, and MY Access ratings) in the ANOVA test met the assumptions of being normally distributed and measured on an interval scale. The main effect for assessments/critical thinking, rater ( F (2,103) = 7.516, p .01) and the main effect for prompt ( F (1,103) = 18.912, p .01) were statistically significant but the prompt x rater interaction ( F (2,206) = 1.259, p .01) was not significant. Essay length as a predictive feature. A simple linear regression was calculated predicting essay ratings assigned by both human raters and MY Access based on essay to dictators essay length (i.e., the number of words in each essay). A significant regression was found ( F (1,103) = 118.002, p .05) with an R 2 of assessments/critical thinking, .534.

The predicted score of an essay (assigned by the human raters) is equal to 1.302 + .008 (length) points when length is on race discrimination, measured in number of words. Essay ratings increased .008 point for each extra word. A simple linear regression was then calculated predicting MY Access ratings based on essay length. A significant regression was found ( F (1,103) = 116.719, p .05), with an R 2 of .531. Assessments/critical. The predicted score of an what in a essay (assigned by MY Access ) is equal to integrative 1.610 + .008 (length) points when length is measured in number of words. Essay ratings increased .008 point for what to write scholarship, each extra word. As can be seen in thinking, the results above, about 53% of the variance in on race discrimination, both the averaged human ratings and MY Access ratings could be accounted for by essay length. Therefore, length was found to integrative be an in a essay equally strong predictor of the ratings assigned by both MY Access and the human raters. Research question 2: Content in MY Access ’s scoring models. Descriptive statistics of the three sets of ratings submitted to three MY Access prompts.

As shown in Table 4, the mean score of the 42 essays was highest when they were submitted to the teacher-created prompt. This set of score is termed the real score, followed by the mean score as the same essays were submitted to the first experimental prompt, then to the second experimental prompt. Informed by prior research on other automated scoring programs and assessments/critical, a strong feeling that essays written to teacher-created topics on MY Access cannot be “comprehended” by heuristic research, the system, the integrative, researcher played a trick to confirm her doubts. Forty-two essays were submitted to three different prompts in MY Access and the results are presented here. Experimental topic 1: Challenges of parenthood.

When the essays answering the teacher-created topic on in essays “Important milestones in your culture” were submitted to the first experimental prompt “The challenges of (teenage) parenthood,” only 11 essays (26%) were flagged as off-topic while 27 received the feedback “great job”; the remaining four were given “1 s” due to “major syntax problems” (“great job” and “major syntax probems” are generic diagnostic feedback phrases used by MY Access to integrative describe essays earning high overall score and in essays underlined, those having poor grammar use, respectively). When the two prompts were compared, the real topic and the first experimental one, there was possible overlapping content in student essay responses. An examination of the 42 essays showed that 24 essays mentioned “becoming a parent” or at thinking least “becoming a parent after getting married” as one of the most important milestones in their culture. Furthermore, most of the essays frequently referred to words like grandparents, parents, adulthood/adult, married , and teenage/teenager . Below is the are novels, list of integrative, word frequency derived from the submission of all the wuthering height theme, essays (making a 15580-word text) to the corpus-based Compleat Lexical Tutor ( Lextutor ) that counts words in texts and integrative, lists their keywords based on the obtained word frequencies. It then compares these keywords, which are the words in the texts that are far more frequent, proportionally, than they are in a general reference corpus. Lextutor uses the Brown corpus, whose one million words comprise 500 texts of to write scholarship essay, 2000 words on assessments/critical a broad range of essay, topics.

Figure 2 lists the 30 most frequent words for this 15580-word text, with those most likely to appear frequently in essays written to assessments/critical thinking the first experimental prompt in bold. To interpret the number preceding each word listed in Figure 1 and 2, it is instructive to consider the explanation cited from Lextutor : The number accompanying each word represents the number of times more frequent the word is in your text than it is in the Brown corpus. For example, the first item in the output 1364.00 milestone is calculated on the basis that milestone has 4 natural occurrences in the Brown’s 1 million words, but 85 occurrences in your 15580-word text. These 85 occurrences are proportionally a lot more than the 4 occurrences in the Brown. Taken as a proportion of essay on race discrimination, 1,000,000 words, these 85 occurrences represent 85/15580 ? 1,000,000 = 5456 virtual occurrences.

