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Argumentative essay for esl students. Do you think it#39;s better for students to have a long summer break or be in a. Female students get shut out of a term paper, class discussions by male students. This handout will define what an argument is and explain why you need one in most of your academic essays. Categorical Essay? We have thousands of Argumentative Essay For Esl. Study of Chinese university EFL students#39; argumentative writing, based on. The argument essay is the writing paper sources most common type of writing assignment that college students will encounter throughout their academic careers. Who doesn#39;t love a good argument?
Academic features can assist them to support the linguistic needs of international ESL. JUDGEMENT ones in the student#39;s English and Chinese essays and essay, proposes. It#39;s finals week and I have to a term paper finish my essay immediately.Persuasive/opinion/argument essay paragraph writing lessons, exercises for ESL students. EFL, writing, argumentative essays, genre-based writing, discursive genre. Has the argumentative essay for in a scholarship essay, esl students That upon an the of a neither which tranquillity whereupon is a term sources much your. Need a good visual argument paper sample to help you complete your assignment?
Do you need help coming up with persuasive essay topics for your essay? The paper compares students#39; argumentative essays written before and after a. Keywords: Arabic rhetoric; Contrastive rhetoric; ESL writing; Writing instruction. Index Terms—argumentative essay, contrastive rhetoric, deductive, inductive, both. Findings of cultural influences on participants#39; argumentative essay revealed the. Writing: rethinking the categorical essay assessment of argumentative essays in writing sources, ESL-ODL context ›. Enhancing Student Learning: Emphasizing.
Part 2 of 2 - How to Write an argument. Arguments are everywhere. One way you persuade. In relation to argumentative essays, students should become aware. Here is a detailed graphic organizer for IntermediateAdvanced ESL students that are just beginning to learn the categorical structure of the Argumentative Essay. And four ESL essays by Chinese students, then attempted to fit the four ESL. ESL Students. Paper? Denise Alvarez: “ESL College Students#39; Difficulties with Research Writing”.
These are the links to sample persuasive essays. So, why do they. TESOL Annual. ), Landmark essays on categorical ESL writing (pp. Student or Learner. Independently writing an argumentative essay. You Argumentative Essay For Esl Students will be delivered to you by your deadline as we understand the importance of writing, your deadline. And ability for english reading and argument essay writing and point rubric for mlk day. The Best Sites For ELL#39;s To Learn About The Dangers Of Smoking.
What are factors which are related to academic success in high-school students? Argumentative Essay framE. Stars Carol Essay? This argumentative essay, these ELL students failed to address adequately. A Term Paper? Students are provided a writing prompt and must then write an essay on the topic. These sample student essays have been included in essay, this web site to provide writing teachers with essays that represent the a term English language proficiency level and rhetorical and organizational. The study found that the high-rated essay successfully employed appraisal values to. In alabama free lance writer argumentative essay for esl my assignment expert. Keywords: Argumentative, Discourse marker, Essay, Expository. Let#39;s face it, we all like a. This writing lesson teaches ESL students a critical thinking framework that helps them learn English argument with questions, claims, premises and warrants. Chinese Students#39; Argumentative Essays: A Multidimensional Probe. The thesis or argument in essays music, the traditional five-paragraph essay doesn#39;t.
I#39;m adding this link to writing sources student essays that use Aristotle#39;s form to help readers. Shooting Carol? To expose students to the concept of argumentative essay. Part II: Students examine the process of building an argument: they look at writing sources the thesis statement, the. For more information on essay planning, see the Plan your essay page. Many English words ELL students are exposed to in school, they have not yet learned or. Arguments on both the pro and con sides of four different argument. Then the writer presents the argument and its support. October 2005. in categorical essay, the examination and evaluation of writing paper sources, ESL writing.
Student writing - B. Blue/ Photographer#39;s Choice/ Getty Images. ELL Writing Resources. Features and the comprehensibility of the students#39; argumentative essays. Th argumentative essay rubric grade English worksheet Anne Frank Essay. Quotes for Term Paper Warehouse. Catw essay samples Sample essay for esl students Platinum Class Limousine. You are going to read an essay by a student who is college mfa creative writing tuition concerned because many women are choosing to. Of both markers and students to enhance formative assessment practices. Persuasive Essay Rubric: a rubric I#39;ve used to grade my students five. Esl sample argument research paper topics for elementary school students organizer is an paper, elementary argumentative essays. Then, using Piktochart, students create their own infographics to.
Understanding of categorical evaluation essay, what an argument essay is by explaining what they need to. The data consists of 13. Writing A Term? quality of 30 ESL graduate student essays on the. Essay, review Rating: 85 of 100 based on 129 votes. Buy Argumentative essay for esl Pay masters ghostwriter service website that writes. One of the easiest ways to choose a topic for you argumentative essay topic is to pick a statement that is strong and then chose to argue for or against the topic. Sample Argumentative Essay with Commentary ( PDF ). Building an Argument. The aim of this study was to. Aim and Contents: The aim of this course is to act generosity essay help students review and. How can SFL help teachers and students with argumentative essays?
Use this lesson plan to a term teach. The purpose of an argumentative essay is to organize and categorical evaluation essay, present your well-reasoned. Argumentative, Having children or not, For 1. 86 Possible Persuasive Essay Topics 1. A genre description of the argumentative essay. Scholarships Essay Template, creative writing essay scholarships 2014. A Term? Creating Persuasive Attention Catchers Activity: Students practice creating persuasive leads that. Act Generosity? Vertigo argumentative essays danielle ofri essays on a term paper abortion. RELC Journal, 21. Top 50 Ideas for Argumentative/Persuasive Essay Topics » Custom. Do)you)think)students)should)be)forced)to)wear)pants)when)it)is)over)100).
Argumentative essays often strike fear deep into the heart of even the in a essay most dedicated students; there really is writing a term paper no need. It often becomes difficult for starting sentences for college, the young students to handle the. This template provides students with a framework for planning an argumentative essay. A Term Paper? Teaching Argument Writing to ELLs. The argumentative essay is a genre of writing that requires the student to investigate a topic; collect, generate. Essays? College students are often assigned to write argumentative essays. Explore Kimberly Bloom#39;s board Argumentative Essay on Pinterest, the a term paper sources world#39;s catalog of ideasSee more about Essay topics, Student and Persuasive writing. Evaluation? Barkhuizen, G. (1998) #39;Discovering Learners#39; Perceptions of ESL Classroom Teaching/Learning.
As a Second Language (ESL) courses. Transition words in writing paper sources, context and write their own persuasive essay using transition words. Good Starting Sentences For College Essays? Caring for #39; Write My Essay #39; Needs So, why exactly did put a #39;Z#39; in their company name? Students need an understanding of the components of writing a term paper sources, argument and the. When faced with this task, you will need to stars poem carol ann duffy show your creativity and imagination by choosing. Here is my prezi on sources how to write an argumentative essay for ESL learners.
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Queens College English 110: College Comp. Below is an example of an ethnographic essay I wrote as an undergraduate. Notice the inclusion of writing paper sources media: please experiment with additional media in your own essay. They hurt you at home and what essay they hit you at school. Writing A Term Paper? They hate you if you’re clever, and they despise a fool. Essay? Till you’re so fucking crazy, you can’t follow their rules. A working class hero is something to be. –John Lennon, Working Class Hero. The history of the writing paper sources, working class man is one that has been constantly neglected in American society. The blue-collar worker, because his life does not have the power or wealth of the rich, rarely has the opportunity to tell his story. Instead, our history books are filled with stories of how he and others like him were conquered by the rich and dominant.
And since his life has never much been thought of as important in to write scholarship the grand scheme of things, his existence is quickly forgotten once he passes on. The truth of the matter is, however, that his existence and history deserve to be known. He’s a working man, a caring man, and a man who sacrifices his life simply to writing a term paper sources get by. His story is powerful, moving, and even to what to write in a scholarship essay an extent, inspirational. Robert Alvarez is your average, run of the mill American of Mexican decent. He was born in a small, working class mining town.
His father was a blue-collar man, as were his grandfathers. He has worked with his hands his entire life and it is the only kind of a term work he has known. He knows what it is like to work hard for poor wages, struggle financially, and to surrender himself for categorical evaluation the good of paper his family. And it is because of all this that he is the perfect specimen of a blue-collar worker who deserves to have his story known to a world that has shunned him and his like in the past. I met with Alvarez at mfa creative writing his home in the rural farming town of Safford. Outside the small house are five cars. Only two actually run. Sources? The other three, a badly oxidized, baby blue 1966 Plymouth Satellite, a rusting, navy 1972 Plymouth Duster, and writing tuition a severely dinged up, silver and black 1979 Dodge Adventurer pickup, are former family cars that the owner hoped to restore after he retired. Now over two years since his departure, they remain in the same spots where they have sat for the last 15 years. Upon entering the house of the retired miner, one is taken aback by the heap of landscaping tools lying on his front porch. After 36 years working as a copper miner at Phelps Dodge and serving as his family’s primary source of writing income, the aging man now works as a gardener and takes the back seat as the money earner to his wife, Anna.
She works as a public school bus driver by day and in the evening moonlights as a custodian. For Anna, an 11-hour workday is mfa creative, not uncommon. Paper? Since Robert’s retirement, however, she no longer has to work alone cleaning the what to write scholarship, Medical Center of Eastern Arizona, the writing a term paper, Arizona State Savings Credit Union, and the Graham County Chamber of college Commerce. He willingly lends her a hand. “It gives us a chance to spend some time together,” she says. He greets me as I enter and we adjourn to the dining room table. He offers me a chair next to his. I gladly accept.
I notice that the table has an interesting floral arrangement in the center. It appears to have some sort of action figure emerging from the writing a term paper, middle of it. I take a closer look and realize that it is the black Power Ranger. Hunter Mfa Creative Writing Tuition? Alvarez catches me taking a peek at the toy and tells me it belongs to his grandson. Writing A Term Sources? “He pretty much runs the place,” he tells me as I crack a smile. I later learn that he was unable to categorical be at the birth of his grandson–his first grandson. He was gone on a term sources, a two-week detail for the National Guard. As I search my book bag for my tape recorder, Alvarez gets up. “Would you like something to drink? Soda, orange juice, beer?” he asks. “No thanks,” I tell him. I chuckle at starting sentences essays the offer of beer. I think to myself how entirely inappropriate it would be to drink an alcoholic beverage at a time such as this.
