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Discretion Is The Better Part Of Valour …
Blackrock Essays and Research Papers. Blackrock Major Essay Assignment Blackrock by Nick Enright is part, a drama piece constructed to challenge dominant social ideology . of twentieth century Australian youth. The text presents a very critical attitude towards Australian society in particular the notion of mateship is criticised and exposed in a negative light, as are the justifications, and Dwight, outcomes of youth independence, and the marginalisation of females. Blackrock , being inspired/based on a the real-life rape and murder of schoolgirl. Is The Part? Audience , Australia , BlackRock 2399 Words | 7 Pages. focuses on private and intermediary clients worldwide, providing international and private banking, fiduciary services and brokerage. Investment Management . D. Eisenhower? was sold on 1st December 2009. However it used to manage the Group’s economic interest in Blackrock , Inc and part of valour-essay, the residual elements relating to Barclays Global Investors.
Organizational structures Barclays implements the functional structure and development of science and technology essay, product and geographical structure. Leadership is partitioned into is the part, three main sections: Board of. Bank , Barclays , Barclays Wealth 1893 Words | 7 Pages. L E nag t in window theory y a 10 e v T I C M st le R io rn s A tfol be cob S T or Ja B E of P l na ur Jo e Th Investment Insights The InvesTmenT ReseARch JouRnAl . from blackrock march 2009 | volume 12 Issue 1 3.09 Dynamic Portfolio Analysis by discretion is the better part, richard Grinold Investment Insights Barclays Global Investors is now BlackRock . Lilly Outstanding Thesis? BlackRock is pleased to provide these research insights to you. They were originally produced by Barclays Global Investors prior to our merger in part of valour-essay 2009. ExECUTIvE EDIToRS . 2006 , Arithmetic mean , BlackRock 8445 Words | 33 Pages. E Commerce Valuations Unrealistic Kusha. it jumps to $7bn figure again four months after that? Nothing surprising there given the potential of the sector. But all this rush of money into the system, . in a short span of time is what worries one. Investors like Temasek Holdings Pte. Ltd, BlackRock Inc., Government of Singapore Investment Corp., Steadview Capital Management LLc, etc. have made the valuations of a lot of window economics definition firms in e-commerce to reach skyrocketing.
Are these valuations really justified? According to an estimate, the Rs 13,800-crore. BlackRock , Electronic commerce , Finance 496 Words | 1 Pages. Discretion Is The Of Valour-essay? ? Blackrock Essay Blackrock , a playwright written by Nick Enright is a morally flawed performance and tests the boundaries on . ethical behaviour. The reader is Dwight D. Eisenhower, able to explore the themes of mateship, the marginalising of genders and discretion is the, parental guidance. These combine to create a problematic environment and are conveyed as an element to defining ones identity and thus results in Dwight the ultimate consequence of Tracey’s raping and death. A predominant theme in Nick Enright’s playwright “ Blackrock ” is. Discrimination , Female , Gender 674 Words | 2 Pages. The expectations, standards and discretion is the part, treatment an individual receives are affected by their differences. The play ‘ Blackrock ’ composed by Nick . Expert? Enright thoroughly explores the impact that difference of gender has on individuals and better of valour-essay, groups.
The composer examines the common social ideas of gender and the differences in expectations, standards and treatment of males and females by creating a focus on the reaction by people to the rape and expert resume sample, murder of the discretion better, young girl. This is broken theory definition, similar to the cartoon on homosexuality. Abuse , Bullying , Female 1275 Words | 4 Pages. Discretion Is The Part Of Valour-essay? Discuss how peer pressure influences the expert sample, actions and behavior of the characters represented in the play, Blackrock . Better Of Valour-essay? What is the award, influence of . adult role models that are available to these young people. In the play, blackrock by Nick Enright, peer pressure plays a major part in the horrific crimes that these otherwise ordinary boys commit. When Ricko first comes to town he begins to assert himself over the rest of the is the better part of valour-essay, group, then when he knows he will be caught he exerts a lot of pressure onto expert resume, Jared. Lie , Peer group , Police 1047 Words | 4 Pages. Is The Of Valour-essay? Blackrock vs Damage Done Use of Conventions.
mateship. And Technology? These five relatively serious social issues have been under weighed by our society. The issues that have been hidden in life are then revealed . through texts. Discretion Is The Of Valour-essay? The play Blackrock and expository text Damage Done clearly reveals truths that reality has obscured. Binge drinking is a major issue which concerns teenagers. Blackrock is a play written by Nick Enright and shows how teenagers are allowed to purchase alcohol for a beach party that was unsupervised. On Holes Novel? This was seen as socially acceptable in. Is The Part? Alcohol abuse , Alcoholism , Beer 1177 Words | 3 Pages. to position the audience to respond to broken window, the themes and issues that are presented.
Nick Enright’s play Blackrock depicts the discretion is the better, lives of teenagers . in a community. Enright uses various techniques such as characterisation, dialogue, the of science essay, plot and the setting to elicit a response to the issues. This includes the issue of discretion better part of valour-essay youth culture, violence against expert resume women, masculinity and double standards. Is The Better? Blackrock positions the window, audience to see how the youth culture in society has become a major social issue. Through. Discretion Is The? Character , Domestic violence , Fiction 596 Words | 2 Pages. Comparative Analysis of 'Blackrock - Nick Enright and Blurred Stephen Davis (which play best represents the values/attitudes and beleifs of Australian youth culture) The first of two plays that has been considered for selection in upcoming International Theatre for Young People's Festival soon to be held in early childhood Vancouver, . Canada is Blackrock by the late Nick Enright. Discretion Part? The plays must represent the values, attitudes and beliefs of today's Australian Youth Culture.
Blackrock explores the strength of Dwight mateship, the importance of image and discretion, the dangers of peer pressure, parties and underage drinking. Expert? The second play is the popular Blurred by the playwright Stephen. Australia , Calvin , Calvin and Hobbes 1966 Words | 7 Pages. The impact of difference that is revealed in discretion is the nick Enright’s text ‘ Blackrock ’ and Ed Fischer’s ‘go to the closet’ is that gender difference and . those who are of different belief can majorly impact a group/individual severely. In particular being a female in a young male’s society, or having the belief that homosexuality is acceptable in development of science essay society. The play ‘ Blackrock ’ portrays gender difference within the community where women are discriminated against and don’t have ample opportunities in which the. Is The Of Valour-essay? Boy , Female , Gender 561 Words | 2 Pages.
Portrayal of the outstanding thesis, Lead Characters in Blackrock, Alice in Wonderland and On Turning Ten. own world? There are many types of journey, physical, emotional and is the part of valour-essay, psychological. These journeys require us to D. Eisenhower, overcome challenges and obstacles we may . face, potentially influencing the is the part of valour-essay, way we view ourselves and the world around us. Sample? The play Blackrock written by Nick Enright relates to journey on many different levels. It is the is the part of valour-essay, story of a community going into chaos due to a murder amongst the teenagers that have been brought up in Dwight the suburb. The journey that is central to the play is of the. Alice in Wonderland , Alice's Adventures in Wonderland , Debut albums 684 Words | 2 Pages. Job Description - Analyti. uploaded successfullyPreview. Previous11 12 13 14 15 Next Apply Online Add to discretion is the better part, My Job Cart Job Description Analytic Products Tools Analyst-140331 BlackRock is . Window Theory? one of the world’s preeminent asset management firms and a premier provider of global investment management, risk management and advisory services to institutional, intermediary and individual investors around the world.
BlackRock offers a range of solutions — from rigorous fundamental and discretion better part, quantitative active management approaches aimed at maximizing outperformance. Active management , Collective investment scheme , Financial services 598 Words | 2 Pages. 2011, which would lead to expert sample, a dividend payment of better ˆ 209 million. BlackRock , Inc., New York, USA2) Garett Thornburg, USA3) Thornburg . Investment Management, Inc., Santa Fe, New Mexico Thornburg International Value Fund, Wilmington, Delaware, Aberdeen Asset Management PLC, Aberdeen, Great Britain BlackRock Financial Management, Inc., New York, USA6) BlackRock Holdco 2, Inc., Wilmington, Delaware, USA6) BlackRock , Inc., New York, USA6) Capital Research and Management Company. Adidas , Adolf Dassler , Herzogenaurach 780 Words | 3 Pages. Black rock essay Introduction: Steven vidler, director of Blackrock use a number of cinematic techniques to the theme of risk. Teenagers are . Essay? notorious for risk tasking behaviour which can have devastating consequence for the future. Is The Better Of Valour-essay? Blackrock is a 1997 film tells the of science essay, story of better part of valour-essay Jared, a teenage boy who witness a rape and murder at development a teen party, and must risk his social status (and safety) by coming forward. Vidler explores the theme of risk using film techhiguc such as montage, costuming, dialog.
Adolescence , Decision theory , Finance 718 Words | 3 Pages. the time spent throughout both stories is discretion is the better of valour-essay, is centered on the mysterious nature of the theory definition, buildings. Reger borrows from discretion better part of valour-essay Dark Romanticism, trying to invoke the . sublime by using colorful, unchoreographed imagery to bring the reader into the world of Blackrock . Reger’s writing style is very much free verse, in a novel-sense. Romanticism encouraged nonmathematical writing, and education, illogical creativity, removing structural form, organization, and practicality from the formation of literature. What better example. Discretion Is The Better Part? Edgar Allan Poe , Emily the Strange , Gothic fashion 1362 Words | 5 Pages. ?Today I’ll be talking about the development essay, play “ Blackrock ” that I’ve been studying in class this term, the discretion better, purpose of this speech is to make us think . how Australian drama challenges us to think about resume sample, Australian culture and is the better part, identity, and childhood observation, the impacts it can have on is the better part us as person and as a community. Essays? “Guys stick up for their mates no matter what” “ Blackrock ” is a play written by Nick Enright that provides insight into Australian culture. Through the is the of valour-essay, violent rape of sample a teenage girl, the audience is challenged. Australia , Boy , Brisbane 763 Words | 2 Pages. the is the part of valour-essay, major direct holders are Keough Donald, Diller Barry, Fayard Gary, Reyes Jose Octavio, and Kent Ahmet Muhtar.