These 5456 occurrences are 1364.00 times more numerous than the 4 occurrences in assessments/critical, Brown. [www.lextutor.ca/keywords/freak.pl] Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Figure 1. Most frequently used words in the combined text of 42 essays. Figure 1. Most frequently used words in the combined text of essay, 42 essays. Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Figure 2. Most frequently used words in the combined text of 11 off-topic essays. Figure 2. Most frequently used words in the combined text of 11 off-topic essays. Judging from the assessments/critical thinking, corpus comparison and in africa essay, the possible overlapping content areas between these two prompts, MY Access ’s failure to recognize the off-topicness of thinking, 31 of the 42 essays seems predictable. Compare To Dictators. The 11 essays flagged as off-topic were then put together in a subtext of 3,969 words and submitted to Lextutor for the frequency list. Again, the 30 most frequent words in this subtext are shown in Figure 2. What can be seen from the comparison of the integrative, two lists is that words more relevant to the expected content area of becoming parents during the teenage years have disappeared, including babies, grandparents, spouse, parents, eighteen , and happiness . Table 5 presents a few of the mismatches between human ratings and MY Access ratings for off-topic essays. The ratings assigned by MY Access are much higher for all off-topic essays.

Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 4. Descriptives of ratings for same submissions to three MY Access prompts ( N = 42). Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 5. Mismatched ratings of theme, off-topic essays. Experimental topic 2: Power sources in the year 2050. When the same set of essays was submitted to the second experimental prompt about “Power sources in integrative thinking, the Year 2050,” a totally irrelevant focus compared to the real topic, 40 essays were flagged as “off-topic”; only two received 1 s due to “major syntax problems.” In contrast, none of the are novels underlined, submissions to the teacher-created (real) topic “Important milestones in integrative, your culture” was flagged as “off-topic,” with 36 receiving “great job,” and six given 1 s due to “major syntax problems.”

My Editor ’s error feedback: Accuracy. Table 6 presents precision and recall measures of the human annotator and school bullies to dictators, My Editor ’s error feedback. Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 6. Human annotator and My Editor ’s error feedback results. In this subsample of 15 essays, students made far more mistakes with articles (124 errors) than with any other error type. Punctuations and run-on sentences were next on the list.

Subject-verb agreement was the fourth problematic area that needed attention. The number of the assessments/critical, errors found in each of the other types ranged from 0 to 36. Discrimination. Of the total number of thinking, errors in poverty in africa essay, each error type identified by the human annotator, My Editor demonstrated quite an uneven performance. Thinking. My Editor was most precise in theme, its identification of open or closed spelling errors, although in this subsample, it corrected only two cases ( part time to part-time and everyday to every day ), both of which matched the integrative assessments/critical thinking, human annotator. However, the system also missed a lot of on race discrimination, open/closed spelling cases that needed corrections with the recall of only 28.6%, which means it missed 71.4% of the integrative assessments/critical, total human-flagged cases. My Editor also did well with article errors, with the precision of 96.9%. However, similar to open/closed spelling errors, the research thesis, system missed 75% errors of assessments/critical thinking, this type the human annotator identified.

Capitalization and run-on sentences were the two error types that showed a similar pattern in My Editor ’s performance: a precision of around 80% accompanied by compare school to dictators, the missing level of about 50% of all the integrative assessments/critical thinking, cases flagged by the human annotator. Spelling and essay discrimination, consistency, which combined the two subtypes of integrative, verb group consistency and noun phrase consistency errors, exhibited the wuthering height essay, smallest number of cases overlooked by My Editor with recall values of assessments/critical thinking, 76.9 and 70.2, respectively. Of all the cases tagged by My Editor in height theme essay, these two types, around 80% were precise diagnoses. In addition, My Editor failed to read the essays at the sentence and discourse level. Integrative. It was least precise with its diagnosis of confused words errors with precision of only 28.6% and research, recall of integrative thinking, 11.1%. This means that of all errors in this category flagged by essay school to dictators, My Editor , only 28.6% were really errors; the rest were false positives.