He returns to writing a term paper sources the table with what appears to starting sentences essays be a 40-ounce bottle of a term paper beer. To Write Scholarship Essay? I’m not able to paper sources distinguish what variety of beer it is; it’s still covered with the what to write essay, brown paper bag from the writing a term paper, liquor store. Essays Music? He sets the cap on writing a term paper sources, the table in categorical front of him and writing a term paper sources I recognize the Budweiser lid. Evaluation? Indeed, a truly American beer. He sits down in sources his chair and leans back “Okay, now I’m ready,” he says right before he takes a big swig of his drink.
Alvarez is what to write in a scholarship essay, not like the average retired copper miner, if one can argue such a thing exists. Writing A Term Paper Sources? No, Alvarez is one of those men who you know has battled life from all possible angles. His dark brown eyes tell the act generosity, story of a man who has seen many a bleak, cold day. Writing A Term Paper? His white hair is an indication of his age and acquired wisdom. His dark, weather-beaten skin exemplifies the many hours he has spent working in the sun and evaluation essay the laborious work he has subjected his body to for the majority of his life. He lifts up a cigarette and presses it between his lips. I watch with astonishment as he gracefully picks up his lighter and gently raises it to his face. His big, bulky fingers move with the greatest of ease.
They look strong, stronger than, I think to myself, any one of my arms. It’s almost as if they are performing a perfectly synchronized dance, some sort of warped finger ballet. With his right dancers he grips the red lighter loosely but still firm. His thumb works as the resistance on the wheel of the lighter and paper with one stroke, a perfect quarter-inch flame is good sentences for college, born. With the cast of his left hand he creates a symmetrical half-dome shield to block any wind from extinguishing the flame. The red glow of the burning tip of the unfiltered cigarette glows in the hand wall he has created and lights up the lower half of his face. He sets the burning Pall Mall down and takes another big drink of a term paper his beer. It doesn’t phase him a bit. Essays Belfast? He looks at paper me, “Let’s get this started.”
Alvarez was born in act generosity essay Bisbee, Arizona. Paper? His father, Francisco Alvarez, a 50-year-old miner and act generosity essay later janitor, married his mother, Maria, when she was 30. Robert was the writing paper, oldest of his father’s new family (he had five other children from a previous marriage). His two brothers, Jim and Ronald, were nothing like their elder sibling. Instead of spending most of their time reading classic historical fiction, Jim and Ron were behaving like average adolescent boys their age.
The differences that distinguished Robert from shooting poem carol ann duffy essay his two younger brothers grew wider once their father died in 1955. I ask Alvarez if he was thrust into a term paper, the position of what to write scholarship essay male role model for writing a term paper sources his brothers after the death. Essay? “Definitely not,” he tells me. He fails to elaborate any more on the subject, and I, instinctively, decide not to follow up on writing sources, it. Shooting Poem Essay? Something tells me not to press too deep into the subject. It appears he is not comfortable speaking of it. I’m disappointed in detecting this, but it is obvious there was some sort of clash of writing a term paper personalities between the three. To this day, the brothers seldom speak to each other. Little Robert Carlos Alvarez was born on March 14th, 1943.
From an starting sentences for college, early age, he was recognizably intelligent. Writing Paper? As a young boy he played the violin, excelled in mathematics and science, and read everything he could get his hands on. His favorite tales were those of the chivalrous knights of medieval Europe, but he loved literature from all over the world. The book case near the entrance of his house is filled with a diverse collection ranging from Dostoyevsky to act generosity Dante to the Bhagavad-Gita . He claims to writing sources have read the majority of tuition works by these authors by the time he was 20 years of age. These authors gave him a view of a world that was much bigger than Bisbee. And because of this, they were his passports to the rest of humanity. At the age of 17, Alvarez enlisted in the Army.
His mother urged him not to leave, but he insisted. He needed to see the writing a term paper, world, he told her. All the books he read as a youngster stirred his imagination. From the authors mentioned above, he held the belief that much of the people in world were suffering, and, for some time, Alvarez was in his heart a socialist. It wasn’t until the fifth grade, however, that he learned of his socialistic tendencies. Shooting Stars Ann Duffy? “When I was in fifth grade there was a big witch-hunt effort in the US for communists. They were looking under every rock for them. Well, one day in a term paper class, I asked the categorical, teacher why some people had to be poor and others did not. A Term Sources? I asked her if there was some kind of government that could make everyone the same. She told me there was and it was called communism. I almost shit! I thought communism was something bad.
It really wasn’t bad. People just didn’t understand it. Essay? People don’t understand suffering if they never really see it or experience it.” Once in the military, Alvarez’s idea of writing a term paper sources suffering changed. “It was like the writers wrote but worse, way worse. The worst thing was the hunter mfa creative tuition, hunger. Starvation is a long, horrible process. I saw people dying in paper front of act generosity essay me. A Term Paper? People living in these starving countries didn’t care about government or politics. They just wanted to survive.
The ordinary people wished the United States and everyone else would leave them in peace. Shooting Stars Ann Duffy Essay? They didn’t want to be bothered by writing paper sources political things. They were more concerned about eating and essays music staying alive.” Upon returning to Bisbee from his military escapade, Alvarez found employment at the local Phelps Dodge mine and began his life following in the footsteps of a term his father and grandfathers. He applied for a position on a whim. “Well, I really don’t know why [I applied]. I just did.” For Alvarez the prospects of becoming a laborer for act generosity the mine increased when he learned that the writing paper, man in shooting carol ann duffy charge of employment knew his father. “He said ‘I’ll take your application and give you a call. Don’t even bother coming down.’ A couple of days later he called me at home. ‘Come on down here and we’ll get the paperwork’. Easy as that.”
The next day, November 21st, 1963, was Alvarez’s first day of his 36-year mining life. I’m careful not to a term paper say career when I describe his years of service to the mining industry because he claims it not to be a career. “I just thought of it as a job,” he explains as he takes yet another drink from his beverage. “All my life I never worked at a place where I thought of it as a career. I just worked and made the best of it. A job’s a job. As long as they keep paying me, I don’t give a care.” And Phelps Dodge did continue to pay him.
At 20, he was earning close to $500 a month. Tuition? This was a dramatic increase for him considering he only made $173 a month in the military. The increase in money prevented Alvarez from re-enlisting in the army and a term sources it kept him for the time being in Bisbee. The $500 a month wages he received, however, came at a price. Alvarez worked underground for ten years in Bisbee. Act Generosity? “It’s the dirtiest work you ever seen,” he tells me. “There’s mud, heat, water. It’s hot.” After hearing this, I question him further and ask him if he could describe in detail what an average day was like for him. He answers me, “a day in Hell.” I think he’s joking and a term paper sources I giggle. Alvarez’s face is void of shooting carol essay emotion. He takes another drink from his beer. His time as an underground miner has paid its toll on his health.
Even today, 26 years after he left Bisbee, his hearing is very bad and a term he smokes a pack of what scholarship cigarettes a day. Although the smoking may not be directly related with his work in writing paper sources mines, his hearing definitely is. Workers underground were not supplied earplugs by Phelps Dodge when they would operate heavy-duty drills. Not that the earplugs would have made much difference. He refuses to wear a hearing aid. He prefers that people speak up to stars poem ann duffy him instead.
Several times during the course of the interview I had to repeat questions so that he could hear them. Twice during the interview I had to speak at writing a term paper sources very unnatural tones, almost yelling at good him. It seemed like my uncomfortableness in doing this humored him. Although Alvarez is not what one would classify as an alcoholic, he obviously enjoys his beer. Again, this can also be contributed to his experience as an underground miner in writing paper sources Bisbee. Everyday, after his shift Alvarez, along with other underground workers, would go directly to the local bar. “The bars would have what they called an after-shift drink, free. You’d go in, and as soon as you got in, they gave you a shot of whiskey . . . Of course, they gave it to you so you would start drinking more. You’d stay in there with the old timers. A lot of us got there at about 3:30. We’d stay there till about good starting sentences for college essays 5-6:00.
Except for the die-hard ones, they’d stay there half the night. “The miner’s drink was called a boilermaker. It was a shot of whiskey and a beer. Writing? We’d have quite a few of those. You had to keep up with the others, no matter how much of a hangover you had the essays music, next day. Writing Sources? You had to drink like Hell. The next day at act generosity essay work you’d damn near die sometimes. But, if you could keep up with them, you were one of them. You were a part of a term paper sources them.” Being a part of the act generosity, underground clique was a major accomplishment for Alvarez. The pride is evident in his disposition when he speaks of these miners.
His eyes light, and his voice picks up. He produces a smile. He even sets his beer down. It is clear that he cherishes the memories of risking his life working far below the surface with these men. “They were a different breed. Writing Paper Sources? They were like the infantry in the Army. The infantry was supposed to be the tough ones who could take anything. That’s what the underground miners were. They could take anything.” As he says this, I feel glad to know that he belonged to something he considers to be special. Not long after that, though, I come to the conclusion that his inclusion in the group was special because it was the first and only time in his life when he was able to live in his Socialist ideal. Shooting Poem Carol Ann Duffy Essay? All the men were equal.
There were no rich or poor among them–they were all the same, all trying to live a simple life. Each person took care of themselves and everyone else. Why it came to be this way, I do not know. Perhaps it was because they saw what he saw and they lived what he lived; they knew each other’s suffering, financial and physical. Maybe it was because they sometimes spent more than 70 hours a week in tight closed spaces together. A Term? Who’s to say, but one thing is for sure: They were blue-collar men destroying their bodies for evaluation essay a company that could care less about them as individuals and more as a commodity. They were brother-laborers linked together, attempting to shield themselves from an overbearing parent company. When I think of it like this, Alvarez’s drinking, smoking, and hearing don’t seem like problems to me. Writing? I realize that they are only tolls on his body; and that they have not affected his mind in the least. Evaluation Essay? They may eventually cost him part of his life, but the life he has lived has brought the kind of wisdom most of us can only a term paper dream of ever gaining.
He knows life and he knows how the what to write in a scholarship essay, world does and writing a term paper sources should work. All three are things that many can never find in shooting carol lifetimes lasting a hundred years. After 11 years in Bisbee, Alvarez was transferred to a new mine in his present home of Safford. As for the reason for the move, he says, “I got chosen to come over here. The big producers got chosen, the ones who put out the most tonnage.” Other than the comradeship of working underground, tonnage was another major part in his life as an underground contract miner. Tonnage is a slang term describing the amount of copper a miner digs out. After working up the ladder from an entry laborer, or mucker, he made his way to writing a term sources the alluring money associated with contract mining. Basically, the idea behind contract mining was that teams of men, usually four per group, would work in split shifts to achieve a company set standard. The standard for the group took several factors of working conditions into consideration.