Some of the childhood education observation, major top institutional holders . Is The Part? include: Berkshire Hathaway Inc, State Street Corporation, Vanguard Group Inc, FMR LLC, BlackRock Institutional Trust Company, and etc. % of shares held by expert, insiders and 5% owners 5% % of shares held by institutional and mutual fund owners 64% Capital Structure (in billions) The capital that Coca-Cola uses is about even concerning debt and. Is The Better Part Of Valour-essay? Berkshire Hathaway , Carbonation , Coca-Cola 621 Words | 3 Pages. to: Research and Markets, Guinness Center, Taylors Lane, Dublin 8, Ireland. Essay? Please transfer funds to: Account number Sort code Swift code IBAN number Bank . Address 833 130 83 98-53-30 ULSBIE2D IE78ULSB98533083313083 Ulster Bank, 27-35 Main Street, Blackrock , Co. Dublin, Ireland. Pay by wire transfer: If you have a Marketing Code please enter it below: Marketing Code: Please note that by ordering from is the better Research and Markets you are agreeing to our Terms and Conditions at essay on holes http://www.researchandmarkets. Is The Part? Corporation , Credit card , Dublin 755 Words | 3 Pages. Balance Sheet and Apollo Food Holdings. Childhood Education? to: Research and Markets, Guinness Center, Taylors Lane, Dublin 8, Ireland. Please transfer funds to: Account number Sort code Swift code IBAN number Bank . Address 833 130 83 98-53-30 ULSBIE2D IE78ULSB98533083313083 Ulster Bank, 27-35 Main Street, Blackrock , Co.
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Liquidity Risk and Current Crisis. Retrieved June 10, 2011, from http://www.voxeu.org/index.php?q=node/2566 . Expert? Penegelly, M. Is The? (2009). BlackRock CRO highlights importance of liquidity risk. Retrieved June 10, 2011, from http://www.risk.net/risk-magazine/news/1559923/ blackrock -cro-highlights-importance-liquidity Sana. (2010). Islamic Banking Has Proven Success. Retrieved June 10, 2011, from theory economics http://www.sbc.ae/article/134?ln=en. Seleanu, D. (2011). Islamic.
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Marking Their Own Homework: The Pragmatic and Moral Legitimacy of Industry Self-Regulation. When is industry self-regulation (ISR) a legitimate form of governance? In principle, ISR can serve the interests of participating companies, regulators and is the better other stakeholders. However, in D. Eisenhower, practice, empirical evidence shows that ISR schemes often under-perform, leading to criticism that such schemes are tantamount to firms marking their own homework. In response, this paper explains how current management theory on discretion is the better part, ISR has failed to separate the development and technology pragmatic legitimacy of ISR based on self-interested calculations, from moral legitimacy based on discretion is the, normative approval. The paper traces three families of management theory on ISR and uses these to map the pragmatic and moral legitimacy of ISR schemes. It identifies tensions between the pragmatic and moral legitimacy of ISR schemes, which the current ISR literature does not address, and draws implications for the future theory and expert practice of ISR.
Industry self-regulation (ISR) is widely used in contemporary global governance to provide public goods such as a cleaner natural environment, stable financial systems or ethical supply chains (Braithwaite 2008 ; Delmas and discretion better part of valour-essay Young 2009 ). Defined as the voluntary association of firms to on holes novel, control their collective behaviour (King and Lenox 2000 ), ISR schemes have been used to regulate issues from food labelling to privacy, from living wages to environmental accounting standards, and from pollution to Internet pornography. Proponents have argued that ISR can achieve public policy objectives at lower cost than government regulation because regulatory decisions are made by discretion part, those with the best information and expertise to essay, make them (Coglianese and Mendelson 2010 ; Gunningham and Rees 1997 ). ISR can help improve social efficiency, that is, allocate resources to their best available uses across society (Maxwell et al. 2000 ). ISR can also incentivize firms to improve their social performance in areas such as the natural environment (Berchicci and King 2008 ), or labour standards in supply chains (Locke 2013 ; Lin-Hi and Blumberg 2016 ). Despite theoretical and practical enthusiasm for ISR, questions remain about its legitimacy. Mounting empirical evidence suggests that all too often industry-led schemes do not lead to positive social benefits or fix the problems that they are designed to solve (King et al. 2012 ). Recent scandals on mislabelled horsemeat in food supply chains, privacy in the self-regulated newspaper industry, and the fatal collapse of the BSCI-certified Rana Plaza factory in Bangladesh have fed popular scepticism that ISR is tantamount to discretion is the better part of valour-essay, firms “marking their own homework”. However, as many teachers know, when done well, asking students to sample, mark their own homework can not only be efficient from the teacher’s point of view, but also encourage students to learn from each other and to reflect on their own performance. Discretion Better Part! Marking their own homework may be a route to easy A grades, or may be a legitimate way to devolve responsibility, depending on the consequences, procedures and structures around the marking process. Current ISR theory cannot yet tell the difference.
This paper has been inspired by the apparent mismatch between the promise and performance of ISR schemes. Lilly Outstanding Thesis! It maps what we know about the legitimacy of ISR schemes from management theory, shows where previous research from different traditions has focused, and uses this to explore blind spots, tensions and is the better of valour-essay future directions on the legitimacy of ISR. Explaining how and why the evaluation of broken window economics definition ISR schemes differs so much between theorists is a vital step towards improving the performance of ISR schemes in practice. Part! Focusing on the legitimacy of ISR also offers theoretical insight into broader legitimacy theory in contexts where powerful agents both design and subsequently participate in a governance scheme. Management research from within strategic, institutional and critical traditions, has each offered a wide range of assumptions and empirical explanations of ISR. However, evaluations of whether ISR schemes are legitimate have so far been lacking in this largely descriptive management theory.
If legitimacy is considered at all, management theory usually focuses on pragmatic legitimacy , that is, on “the self-interested calculations of an organization’s immediate audiences” (Suchman 1995 : 578). Current management theory has paid less attention to moral legitimacy , that is, a normative evaluation of expert sample whether ISR participation is “the right thing to do” (Suchman 1995 : 579). This paper builds on Suchman’s ( 1995 ) framework and separates the pragmatic legitimacy of ISR based on discretion, self-interested calculations, from moral legitimacy based on normative approval. While all three management theory traditions have emphasized pragmatic legitimacy, too little consideration has so far been given to window theory, moral legitimacy. The paper enriches theory on the moral legitimacy of ISR by mapping Suchman’s ( 1995 ) three bases for moral legitimacy—consequential, procedural and structural legitimacy—against management theory traditions. Better Of Valour-essay! Mapping debates in this way is useful because previous studies within each of the early observation essays management traditions have tended to implicitly assume which aspect of moral legitimacy is most important based on the worldview of the analyst, rather than the details of the empirical context.
This paper draws all three theoretical strands together for the first time and provides a springboard to discretion is the better, examine tensions and blind spots on the legitimacy of ISR. The paper concludes with elaborating directions for future research on ISR, legitimacy theory and ISR in practice. Management Theories of Industry Self-Regulation. Industry self-regulation is the voluntary association of firms to control their collective behaviour (King and Lenox 2000 ). ISR is “a regulatory process whereby an industry-level, as opposed to a governmental- or firm-level, organization… sets and enforces rules and standards relating to education, the conduct of firms in the industry” (Gupta and Lad 1983 : 417). Discretion Is The Of Valour-essay! Management scholars have theorized ISR participation from three main perspectives: strategic, institutional and critical perspectives, each of Dwight D. Eisenhower which is briefly introduced in this section.
The different perspectives illustrate how various theorists have understood ISR schemes, which has implications for discretion is the better part, whether and how the schemes are seen as successful and legitimate. Strategic Management Perspectives. First, within strategic management theory, ISR is described as a solution to at least one of novel two strategic problems: information asymmetry and common pool resources (King and Toffel 2009 ). Outsiders are unable to is the, directly observe a firm’s social performance. Managers overcome this information asymmetry by participating in ISR schemes to signal their firm’s social performance. ISR schemes in lilly award, industries such as toy manufacturing (Lin-Hi and Blumberg 2016 ), cut flowers (Prado 2013 ), sustainable agriculture (Blackman and Rivera 2011 ) or coffee (Reinecke et al. 2012 ) enable firms to signal their social or environmental quality. Common pool resources, on discretion is the, the other hand, require firms to collaborate to protect a shared resource such as the industry’s reputation, access to physical assets or supply chain resilience (Prakash and Potoski 2006 ; Barnett and childhood observation essays King 2008 ). Better Part Of Valour-essay! Strategic perspectives emphasize that ISR schemes are often led by dominant firms that have the greatest interest in addressing the problem as with Nike or Walmart’s leadership in collective efforts to eliminate sweatshop labour from supply chains (O’Rourke 2003 ; Locke et al. 2007 ).
In contrast, institutional theory emphasizes the outstanding thesis role of institutions in shaping collective actions on social or environmental issues (Ostrom 1990 ; Hoffman 1999 ). Industries can self-regulate because of discretion is the better part legal ambiguity, or because stakeholders demand social performance that is higher than current regulatory requirements (Edelman et al. 1991 ; Gunningham and Rees 1997 ). For example, Zietsma and Lawrence’s ( 2010 ) study of the evolution of on holes decisions on harvesting practices in the British Columbia forest industry showed how managers actively participated in creating, maintaining and discretion part of valour-essay disrupting industry collective actions. ISR can also co-evolve with other institutions. For example, Lee ( 2009 ) showed how industry-led initiatives interacted with local and national policy content changes on certifying organic food. Institutional perspectives explain ISR as a way for managers to maintain conformance with regulative, cognitive and D. Eisenhower normative requirements in the institutional environment (Hoffman 1999 ; Matten and Moon 2008 ). A third tradition, critical management theory, explains ISR as “first and foremost about discretion is the better part, control” (Jermier et al. 2006 , p. Window Economics! 627). Critical theorists focus on the discourses around proposed solutions to social problems, and the roles that these discourses play in protecting corporate privilege and power (Banerjee 2008 ). Managers use ISR to maintain control over discretion of valour-essay the rhetoric around social issues through generating and maintaining symbols such as certifications, logos, social reports and expert resume sample partnerships. Is The Of Valour-essay! Boiral ( 2013 ), for example, theorized sustainability reports certified to resume, the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) A or A+ standard as “signs and images employed to part, control social representations” (p.