It also missed almost 89% cases of this type compared to the human annotator. Overall, My Editor was 73% precise in flagging errors of the 16 error types designated for integrative assessments/critical thinking, this analysis and covered 39.6% of all the errors the human annotator flagged. In other words, it missed 60.4% errors that should be attended to according to the human judgment. On Race Discrimination. Researchers on error feedback tools maintain that they would choose to err on the side of precision over recall (Burstein et al ., 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Assessments/critical. Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays . Proceedings of the bullies to dictators, 15th Annual Conference on integrative thinking Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ; Chodorow, Gamon, Tetreault, 2010 Chodorow, M. Wuthering. , Gamon, M. , Tetreault, J. ( 2010 ). The utility of article and preposition error correction systems for integrative thinking, English language learners: Feedback and assessment . Language Testing , 27, 419 – 436 . doi: 10.1177/0265532210364391 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ), which “means that we [they] would rather miss an error than tell the student that a well-formed construction is ill-formed” (Burstein et al ., 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays . Proceedings of the what in a, 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] , p. 6). In studying Criterion , Burstein et al . ( 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Integrative Assessments/critical. Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ) set the minimum threshold of 90% precision for the tool to be useful for students. If My Editor is judged by height essay, these criteria, it falls short. My Editor ’s feedback offers suggestions for possible errors rather than dictating corrections to the writers.

Students can click on any error tagged by My Editor , and a smaller screen pops up to explain the problem. After the brief diagnosis, there are some suggestions that students can choose from. The screen also demonstrates the rule that explains more generally how My Editor identifies and deals with that error type (e.g., spelling, preposition, etc.). Integrative Assessments/critical. General examples and essay on race, ways to correct the errors in the examples are also provided. With this diagnosis-suggestions-example-rule approach, students can learn to assessments/critical thinking judge for in essays are novels underlined, themselves if they have really made a mistake and choose among the given correction options. However, certain gaps in MY Editor ’s feedback can be addressed to better accommodate the ESL/EFL learners’ needs. What was noticeable about My Editor ’s feedback about integrative thinking noun phrase consistency was its double flagging of the same errors: It is sure that there are many Mass vs. count errors conflict Noun phrase consistency errors. The word conflict in the above sentence should agree in essay to dictators, number with its plural determiner many . Integrative Assessments/critical Thinking. Therefore, labeling it as noun phrase consistency (implying inconsistent number agreement) is the best way to draw the student’s attention to school to dictators his/her mistake.

However, the first label mass vs. count errors on the same word suggesting “if the sentence requires a singular noun, consider [much] or [many a] instead of assessments/critical thinking, ‘many’” goes against the second suggestion of consistency. Such conflicting comments can confuse the student who may think that they need to fix two errors. Double flagging also occurred among Subject-Verb Agreement errors. Heuristic Thesis. For example, in the next sentence, “Argument Subject-verb agreement errors take Subject-verb agreement errors place,” it is suggested that argument be changed to integrative assessments/critical arguments to poverty essay agree with the plural verb form take , while in assessments/critical, the second place, it is suggested that take (which should be grammatically correct now after the change of the subject noun) be changed to takes to agree with the original subject noun argument . Along with articles, the English tense-aspect system is problematic for in africa, EFL learners, especially those from Asian first language backgrounds. Yet My Editor does not seem to be programmed to deal with tense and aspect errors, except for its two rare attempts at diagnosing cases related to tense errors, both of which failed.

The first one was a false positive where the system traced back to the preposition at in the phrase at childhood and integrative, assumed that at refers to the past. It thus suggested the inappropriate use of could have become . Here is MY Access ’s annotation. At childhood, we are taught carefully by parents, teachers. We are take Verb group consistency errors care of in essays underlined, or bring up carefully from integrative assessments/critical, many peoples around. That is a good environment so that The child can become Incorrect use of past tense a good person at first life.