Things like underground temperature, how far ore needed to be moved, how many times ore needed to be moved, how far underground the mining was being done, and if there was the possibility of the shaft caving in were all accounted for by the company in starting for college essays its decision of a standard. For Alvarez, a common standard set for a term his crews was 80 tons per day. Categorical Evaluation? Each man was responsible for 20 tons each. If the 80 tons were met, a bonus of 50 cents a ton was awarded by the company for the miners’ hard work. The system seemed reasonable enough for those motivated to work hard and willing to be part of a team. However, problems often did arise in the arrangement. “Sometimes you got teamed up with some other crew that didn’t want to work.” When this happened, the outcomes often resulted in ill feelings between co-workers. “It used to get bad to where the day shift guys would go into the bar and start drinking and at eleven o’clock they’d be waiting outside for the other guys to writing sources get out. They’d start fighting.” The selection of Alvarez for essays the Safford mine was a wise one. At one point in his work underground, he was pumping out 25 tons of ore a day. This is when he says he was making the best money of his young life. “I was making really good money. Writing Paper? That in belfast itself was motivating me to work harder,” he says.
The money wasn’t everything, however. During this time, he met his first wife, Alice. He was 24 and ready to settle down. She was 22 and significantly younger in terms of what she had seen in life compared to him. A Term Paper Sources? The two were married March 21st of 1967. What Scholarship Essay? After eight months of marriage, Alice died during complications in childbirth. Alvarez, destroyed and distraught, was also out of work. A strike began the previous July and writing a term sources would continue up until the next April. He remained out of work until then. “It was a bad time in my life,” he says as he takes another drink from his beer. The strike ended quickly after and a few years later, Alvarez met his current wife, Anna.
The two instantly fell in love. Anna had a child from a previous marriage, and when the two married on March 21st, 1970, Alvarez adopted Gilbert Anthony as his own son. “I always thought of act generosity him as my boy. He was born the same day my wife died.” Two years after their marriage, he and Anna had their first child together, Frederick Robert. Ironically, Fred was born on Gilbert’s birthday, and the fifth anniversary of Alice’s death. With his second child, and happy marriage, things were beginning to look up for Alvarez.
Incidentally, the March 21st wedding of Robert and Anna coincidentally landed on the same day of his first wedding. Both weddings fell on a term sources, a Saturday, Alvarez’s day off from work. From as far as Alvarez could remember, strikes were a regular occurrence at Phelps Dodge mines. “When I first started working in Bisbee, every three years there was a strike. Every three years, never failed.” He pauses to take a drink of his beer. “Every three years the union would call a strike to negotiate contracts.” The union was something Alvarez never cared much for. He held a stereotype of all union members based on his experiences with them. Part of this stereotype came from his encounters with union representatives who pressured him to act generosity essay join the union. “The union guy would come over writing paper sources there and to write in a try to sign you up.
When you signed up, they finally would leave you alone. As long as you sign, they can take that money out of your paycheck. A Term Sources? They used to take about $10 out. Essays Belfast? After that, they don’t bother you and you don’t bother them. I never made a union meeting in my life.” Other than the greed Alvarez saw in unions, the writing a term paper sources, other part of the stereotype he held involved their indolence. Hunter College Writing Tuition? “A lot of the a term sources, union members were the lazy guys,” he says. Act Generosity Essay? He claims the writing paper sources, union also prevented him from outputting tonnage by the number of rules and what in a essay regulations it set up. “The union used to make up a lot of rules that would keep you from making money.” I ask for an example. “Like at lunchtime. You couldn’t blast more than ten sticks of dynamite because the union members said the smoke would fill up all over and people couldn’t eat in the tunnels. It would be too much smoke for them.
For a lot of the real workers, the smoke would not bother them. Lunch was to eat not enjoy.” Alvarez’s solution to rules and regulations like this was to not get caught. “At lunchtime I would use 50 sticks of dynamite but only say I used 10. Writing A Term Paper? I wasn’t going to get less tonnage and lose my money for them.” Alvarez was turned in a number of times by starting for college essays the union and a term was dealt with by PD. “They just told me to stop,” he says. He didn’t stop, however. “I’d just cool it down for stars essay a while. Then, the next chance I got, I would do it again.” Alvarez put up with the union for the next 15 years, but in 1983, the shape of unions at Phelps Dodge was undergoing a drastic change. More specifically, the company was in the process of eliminating them.
When Alvarez first started working in Safford in April of 1975, a union did not exist at the mine. Writing? “They didn’t have a union in Safford. PD didn’t want a union, so there wasn’t one. The union was still around and real strong in hunter mfa creative writing tuition Morenci, though.” Indeed, the union in Morenci was strong and held a considerable amount of influence in the company. Morenci is a 45-minute drive east of Safford. The town was, and still is, completely controlled by Phelps Dodge. A Term? The overwhelming majority of people who live there work for good sentences essays the mine. The union had to be strong in such circumstances. Employees would fight not only for working conditions but also living conditions. Often times, or more accurately, every three years, clashes between the two factions arose. Sources? The most heated clash, and the strike which drew enormous national and music belfast world attention for its government-aided striker loss, began July 1, 1983. It eventually ended led to the fall of the union in Morenci.
At the time of the strike, Alvarez had moved from the Safford mine, which had been closed in writing paper sources 1982, to a division of small mines being prospected by PD. Poem Carol Ann Duffy Essay? However, for the two weeks preceding the strike up to the first day of the strike, he was working in Morenci as a loan from small mines. “I was loaned by a term sources small mines to Morenci to clean copper out of a furnace. There were a few of essays music us. We had to writing a term paper drill and blast it out. The first day of the strike was the last day I worked in Morenci. They asked me if I wanted to stay there after the strike started but I said no. Starting Essays? I left the mine, and sources outside thousands of to write in a people were lined up.
I didn’t get out of work until 7AM, but they left me alone because they knew I was leaving. If they thought I was a scab, they probably would have killed me. I didn’t want to be a scab. I just wanted to go back to small mines.” Alvarez did go back to small mines, but did not stay there long. “With small mines, PD was trying to writing a term paper sources look into little, old mines, mining claims all around that had been closed for decades. They were leasing them looking for college mfa creative writing tuition ore.
The first place I went was Gallup, New Mexico. We went around looking in the hills looking for ore. PD thought that the old time prospectors had missed a lot of ore.” PD was wrong. The old prospectors of the area, using only hand tools, cleaned the a term, hills surrounding Gallup of nearly all the ore. “The old miners dug out every little ounce of what there was,” recounts Alvarez. After PD decided small mines was a flop, Alvarez was asked to to write scholarship work in Morenci. By this time, the strike was over a year old. He started in August of 1984. “By that time, there were a lot of openings, and lots of miners from all over the state were taking the [positions] over.” Demonstrators still lined the gates of the paper sources, mine, and they continued to yell and spit at scabs entering the compound, but Alvarez paid no attention to them. Initially, Alvarez felt compassion for stars poem carol ann duffy the strikers. “When the a term sources, strike first started, I felt sorry for the people, that’s why I didn’t stay to work there instead of small mines. I didn’t want to categorical take their job away. They were just ordinary workers fighting for their cause.” After he says this, I ask him what caused the relapse in his judgment when he decided to work there a year later.
To this he replies, “the people changed. I didn’t feel sorry for a term sources them anymore. A lot of the pushy, union strikers ended up going back to work a year later. The one’s who made the most noise were some of the first ones to come back. Essays Music? The strikers were outnumbered. Most of them went back to writing sources work, and they weren’t as solid. They got hungry.” He takes another drink of his beer. Alvarez was called a scab but it did not disturb him a bit.
People never approached him during his time off from work or threatened him like they did to other scabs. “I don’t give a damn about people or what they think of me. The strike was broken for all practical purposes and when I went in, I never had anybody come up to me.” Alvarez’s family, however, did feel some anxiety from others in the community. Stars Poem Carol Essay? One of writing paper sources Anna’s closest friends told her over the telephone one day that she no longer wanted to associate with her ever again. Debbie, Alvarez’s next child after Frederick, claimed to good starting for college be threatened on the playground many a time at school by children of a term sources strikers. Gilbert said his Catechism teacher, a wife of a demonstrator, harassed him. All this did die, however, as the strike came to an end and his life amid the strike that was famous for failing went back to normal. Reflecting back on the strike, Alvarez takes another drink from his bottle and evaluation says this, “The union was going to sources break PD. It was too strong.
No one was able to work because there were so many rules and regulations. That’s why they got rid of it, and they went into a lot of debt to get rid of it. Looking back on it, though, I think PD had it all planned out for years. They do need some kind of union, but they don’t need one no near as powerful as that one. Under the essays belfast, new PD, it’s to the point to where they can’t form a union. Writing Paper Sources? The still need someone to stick up for the ordinary worker. It was just too powerful at that time. “PD more or less dictates everything now for the worker.
But, I think this was planned a long time ago. One thing about PD, and that’s always been that way, is that they’re going to do what they want to do. It’s take it or leave it. You don’t like it, tough. You either keep working and not like it or you find another job.” Alvarez was able to raise five children and essay support his wife with his job at Phelps Dodge. He was also able to send three of writing a term sources his kids to college and is planning on sending another next fall. He bought a house, 14 cars, and college tuition never missed a payment. Writing Paper Sources? He built a life with the money he earned at Phelps Dodge.
He sacrificed his hands, his lungs, his hearing, and more especially his liver for a company that paid him poorly for all he gave. Alvarez never complained about scholarship his job and still doesn’t. “I made a living off of it. Writing Paper? If they go broke tomorrow, I don’t care. If they went broke when I was working there, I would have found a job somewhere else. I never thought of it as a career. Good Starting Sentences? I’m not the type of person who is ambitious. I’m not trying to come out ahead. I’m just trying to make a life, that’s it.” After Alvarez tells me this, he takes another drink of his beer. As I watch him, I’m left breathless.
I think to writing a term sources myself that the man sitting across from me is the living quintessence of what the beaten up workingman is. He’s been dealt a less than average hand by life, but has been able to belfast make the best of it. Sources? He’s a fighter who refuses to shooting ann duffy essay give up. Paper? He’s independent and categorical evaluation essay never depended on a union or anyone else to stick up for him. He’s a family man who sacrificed himself to provide. The more I reflect on this, the more I realize that he’s more than just the good guy who has been wronged by life. He’s a hero. Writing A Term? But he’s a hero for more than just the workingman. He’s a hero for anyone who knows what it is like to work hard and belfast get paid softly. He’s a hero for anyone who knows what it is like to combat life from all directions. He’s a hero for all those who can relate to the education life gives.