1037). Critical theorists highlight the childhood fundamentally political nature of ISR, emphasizing the power and relational position of those who can influence the rules of the game (Levy 2008 ; Moog et al. Is The Better! 2015 ). A political approach emphasizes the fundamental imbalance between the size and power of global firms and the capacity and/or willingness of governments to adequately regulate them, leading to the need for industry-led schemes to fill a governance gap (Vogel 2010 ). The Legitimacy of Industry Self-Regulation. Management theorists from all three perspectives have provided rich description and empirical results on the drivers, forms and consequences of ISR. Resume! However, amid accusations that firms and managers are marking their own homework, more research attention is required on the legitimacy of ISR schemes. Legitimacy is a “generalized perception or assumption that the actions of an entity are desirable, proper, or appropriate within some socially constructed system of norms, values, beliefs and definitions” (Suchman 1995 : 574). Discretion Part Of Valour-essay! Focusing on legitimacy reveals the extent to which ISR schemes and Dwight D. Eisenhower their participants are conforming to social norms and expectations, including whether ISR is an appropriate response to social challenges.
The concept of discretion part legitimacy originates in institutional theory, which suggests that managers adopt new practices to Dwight, be perceived as socially acceptable and appropriate rather than basing their decisions on discretion part, rational efficiency criteria (Meyer and Rowan 1977 ). However, both strategic and critical management theory also use variants of legitimacy. Strategic management theory tends to emphasize the extent to which the window approval of various stakeholder groups influences firms’ social strategy (e.g. Darnall et al. 2009 ; Kassinis and Vafeas 2006 ). In contrast, the critical approach delves more deeply into the processes by which firms seek and earn legitimacy through their social disclosures and discretion is the better part of valour-essay actions (e.g. On Holes Novel! Crane 2000 ; Fineman and discretion is the better part Clarke 1996 ). Numerous typologies of legitimacy have been proposed in the literature (see Bitektine 2011 for expert sample, a review), but the most widely used is discretion of valour-essay Suchman’s ( 1995 ) distinction between pragmatic and moral legitimacy. Dwight D. Eisenhower! Pragmatic legitimacy is based on the self-interested calculations of an organization’s immediate audiences, whereas moral legitimacy is a broader normative evaluation of social appropriateness. Suchman’s original categorization also included cognitive legitimacy, based on taken-for-grantedness.
However, cognitive legitimacy is less useful in is the better part of valour-essay, evaluating ISR because of the lack of stable and shared assumptions about industry’s role in governance (Baur and Palazzo 2011 ). Essay! Cognitive legitimacy is deeper than, and follows, moral legitimacy (Elms and Phillips 2009 ). Since new forms of governance such as ISR are not yet sufficiently taken-for-granted to be able to evaluate cognitive legitimacy (Koppell 2008 ), this paper focuses on pragmatic and moral legitimacy. Others have applied Suchman’s distinction between pragmatic and moral legitimacy in is the part, related contexts such as implementing codes of ethics (Long and Driscoll 2008 ), social enterprise (Dart 2004 ), NGOs as partners of industry (Baur and essay Palazzo 2011 ), or of regulatory regimes (Black 2008 ). Some prior studies have also examined whether particular ISR schemes have pragmatic and moral legitimacy, as in is the part, the case of Schepers’ ( 2010 ) and Cashore’s ( 2002 ) evaluations of the lilly thesis Forest Stewardship Council. However, so far the literature lacks a thorough analytic review of the pragmatic and moral legitimacy of ISR. Such an analysis is much needed because different management theories of ISR imply different bases for legitimacy, and so provide different answers on when ISR is an appropriate form of governance. The next section reviews the discretion better part pragmatic legitimacy of ISR from each management theory tradition to essay on holes, provide a foundation for better of valour-essay, further analysis. The Pragmatic Legitimacy of Industry Self-Regulation. Pragmatic legitimacy of industry self-regulation. Maintain the window definition ability to respond to social issues on the firm’s own terms. Meeting stakeholder expectations flexibly and at lower cost. (Majumdar and is the better Marcus 2001 ; Coglianese and Nash 2001 ) Maintaining agency to respond to essay on holes novel, institutional pressures.
(Gunningham and Rees 1997 ; Hoffman 1999 ; Zietsma and Lawrence 2010 ) Exerting control over rhetoric and better resources. (Raynolds et al. 2007 ; Gereffi et al. 2001 ; Moog et al. 2015 ) Position firm to gain positive social evaluations from other stakeholders for expert, social performance. Signalling quality or behaviour. (King et al.
2005 ; Aravind and Christmann 2011 ) Meeting stakeholder expectations. (Jiang and Bansal 2003 ; Boiral 2007 ) Demonstrating prestige and status. (Fuller and Tian 2006 ; Boiral 2013 ) Advantages increase with the number or esteem of better of valour-essay members in an ISR scheme. Reputation commons and window economics club theory. (Barnett and is the better of valour-essay King 2008 ; Prakash and Potoski 2006 ) Institutions shape collective actions. (Ostrom 1990 ; Delmas and expert sample Montes-Sancho 2010 ) Authority of is the better of valour-essay high-status actors to essay novel, set norms.
(Levy and of valour-essay Egan 2003 ; Renard 2005 ) Learn how to cope with social concerns where there is uncertainty about social issues firms face and how to deal with them. Learning as a competitively valuable capability. Mimetic isomorphism and broken window theory shared norms. (Braithwaite 2008 ; Matten and Moon 2008 ; Haack et al. 2012 ) Diffusing shared rhetoric. (Green 2004 ; Christensen et al. 2013 ) Works cited are illustrative only. Where examples of strict industry self-regulation could not be found, examples are from the related contexts of part of valour-essay self-regulation by individual firms or multi-stakeholder partnerships. The first set of D. Eisenhower benefits for better part of valour-essay, ISR participants is to childhood essays, maintain the ability to respond to discretion part, social issues on their own terms. For example, in 1999 companies collaborated through the US Better Business Bureau to introduce BBBOnline, a self-assessed and industry-monitored online privacy seal in an attempt to pre-empt and shape a new set of broken window laws on Internet privacy introduced in the USA in 2001 (Haufler 2001 ). Strategic management theory explains that firms may use ISR to strategically pre-empt costly sanctions or requirements from governments, NGOs, consumer groups or other stakeholders (Majumdar and Marcus 2001 ; Fleckinger and Glachant 2011 ). Institutional theories describe ISR as a strategic response to institutional pressures, where managers try to retain agency within the constraints of discretion is the of valour-essay actual or potential regulatory control (Oliver 1991 ; Hoffman 1999 ; Wijen 2014 ). A critical perspective focuses on development of science, how industry incumbents use their privileged economic and political position to maintain control not only discretion better part, of the novel governance but also of the rhetoric around social issues (Jermier et al.
2006 ). Bartley ( 2005 ), for example, showed how the US apparel industry succeeded in replacing a discourse of legal compliance with one based on compliance to voluntary industry codes in discretion of valour-essay, response to rising stakeholder concerns about sweatshop labour. This enabled firms to maintain control over award compliance through participating in the Fair Labor Association (FLA) to discretion of valour-essay, certify labour standards. Thus, all three management theories recognize ISR as a way for firms to retain strategic control over aligning their own interests with other stakeholders, which is outstanding crucial for gaining pragmatic legitimacy. Firms also gain private benefits from ISR through earning or maintaining a sound reputation on social issues. Discretion Is The Of Valour-essay! Strategic perspectives emphasize that firms attempt to development, signal quality or behaviour through ISR participation to gain access to strategically valuable resources (Aravind and Christmann 2011 ; King et al. 2005 ). Institutional perspectives focus on the extent to which firms are seen to be behaving according to stakeholder expectations (Jiang and discretion is the of valour-essay Bansal 2003 ; Delmas and essay on holes Toffel 2008 ). Is The Better Of Valour-essay! Critical scholars emphasize status and the extent to which firms are seen to be performing social responsibility (Fuller and Tian 2006 ; Boiral 2013 ). All three perspectives suggest that ISR can provide pragmatic legitimacy through symbolic participation in ISR schemes. Network effects are present when the sample value to the next incremental adopter depends on discretion is the, the number of others who have already adopted. Evidence on ecolabels for green buildings, forestry and the apparel industry suggests that the higher the rate of expert resume sample adoption, the more an ISR scheme is recognized as a credible signal of environmental quality, and the higher the benefit of adoption to better, the next incremental adopter (Bartley 2003 ; Chan et al. 2009 ). ISR schemes can also be seen as “green clubs” (Prakash and Potoski 2006 ) that protect an industry’s common reputation (King et al. 2002 ). These schemes can help develop the collective reputation, resources, staff, networks and expertise that lower the cost to individual firms of participation and are particularly successful in “small worlds” such as forestry (Conroy 2007 ) or the expert resume Chinese toy manufacturing industry (Lin-Hi and Blumberg 2016 ) where all the major players know each other. Institutional perspectives emphasize that is better part of valour-essay it safer for firms in uncertain and contested social environments to expert resume, adopt a recognized scheme than to be left outside (DiMaggio and better Powell 1983 ). The higher the ratio of certified to non-certified firms in a local ISR scheme, the more likely are new entrants to participate to signal their similarity (Husted et al.
2016 ). A more critical perspective asks how ISR regimes gain the authority to govern particular social issues (Cashore 2002 ), highlighting the importance of high-status political actors in encouraging others to participate (Levy and Egan 2003 ). Expert Resume! As Renard ( 2005 ) demonstrated in the context of is the of valour-essay fair trade labelling, networks can be vital to education observation, encouraging widespread participation in an ISR scheme, but can also further embed existing power structures within an industry. To the extent that ISR schemes offer safety in discretion better, numbers, participation can help earn pragmatic legitimacy from an organization’s immediate audiences. Finally, firms participate in ISR schemes as a way to learn in an uncertain environment. They can learn about their own organizational capacity to address social issues and how to meet stakeholder expectations more effectively (Banerjee 1998 ). Participation in a scheme can facilitate the transfer of best practices and of science and technology essay increase communication and discretion is the better information sharing between members through direct contact (Kraatz 1998 ; King and Lenox 2000 ). Schemes can encourage indirect learning as they attract boundary spanners such as consultancy firms and auditors who help spread credible information from early education essays one firm to another, lowering informational costs (Delmas 2002 ; Jahn et al. 2005 ). Institutional theorists emphasize that managers also learn through observing others and conforming to is the part of valour-essay, shared local norms. Lilly Outstanding Thesis! ISR schemes can serve as templates that are easily adopted by newcomers.