The second attempt successfully located the error and offered a usable suggestion, but its flagging term was misleading for the student as this error is discrimination, not about tense: Besides, students haven’t Verb tense, instead of ‘have not’, consider using the assessments/critical, more standard [do not have] to pay for buying books, textbooks are in the Internet too. Except for these two cases, nowhere else in all the essays could feedback be found about inconsistent or wrong tense usage. In essay ESL2-14, the use of tenses was a major issue, but MY Access overlooked them. The adverbial phrase in the past is clear evidence of past tense.

My Editor did not identify the error. In the past, all the students have to what to write in a essay take the traditional classroom. Many students sit in the classroom. Integrative Assessments/critical Thinking. There is blackboard Missing articles, computer, desks and chairs. All the students take the class in in essays are novels, the classroom like that . (From Essay ESL2-14) These gaps in My Editor ’s feedback can be attributed to its inability to handle information across sentences at the discourse level. As long as words or phrases were grammatically correct, meaning and content were ignored. In the first research question, the integrative assessments/critical thinking, exact plus adjacent agreement between human ratings and MY Access were moderate (71.4%) and the correlations between human ratings and MY Access were also moderate (r = .688). But the difference between the averaged human rater score and MY Access was found to what scholarship be statistically significant. These findings do not provide adequate support for any implicit claims of MY Access that it can score essays like human raters.

In addition, a feature shared by human and automated scoring is that 53% of the variance in both ratings could be accounted for by the length of the essays. Overall, the assessments/critical, agreement and correlational findings in this study were not very different from those found in earlier studies of in africa, e-rater and IEA systems. Thinking. But Vantage Learning’s ( MY Access’s developer) findings of .93 correlation and 76% exact agreement and in a, 99% for adjacent agreement were not found in this study. Thus, the high agreements and correlation indices found in studies conducted by MY Access developers (Attali Burstein, 2006 Attali, Y. , Burstein, J. ( 2006 ). Automated essay scoring with e-rater® v.2 . Integrative Assessments/critical Thinking. Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment , 4(3). In A Scholarship. Retrieved from http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1650/1492 [Google Scholar] ; Vantage Learning, 2006 Vantage Learning. ( 2006 ). Research summary: Intellimetric scoring accuracy across genres and grade levels . Integrative Assessments/critical Thinking. Retrieved from http://www.vantagelearning.com/docs/intellimetric/IM_ResearchSummary_IntelliMetric_Accuracy_Across_Genre_and_Grade_Levels.pdf [Google Scholar] , as cited in and contrast to dictators, Liu Kunnan, 2016 Liu, S. , Kunnan, A. J. ( 2016 ). Assessments/critical. Investigating the applications of automated writing evaluation to to write in a scholarship essay Chinese undergraduate English majors: A case study of WritetoLearn . CALICO Journal , 33, 71 – 91 . [Google Scholar] ) could not be confirmed. In the second research question of how MY Access dealt with content, the integrative assessments/critical, results show that My Access scores off-topic essays more generously because it is unable to systematically flag the essays as off-topic. It is obvious MY Access “read” the essays in mathematical models of syntax, lexis, mechanics, and discourse.

This is a real problem because the ability to identify off-topic essays is a capability that trained human raters are expected to what have and any AEE system that is thinking, developed to either supplement or replace human raters must have. With cutting-edge developments in the field of to write essay, computational linguistics and corpus linguistics, it is hoped that off-topic essays can be identified in integrative assessments/critical thinking, the future in the same way human readers can by theme essay, reading and judging essays for their overall meaning and other features, such as persuasiveness and voice. The third research question examined MY Access ’s automated feedback in accuracy and potential gaps compared to human annotators of integrative assessments/critical, errors in the essays. Height Essay. Its instructional tool, called My Editor , is uneven in integrative, its ability to wuthering height detect errors correctly and provide appropriate corrective feedback. Integrative Assessments/critical. Specifically, its accuracy in height, many grammatical areas is low and uneven. Furthermore, its standard as a useful error feedback tool is too low by the 90% standard set up by researchers such as Burstein et al . ( 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Integrative Assessments/critical. Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for poverty in africa essay, automated evaluation of student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ). My Editor ’s plausible four-step sequence (clarification-suggestions-example-rule) in generating error feedback is supposed to integrative assessments/critical turn errors into learning opportunities not only by scaffolding students’ judgments about possible errors in their essays but also by providing them with linguistic knowledge as they work their way through the feedback. However, this approach presents two possible problems. First, the metalanguage used to describe the errors, offer suggestions, and state the essay on race discrimination, rules may challenge ESL/EFL students’ comprehension due to assessments/critical their limited knowledge of the essay, target language. Second, such an integrative assessments/critical thinking approach does not discriminate between error types.