I realize that this man deserves to have his story recorded even if he is not as rich as Bill Gates or as powerful as Jess Jackson (both of writing sources whom will be remembered in history). His story needs to essay be shared, and I’m not just saying that because he’s my father. He’s my hero too.
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45 Quick Changes That Help Your Resume Get Noticed. The Muse Editor. A Term! There is certainly a time and a place for a resume overhaul. Taking a couple hours to really clean up your resume is evaluation worth doing before you start a job search, or even just once a year as a tune-up. But sometimes, you don’t have that kind of time. Sometimes, you just have a few minutes, and a term paper you want to music, spend them giving your resume a quick polishing-up.
And for those times, we made you this list of writing paper sources, resume updates that only good starting for college essays take a few minutes, but that can make a big difference in writing a term making your resume shine. Choose how much time you have, pick a (mini) project, and get ready for your resume to be that much more eye-catching. Ready, switch the font of your resume to Helvetica, Arial, or Times New Roman—in other words, make sure it’s not hard to read (or stuck in mfa creative writing Word’s standard Calibri). Using a common, clean font may not make your resume the prettiest out there, but it will make it more readable (and less likely to sources, be rejected by applicant tracking systems). Essays Music Belfast! 2. Remove “References Available Upon Request” If they want references, they’ll ask for them!), and use the extra space to add a detail about your abilities or accomplishments. Writing A Term Paper! That boring boilerplate “I am a hard working professional who wants to to write scholarship essay, work in [blank] industry” is a bit obvious—why else would you be submitting your resume?—and takes up valuable space. Save your resume as a PDF if it’s in any other format. That way, the writing a term sources formatting won’t get messed up when your resume is opened on a different computer. (To see exceptions to act generosity, this rule, click here.) Change the file name from “Resume” to “[First Name] [Last Name] Resume”—it makes things easier for hiring managers and ensures your resume doesn’t get lost in the crowd.
If you’re not local, recruiters might not look any further. If you are, recruiters may take your commute time into account and turn you down if they think it would be too long. In its place, add a link to your LinkedIn profile, as well as any other relevant social media handles (Twitter if it’s professional, Instagram or Flickr if you’re applying to social media or creative positions). Caveat: Never include Facebook, no matter how clean you keep it. Don’t want to a term sources, drop your whole ugly LinkedIn URL onto your resume? (Hint: You shouldn’t.) Create a custom URL to your public profile using simply /yourname (or some similar, simple variation if somebody already has your name). LinkedIn has instructions on its website. Starting Essays! Your resume is writing a term paper sources most likely going to college tuition, be read on a computer, so making things like your email address, LinkedIn and other social profiles, and personal websites clickable makes it easier for the recruiter to writing a term, learn more about you. Omit any references to act generosity essay, your birthdate, marital status, or religion.
Since it’s illegal for employers to consider this when looking at your application (at least in the U.S.), they can’t request it (and offering it makes you look a little clueless). If you’re more than three years out of college, remove your graduation year. Paper! Recruiters only really want to know that you got a degree, and you don't want them to what in a scholarship, inadvertently discriminate based on your age. While you’re at a term sources it, do a little rearranging, and move education down below your experience. Unless you’re a recent graduate, chances are your last one or two jobs are more important and relevant to you getting the job. Act Generosity Essay! To improve readability, increase the line spacing (also called leading) to at least 120% of the writing a term paper font size. To do this in Word, go to Format and select Paragraph.
In the pulldown under Line Spacing, choose Exactly and set the spacing to two points above the good starting size of your font (so, 12 if your font is 10 point). Need a little more space to a term sources, work with? Reduce your top and bottom margins to 0.5 and your side margins to what to write scholarship, no less than 0.75. This will keep your resume clean and paper sources readable but give you more room to shooting carol, talk about a term sources what you've got. Remove anything high school-related unless you’re a year out of college or need to bulk up your resume and evaluation essay did something highly relevant (and awesome) during your high school years. Writing A Term Paper! Add any new skills you’ve gained, and poem ann duffy remove anything that is a little dated (nobody wants to hear that you have Microsoft Word experience anymore—they expect it). If you have lots of skills related to a position—say, foreign language, software, and leadership skills—try breaking out one of those sections and listing it on its own (“Language Skills” or “Software Skills”). Make sure formatting is consistent across your resume. You want all headers to be in the same style, all indentations to line up, all bullet points to match, and the like.
You don’t want the styling to look sloppy! Find any acronyms, and write out the paper sources full name of the tuition title, certification, or organization. You should include both, at least the first time, to make sure the recruiter knows what you’re talking about and so an a term paper sources applicant tracking system will pick it up no matter which format it is looking for. For example: Certified Public Accountant (CPA). Unless you are a designer or are submitting a (carefully crafted) creative resume, remove any photos or visual elements. On a more traditional resume, they generally just distract from the shooting stars poem information at hand (and can confuse applicant tracking systems). If you have gaps of a few months in writing paper your work history, swap out the usual start and end dates for each position with years only (e.g., 2010-2012). Swap out a couple of poem carol ann duffy essay, your boring verbs for some more powerful (and interesting) ones.
Check out our list if you need inspiration. Swap out a couple of generic adjectives or titles (words like “detail-oriented” or “experienced” are overused and don’t tell a recruiter much) with stronger language that better describes your more unique strengths. 24. List Your Promotions Correctly. Worked multiple jobs within the writing paper same organization?
Learn how to list them right on your resume, then update it as such. As a rule, you should only show the most recent 10 to music belfast, 15 years of your career history and writing paper only include the evaluation essay experience relevant to the positions to which you are applying. Writing Paper Sources! So if you have anything really dated or random, remove it and use the space to bulk up other sections or add something more relevant. Go through line by line and take note of any orphan words (single words left on a line by music, themselves). A Term Sources! See how you can edit the previous line so they can fit—making your resume look cleaner and sentences for college opening up extra lines for you to do other things with. Make your document easier to skim by adding divider lines between sections.
Check out section three of this great guide for instructions. Include any numbers on your resume? Go through and change them all to numerical form, instead of written out (i.e., 30% instead of a term sources, thirty percent). Music! Even small numbers that are often spelled out a term paper, should be written numerically—it makes them pop to the reviewer and saves space. This will not only help you catch any spelling or grammar errors, but it will also help you notice any sentences that sound awkward or that are hard to understand.
Look at your resume “above the fold.” In other words, take a close look at the top third of your resume—the part that will show up on the screen when the hiring manager clicks “open” on that PDF. Sentences For College Essays! That’s what’s going to make your first impression—so make sure it serves as a hook that makes the hiring manager eager to writing paper, read more. Make sure you have no more than six to essay, seven bullet points for any given position. If you do? Cut and condense. Writing Paper Sources! No matter how long you’ve been in a job or how good your bullets are, the recruiter just isn’t going to get through them. Give your resume to someone who doesn’t know you well to look at for 30 seconds. Then ask: What are the three most memorable things? What’s the narrative? Take this feedback and think about categorical essay how you can adjust your resume to get it closer to where you want.
Similarly, drop your resume into a word cloud generator and see which keywords are popping out. Sources! If the most prominent ones aren’t what you want to be remembered by, or if there are important words that aren’t present, think about how you can tweak your resume to make that more clear. Go through your bullet points, and add as many numbers and belfast percentages as you can to writing a term sources, quantify your work. How many people were impacted? By what percentage did you exceed your goals? (And, yes, it’s OK to estimate as long as you can roughly prove it.) Pick a few statements to take one step further, and add in what the benefit was to your boss or your company. By doing this, you clearly communicate not only what you’re capable of, but also the direct benefit the employer will receive by hiring you. 36. Consider Adding a Qualifications Section. Perhaps in act generosity lieu of your now-deleted “Career Objective?” This should be a six-sentence (or bullet pointed) section that concisely presents the creme of the crop of your achievements, major skills, and important experiences. By doing this, you’re both appeasing any applicant tracking systems with keywords and giving the writing a term paper sources hiring manager the juicy, important bits right at hunter mfa creative the top.
37. Update Your Header to Make it Pop. Writing A Term Paper Sources! You don’t have to have a ton of design knowledge to make a header that looks sleek and categorical catches a recruiter’s eye. (Hint: Use this same header on your resume and cover letter to make your “personal brand” look really put together.) Need to fill up more space on your resume, or feel like you’re light on the experience? There’s no law that says you can only put full-time or paid work on writing a term paper your resume. So, if you’ve participated in a major volunteer role, worked part-time, freelanced, or blogged?
Add a couple of these things as their own “jobs” within your career chronology. Hunter! If you need more space on your resume, check and see if any of your formatting decisions are taking up unnecessary space. Does your header take up too much at writing a term paper the top? Do you have any extra line breaks that you don’t really need? Tinker around with the formatting and categorical evaluation see how much space you can open up (without your resume looking crowded or messy). 40.
Make Your Bullet Points Make Sense. Look at each bullet point and a term paper make sure it’s understandable to act generosity, the average person. Remember that the first person who sees your resume might be a recruiter, an assistant, or even a high-level executive—and you want to be sure that it is writing a term sources readable, relevant, and interesting to all of good essays, them. Download this free resume template so you’ll look extra polished. Make sure all of the a term paper experience on your resume is evaluation updated. Add any awards you’ve received, new skills you’ve taken on, articles you’ve published, or anything else awesome you’ve done. Hop over to your LinkedIn profile, and make any updates you’ve just made to writing paper, your resume to your summary and experience sections there. Email three of your friends or professional contacts asking (nicely!) for a peek at categorical essay their resumes. You might be able to get some inspiration for your own (or even help them out).
Find an awesome job to writing a term, apply to with one of evaluation, our partner companies, then get started on writing your cover letter with our easy-to-follow guide. WANT YOUR RESUME TO HELP YOU GET A JOB? Of course you do. Photo of person editing resume courtesy of Hero Images/Getty Images#46; Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for essay, this class.
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essay on ww1 causes About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Its origins were complex. Its scale was vast. Its conduct was intense. A Term Sources. Its impact on military operations was revolutionary. Its human and material costs were enormous.
And its results were profound. The war was a global conflict. Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. Twenty-eight of good starting sentences these constituted the Allied and Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and the United States of America. They were opposed by the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire. The war began in the Balkan cockpit of competing nationalisms and ancient ethnic rivalries. Paper. Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Expansion of the war was swift. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on stars ann duffy essay Russia on 1 August. Writing A Term Paper. Germany declared war on for college essays France on 3 August and invaded Belgium.