Through interacting within the scheme, managers are made more aware of of valour-essay social needs and information spreads more quickly (Marquis et al. 2007 ). Focusing on the rhetoric of early ISR, critical theorists also ask how managers learn to talk about social issues and solutions (Green 2004 ). Even weak ISR can serve as “aspirational talk”, and the beginnings of a learning process (Christensen et al. 2013 ), offering the possibility of aligning interests and gaining pragmatic legitimacy over time. Private Benefits and Pragmatic Legitimacy of is the part ISR. ISR schemes earn pragmatic legitimacy as participants persuade their stakeholders of the scheme’s usefulness. Window Economics Definition! This section has outlined four private benefits revealed in prior ISR research that support interest alignment and pragmatic legitimacy of ISR. Although different management theory perspectives have analysed ISR based on widely divergent assumptions, each has touched upon discretion is the of valour-essay, the core private benefits of strategic control, reputation, network benefits and learning.
Analysts in the strategic management tradition have tended to approach the benefits of participation from a narrow, enlightened self-interest perspective, and so have most clearly articulated the private benefits of ISR. In contrast, while critical management theories have mentioned the private benefits of Dwight D. Eisenhower ISR participation, this has normally been in the context of normative disapproval. Discretion Is The Of Valour-essay! ISR participation may secure control over rhetoric and resources (Raynolds et al. 2007 ; Gereffi et al. 2001 ) or reinforce the authority of high-status actors to set norms (Renard 2005 ). However, while ISR schemes may offer private benefits and pragmatic legitimacy from the organization’s most proximate audiences, schemes may still not be in the overall public interest (Vogel 2008 ). Development Of Science! Indeed, whether ISR participation contributes to the broader public good is an under-explored question in management theory. Pragmatic legitimacy alone is better part of valour-essay not an adequate basis for evaluating legitimacy since it only theory definition, takes account of transactional interest alignment with immediate audiences. Since ISR schemes are socially embedded within a system of norms, their appropriateness needs to be evaluated in the broader frame of is the part moral legitimacy.
The next section develops this by early childhood essays, applying Suchman’s ( 1995 ) typology of moral legitimacy to the ISR context to is the part, evaluate the moral legitimacy of ISR schemes. The Moral Legitimacy of Industry Self-Regulation. Moral legitimacy asks whether a particular action, practice, scheme or organization is “the right thing to do” (Suchman 1995 : 579). It differs fundamentally from pragmatic legitimacy because it focuses on the ethical foundations of an organization or activity (Mele and Armengou 2015 ), and the reciprocal responsibility norms generated between an organization and window economics definition its stakeholders (Elms and Phillips 2009 ). Assessing moral legitimacy requires looking beyond pragmatic evaluations based on interest alignment, to a broader public perspective on the normative appropriateness of ISR. In his original review, Suchman identifies three alternative bases for moral legitimacy—consequential, procedural and structural. Is The Better Part Of Valour-essay! Moral legitimacy can be evaluated according to what organizations accomplish (consequential), whether they exhibit socially accepted techniques and processes (procedural) and/or whether they look like the right organization for the job (structural). Moral legitimacy of industry self-regulation.
Short-term, direct, measurable effects. (Rivera 2002 ; Blackman and Rivera 2011 ) Short-term behaviour change; longer-term field reconfiguration. (Hoffman 1999 ; Haack et al. Essay Novel! 2012 ) Social, symbolic and material outcomes. Long-term and diffuse effects. (Boiral 2013 ; Christensen et al. 2013 ) Credible performance signal.
Monitoring and sanctions for non-compliance. (Lenox and Nash 2003 ; Darnall and Carmin 2005 ; Aravind Christmann 2011 ) Stakeholder disclosure and scrutiny, including regulators. Codification of norms. (Wijen 2014 ; Terlaak 2007 ; Short and Toffel 2010 ) Ambition of performance levels. Transparency and discretion is the better accountability. Relationship to state. Fit with competitive and regulatory context. Demonstrates socially acceptable values and norms. Consistent with regulatory demands within field. (Locke, Rissing and Pal 2013 ; Lee 2009 ) Authoritative emblems and discourses.
Nested within governance networks. (Cashore 2002 ; Gilbert and Rasche 2007 ) Consequential legitimacy focuses on the outcomes of ISR. Childhood Education Observation! This approach derives from a rationalist view that “organizations should be judged by is the better part, what they accomplish” (Suchman 1995 : 580). Surprisingly little academic research has focused on the material outcomes of ISR schemes (King et al. 2012 ), and existing evidence on the outcomes of ISR schemes is mixed at broken theory economics definition best. Famous examples of ISR schemes that are generally assumed to improve participating firms’ social or environmental performance over time include the chemical industry’s Responsible Care Program (King and discretion better part of valour-essay Lenox 2000 ), the Equator Principles for responsible project finance (Haack et al. 2012 ), the Forest Stewardship Council’s certification scheme (Moore et al. 2012 ) and ISO 14001 (Prakash and Potoski 2006 ). However, each of Dwight these has also been questioned in terms of their effectiveness and consequential legitimacy (see, for example, Schepers 2010 ; Boiral 2007 ). Empirical studies show that the discretion is the environmental performance of participating firms in the US chemical industry’s Responsible Care, the early childhood ISO 14001 standard and sustainable agriculture certification is part of valour-essay no better and in some cases is worse than that of non-participants (Russo and Harrison 2005 ; Blackman and Rivera 2011 ; Gamper-Rabindran and Finger 2013 ).
The consequences of ISR schemes are notoriously difficult to define and measure. Indeed, one of the problems in evaluating ISR effectiveness is the different ideologically driven perspectives on ISR effectiveness from whose perspective, over what time period and as compared to expert resume, what (Gupta and Lad 1983 ). Past studies have assessed the consequences of ISR schemes by examining the extent to which schemes fulfil the discretion better part of valour-essay functional or governance functions they were designed to serve (Hahn and Pinkse 2014 ; Wijen 2014 ), whether they encourage participation (Prado and Woodside 2015 ; Schuler and Christmann 2011 ), whether they trigger pro-social behaviour change in participating firms (Terlaak 2007 ; Schuler and lilly Christmann 2011 ), whether they improve allocative efficiency (Maxwell et al. 2000 ; Fleckinger and Glachant 2011 ) and ultimately whether they deliver material improvements in the social domains they are designed to address (Blackman and Rivera 2011 ; Darnall and Sides 2008 ; Aravind and is the part of valour-essay Christmann 2011 ). Theorists have known that evaluating ISR effectiveness is controversial for D. Eisenhower, a long time, but focusing on discretion is the better part of valour-essay, the different management perspectives brings shape to the debate. Each management perspective tends to emphasize different aspects of development of science and technology consequential legitimacy, leading to discretion is the better, arbitrary emphases on some measures and expert sample not others based on the worldview of the discretion better part analyst, rather than the details of the phenomenon.
Strategic perspectives on theory, ISR tend to evaluate the consequences of ISR by firm-level outcomes (see Table 2 ). This includes whether participation in ISR schemes generates private benefits to the firm such as the ability to charge higher prices (Rivera 2002 ), or improves firm-level social or environmental performance (Blackman and Rivera 2011 ). Given the focus on the firm level, strategic perspectives tend to discretion is the better, emphasize short-term, direct and measurable effects of ISR participation. In contrast, institutional perspectives consider not only behaviour changes by essay novel, individual social actors within a field (Terlaak 2007 ), but also the better longer-term field reconfiguration as an ISR scheme becomes institutionalized (Hofman 1999 ; Haack et al. Broken Window Definition! 2012 ). Part! Critical perspectives examine longer-term and diffuse effects of broken theory ISR schemes, including how ISR alters symbolic representations of reality (Boiral 2013 ) and the overall governance within a policy domain (Renard 2005 ). Better Part Of Valour-essay! Thus, consequential legitimacy has been a significant concern within each of the management theory perspectives, but in fundamentally different, and economics sometimes incompatible, ways. Since it is discretion is the better part of valour-essay so difficult to evaluate the consequences of ISR, for development of science and technology essay, whom and better of valour-essay when, an Dwight D. Eisenhower, alternative is to instead rely on evaluating the design of the schemes. Suchman’s procedural legitimacy reflects the extent to which organizations embrace socially accepted methods and processes. In the absence of unambiguous evidence that an is the better part, ISR scheme has positive outcomes, firms instead demonstrate “sound practices [which] may serve to demonstrate that the organization is making a good-faith effort to achieve valued, albeit invisible, ends” (Suchman 1995 : 580). In the case of ISR, the procedural legitimacy of the development of science essay scheme’s methods and discretion better processes is usually demonstrated through stringency of ISR design. Schemes with strong monitoring, third-party auditing, government involvement and highly codified processes are usually assumed to provide the most procedural legitimacy (Delmas and early education observation Terlaak 2001 ; Christmann and Taylor 2006 ; Darnall and Sides 2008 ; Short and Toffel 2010 ). However, stringent ISR design is neither uni-dimensional nor unambiguously clearly socially beneficial. ISR regimes vary along any of is the part of valour-essay several different procedural dimensions. For example, Kolk and Van Tulder ( 2002 ) noticed that codes of conduct on child labour from US companies were both more tightly formulated and more loosely monitored than codes from European companies. Despite some exceptions, the various and sometimes contradictory dimensions of stringency are not usually recognized in the literature.
This has led to ISR theorists from essay novel different traditions focusing on different aspects of stringency, and to talking past each other. Different management theory traditions tend to emphasize different dimensions of procedural legitimacy and is the better downplay others, regardless of whether this is the most salient in any given circumstance. Early Essays! Strategic perspectives usually prioritize monitoring and discretion is the better part sanctions as a way to limit information asymmetry and free-riding (Lenox and Dwight Nash 2003 ; Darnall and Carmin 2005 ). In contrast, institutional perspectives emphasize codification and the flexibility provided by ambiguous norms in self-regulation (Edelman 1992 ; Wijen 2014 ), or interactions with the broader institutional context (Gunningham and Rees 1997 ; Lee 2009 ; Short and discretion is the of valour-essay Toffel 2010 ). Critical perspectives often question the ambition or transparency of development and technology ISR schemes (Cashore 2002 ; Gilbert and Rasche 2007 ; Moog et al. Discretion Is The Better Part! 2015 ) and the potential for ISR to pre-empt stricter government regulation through altering power relations and diminishing the role of the state (Renard 2005 ; Jermier et al. 2006 ). Thus, each tradition has a distinctive, but usually implicit view on essay novel, which aspects of procedural legitimacy are most useful in evaluating the discretion is the of valour-essay moral legitimacy of childhood education ISR schemes, with no one tradition addressing all aspects of procedural legitimacy. Structural legitimacy asks whether an ISR scheme is “the right organization for the job” (Suchman 1995 : 581). Structural legitimacy is less about consequences and procedural actions, and more about the structural appearance of an part, ISR scheme and its place within the broader governance system. Structural legitimacy is based on displays that the organizational form is appropriate.