For example, the way article errors are dealt with should not be identical to the way spelling errors are treated. While the former constitutes a highly problematic area for EFL/ESL students and thus cannot be simply pointed out without clarification, the latter is usually straightforward and only needs flagging for students to easily correct themselves. Thus, the meaningfulness of error feedback has to be addressed in in africa essay, AEE systems. Furthermore, prioritization of integrative assessments/critical, errors is necessary in essay, the feedback system (e.g., syntactic errors vs. usage errors vs. discourse coherence errors); this prioritization needs to match the priorities of writing for a particular purpose and proficiency level. We conducted this study from the perspective of EFL writing instruction. Integrative Thinking. The findings of the study point to two practical implications for EFL teachers who may use AEE. First, the diagnostic feedback MY Access generated was not individualized, simple, and accurate enough for home tutoring purposes, although it would serve as a good companion to writing instructors to research thesis offer instant and intial diagnostic feedback.

At the assessments/critical thinking, same time, as Whithaus ( 2006 Whithaus, C. ( 2006 ). Always already: Automated essay scoring and grammar-checkers in college writing courses . Poverty Essay. In P. F. Ericsson , R. H. Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of student essays: Truth and consequences ( pp. 166–176 ). Integrative Assessments/critical Thinking. Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . [Google Scholar] ) puts it, “When software is used as a tool for assessment, response, or revision, it is not necessarily opposed to effective composition pedagogies” (p. 170). The optimum choice could be a combined pedagogy where the writing instructor acts as the facilitator between students and what, AEE systems prior to and while using it in the writing class. Second, the question of assessments/critical thinking, how AEE systems should be incorporated in EFL writing instructors’ lesson plans is heuristic thesis, partially answered. It is worth stressing that at this moment in assessments/critical, the development of the wuthering theme, AEE, it would be unwise to paddle against assessments/critical thinking, the current by refusing AEE systems as part of instruction.

In the United States, AEE systems have been making a presence at different educational levels from middle schools to tertiary institutions to assess writing in placement or practice tests. Similarly, EFL writing classes can benefit from helpful features of AEE systems, such as its instant scoring and compare essay school, feedback, which make regular practice possible without adding to the workload of classroom instructors. But for this to happen, AEE systems have to assessments/critical offer a more conducive computer-mediated and Web-based environment where teaching and learning take place. Beyond this study, there are some positives to using AEE systems. First, providing scores and feedback instantly (even if it is on compare school word and sentence-level errors) can clearly reduce the burden of writing instructors’ grading work so that they can deal with other critical aspects of writing after the AEE feedback and possible revisions. Second, offering automated feedback without the instructor could be useful in contexts where loss of face is a major consideration for students. To illustrate, some students might be willing to accept repeated error correction and integrative, low grades from an AEE system instead of receiving similar criticisms from an instructor.

But many persistent questions remain: Would AEE systems be more suitable for formative and in-class writing assessments? Could AEE systems be used for other types of research thesis, writing tasks, such as short answer or descriptive responses? Could AEE systems cause unintended consequences, such as changes in students’ writing strategies? Could AEE systems evaluate writing styles or approaches from students around the world without bias to any sub-groups? Could AEE systems become transparent enough to allow assessment professionals to examine the suitability of the systems for use in their own contexts? These questions need to be pursued.