France was invaded on 4 August. German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the paper, British with a convenient excuse to enter the war on the side of France and Russia the same evening. Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia on 6 August. College Writing. France and Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later. The underlying causes of these events have been intensively researched and debated. Modern scholars are less inclined to allocate blame for paper, the outbreak of war than was the case in the past. They have sought instead to understand the fears and ambitions of the governing lites of Europe who took the fateful decisions for war, particularly that of imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions. Of the powers involved in the outbreak of war, only shooting poem carol ann duffy essay Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda.
The French hoped to recover the paper sources, provinces of Alsace and Lorraine lost to Germany as a result of their defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1, but this was regarded as an attempt at restitution rather than acquisition. Act Generosity Essay. Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount. The states who embarked on the road to war in 1914 wished to preserve what they had. This included not only their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and their prestige. Writing A Term Paper Sources. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of their fears and submit to the tyranny of events. The Austrians feared for the survival of their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the threat of Serb nationalism and Panslavism. The Germans feared the consequences to themselves of allowing Austria, their closest and only reliable ally, to be weakened and shooting stars poem carol essay humiliated. The Russians feared the threat to their prestige and authority as protector of the Slavs if they allowed Austria to paper, defeat and humiliate Serbia. The French feared the superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of their German neighbours.
France's principal defence against in a scholarship essay the threat of German power was its alliance with Russia. This it was imperative to defend. Writing A Term Sources. The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. But most of all they feared for the long-term security of their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for a decade. All governments feared their peoples. Some statesmen welcomed the war in the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of dissident elements and scholarship encouraging a return to patriotic values. Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched. The process of writing paper expansion did not end in August 1914. Other major belligerents took their time and waited upon events.
Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and hunter college mfa creative writing Austria since the writing a term, Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on 3 August. In the following months it was ardently courted by France and Britain. On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to Allied temptations and declared war on Austria-Hungary in pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino. Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate. Serbia was overrun. The road to Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers. Romania prevaricated about which side to join, but finally chose the Allies in sentences, August 1916, encouraged by sources the success of the act generosity essay, Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. It was a fatal miscalculation. The German response was swift and decisive. Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by two invading German armies and its rich supplies of wheat and oil did much to keep Germany in the war for another two years.
Romania joined Russia as the writing a term sources, other Allied power to suffer defeat in categorical essay, the war. It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in turning a European conflict into a world war. Britain was the world's greatest imperial power. The British had world-wide interests and world-wide dilemmas. They also had world-wide friends. Germany found itself at war not only with Great Britain but also with the dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and writing a term paper sources South Africa and with the greatest British imperial possession, India. Concern for the defence of India helped bring the British into conflict with the good essays, Ottoman Empire in writing, November 1914 and resulted in a major war in the Middle East. Most important of all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the stars poem, United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible. The American declaration of war on Germany on 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the United States but also in writing a term, that of Europe and essays belfast the world, bringing to an end half a millennium of writing a term European domination and ushering in 'the American century'.
The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the Western Front in France and Belgium the French and their British allies, reinforced from 1917 onwards by the Americans, were locked in a savage battle of attrition against the German army. Here the war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and sophisticated trench systems and act generosity field fortifications. Dense belts of barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of machine-gun fire, and accumulating masses of quick-firing field and heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Casualties were enormous. The first phase of the war in the west lasted until November 1914. This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an enveloping movement round the left flank of the French armies. The plan met with initial success.
The advance of the German armies through Belgium and northern France was dramatic. The French, responding with an offensive in Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat. France was saved by the iron nerve of paper sources its commander-in-chief, General J. J. C. Joffre, who had not only the intelligence but also the strength of character to extricate himself from the act generosity, ruin of his plans and order the historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the 'miracle of the Marne'. The German armies were forced to retreat and to entrench. Their last attempt at a breakthrough was stopped by French and British forces near the small Flemish market town of Ypres in November. Writing A Term. By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to the Swiss frontier. Although the events of 1914 did not result in a German victory, they left the Germans in a very strong position. The German army held the strategic initiative. It was free to retreat to shooting stars poem ann duffy, positions of writing a term paper sources tactical advantage and to belfast, reinforce them with all the skill and ingenuity of German military engineering. Enormous losses had been inflicted on France.
Two-fifths of France's military casualties were incurred in 1914. These included a tenth of the officer corps. German troops occupied a large area of northern France, including a significant proportion of writing a term paper French industrial capacity and stars carol essay mineral wealth. These realities dominated the second phase of the war in the west. This lasted from November 1914 until March 1918. It was characterized by the unsuccessful attempts of the French and their British allies to evict the German armies from French and Belgian territory.
During this period the Germans stood mainly on the defensive, but they showed during the Second Battle of Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and more especially during the Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on the German line: in writing paper, the spring of 1915 in mfa creative, Artois; in the autumn of 1915 in Champagne; and in the spring of 1917 on the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the fighting and the absence of achievement. Little ground was gained. No positions of strategic significance were captured. Casualties were severe.
The failure of the Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of morale in the French army. Paper Sources. For much of the rest of good sentences 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action. The British fared little better. Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the German line. During the battles of the Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and the Third Battle of Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on the German army at great cost to themselves, but the German line held and no end to the war appeared in sight.
The final phase of the war in the west lasted from 21 March until 11 November 1918. This saw Germany once more attempt to achieve victory with a knock-out blow and once more fail. The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and infantry tactics. They enjoyed spectacular success. The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. But the writing sources, British line held in front of Amiens and later to the north in front of Ypres. No real strategic damage was done. By midsummer the German attacks had petered out. The German offensive broke the trench deadlock and returned movement and man#156;uvre to the strategic agenda. It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. The Allied counter-offensive began in July.
At the Battle of Amiens, on 8 August, the British struck the German army a severe blow. For the what to write, rest of the war in the west the Germans were in retreat. On the Eastern Front in Galicia and Russian Poland the Germans and their Austrian allies fought the gallant but disorganized armies of Russia. Here the writing a term paper, distances involved were very great. Writing. Artillery densities were correspondingly less.
Man#156;uvre was always possible and cavalry could operate effectively. Writing A Term. This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on the Western Front. The war in the east was shaped by German strength, Austrian weakness, and good sentences for college essays Russian determination. German military superiority was apparent from the a term paper, start of the war. Belfast. The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in 1914, at Tannenberg (26-31 August) and the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September). These victories ensured the writing paper, security of Germany's eastern frontiers for act generosity, the rest of the war. They also established the military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in the autumn of 1916. By September 1915 the Russians had been driven out of Poland, Lithuania, and Courland. Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and writing a term paper the Russian frontier fortresses of Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Brest-Litovsk.
These defeats proved costly to Russia. They also proved costly to Austria. What To Write Essay. Austria had a disastrous war. Italian entry into the war compelled the Austrians to fight an three fronts: against Serbia in the Balkans; against Russia in a term paper sources, Galicia; against Italy in music belfast, the Trentino. This proved too much for Austrian strength. A Term Paper Sources. Their war effort was characterized by dependency on Germany. Germans complained that they were shackled to hunter college mfa creative writing, the 'Austrian corpse'.
The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions. By 1918 Austria was weary of the war and desperate for peace. This had a major influence on the German decision to seek a victory in the west in the spring of 1918. Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by the October Revolution of 1917 and by Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in writing a term paper sources, the punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and took Russia out of the war. This has obscured the astonishing Russian determination to keep faith with the for college essays, Franco-British alliance. Without the Russian contribution in the east it is far from certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west.
The unhesitating Russian willingness to aid their western allies is writing a term sources, nowhere more apparent than in the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in categorical evaluation, the capture of the Bukovina and large parts of Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at a cost to paper sources, Russia which ultimately proved mortal. In southern Europe the Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to dislodge the Austrians from their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river. In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in a major Italian defeat at Caporetto. The Italians were pushed back beyond the categorical essay, Piave. This defeat produced changes in the Italian high command. During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of purpose and a greater degree of organization. On 24 October 1918 Italian and British forces recrossed the Piave and split the Austrian armies in two at Vittorio Veneto.
Austrian retreat turned into rout and then into surrender. In the Balkans the a term, Serbs fought the Austrians and Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the hunter college, highest proportion of servicemen killed of any belligerent power. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to Macedonia to operate against the Bulgarians. It struggled to have any influence on the war. The Germans mocked it and writing paper sources declared Salonika to be the biggest internment camp in Europe, but the French and British eventually broke out starting sentences of the malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Bulgaria in the autumn of 1918.
In the a term, Middle East British armies fought the Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Starting Essays. Here the war was characterized by the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against writing paper sources climate, terrain, and disease. The British attempted to knock Turkey out what to write of the war with an attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to withdraw at the end of the year, having failed to break out from their narrow beach-heads in the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by a German general, Liman von Sanders. The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in a term paper, Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Major-General C. V. F. Townshend advanced to Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to surrender at good starting sentences essays, Kut-al-Amara in April 1916. Writing. Only after the appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to the command of British forces in scholarship, Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and writing a term sources economic strength begin to assert itself. What In A. Maude's forces captured Baghdad in March 1917, the first clear-cut British victory of the war. The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to command British forces in Egypt. He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in Palestine.
Turkey surrendered on 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to a term sources, tropical Africa. Germany's colonies in West and south-west Africa succumbed to British and South African forces by the spring of 1915. In East Africa, however, a German army of locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the bush and surrendering only after the defeat of Germany in Europe became known. On and under the oceans of the world, Great Britain and Germany contested naval supremacy. Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the south Atlantic, and the North Sea. The British generally had the better of these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Coronel (1 November 1914) and what scholarship Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the a term paper sources, only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to college writing tuition, deliver the writing paper sources, expected Nelsonic victory of total annihilation. Submarine warfare took place in the North Sea, the Black Sea, the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and the Baltic.
German resort to unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to the verge of ruin. German violation of international law and sinking of American ships also helped bring the mfa creative tuition, United States into writing, the war on the Allied side. The British naval blockade of Germany, massively reinforced by what to write scholarship the Americans from April 1917, played an important role in German defeat. The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for political and military leaders to control events. The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence. Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to allow lesser states a degree of licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime. Governments' deliberate arousal of popular passions made suggestions of compromise seem treasonable. A Term. The ever-rising cost of the military means inflated the political ends. Hopes of music belfast a peaceful new world order began to replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of power'. Rationality went out of season.
War aims were obscured. Strategies were distorted. Great Britain entered the war on proclaimed principles of writing a term paper international law and in defence of the essays belfast, rights of small nations. By 1918 the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of naked imperialism (in collaboration with the French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of Arab nationalism and promising support for writing a term paper sources, the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine. It was truly a war of illusions. Europe's political and military leaders have been subjected to much retrospective criticism for their belief that the #145;war would be over by Christmas'. This belief was not based on complacency. Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the stars, murderous nature of a term paper sources First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the war to be short. This was because they also expected it to be brutal and costly, in what to write scholarship essay, both blood and treasure. No state could be expected to sustain such a war for very long without disastrous consequences. The war which gave the lie to sources, these assumptions was the evaluation, American Civil War.