However, as Suchman put it, “this sense of rightness has more to do with emblems of organizational identity than with demonstrations of organizational competence” (p. 581). Of the three bases of moral legitimacy, structural legitimacy has been least explored in and technology, ISR management theory. However, as with the discretion is the part of valour-essay other forms of childhood education observation moral legitimacy, different traditions emphasize different aspects of structural legitimacy. From a strategic perspective, structural legitimacy is about the fit between a firm’s ISR strategy and discretion its competitive and regulatory environment (Rivera 2002 ). In addition to such coercive fit, institutional approaches assess whether ISR schemes are consistent with the values and norms within a field. Credentials such as ISO certificates can serve as “organizational degrees” (Boiral 2012 ), or useful objects to signal credibility (Delmas and development of science Montes-Sancho 2011 ). A more constructivist view emphasizes how ISR schemes themselves serve as a way of narrating new standards for social or environmental performance (Haack et al. Discretion Is The Better Of Valour-essay! 2012 ). Development Of Science Essay! Critical perspectives claim that ISR schemes can serve as “organized exhibitions of authority” that demonstrate social appropriateness but without any real connection to improving firms’ social performance (Bowen 2014 ; Boiral 2013 ). Management Theories of ISR and Moral Legitimacy. The three management theory perspectives have evolved separately over the last two decades, resulting in parallel ISR literature talking past each other. Even when theorists from the different traditions examine the same ISR scheme, they can come to different conclusions about the scheme’s moral legitimacy by prioritizing a consequential, procedural or structural approach.
For example, consider the moral legitimacy of the is the better part of valour-essay American Chemistry Council’s Responsible Care Scheme, established back in 1988. Taking a strategic perspective, Gamper-Rabindran and Finger ( 2013 ) evaluated the consequential legitimacy of the Responsible Care scheme by focusing on the environmental performance outcomes of participating compared with non-participating firms. D. Eisenhower! They found that participating firms actually increased their toxicity-weighted pollution compared with statistically equivalent non-participating firms, questioning the scheme’s consequential legitimacy. Gunningham’s ( 1995 ) institutional perspective focused on Responsible Care’s codes of part practice and community engagement processes as adopted in Australia, arguing based on procedural legitimacy that it is “the most significant and far-reaching self-regulatory scheme ever adopted in Australia, or arguably, elsewhere” (p. 61).
In contrast, critical perspectives emphasize symbolic importance of Responsible Care as a response to the 1984 disaster that killed some 2500 people at the Union Carbide subsidiary in Bhopal, India (Gereffi et al. 2001 ). The chemical industry needed to novel, take steps to regain public acceptance after Bhopal, and “a code of conduct, a certificate, even literally a ‘symbol’, was necessary to communicate those steps” (Matten 2003 : 224). Critical theorists explain this as an attempt by the chemical industry to maintain the discretion is the part structural legitimacy of the prevailing regulatory system and Responsible Care within it. Table 2 summarizes how moral legitimacy is evident within each perspective. Of Science And Technology! Each theoretical tradition holds different implicit assumptions about the is the part of valour-essay bases for moral legitimacy, although individual authors within each perspective do not usually make this explicit. Mapping the expert resume sample bases for moral legitimacy across different perspectives reveals blind spots in ISR research within each tradition so far. For example, within the better of valour-essay strategic management perspective with its focus on the comparative analysis of different outcomes in different circumstances, there has been inadequate attention to evaluating the long-term, indirect and social consequences of ISR schemes (King et al. Development Of Science And Technology Essay! 2012 ). In contrast, while critical perspectives may raise valid concerns about the ambition or authority of non-state actors on social issues, they may also underplay the extent to which ISR schemes can lead to positive longer-term field reconfiguration (Haack et al. 2012 ).
Tensions Between Pragmatic and Moral Legitimacy. This paper has so far treated pragmatic and moral legitimacy separately. However, the pragmatic legitimacy that can provide the basis for a social licence to operate is not the same as the more stable moral legitimacy based on ethical principles (Mele and of valour-essay Armengou 2015 ) and lilly outstanding thesis reciprocal responsibility (Elms and Phillips 2009 ). Each of the bases of pragmatic legitimacy outlined above—strategic control, reputation, network effects and learning—can interact with moral legitimacy. This section identifies tensions between pragmatic and discretion is the of valour-essay moral legitimacy, and the management theory perspectives in which the tensions are based. This is useful to development essay, identify blind spots and to generate routes forward for future theory and practical evaluations of ISR. Strategic Control and Moral Legitimacy. Many ISR schemes offer participants options to decide whether to participate, and if so, how.
For example, ISR schemes may contain different levels of required performance so that participating firms can maximize their private benefits from joining. Of Valour-essay! Discretionary schemes can offer the essay strategic control needed for is the better part of valour-essay, managers to respond to stakeholder demands for social improvement, but to do so on their own terms. Essay On Holes Novel! However, pragmatic legitimacy based on strategic control can have a dark side. The strategic goal of is the better part of valour-essay ISR participation can be to limit the development and technology essay need to discretion part, change behaviour, either in advance of regulation or later when the industry’s preferred approach may be subsequently adopted as a new regulatory standard (Ogus 1995 ; Fleckinger and Glachant 2011 ). The critical view also emphasizes regulatory capture and the potential for discretionary ISR schemes to manipulate or subvert stakeholder expectations without changes in broken window definition, firm behaviour (Banerjee 2008 ). Thus, while ISR schemes that offer strategic control can generate the flexibility needed to achieve pragmatic legitimacy, it can also threaten the consequential legitimacy of an ISR scheme. Take for example the US Green Building Council’s (USGBC) LEED standards, the leading green building standards in the USA. This points-based rating system certifies buildings as platinum, gold, silver or certified LEED green buildings. These may appear at first glance to be impartial endorsements of builders’ green performance. But a more critical look reveals that key industry players were heavily involved in the authorship of the schemes, which has largely displaced the more rigorous standards that were originally proposed (Parker 2009 ). Is The Better Of Valour-essay! The USGBC is often mistaken to be a government agency, but was originally a coalition of builders, consultants and property developers who realized that they needed to respond to stakeholder demands for greener buildings. They designed a flexible scheme that offered firms control over which technologies to implement to Dwight D. Eisenhower, earn a green building label and therefore meet the pragmatic legitimacy expectations of their immediate stakeholders.
This flexibility encouraged builders to strategically target the cheapest and least environmentally impactful building features, or to target the is the of valour-essay lowest acceptable tier of outstanding LEED certification, which offers very little material improvement to discretion better, the environment from the building (Corbett and Muthulingam 2007 ). The LEED standards illustrate a broader tension between pragmatic and moral legitimacy. ISR schemes can help participants maintain strategic control, but in lilly, order for this to be effective, participants’ interests must somehow dominate those of better other stakeholders. Thus, strategic control may be incompatible with the co-created, reciprocal responsibility that Elms and Phillips ( 2009 ) identify as the foundation of moral legitimacy. This raises the theory definition serious question of whether ISR schemes that offer strategic control can also have moral legitimacy. Seeking reputation is a pragmatic motivation for establishing product-level certification schemes such as organic food or fair trade product labels, as well as company-level reporting and disclosure schemes. However, evidence on certification schemes suggests that they are not widely effective in improving firms’ social or environmental performance (King et al. 2012 ). This lack of effectiveness is at least partly because ISR schemes designed to confer reputation often emphasize persuasion to confer pragmatic legitimacy rather than the co-creation of norms and actions required for is the better of valour-essay, moral responsibility. The institutional perspective explains how managers may get caught up in larger structural pressures that require them to implement, measure, monitor and report on social performance (Bromley and broken window economics definition Powell 2012 ). Managers may participate in better part of valour-essay, ISR schemes because they have been swept up in ratings or rankings systems that evaluate their reputation (Chatterji and Toffel 2010 ). Signing up to an ISR scheme can help signal engagement with social or environmental issues.
But certification schemes can also gloss over complexities in the behaviours and practices needed to generate better social outcomes (Wijen 2014 ). ISR schemes that provide reputation and pragmatic interest alignment can hide considerable ambiguity on how the broken theory scheme is put into better part of valour-essay practice and whether it is the and technology right organization for the job. Consider the example of CarbonNeutral ® certification. Discretion Is The Part Of Valour-essay! Achieving certification is intended to Dwight D. Eisenhower, help firms stand out from discretion is the better part of valour-essay their competition and broken window theory economics definition provide a “clear sign” that they are leading the better way on Dwight D. Eisenhower, climate change (Carbon Neutral Company 2016 ), that is, to offer pragmatic reputational benefits. To join this ISR scheme, participating firms need to meet a set of highly codified criteria that are outlined in discretion part of valour-essay, a “Carbon Neutral Protocol” (Carbon Neutral Company 2013 ). Prospective members must commit to five steps to achieve certification: definition, measurement, set target, reduce emissions and broken window economics communicate. Crucially, the “reduce emissions” stage differs from other definitions of carbon neutrality (Department of Energy and Climate Change 2009 ) because it allows all reductions to be made though offsetting and does not require individual firms to change their own internal emissions behaviours. Emphasizing the reputational benefits of discretion better joining an ISR scheme can lead to resume sample, highlighting pragmatic and persuasive legitimacy rather than consequential actions. Microsoft explained its adoption of the CarbonNeutral ® certificate because it found that it could not meet its previous 2009 commitment to reduce relative carbon emissions by 30% by 2012.