This research was funded by The Fulbright Vietnamese Student Program. Prompts used in the study (from MY Access ) Prompt 1 (Informative) What Have You Learned? Although school may not always be fun, it’s essential for our education and development. School teaches us really important lessons that will help us later in life. What is the most important thing you have learned in school so far? Write a multi-paragraph essay in which you discuss one thing school has taught you and its importance to your life and your future. Use specific examples and details to support your response.

Prompt 2 (Argumentative) Internet Classrooms vs. Traditional Classrooms. With advancements in technology, some students have chosen to integrative thinking complete their schoolwork through the Internet, rather than in on race discrimination, traditional classrooms. Integrative Assessments/critical Thinking. Those who support a traditional classroom approach to learning argue that it provides more of an opportunity for students to interact with the teacher and other students. Essay School. Those who feel that learning over thinking the Internet is compare to dictators, better argue that it allows students to learn anytime and integrative, anywhere they choose. Do you feel education is better provided in traditional classrooms or when offered over the Internet?

Write an essay to be read by a classroom teacher in which you persuade the reader that either traditional classroom education or Internet-based learning is in essays underlined, better. Experimental and real prompts used in the study. Experimental Prompt 1: (Persuasive) Challenges of Parenthood. Many people believe that being a parent today is one of the most difficult jobs you can have. Some teens believe that they are old enough to face the integrative thinking, challenges of essay on race discrimination, parenthood; others do not. State your position on assessments/critical thinking the issue and in essays, provide reasons for your decision.

Discuss the factors you took into consideration in making your decision. Experimental Prompt 2: (Informative) Power Sources in integrative thinking, the Year 2050. Picture yourself living in the year 2050. Power sources operating in on race discrimination, your house have changed. Thinking. Describe the new power sources used to make your home run more efficiently. Explain how these power sources are different from what we use in our homes today. Write about the benefits and disadvantages of this new technology and and contrast, how it will affect future generations. Real prompt: (Teacher-created topic function on MY Access ) What are the important milestones in a person’s life in integrative, your culture? Give the reasons why they are important. MY Access’ s 6-point Holistic Rubric.

Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 1. Descriptives ( N = 105). Note . H1 = Human Rating 1, H2 = Human Rating 2, AVE = Averaged ratings of in essays are novels underlined, Human Raters 1 and integrative thinking, 2, MA = MY Access ratings. Table 2. Human inter-rater and rater- MY Access agreement ( N = 105). Note . Exact agreement: the proportion of times Rater 1 ratings exactly matched Rater 2 ratings, or those of MY Access exactly matched the averaged human ratings; adjacent agreement: the proportion of times Rater 1 ratings were within one point of Rater 2 ratings, or those of MY Access were within one point of the averaged human ratings; if two scores assigned to the same essay were more than one point apart, they were considered disparate ratings. Table 3. Correlations between two human ratings and MY Access ratings. Note . H1 = Rater 1’s ratings, H2 = Rater 2’s ratings, AVE = Averaged human ratings, MA = MY Access ratings. *Correlations are significant at the .01 level (2-tailed). Table 4. Descriptives of ratings for same submissions to three MY Access prompts ( N = 42).

Note . REALSCORE = ratings for submissions to compare essay school the teacher-created (real) prompt. Experimental1 = ratings for the first experimental prompt, Experimental2 = ratings for the second experimental prompt. Table 5. Mismatched ratings of off-topic essays. HR 1 = Human Rater 1 score, HR 2 = Human Rater 2 score. Table 6. Thinking. Human annotator and scholarship, My Editor ’s error feedback results. Note. Integrative. Precision = Hits divided by My Editor’s total (example: 2 ? 2 = 100); Recall = Hits divided by human annotator’s total (example: 2 ? 7 = 28.6) Establishes and maintains an insightful controlling or central idea and demonstrates a thorough understanding of the purpose and discrimination, audience.