This had been studied by European military observers at close quarters. Most, however, dismissed it. This was particularly true of the Prussians. Writing A Term Paper. Their own military experience in the wars against Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and essays music belfast compelling. These wars were both short. They were also instrumental. In 1914 the Germans sought to replicate the success of their Prussian predecessors. They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on the Bismarckian model. To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the German army to defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in the west. Strategic conduct of the First World War was dominated by German attempts to achieve victory through knock-out blows. Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in his belief that Germany could obtain an outcome to the war satisfactory to its interests and writing a term sources those of its allies without winning smashing victories of total annihilation.
His bloody attempt to win the war by attrition at Verdun in 1916 did little to recommend the strategy to his fellow countrymen. Categorical. The preference for knock-out blows remained. It was inherited from German history and writing sources was central to Germany's pre-war planning. Pre-war German strategy was haunted by sentences the fear of a war on two fronts, against France in the west and Russia in the east. The possibility of a diplomatic solution to this dilemma was barely considered by the military-dominated German government.
A military solution was sought instead. Writing A Term Sources. The German high command decided that the best form of defence was attack. They would avoid a war on two fronts by knocking out one of their enemies before the other could take the field. The enemy with the slowest military mobilization was Russia. The French army would be in the field first.
France was therefore chosen to receive the starting sentences for college essays, first blow. Once France was defeated the German armies would turn east and defeat Russia. The Schlieffen Plan rested on two assumptions: that it would take the Russians six weeks to put an army into the field; and paper sources that six weeks was long enough to defeat France. By 1914 the first assumption was untrue: Russia put an army into the field in essay, fifteen days. The second assumption left no margin for error, no allowance for the inevitable friction of war, and was always improbable. The failure of the Schlieffen Plan gave the First World War its essential shape. This was maintained by the enduring power of the German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the a term, war'.
The German army was a potent instrument. It had played a historic role in the emergence of the German state. It enjoyed enormous prestige. It was able to recruit men of belfast talent and dedication as officers and NCOs. As a result it was well trained and writing sources well led. It had the political power to command the resources of Germany's powerful industrial economy. Germany's position at the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on interior lines of communication in a European war. The efficient German railway network permitted the essays music belfast, movement of German troops quickly from front to front. The superior speed of the locomotive over the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the sea to operate effectively against the periphery of the Central Powers. The power of the writing a term paper, German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the war. 'We cannot hope to win this war until we have defeated the hunter college writing tuition, German army,' wrote the commander-in-chief of the British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig.
This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to embrace. The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties. A Term Paper Sources. The first of these was the inability of the essays music belfast, German political system to forge appropriate instruments of strategic control. The second was Great Britain. German government rested on the tortured personality of the Kaiser.
It was riven by intrigue and indecision. The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and France (though not in Russia) failed to a term sources, evolve in Germany. When the Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective. Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and inspired confidence. Music Belfast. This gave him the appearance of a great man but without the substance. General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and without political judgement. In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to ruin. The failure to develop effective mechanisms of strategic control applied equally to the Austro-German alliance. The Austrians depended on writing a term sources German military and economic strength, but the Germans found it difficult to turn this into 'leverage'. Austria was willing to take German help but not German advice. Only after the crushing reverses inflicted by Brusilov's offensive did the Austrians submit to German strategic direction.
By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on winning a short war. British belligerency made this unlikely. The British were a naval rather than a military power. They could not be defeated by the German army, at least not quickly. The British could, if necessary, hold out even after their Continental allies had been defeated. They might even have chosen to do this. They had in the past and they would again in the not-too-distant future.
The German navy was too weak to categorical, defeat the writing paper, British, but large enough to make them resentful and suspicious of German policy; it ought never to have been built. British entry into poem ann duffy essay, the war dramatically shifted the economic balance in favour of the Allies. Britain was one of the world's great industrial powers. Seventy-five per cent of the world's shipping was British built and much of it British owned. London was the world's greatest money and commodities market. British access to world supplies of food and writing credit and to imperial resources of good sentences manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into the field on the outbreak of war.
From about mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to be fully mobilized. Writing Paper Sources. Germany was forced for mfa creative writing tuition, the first time to confront the reality of material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to fight a war of writing a term sources scarcity, the Allies increasingly a war of abundance. French strategy was dominated by the German occupation of much of northern France and most of Belgium. At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from Paris. A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and psychologically impossible, at act generosity, least during the first three years of the war. During 1914 and 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in the attempt to evict the Germans. This was followed by the torment of Verdun, where the Germans deliberately attempted to 'bleed France white'. French fears of writing sources military inferiority were confirmed. If France was to prevail its allies would have to contribute in kind. For the British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and one which has appalled them ever since.
British strategy became increasingly subordinated to the needs of the categorical evaluation essay, Franco-British alliance. The British fought the writing a term sources, war as they had to, not as they wanted to. The British way in warfare envisaged a largely naval war. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. If the German navy chose not to break the stranglehold Germany would lose the war. If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated. British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Neutral opinion would be cowed. Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight.
The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness. Essay. Military operations would be confined to the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to help the French. Remaining military forces would be employed on writing sources the periphery of the Central Powers remote from the German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to their size. The British never really fought the war they envisaged. The branch of the what to write in a scholarship essay, British army which sent most observers to the American Civil War was the a term paper sources, Corps of Royal Engineers.
And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the few European political and military leaders to recognize that the war would be long and require the complete mobilization of national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for War on 5 August 1914. He doubted whether the essay, French and the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. He immediately sought to raise a mass citizen army. There was an overwhelming popular response to his call to arms. A Term Paper Sources. Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the field in 1917 after the French and Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for defeat.
They would be 'the last million men'. They would win the war and decide the peace. Poem Carol. For the British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the writing a term paper, long-term security of the British Empire. This security was threatened as much by sentences Britain's allies, France and Russia, as it was by Germany. It was imperative not only writing a term paper that the Allies win the war but also that Britain emerge from it as the dominant power.
Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. By 1916 it was the French army which was ripe for defeat, not the German. But the obligations of the French alliance were inescapable. The British could not afford to acquiesce in a French defeat. French animosity and resentment would replace the valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in categorical evaluation essay, the decade before the war. Writing A Term. The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief. College Writing. And so did the paper, Russians. If they were abandoned they would have every reason for doing so. There seemed no choice.
The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to take the field before they were ready and starting sentences for college be forced to take a full part in the attrition of German military power. The casualties which this strategy of writing a term 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in British history. They were also unacceptable to some British political leaders. Winston Churchill and starting essays David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from writing a term, December 1916), in particular, were opposed to the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on the Western Front. They looked to use it elsewhere, against Germany's allies in the eastern Mediterranean, the college tuition, Middle East, and the Balkans. Their attempts to do this were inhibited by writing a term paper the need to music, keep France in the war. This could only be done in France and by fighting the German army. They were also inhibited by the war's operational and tactical realities.
These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in Salonika and in Italy just as they did on writing sources the Western Front. Attempts to essay, implement an Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success. Allied political and military leaders met regularly. At Chantilly in December 1915 and December 1916 they determined to stretch the German army to its limits by paper sources simultaneous offensive action on essays the western, eastern, and Italian fronts. A Supreme Allied War Council was established at Versailles on writing paper sources 27 November 1917, and was given the power to control Allied reserves.
Franco-British co-operation was especially close. This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on the mutual respect and understanding between French and British commanders-in-chief on the Western Front. The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of 1918 threatened to divide the Allies. Writing Tuition. Only then was it replaced by a more formal structure. But not even this attained the levels of joint planning and control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. Writing Sources. The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of planning or of co-ordination but of performance. Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult.
This has given the war, especially the war in the west, its enduring image of mfa creative boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of their men in fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs. The battlefields of the First World War were the product of a century of economic, social, and political change. Europe in writing paper sources, 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and more coherently organized than ever before. The rise of essay nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and authority. This allowed them to demand greater sacrifices from their civilian populations. Improvements in sources, agriculture reduced the numbers needed to work on the land and provided a surplus of males of military age. They also allowed larger and larger armies to be fed and kept in the field for years at a time. Changes in administrative practice brought about by the electric telegraph, the telephone, the typewriter, and hunter mfa creative the growth of railways allowed these armies to be assembled and deployed quickly. Industrial technology provided new weapons of unprecedented destructiveness.
Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and paper sources machine-guns transformed the range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of military firepower. In A Essay. They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to a term paper, make the First World War the first 'modern war'. But it did not begin as one. Essays. The fact of a firepower revolution was understood in most European armies. The consequences of it were not.
The experience of the a term paper sources, Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to the problems of the technological battlefield. Victory would go to act generosity essay, the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by generals of iron resolution, prepared to maintain the writing paper sources, offensive in essay, the face of huge losses. As a result the opening battles of the war were closer in conception and execution to those of the Napoleonic era than to the battles of 1916 onwards. It is difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by the end of 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false. Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and Russian soldiers of paper high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by good starting sentences for college essays commanders of iron resolve. The results were barren of strategic achievement.
The human costs were immense. The 'human solution' was not enough. The search for a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of writing paper sources pre-war concepts but also by the limitations of the technology itself. The principal instrument of tuition education was artillery. And the sources, mode of instruction was experience.
Shell-fire was merciless to troops in the open. The response was to get out of the open and into the ground. Soldiers did not dig trenches out of perversity in order to hunter writing, be cold, wet, rat-infested, and lice-ridden. They dug them in writing paper sources, order to survive. The major tactical problem of the mfa creative, war became how to break these trench lines once they were established and reinforced. For much of the writing a term, war artillery lacked the evaluation, ability to find enemy targets, to writing a term paper, hit them accurately, and to destroy them effectively.
Contemporary technology failed to provide a man-portable wireless. Communication for most of the college mfa creative tuition, war was dependent on telephone or telegraph wires. These were always broken by shell-fire and difficult to protect. Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of writing paper sources battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by an enemy obstruction. As a result the coordination of stars poem ann duffy infantry and writing a term sources artillery was very difficult and often impossible. Infantry commanders were forced to fall back on their own firepower and this was often inadequate. The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and paid a high price for its weakness.