Microsoft’s new cloud computing business model was driving gross carbon emissions up, so in discretion, order to protect its environmental reputation the firm opted for the pragmatic legitimacy of D. Eisenhower achieving certification rather than the consequential legitimacy of actually reducing its own internal emissions (Microsoft 2012 ). Certification schemes such as this illustrate the tension in discretion, ISR between the pragmatic legitimacy gained through persuasion and the moral legitimacy of consequential changes in behaviours and performance. Network Effects and Moral Legitimacy. Some ISR schemes offer economies in membership, or collective shelter from institutional pressures by following the example of dominant firms in the field. And Technology Essay! This is particularly common when firms’ reputations are interdependent (Prakash and Potoski 2006 ; Barnett and King 2008 ). Discretion Is The! On the plus side, ISR schemes designed to harness pragmatic legitimacy through network effects can lead to positive spillover and early essays multiply positive impacts. For example, Reich et al. ( 2005 ) identified spillover effects from the voluntary adoption of a living wage, as other workers not directly covered by the scheme also experienced some increase in their level of pay. In the part UK, Wills and Linneker ( 2012 ) showed how participating in the Living Wage Foundation’s voluntary living wage scheme led to Dwight D. Eisenhower, spillover benefits in related social domains such as improvements in health and well-being, improved family life, reduced welfare benefit costs and local positive externalities from better paid residents.
ISR schemes with network benefits, such as the Living Wage Foundation, can trigger social multiplier effects if they are actively connected with complementary institutions, increasing their outcome effectiveness even further (Pollin et al. 2002 ; Freeman 2005 ). Extensive cross-monitoring and discretion better of valour-essay dialogue can lead to networked legitimacy, where the ISR scheme draws together a nexus of interests and D. Eisenhower each participant gains its own pragmatic legitimacy (Mele and better Schepers 2013 ). However, this positive interaction between network effects and consequential legitimacy crucially depends on lilly award, whether participants do actually improve their social performance. Critical theorists describe how network effects can support shared discourses and industry-led schemes that consolidate the power of large corporations without altering corporate behaviour (Banerjee 2008 ; Bowen 2014 ). Network benefits can promote the deliberately low standards of powerful incumbents (Raynolds et al. 2007 ). These firms may have strong incentives to embed low standards as acceptable norms of corporate behaviour (Dunlap and McCright 2011 ). Doing so may award ISR schemes pragmatic legitimacy from better of valour-essay their immediate audiences, but threaten the development of responsible norms as a foundation for moral legitimacy.
These challenges can be seen in development and technology, comparing two ISRs in sustainable forestry: the FSC and SFI. Forestry companies face a shared reputational risk from environmental NGOs who cannot tell if their undifferentiated wood products are environmentally damaging (Bartley 2003 ; Winn et al. 2008 ). Discretion Part! Both the FSC and SFI are voluntary ISR programmes that were initiated at the industry level: by the US forestry industry in the case of SFI, and by socially concerned retailers in the case of FSC (Cashore 2002 ). Dwight D. Eisenhower! In the part early days of sustainable forestry certification, the US forestry industry actively resisted the FSC’s more ambitious standards, preferring instead to Dwight D. Eisenhower, start their own lighter touch, SFI scheme in order to attract more participants (Coglianese and Nash 2001 ; Meidinger 2006 ). The US forestry industry adopted the less ambitious SFI scheme, and the more ambitious FSC scheme failed to take off in the USA as it did in Canada, the UK and other countries (Cashore 2002 ; Conroy 2007 ). Better Part! The lower environmental standards required within SFI compared with FSC became entrenched as the SFI standard spread. Worse, because forestry certification is interlinked with other schemes, such as for Dwight, green buildings, this consequential legitimacy loss spilled over into other US industries when the USGBC controversially decided to award LEED points for using SFI-certified wood in their buildings. In this example, responsibility norms were co-created by scheme participants and their surrounding stakeholders. However, the performance level for SFI was established at is the better a lower performance level than for FSC. More generally, the novel moral legitimacy of ISR schemes with potent network effects crucially depends on the ethical foundations of the emerging shared norms (Mele and Armengou 2015 ). Discretion Better! Without firm ethical foundations, networked ISR schemes may be awarded pragmatic legitimacy by their immediate audiences, but lack deeper moral legitimacy. ISR schemes vary in their potential scope for learning opportunities and the extent to which these learning exchanges are actually realized (Coglianese and Nash 2001 ). ISR can provide spaces for experimentation and innovative solutions to social problems, leading to opportunities for wider learning, conversation and interest alignment between participating firms and their immediate audiences.
ISR schemes designed for learning can improve both pragmatic and consequential legitimacy. For example, firms were more likely to change their waste management practices when managers said they joined EPA’s awareness-raising WasteWise programme to promote their relations with the EPA and to learn about waste (Delmas and Keller 2005 ). Similarly, Locke’s ( 2013 ) study of labour standards in apparel, electronics and metalworking supply chains showed the potential of learning through sharing best practices and capability-building in ISR to provide cleaner and safer workplaces for workers than other scheme designs. Resume Sample! ISR on labour standards in part of valour-essay, global supply chains has helped managers incorporate and D. Eisenhower learn from the voices of discretion better part of valour-essay traditionally excluded groups of workers such as women export workers (Pearson and Seyfang 2001 ) and has also stimulated learning among activists about what worked in affecting change in previous campaigns (Freeman 2005 ). However, as with network effects, the consequential legitimacy of ISR schemes designed for broken window definition, learning depends on what is learned and better shared within the scheme. Outcomes depend on the performance of the development of science leading firms and the expectations they share with later joiners. Discretion Is The Better! The primary motivation to of science and technology, participate may be to learn how to avoid, deflect or pre-empt more ambitious regulatory requirements (Ogus 1995 ), or to co-opt or deflect stakeholder interests (Parker 2002 ; Raynolds et al. 2007 ). All four of the ISR schemes examined by discretion better of valour-essay, Lenox and Nash ( 2003 ) in Dwight D. Eisenhower, the chemical, textile and pulp and paper industries were designed with sharing mechanisms such as industry newsletters, annual conferences and member meetings. Discretion Is The Better Of Valour-essay! These were intended to help participants learn to manage the uncertainty surrounding new environmental demands.
However, in most of the schemes, the essay on holes novel performance bar was not sufficiently ambitious to offer learning to of valour-essay, new members on lilly thesis award, reducing pollution. Similarly, Lin-Hi and Blumberg ( 2016 ) emphasized the learning potential from schemes such as the Business Social Compliance Initiative (BSCI), which focuses on learning and capacity building to improve working conditions in global supply chains. However, two of the factories in the Rana Plaza building in Bangladesh that collapsed in 2013 were participants in better, the BSCI. Learning within the BSCI scheme did not extend to assessing the safety or regulatory compliance of the physical buildings, or to empowering local workers to act when they identified cracks in the building before the collapse (Gross 2013 ). Opportunities to learn about facility safety were lost because of expert weak performance standards in is the better, the scheme (Chao 2013 ). As with network effects above, the moral legitimacy of outstanding ISR depends not only on part, interactions and learning with stakeholders, but also on the ethical content of what is learned. Moral legitimacy requires the learning to have firm ethical foundations (Mele and Armengou 2015 ). However, these ethical foundations can become unmoored from the ISR scheme if participants do not place adequate emphasis on what and how they are learning from ISR schemes.
This section addressed each of the bases of essay novel pragmatic legitimacy in turn and used past ISR research from all three management theory perspectives to discretion is the better part, explore potential tensions with moral legitimacy. Focusing on tensions between pragmatic and moral responsibility offers several implications for ISR research. First, with respect to strategic control, the balance of evidence considered here seriously questions the consequential legitimacy of discretionary ISR schemes. Rather like students marking their own homework, it is tempting for outstanding award, managers to award themselves the of valour-essay easy points but without truly engaging with fundamental changes in their activities. Development And Technology Essay! This is even the case in discretion better of valour-essay, performance-based ISR schemes such as the USGBC’s LEED building standards. Future research should pay more attention to the specific outcomes of flexible ISR schemes, particularly ISR schemes that offer choices on development and technology essay, a range of performance standards. Second, the current ISR literature challenges the discretion is the better part consequential legitimacy of certification schemes that offer reputational benefits. Certification-based ISR schemes often provide pragmatic legitimacy from firms’ immediate audiences as they reassure stakeholders that firms are taking their social obligations seriously. Within the broader social context, such emblems and credentials can offer structural legitimacy that an industry-led scheme is the right form of organization to address a social challenge.
However, increased structural legitimacy from reputation-enhancing ISR schemes is often decoupled from the scheme’s outcomes. Thus, future research should further investigate the structural conditions of ISR schemes and their outcomes. Finally, for ISR schemes that offer network and learning effects, the window pragmatic reasons to participate can multiply the positive outcomes of an ISR scheme. This is an under-explored area in empirical studies and offers new optimism that there may actually be learning and relational benefits in firms marking their own homework. The current ISR literature is inconclusive about whether these network and learning effects are positive or negative, since ISR outcomes depend on what is learned and shared within ISR. More research is needed on is the of valour-essay, formally modelling learning effects and network spillover in ISR.
A particularly exciting frontier for modelling might be when self-regulatory mechanisms interact, as in the case of the SFI sustainable forest products scheme and the USGBC’s LEED green building standards. So far, serious empirical treatments of the consequential legitimacy of overlapping, networked ISR schemes is lacking from the academic literature. The wide range of ISR schemes now operating provides an early, opportunity for future empirical research to explore these ideas both within and across industry sectors. In principle, ISR can provide flexible and discretion better part innovative social improvements at lower cost than direct state regulation (Coglianese and Mendelson 2010 ; Gunningham and Rees 1997 ). Dwight D. Eisenhower! However, mixed empirical evidence and some high-profile ISR failures have fed scepticism that ISR allows firms to mark their own homework. Is The Of Valour-essay! Although marking their own homework may not be unambiguously bad, current ISR theory cannot explain when or why this may be case, as it has not fully examined the legitimacy of ISR. While legitimacy theory clearly separates the pragmatic legitimacy of gaining a social licence to operate from a deeper, more stable moral legitimacy (Suchman 1995 ; Mele and Armengou 2015 ), ISR research has been slow to recognize this distinction. In response, this paper mapped what we know about the legitimacy of ISR from management theory, clearly separated pragmatic from moral legitimacy, and used this distinction to expose tensions and lilly thesis award future directions on the legitimacy of ISR. This paper offers extensions to discretion is the, three strands within ISR theory. First, it provides integration across different theoretical perspectives within current management theory of early ISR. It derives an part, integrated approach drawing on strategic, institutional and critical management perspectives.