Develops ideas fully and artfully with a wide variety of details. Demonstrates a logical, cohesive organizational structure and sequence with an effective use of transitions. Provides precise descriptive language use, artful word choice, a defined voice, and integrative assessments/critical thinking, well-structured and varied sentence types. Contains little or no errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics. Establishes and maintains a clear controlling or central idea and demonstrates a basic understanding of the purpose and in a scholarship, audience. Develops ideas fully and integrative assessments/critical thinking, clearly with extensive detail.

Demonstrates a logical organizational structure and sequence with consistent use of transitions. Provides precise language use, appropriate word choice, some evidence of height theme, voice, and well-structured sentences with some variety. Contains few errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics. Establishes a controlling or central idea and demonstrates some understanding of the assessments/critical thinking, purpose and audience. Develops ideas adequately using sufficient appropriate details. Demonstrates an appropriate organizational structure and sequence; however, may lack transitions or be inconsistent. Provides appropriate language use, word choice, control of voice, and essentially correct sentences with some variety. Contains occasional errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics, but the errors do not make comprehension difficult. Establishes a controlling or central idea but demonstrates little understanding of the purpose and audience. Develops ideas briefly and inconsistently. Demonstrates an attempt at essay discrimination an organizational structure and sequence, but lacks transitions, and may not be unified or consistent throughout.

Contains simple language use, word choice, an assessments/critical thinking awareness of compare essay school bullies, voice, and relies on simple sentences. Contains errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics. Suggests a controlling or central idea but demonstrates minimal understanding of the integrative thinking, purpose and essay on race, audience. Develops ideas incompletely or inadequately using few, if any, details and/or examples. Suggests but does not maintain a basic organizational structure and sequence. Contains unclear or inappropriate language usage, word choice, and integrative assessments/critical, few, if any, sentence types. Contains serious errors in paragraphing, grammar and to write scholarship, usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics (errors may make comprehension difficult). Fails to establish a controlling or central idea or show understanding of the purpose and audience. Fails to support ideas with details and/or examples. Shows no evidence of a unified structure, and no evidence of transitional devices. Demonstrates unclear or incoherent language use and major errors in sentence structure, word choice and usage.

Major errors in assessments/critical, paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics significantly interfere with the are novels, communication of the message. 1 In a recent competition, ETS invited people to integrative write essays that could trick e-rater into assigning lower or higher ratings than deserved. To Write In A Scholarship Essay. The winner’s technique was simply to write a paragraph and repeat it 37 times. E-rater gave this essay the thinking, highest possible score of 6 while two human raters both scored it “1,” creating the maximum discrepancy of five points between automated and human scoring (Powers, Burstein, Chodorow, Fowles, Kukich, 2002 Powers, D. E. , Burstein, J. C. , Chodorow, M. Poverty In Africa Essay. , Fowles, M. Integrative Assessments/critical. E. , Kukich, K. ( 2002 ). Stumping e-rater : Challenging the validity of automated essay scoring . Computers in Human Behavior , 18, 103 – 134 . doi: 10.1016/S0747-5632(01)00052-8 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). Registered in England Wales No. 3099067.

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The average license fee will be about $1,000 and the average monthly maintenance about $500. The population is height essay aging, and more and more people are living longer, and it will continue that way for decades to come. This has created a dynamic and growing market for the long-term care provider, and one in which virtually thousands of data elements are collected, reported, analyzed, and integrative thinking used for information to provide adequate continuing care, support governmental reimbursement expenses, manage inventories and financial budgets, track pharmaceuticals, and many other uses. There are approximately 18,000 long-term care providers in the US, and each must dedicate countless hours to collecting and essay recording this data. Software developers have created programs to capture most of the assessments/critical data. Many of the programs that function adequately are very expensive; the heuristic software licenses cost from $10,000 to $15,000 and monthly maintenance fees range from $1,000 to $1,500. Assessments/critical! Some of the research programs are less expensive, but have limitations in functionality and ease of use. Ken Smitzhe will serve as President and Chief Executive Officer. With more than ten years of corporate experience in sales, marketing, management and long-term care, Mr.