Artillery was not only music a major part of the writing sources, problem, however. What To Write Essay. It was also a major part of the solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. Target acquisition was transformed by writing a term paper aerial photographic reconnaissance and the sophisticated techniques of flash-spotting and sound-ranging. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting. The pre-registration of guns on enemy targets by actual firing was no longer necessary. The possibility of surprise returned to the battlefield.
Accuracy was greatly improved by maintaining operating histories for in a essay, individual guns. Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to its own peculiarities and according to wind speed and direction, temperature, and paper sources humidity. All types and calibres of guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in virtually unlimited numbers. Munitions were also improved. Poison gas shells became available for the first time in large numbers. High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to assault. Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the explosive effect of shells more effectively against barbed wire and reduced the cratering of the poem carol, battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of supplies and reinforcements difficult if not impossible.
Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by aerial fire control. The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed. In 1915, 1916, and for much of 1917 artillery was used principally to kill enemy soldiers. It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches. These were often enough, as during the first day of the Battle of the Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on attacking infantry and bring an entire offensive to a halt. A Term Paper. From the autumn of 1917 and during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to suppress enemy defences. Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and gun batteries were targeted.
Effective use was made of good starting for college poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and smoke. The aim was to disrupt the enemy's command and a term control system and keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and act generosity bring their own firepower to bear. The attacking infantry were also transformed. Sources. In 1914 the British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in a soft cap, armed only with rifle and music belfast bayonet. In 1918 he went into battle dressed like an industrial worker in a steel helmet, protected by a respirator against a term paper sources poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and in a mortars, supported by tanks and ground-attack aircraft, and preceded by a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity.
Firepower replaced manpower as the instrument of victory. This represented a revolution in the conduct of war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the a term, western Allies confronted the German army with major problems. Its response was organizational. Shooting Stars Poem Carol Essay. As early as 1915 even the weakly armed British proved that they could always break into the German front-line trenches. The solution was to writing paper, deepen the trench system and limit the number of act generosity infantry in the front line, where they were inviting targets for enemy artillery.
The burden of defence rested on machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the front line. From the autumn of 1916 the Germans took these changes to their logical conclusion by instituting a system of 'elastic defence in depth'. The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to writing paper sources, make enemy artillery observation difficult. Categorical Evaluation Essay. A formal front-line trench system was abandoned. A Term Paper. The German first line consisted of act generosity essay machine-gunners located in shell-holes, difficult to detect from the air.
Their job was to disrupt an enemy infantry assault. This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the supporting fire of its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and writing a term paper sources destroyed by the bulk of the German infantry and artillery. This system allowed the sentences for college, Germans to survive against an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on the Western Front throughout 1917 and to inflict significant losses on their enemies. The German system required intelligent and well-trained as well as brave soldiers to make it work. Writing A Term Sources. An increasing emphasis was placed on individual initiative, surprise, and speed. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by a hurricane bombardment designed to disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and their command and control systems, were ordered to bypass points of resistance and advance deep into the enemy's rear. Music. The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by the French and British, but it was not enough.
Attacking German infantry could not maintain the writing sources, momentum and inflict upon enemy commanders the kind of moral paralysis achieved by German armoured forces in 1940. Good Starting Essays. The Allied line held and exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by the accumulating weight and increasing sophistication of Allied material technology. The material solution to the problems of the First World War battlefield, favoured by the western Allies, was not in the gift of soldiers alone. It depended on the ability of the armes' host societies to produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts. This, in turn, depended on the effectiveness of their political institutions and the quality of their civilian morale. It was a contest at which the writing a term, liberal democracies of France and Great Britain (and eventually the United States of America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia. The 'modern war' fought from to write essay, 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into a demand for more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food. Some of the demands were contradictory. More men meant more men for the armies and more men for sources, the factories.
Balancing the competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in 1915) became central to the war effort of all states. The Allies were in starting, a much stronger position than Germany. Sources. They had access not only to their home populations but also to music belfast, those of their empires. Writing A Term. 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in the British army during the war. Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to work on to write in a essay their lines of communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and West Africa and a further 200,000 labourers. And of course there were the Americans. American troops arrived in France at paper sources, the rate of 150,000 a month in 1918. Truly the new world had come in to redress the balance of the old. The British and French were particularly successful in good for college, mobilizing their economies.
In Britain this had much to do with the work of writing paper David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions (May 1915-July 1916). The grip of the skilled trade unions on industrial processes was relaxed. Ancient lines of demarcation were blurred. Women replaced men in the factories. Research and development were given a proper place in industrial strategy. Prodigies of production were achieved. On 10 March 1915, at the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to accumulate enough shells for half an hour's bombardment. In the autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in act generosity, many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in German hands.
Not only did the French economy supply the French army with increasing amounts of old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the American Expeditionary Force's artillery and aeroplanes. The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in Europe and provided some of the leading aircraft of the war, including the Nieuport and the SPAD VII. Morale was also a key factor. All sides tried to paper sources, explain and good starting sentences justify the war and used increasingly refined techniques of propaganda to maintain commitment to the cause. Giving the impression of writing a term sources adversity shared equally among the classes became a key theme. One of the major threats to this was the equality of access to food supplies. In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to maintain. Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and financial power allowed them to command the essays belfast, agricultural resources of North and a term paper sources South America and Australasia. Food was one of the Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. The degree of active resistance to the war was low in most countries.
But war-weariness set in everywhere by 1917. There were many strikes and much industrial unrest. In Russia this was severe enough to produce a revolution and then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the war in act generosity essay, 1918. The social consequences of this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed. There were advances for the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in Britain, and paper sources arguably for women, but the ann duffy essay, working class of Europe paid a high price on the battlefield for social advances at home.
And in the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the map of Europe and the Middle East. Four great empires, the Romanov, the Hohenzollern, the Habsburg, and the Ottoman, were defeated and collapsed. They were replaced by a number of weak and sometimes avaricious successor states. Writing A Term. Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the pale of essay European diplomacy for a generation. Germany became a republic branded at its birth with the stigma of defeat, increasingly weakened by writing a term the burden of Allied reparations and by inflation.
France recovered the provinces of what essay Alsace and paper Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by fear and loathing of Germany. Italy was disappointed by the territorial rewards of its military sacrifice. This provided fertile soil for Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924. The British maintained the integrity and independence of Belgium. They also acquired huge increases in imperial territory and imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the security for the Empire which they sought. The white dominions were unimpressed by the quality of British military leadership. The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way.
The stirrings of revolt in categorical essay, India were apparent as soon as the war ended. In 1922 the British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in protecting their Far Eastern empire. They were also forced to accept naval parity with the Americans and a bare superiority over the Japanese. 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an armistice for twenty-five years.' The cost of all this in human terms was 8.5 million dead and 21 million wounded out of some 65 million men mobilized. The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed. The real impact was moral. The losses struck a blow at a term paper, European self-confidence and pretension to superior civilization.
It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded. From The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War . Essay. Ed. Charles Townshend. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997. Copyright © 1997 by Oxford University Press.
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Definition of critical in English: 1 Expressing adverse or disapproving comments or judgements. ‘The environment committee has just published a report that's quite critical of the executive.’ ‘The Ofsted report was highly critical of the school, and said its weaknesses far exceeded its strengths.’ ‘The consultants report was very critical of the company and the Trust for employing too many overpaid people with very substantial perks.’ ‘The report is also critical of road safety education because of its lack of prominence, vagueness and poor training for teachers.’ ‘The report is highly critical of the quality of teaching standards’ ‘Last year the National Tidy Towns Report was very critical of litter in our town and surrounding areas, and so far this year the same problem has arisen.’ ‘The report is critical of the inhumane treatment of writing a term children in arbitrary detention and calls into question our commitment to human rights.’ ‘He has also been critical of overcrowding in Scotland's jails.’ ‘The report was critical of his involvement in the deal.’ ‘The report was critical of the British government, essentially describing current initiatives to tackle obesity as much talk but little action.’ ‘We think also it's probably the most critical of all the essay reports done so far.’ ‘The report was critical of many things in a term sources the town including the categorical evaluation fire station.’ ‘Inman is highly critical of industry sponsored safety studies, which he regards as marketing exercises.’ ‘Mr Lloyd also revealed that an internal report had been critical of the writing a term sources force's vetting system.’ ‘Of course, to be honest, since when has a one of these reports been really critical of the government that set it up?’ ‘The report is shooting poem ann duffy essay highly critical of succeeding governments because to writing a term paper date nothing has happened.’ ‘While the report is critical of the intelligence services, it clears the British Prime Minister of misleading the public over the case for war.’ ‘The report was critical of police because there was no formal procedure to college writing tuition chase up those who failed to answer to bail.’ ‘Children with low self-esteem tend to be overly critical of and easily disappointed in writing paper themselves.’ ‘Parts of the report are heavily critical of the district's police who, it says, have conflicting styles.’ 2 Expressing or involving an act generosity essay analysis of the merits and faults of a work of literature, music, or art. ‘He has also performed Handel's ‘Messiah’ to writing a term sources huge critical acclaim in the past.’ ‘Set up a year ago by Martin Wheeler, 33, Iwari and its artists have sparked critical acclaim in the music press.’ ‘It makes you feel good to watch, regardless of what critical merits it possesses.’ ‘How does he feel about the critical acclaim from a usually unimpressed music scene?’ ‘The 20-year-old left with top grades in philosophy, English literature and sociology as well as a merit in what to write in a essay critical thinking.’ ‘BBC Music achieved significant sales growth and critical acclaim this year.’ ‘Lee, 35, has been in writing a term the play for 18 months, including a stint in essay London's West End, where he received critical acclaim.’ ‘His intense, swaggering stage presence and masterful violin playing has won him both fans and critical acclaim all over a term paper sources the world.’ ‘Her second album secured her place in the hearts of real music fans and won her wide critical acclaim.’ ‘The next thing I knew, I was on the receiving end of some serious critical acclaim.’ ‘The band is stirring both critical and popular acclaim for tuition their soulful, virtuoso playing and thrilling live performances.’ ‘For the writing paper first time since the late 1960s British rock music was experiencing critical and financial acclaim.’ ‘It was released in July 2001 to critical acclaim.’ ‘The novel brought her major critical acclaim and hunter college mfa creative tuition received the a term paper sources Prix Medici literary award in 1964.’ ‘Drawing comparisons between film-makers and designers has its merits on critical and hunter college tuition theoretical levels.’ ‘Not all the projects have garnered critical acclaim, but few involved in writing New York's music scene fail to acknowledge Moss' gutsiness.’ ‘Already their work has come in for considerable critical acclaim from those that have seen it and starting sentences essays it is expected to be in a term huge demand by poetry and good starting sentences art lovers.’ ‘His recent CD recording of Liszt's piano music received critical acclaim.’ ‘It received critical acclaim and the British music press were touting the song's writer, Annie, as a future world-conquering popstar.’ ‘An unlikely Australian export is receiving critical acclaim in Britain.’ 2.1 (of a text) incorporating a detailed and scholarly analysis and commentary. ‘This book is a hybrid negotiating the a term paper sources ground between critical text and essays music coffee table ornament.’ ‘Moreover, to a term be truly seen and understood is close to the pinnacle for a work of art, and no critical essay can see and understand as deeply as the best parodies.’ ‘This is good sentences for college a new translation of the German critical edition of Bonhoeffer's text.’ ‘The comprehensive citation of critical articles and journals will be extremely useful to scholars.’ ‘The critical literature provides three different schools of thought on this subject.’ ‘I'd rather just read the critical text than read the same thing watered down and sources simplified in fiction.’ ‘These texts are joined by a critical essay and an extensive bibliography of each poet's work.’ ‘Translations of major texts are borrowed from current scholarly editions, while English texts are based on critical editions.’ ‘Yesterday they were presented to in a the public, together with plans for a definitive critical edition of Benjamin's works.’ ‘They would not know that there is presently a vast body of critical literature.’ ‘Many of the writing sources critical essays skillfully blend pertinent close readings with wider cultural background.’ ‘Let us hypothesize, therefore, that Barthes set out to write critical texts as if they were the theses he never wrote.’ ‘Entire pages of hunter tuition these two critical texts are presented in her book, bilingual explanations on the left-hand side, graphic images on writing a term sources, the right.’ ‘Carver read drafts and wrote over evaluation 300 pages of a term sources critical notes for for college Robertson.’ ‘Every museum publication has critical essays and an interview with the writing a term artist.’ ‘He published 17 volumes of poetry, numerous translations, and two volumes of critical essays.’ ‘There are virtually no references to the vast critical literature on music, Dostoevsky.’ ‘Since Q2 represents the text closest to a term paper the author's manuscript it might be chosen as the copy text for a critical edition.’ ‘A critical edition of the essay same in writing a term English is also being done simultaneously.’ ‘Those who were denied the right to essays vote in free and fair elections, to paper own mobile phones and to buy critical literature are now free to do so.’ ‘Gavin sits on a Masters Degree Visual Arts Practises course with me where we have seen critical judgment voided by curatorial organisational skills.’ ‘Women Studies from the beginning was projected as a critical inquiry that would seek to expose the structures that upheld the subordination of women.’ ‘The investigations, however, were not only celebratory; various critical examinations of the institution of cinema also emerged.’ ‘The classic critical essay in this third region of mfa creative writing investigation is writing a term sources Paul de Man's The Rhetoric of what to write in a Temporality .’ ‘The book is written to engage the tribe of fellow economists who often pride themselves as critical thinkers.’ ‘To those who have an education grounded in critical thinking and science we can see through it very clearly.’ ‘The critical evaluations of a favourite work by sources four Irish art critics are both informative and essays belfast entertaining.’ ‘Freire's own model of writing a term sources critical pedagogy invites a critical interrogation of this flaw in the work.’ ‘Like the other work in this issue, Leong's vision arrests and music belfast disturbs, creating unsettling moments that insistently summon critical imagination.’ ‘The caricatures are critical analyses of writing sources a writer's childhood, life style, ideology and views.’ ‘But it's the hunter tuition number raptors killed - the eight owls and 10 hawks - that drew Ho's critical eye.’ ‘U.S. Writing A Term. Latino Literatures and Cultures: Transnational Perspectives is an important point of reference in assessing developments in this rapidly evolving field of critical enquiry.’ ‘Hilliard describes educators who respect prior knowledge and engage in critical analysis, who treat their children as scholars.’ ‘Peer learning tasks that require critical thinking, problem solving, and ann duffy decision making can be challenging for both the teacher and students.’ ‘The book is divided into two parts: a 35-page critical essay followed by drawings grouped according to theme.’ ‘Key to the audit committee's effectiveness and accountability is paper sources a critical self assessment for the audit committee as well as each individual member.’ ‘True, they produce many religious pamphlets, but relatively few books that contribute to critical knowledge.’ ‘Three major areas in which the Intelligence field must retrofit are in force structure, training and critical thinking skills.’ ‘Interpret the categorical essay results: Whereas statistical analysis is mostly computer-based, interpretation of the writing paper sources results requires critical thinking.’ ‘In these and similar cases, Loury's critical insight is that mistakes in perception lead to act generosity essay mistakes in judgment that reinforce the initial social stigma.’ 3 (of a situation or problem) having the potential to become disastrous; at a point of crisis.
‘And remember, we were talking of a very critical situation.’ ‘The report reveals that shortage of specialist staff in key areas still remains a critical problem.’ ‘The city on the hill has a very critical problem with water.’ ‘In Scotland the a term paper sources situation is particularly critical.’ ‘There's also traction control to help you keep in command during critical situations such as ice or gravel on the roads.’ ‘This is essays music belfast a creative and innovative way of paper sources solving a very critical problem for to write scholarship America.’ ‘I'm afraid that if anything, the situation is writing more critical and shooting carol essay needs attention globally.’ ‘The security guards expressed similar fears but were more confident because they are trained to handle such critical situations.’ ‘It was a critical situation that confronted our firemen.’ ‘That was a critical problem that we've had in the past.’ ‘He replied that his company didn't think it was facing a critical situation at that point.’ ‘The situation is critical and sources the EU countries must resolve this problem before the act generosity essay December 17 Meeting.’ ‘Saxe-Coburg postponed his Wednesday visit to Brussels because of the critical situation after the terrorist acts.’ ‘We have a potentially critical situation here.’ ‘We usually get an urgent notice in case the situation is too critical.’ ‘None of writing sources these problems is critical, but they all act to inhibit the process of renewing Australia's economic infrastructure.’ ‘It puts us in a difficult and critical situation.’ ‘They felt that they had to do something in this critical situation.’ ‘It will also prove that the Indonesian government is act generosity essay intelligent and creative enough to resolve its most critical problems.’ ‘The situation is critical, and the government should act NOW!’ 3.1 Extremely ill and at risk of death. ‘Kathy was dead from head wounds, and writing a term sources her son and husband were taken to the hospital in critical condition.’ ‘One recruit is dead from a rash and another person is in critical condition with a serious form of Strep.’ ‘He had been in critical condition since he was assaulted on Sunday.’ ‘Two of the five taken to shooting stars carol ann duffy essay the hospital are in critical condition.’ ‘He was taken to hospital and writing a term paper was in critical condition.’ ‘One of the 17 injured was said to be in critical condition.’ ‘As of Wednesday afternoon at least two workers remained in critical condition from severe burns and six others were listed in serious condition.’ ‘One of them was in critical condition following surgery for multiple internal injuries and severe burns.’ ‘He remained in shooting poem carol ann duffy essay critical condition on a life-support machine, but lost his fight for a term paper life yesterday afternoon.’ ‘One person is said to be in critical condition, four others in serious condition.’ ‘One soldier was in critical condition and essay the other two were in stable condition.’ ‘More than a dozen were in critical condition with head and sources chest wounds and severe burns.’ ‘The 82-year-old female driver of the vehicle remains in critical condition at Lions Gate Hospital.’ ‘The second younger couple was so seriously injured that they were airlifted to Hamilton General Hospital in critical condition.’ ‘Following the music accident, he was rushed to hospital in critical condition with a severe head injury and underwent brain surgery the very next day.’ ‘One of them is in critical condition, the other in serious condition.’ ‘Many were taken to writing a term paper Rhode Island Hospital and 38 remained there yesterday, 14 of them in what to write in a scholarship critical condition.’ ‘Eight Israeli soldiers were wounded, one of writing paper sources whom is in critical condition.’ ‘Although Gainer was in critical condition on Sunday, he was in stable condition on Monday at Foothills Hospital.’ ‘It said nine of essays belfast those injured were in critical condition, suggesting that the death toll might rise.’ ‘In today's fast-paced dairy industry, speed to writing a term sources market is a critical success factor.’ ‘This completely fails to recognise the critical importance that success in business has in funding our aspirations for the public services.’ ‘This builds commitment among staff, a critical factor for shooting stars ann duffy business success.’ ‘This is writing a term sources crucial to our credibility and critical to music our success.’ ‘But do they represent a critical factor in the success or failure of a business?’ ‘Each focuses on different critical factors in its success at the individual, group, and a term sources community levels.’ ‘A critical success factor that the research team found related to strong product knowledge.’ ‘The distinguishing feature of their initial period will be its crucial and music critical, decisive character.’ ‘Reducing elapsed time can in fact make the writing a term sources critical difference between success and failure.’ ‘Human and animal transport is often critical to the success or failure of a military campaign.’ ‘The sauna culture is evaluation critical and crucial to understanding Finland's commercial successes.’ ‘The board is going to have to make a critical decision about the successor.’ ‘This gives them the right to take decisions of critical importance, having gained two thirds of the stake in the holding.’ ‘For that reason, we are starting with safety to emphasize its importance as critical to a successful project.’ ‘We know that early detection is of critical importance.’ ‘You will need to follow the many family businesses for whom embracing non-family executives into the extended family of the firm is a critical success factor.’ ‘Simply stated, this is an writing a term paper sources issue of critical importance to the future success of the New Zealand economy.’ ‘The critical factor in the failure of endowment mortgages has been poor investment returns.’ ‘One of the most critical factors in essay the success of any retreat is its ability to fully engage all attendees.’ ‘This research considers the factors critical for success as perceived by different parties.’ 4 Physics Mathematics. Relating to or denoting a point of transition from one state to another.
‘Similarly, superconductivity can be destroyed by applying a magnetic field that exceeds some critical value.’ ‘As the concentration of cholesterol in writing the bilayer exceeds a critical value, phase separation occurs.’ ‘On the other hand, if the frequency exceeded a certain critical value, there would be enough energy for the electron to for college essays be able to get away.’ ‘The bear market of 2002, however, has changed the writing a term critical threshold values for this indicator.’ ‘When the fraction is close to the critical value, computation times become very large.’ 5 (of a nuclear reactor or fuel) maintaining a self-sustaining chain reaction. Mid 16th century (in the sense ‘relating to the crisis of a disease’): from late Latin criticus (see critic). Most popular in the world. Stay up to evaluation essay date with our latest news and receive new words updates, blog posts, and a term paper sources more.
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In this article we explore how to impress employers with a spot-on CV. Archaic words have a charm that never fades away, from French sounding to wondrously mysterious ones.