Pulling these perspectives into a single analysis is a significant contribution because previous management scholarship has been fragmented and context specific. Strategic, institutional and critical management theories of ISR have evolved in parallel, as have scholarly communities that focus on particular content domains such as firms’ impacts on the natural environment, labour standards, ethical trading or diversity practices. This paper leverages and integrates across these parallel studies and offers the broader view needed to childhood education, explore the biases, blind spots and discretion is the better part of valour-essay boundary conditions of ISR. Second, this paper moves beyond the largely descriptive analyses of ISR in expert, the current literature to examine the normative legitimacy of ISR. The framework contributes to ISR management theory by moving beyond the private benefits that provide pragmatic legitimacy to ISR schemes to examine the more ethical foundations and shared responsibility norms that underly moral responsibility. Is The Better Of Valour-essay! The framework derived in Table 2 can guide a comprehensive evaluation of childhood observation moral legitimacy based on the details of a particular ISR scheme, rather than implicitly assuming which aspect of moral legitimacy is most important as has been so common in management theories of ISR.
Moral legitimacy can be evaluated according to what organizations accomplish (consequential), whether they exhibit socially accepted techniques and processes (procedural) and/or whether they look like the right organization for the job (structural). Focusing on of valour-essay, different types of legitimacy gives different answers about the moral legitimacy of ISR schemes. Very stringent schemes can give procedural legitimacy, but this does not necessarily mean that they will have good outcomes (i.e. consequential legitimacy). Theory Economics! Similarly, a well-functioning scheme with positive overall social benefits can lose legitimacy if it does not somehow signal appropriate emblems or credentials to maintain structural legitimacy. Previous research has been hampered by blinkered approaches from within particular management traditions. This paper offers an integrative view of moral legitimacy of ISR based on the different bases of moral legitimacy, rather than the implied theoretical worldview of the is the better of valour-essay analyst. Finally, the paper contributes to a burgeoning literature on lilly outstanding award, the pragmatic and moral legitimacy of other phenomena such as codes of ethics (Long and is the Driscoll 2008 ), social enterprise (Dart 2004 ), NGOs as partners of industry (Baur and Palazzo 2011 ), regulatory regimes (Black 2008 ) or controversial projects (Mele and Dwight D. Eisenhower Armengou 2015 ). Part! This literature recognizes that pragmatic legitimacy and moral legitimacy do not always go together. The extension made in this paper is to specifically examine three tensions between pragmatic and moral legitimacy in the ISR context. First, ISR schemes that offer pragmatic legitimacy through strategic control may be incompatible with the co-created, reciprocal responsibility required for Dwight D. Eisenhower, moral legitimacy. Participants in ISR schemes cannot simultaneously dominate and is the better part of valour-essay responsibly reciprocate with stakeholders, leading to serious questions about whether ISR schemes that offer strategic control can also have moral legitimacy.
Second, ISR schemes that offer reputational benefits rely on gaining pragmatic legitimacy through persuasion, which can become decoupled from resume consequential changes in behaviours. Focusing on the exchange and transactional aspects of is the part reputation can help gain pragmatic legitimacy, but disconnect schemes from childhood education deeper, reciprocal moral legitimacy. Third, the discretion better part of valour-essay moral legitimacy of ISR schemes with potent network or learning effects crucially depends on the ethical foundations of the scheme. Ethically weak ISR schemes will lack moral legitimacy regardless of how many firms join or how much participants share learning within the scheme. Focusing on ISR has opened up some new frontiers in research on expert sample, the interactions between pragmatic and moral legitimacy. ISR is unusual in that firms play a dual role in influencing the design of ISR schemes and discretion of valour-essay then deciding whether and how to participate. To the thesis extent that firms can influence the design of ISR schemes, there is the discretion is the better potential for firms to deliberately design schemes to maximize pragmatic legitimacy. For example, ISR schemes could be designed to emphasize strategic control (as in performance-based ISR schemes such as LEED), or to emphasize reputation (as in certification schemes). These design choices can ultimately influence the of science essay moral legitimacy of the discretion is the scheme in action.
It is possible that the tensions between pragmatic and moral legitimacy identified in lilly, this paper are a consequence of this dual role in ISR. This analysis challenges legitimacy theorists to assess whether these tensions between pragmatic and moral legitimacy are unique to discretion is the better part, circumstances where organizations both design and participate in governance schemes or are generalizable to other contexts beyond ISR. This paper was partly motivated by the mismatch between the promise and performance of ISR schemes, and a desire to better evaluate ISR schemes in practice. Table 2 generates a wide variety of normative considerations in assessing the appropriateness of ISR schemes that takes evaluation of ISR schemes far beyond simple cost–benefit logic. Window! Scheme participants and stakeholders can use Table 2 to generate a systematic set of questions to part, evaluate the legitimacy of early childhood essays specific ISR schemes. From a consequential legitimacy point of view, questions focus on the outcomes of the scheme: what are the outcomes for participating firms, non-participants and other interested stakeholders? What are the direct and indirect outcomes over better of valour-essay the short and long term? Questions of procedural legitimacy include whether inclusion criteria are sufficiently ambitious to set new standards, whether the scheme is sufficiently codified to shape action and to what extent non-compliant participants are sanctioned. Structural legitimacy questions ask about the extent to which the authority of the ISR scheme is formally recognized within the relevant country or industry, whether the ISR scheme reflects acceptable values for its social context and whether and how the thesis form of the ISR conveys that firms are performing their proper social function. Discretion Better Part! Systematic questions beyond simple short-term cost–benefit analysis have the potential to D. Eisenhower, identify and develop relatively more socially beneficial ISR schemes in the future, and ultimately to improve ISR schemes in practice. The primary limitation of this analysis is that it is based on an analytic review of past research from part a sprawling range of traditions and substantive policy domains.
A formal, systematic review could have been a useful way to generate a more comprehensive, unbiased and transparent literature review. However, a systematic review would also have had to be necessarily limited to particular policy domains or contexts or sets of journals (that is, theoretical tradition) to formally limit the scope of the review. By adopting a more analytic approach, this analysis linked up insights on ISR that would not usually show up in a narrower key word search. It did not offer the replicable and more structured findings of a systematic review, but instead served as a conversation starter based on an analytical overview of early education a wide span of literature. This paper is also limited in that it did not attempt to part of valour-essay, empirically explore, verify or test key insights. Future research on the structural conditions of ISR schemes and their outcomes is particularly needed, and development of science essay is now increasingly possible because of the very large number of schemes that could be compared. For example, the discretion better part International Trade Centre lists over 210 voluntary standards operating in over 200 countries, many of which would meet the development essay definition of ISR used in is the better, this paper (see www.standardsmap.org ). Similarly, www.ecolabelindex.com lists over 450 ecolabels across 25 industry sectors. Empirical researchers might collate existing evidence on the effectiveness of lilly outstanding award these standards or ecolabels and develop preliminary tests and discretion is the part categorizations on observation essays, which ones have the most learning or network potential, and how they rank on the various dimensions of consequential, procedural or structural legitimacy.
As data availability improves, empirical researchers will be able to conduct more complete systematic reviews and even meta-analyses of the legitimacy of ISR in the future. This paper examined the legitimacy of ISR in response to discretion better, mixed empirical evidence and expert accusations that firms are using ISR schemes to “mark their own homework”. It explained how current management theory on ISR has failed to separate pragmatic legitimacy of is the better part of valour-essay ISR schemes based on private benefits, from early childhood observation essays moral legitimacy based on reciprocal responsibilities, a firm ethical foundation and normative approval. Mapping the discretion better literature has revealed tensions between pragmatic and moral legitimacy, and window theory generated implications for theory on ISR and on legitimacy. Future ISR research should examine the discretion is the better part full range of moral legitimacy questions about Dwight D. Eisenhower, ISR. Only then can ISR achieve its full potential as a fully legitimate mode of governance in the contemporary economic system. The work was funded by the UK’s Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC: ES/K007440/1). Compliance with Ethical Standards. The author declares that they have no conflict of interest. This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the is the part authors. Open Access This article is broken economics distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to discretion is the, the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
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Free 2008 Mumbai India Terrorist Attack Essay Sample. The 2008 Mumbai Terrorist Attacks refer to a series of eleven consecutive attacks that were carried out by unidentified terrorists in Mumbai City, the largest city in India. The Mumbai attacks occurred on the twenty sixth night of November 2008. Discretion Better Part Of Valour-essay! The coincidence of the number of the attacks with the expert resume sample, month it happened gave it the name “26/11” attacks. Discretion! The attacks consisted of eleven well coordinated shootings and bombings.
According to a report compiled by BBC News, the terrorists are believed to Dwight have Islamic background (Rabasa, 2009). Most of the terrorists were killed in is the better, counterattacks by Mumbai police. Only one terrorist was captured alive. It was further reported that the terrorists must have received adequate assistance and support by broken window theory economics, external forces before executing the shootings and bombings. One of the suspect terrorists, Mr. Ajmal Kasab, who was the only attacker captured alive, confessed to Mumbai police that the discretion is the better of valour-essay, terrorists received support from Pakistan’s Inter-Service Intelligence (ISI). The 2008 Mumbai attacks were among the numerous terrorist attacks that the city had faced since another bombing of the same severity occurred in March 1993. The Mumbai 2008 attacks occurred on the Wednesday night of 26 th November 2008. The attacks were very severe and lasted for more than sixty hours. They involved cruel counter attacks between security agencies, police and the terrorists. Most of the shootings and bombings were carried out in of science and technology, the southern part of Mumbai.
The terrorists had primary target places which had huge gathering of discretion is the of valour-essay, local citizens as well as foreigners, for instance, the thesis award, Taj Hotel, Cama Women and Children’s Hospital, Metro Cinema and St. Xavier’s College. Another explosion occurred at Mazagon port. The terrorists also managed to attack other secondary target areas. One day after the attacks, all parts of Mumbai that could possibly be targeted by the terrorists were put under tight security and continuous police surveillance. On the third day after the attacks, the National Security Guards (NSG) conducted an operation dubbed Operation Black Tornado to get rid of the is the better, attackers. This operation resulted into deaths of most of the attackers who were still at the Taj Hotel. Mr. Ajmal Kasab, who was the only attacker captured alive, confessed that the terrorists belonged to a militants’ group called Lashkar-e-Taiba, which is based in lilly, Pakistan.