Smitzhe is a visionary. OBRA e-z, Inc. will be operated by Ken Smitzhe who has over ten years experience in thinking, the long-term care provider field, and over ten years of sales, marketing and management experience. Mr. Essay! Smitzhe will be joined by assessments/critical, professionals in are novels underlined, the healthcare and software development industries. OBRA e-z is seeking $750,000 to integrative assessments/critical support working capital requirements to upgrade its software, establish its offices and payroll, and run its sales and marketing campaigns. No additional funds will be required, and and contrast essay school it is expected that the entire investment will be recovered in less than two years. Assessments/critical Thinking! We believe we can capture at least 10% of the long-term care provider market during the next five years; however, our pro forma projections conservatively estimate a capture of less than 6% of the wuthering height market over the next five years will generate over $7,000,000 in current assets (cash and accounts receivable) by the end of year 5. Our objectives are as follows: 1. Integrative Assessments/critical! Complete software upgrade by December 31, 2001. 2. Convert existing customer base (estimated to be 125) to upgrade by June 1, 2002.

3. Solicit new customers from the approximately 7,200 long-term care providers with no or inadequate information systems. Target penetration: 35%-65%. 4. Solicit new customers from the in essays are novels underlined approximately 7,200 long-term care providers using expensive software solutions. Target penetration: 25%-50%. 5. Solicit new customers from the approximately 3,600 long-term care providers using mid-market quality software. Target penetration: 35%-65%. OBRA e-z is a software development and customer support company that produces high quality, value-added, feature enriched, user-friendly software and delivers real-time customer support and management know how to the long-term resident care market. OBRA e-z software collects government standard Minimum Data Set (MDS) 2.0 criteria, scheduling information, survey information for government audits, quality indicator information, care-plan and financial program information, and generates real-time management information reports and data sets to assessments/critical efficiently manage long-term care facilities and electronically transmit MDS 2.0 information to on race discrimination state governments.

Our mission is to provide these services to our customers at a cost far below the cost savings they will achieve. The keys to thinking success for OBRA e-z are: 1. Investment capital to upgrade software to essay Windows environment and thinking add functionality to enrich features, increase functionality, and and contrast to dictators deliver a value-added product that produces cost savings for customers that far exceed the product cost. 2. Integrative Assessments/critical! Aggressive marketing to introduce long-term care providers to the significant cost/benefit advantages of OBRA e-z. 3. Product quality, ease of use, world-class customer service and on race support. 4. Price competitiveness. OBRA e-z, Inc. is a Subchapter S Corporation engaged in integrative assessments/critical thinking, the development, sale, service and maintenance of software solutions for the long-term care market. OBRA e-z#8217;s President and poverty in africa Chief Operating Officer, Ken Smitzhe owns 30% of the assessments/critical thinking shares.

The remaining shares are owned by Tod Smitzhe (20%), Chief Financial Officer, Susan Smitzhe (20%), Director of Operations, Tad Smitzhe (20%), Director of Product Development, and Betty Smitzhe, (2%), Director of Product Development Master Link. 8% of the stock is held by the corporation. Spectrum Health Services developed the OBRA e-z software in school, 1986 to address the needs of long-term care facilities to assessments/critical thinking maintain a computer based medical records system that integrated with early versions of the what in a scholarship MDS and assessments/critical thinking survey reports. In later years when HCFA revised MDS 1.0 to MDS 2.0, Spectrum upgraded the OBRA e-z software to comply with MDS 2.0 specifications and improve functionality. Spectrum sold all rights to the software to an investment group in May 2000. The investment group formed the Subchapter S Corporation, OBRA e-z, Inc. in January 2001.

OBRA e-z, Inc. has since increased the customer base from 16 to 69 licensed customers. Plans are underway to upgrade the DOS-based software to the Windows platform and add significant functionality that will create the #8220; Enterprise Software Solution #8221; that will be a total turnkey system for the management of long-term care facilities. OBRA e-z, Inc. has corporate offices in Stamford Connecticut and an operations satellite help desk in Macon, Georgia. Wuthering Height Theme Essay! We write business plans! To get started on yours, contact us here.

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