Lashkar-a-Taiba is considered a terrorist organization by the India government. When the Pakistan government was asked about the nationality of Mr. Ajmal, the Prime Minister agreed that he was a Pakistani. Mr. Ajamal was later arraigned in court and sentence to death. The 2008 Mumbai terrorist attacks resulted into various human impacts. First and foremost, most of the is the of valour-essay, victims who survived have been suffering from trauma for a very long time. They get traumatized by the bombing experience and award, the scenes that were associated with it, for example, shooting of innocent friends or relatives by the terrorists. Additionally, most survivors suffered from serious body injuries that have rendered them physically disabled. This has further distressed the victims. The post attack effects were very devastating at both personal and family levels.
According to Kronstadt, the discretion better part of valour-essay, terrorist attacks in Mumbai instituted a climate of great fear and terror amongst the people. The attackers took hostages in the target hotels, shoot and killed several people (Kronstadt, 2011). Investigations by the police revealed that they mainly targeted Hindus and foreigners, especially British and American citizens. In addition, the essay, attacks resulted into discretion is the better part, hatred and rage between America and Pakistan. For instance, in on holes, late 2010, various family members and relatives of American victims who died or got injured during the discretion part, attacks sued Pakistan and the leader of its Inter-Service Intelligence unit, General Major Ahmed Shuja Pasha for mass killings of blameless persons.
Infrastructure Damage and Losses. The Mumbai bombings also resulted into astonishing and shocking destruction of the City’s infrastructure. First, the of science and technology, great and symbolic Taj Hotel was seriously destroyed, burned and reduced to of valour-essay ashes. Kronstadt asserts that the hotel was a great emblem of architectural work in early education observation, India (Kronstadt, 2011). Discretion Better Part! Furthermore, the hotel integrated India’s rich heritage with cultural iconography. It was an amalgamation of Indian culture, heritage and architecture with business and hospitality attributes of the country. Secondly, another hotel which was destroyed during the development and technology, attacks was the Oberon-Trident Hotel, which served as luxurious meeting point for the rich and most influential people of Indian. Oberon-Trident Hotel also served as a symbol of India’s prestigious hospitality. It was also a sign of India's growth and of valour-essay, prosperity in economic activities.
The destruction of Taj and Oberon-Trident hotels was a great setback in the hospital industry of India. Thirdly, Chatrapati Shivaji Railway Terminus also suffered infrastructural damage. Outstanding! Chatrpati Terminus was a major railway station in India. Thousands of commuters from better part, both local and international communities used this railway terminus regularly. It was ever busy and fully crowded. In my view, it was targeted by of science and technology, the attackers so that they could cause massive killing of persons and widespread destruction to humanity.
Its destruction was a severe setback to India’s transport system. Fourthly, in the south of is the better part, Mumbai was Nariman house which was destroyed probably because it housed many Jewish leaders. Before the attacks, already there were tensions and minor conflicts between Jews and Muslims. In my opinion, therefore, the attackers must have considered it prudent to destroy Nariman house as a revenge attack to the Jewish community. Last but not least, the Mumbai bombings and explosions resulted into destruction of residential places, roads and thesis, business premises. Communication channels such as telephone lines were also destroyed. At communal level, the attacks resulted into discretion is the part of valour-essay, great terror amongst the citizens of India. Various communities were afraid of possible future attacks by the either the lilly outstanding thesis award, same terrorist organization or attacks from other groups related to Lashkar-e-Taiba.
Mumbai terrorist attacks also led to accusations, extreme revulsion and wrath between India and part, Pakistan. India pointed fierce fingers towards Pakistan government for sample, alleged involvement in the attacks. Pakistan refuted these accusations. However, in February 2009, a minister from Pakistan asserted that parts of the attacks were actually planed and coordinated from Pakistan. This further widened the rift, enmity and hostility between the two countries. In July 2006, similar attacks occurred in Suburban Railway in Mumbai where seven bombs were exploded simultaneous killing more than two hundred people. Investigations by the Mumbai police revealed that the attacks were conducted by Lashkar-e-Taiba in collaboration with Students Islamic Movement of India.
This resulted into negative attitudes towards the Islamic students in India. Muslims were hated and received discriminations from the indigenous community regardless of whether one was involved in the bombings or not. It also led to inter-community clashes. Furthermore, the attacks resulted into better, harsh and unbearable relationships between Pakistan and India. At first, Pakistan denied its involvement in award, the attacks, but later accepted India’s accusations on her involvement in is the better of valour-essay, the Mumbai bombings when she was supplied with adequate information relating the thesis award, weapons used during the of valour-essay, attacks, police interrogations and records of telephone calls that were made during the attacks. Reports compiled by the Indian government after a series of investigations revealed that Pakistan’s intelligence agency, ISI, provided support to lilly outstanding the terrorists. Severe tensions rose between India and is the better, Pakistan. In addition, local communities condemned India’s political leaders and early observation, security forces for their negligence during the attacks. Citizens argued that the leaders did not give adequate protection to the people. On the other hand, the security agencies were blamed for incompetence and discretion is the better part of valour-essay, weaknesses in childhood, disaster response. This cropped into poor relationships between the citizens and their leaders.
Last but not least, there were sharp conflicts between Muslims and Hindus. The Islamic religion received global condemnation for causing deaths of part of valour-essay, innocent persons. The international community also reacted by fierce condemnations of the attacks. Direct and Indirect Loss. In my opinion, some of the direct losses incurred as a result of the Dwight D. Eisenhower, attacks include loss of lives, severe injuries to survivors, destruction of both private and discretion is the part, public properties such as hotels, business premises, and lilly thesis, infrastructures such as railway lines.
It also caused internal displacement of discretion is the, persons as people were moving to areas that were considered safer. On the essay on holes, other hand, indirect losses include poor relationships between India and Pakistan, hatred between followers of Hindu and Islamic religions and reduced economic activities and development in Mumbai. Gross Domestic Product. In addition to the above mentioned effects, the 2008 Mumbai terrorist attacks had stern negative effects on the economy of Mumbai City and India as a whole. Most business organizations responded to discretion is the better part the attacks by reducing their investments in India. Lilly Thesis Award! There were observable changes in the trade, hospitality and transport industries. Moreover, those businesses that did not close their premises or relocate to is the better part of valour-essay other cities had to incur additional expenses in acquiring self-defense mechanisms to shield themselves from possible future attacks. Dwight D. Eisenhower! Businessmen and traders had to dig deeper into their pockets so as to discretion is the part meet such additional costs.
Businesses had to spend again the little profits they had earned on hiring and improving security. This eventually resulted into reduced economic activities and consequently an enormous decline in India’s gross domestic product (GDP). In my opinion, the attacks greatly affected India’s GDP because Mumbai was the only commercial capital which was well established and prosperous. According to Rabasa, Mumbai was India’s financial soul. It was a city of growth and expert resume, economic development for India (Rabasa, 2009). It accounted for more than ten percent of India’s tax income and approximately fifteen percent of India’s gross domestic product. Part Of Valour-essay! It was an important financial and commercial hub for India. Besides, the places that were targeted by the terrorists were popular tourist attraction sites. This led to decrease in expert resume, foreign exchange revenue from tourism since many tourists were not willing to visit Mumbai after the attacks. Tourists who had planned to visit Mumbai changed their plans and cancelled the trips.
The international community was scared, and so were the tourists. I may put forward that one of the main goals of the is the better, terrorists was to impede and slow down the rising economic growth and development of Mumbai. The key industries of India’s economy were the targets, and thus were rigorously affected. Expert Resume Sample! This includes hospitality, tourism and transport industries. These industries continued to experience major economic shocks long after the attacks. Early Warning Signs. The 2008 Mumbai terrorist attacks had various warning signs which if they could have been keenly observed, appropriate prevention measures could have been taken to stop it.
First and foremost, there was widespread communal rioting towards the end of 1992 when Hindu nationalists destroyed Babri Masjid in discretion, Ajodhya. This led to a massive repercussion of Muslims in Mumbai. Besides, there were killings of several Hindu workers in on holes novel, South Mumbai which resulted into counter-violence by the Hindus. Consequently, Muslims counteracted by bombing several parts of Mumbai in 1993, including the Bombay Stock Exchange. These violent and is the better part, harsh activities experienced between 1992 and 1993 caused massive migration of development and technology essay, people. The local communities were divided along religious lines. Muslims moved to cities where their majorities lived. Hindus too migrated to towns where their majorities lived.
In my view, the repeated attacks in Mumbai City by Muslims exposed and symbolized deep-rooted hatred and hidden tensions and violence between the two religious groups. Similar attacks that were alleged to have been conducted by Muslims occurred in a train station in Mumbai in 2006. The attack was targeting massive killing of Hindus who were bordering a train. It was an attack of revenge meant to claim Hindus’ lives. I suppose that these reiterated attacks were adequate signals of possible future attacks. They indicated that something was wrong between the communities of Mumbai. I would further assert that the discretion is the better part of valour-essay, 2008 terrorist attacks came at a time when India was already struggling with internal threats from minority terror groups. Furthermore, India has had three ferocious wars with Pakistan in mid 1948, 1965-66 and 1972.
This resulted into window theory economics, a bitter rivalry between the two nations, and is the part of valour-essay, thus a possibility of terrorist attacks from either country. All these were early warning signs of possible terror attacks. Systems of Attacks. The 2008 Mumbai attacks were well planned and broken window theory economics, coordinated. Discretion Is The Better Of Valour-essay! The callous and coldblooded operations of the terrorists left India stumbling under its impact.
The attacks entailed a mixture of theory, urban warfare techniques and terrorism. It employed both traditional methods of killing targets by hand-thrown grenades as well as post-modern techniques of using auto-explosive bombs. It also deployed use of high-tech technologies such global positioning systems and satellite phones in communications. The satellite phones were used by the terrorists to discretion part communicate with their chief organizers and facilitators in Pakistan. They also employed Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) to outstanding thesis facilitate their communication and exchange of information. Additionally, it also mixed both land-based and sea-borne terrorism. The attackers first hijacked a ship in discretion is the of valour-essay, Arabian Sea, killed its crews before heading to shores of Mumbai. Furthermore, the attacks employed numerous tricks of terrorism such as firing guns, use of explosive grenades and taking people hostages. The terrorists focused at development of science and technology, implanting confusion amongst the people and the security forces.
They later managed to overwhelm the security authorities with their mixed and well calculated tactics. Better Of Valour-essay! The security forces were thus unable to respond effectively to the attacks. According to Rabasa, the terrorists attacked a total of ten target places, five of which were major targets. Attacks on broken window theory economics definition these target locations were carefully crafted and meticulously planned (Rabasa, 2009). These target places were of importance to India, and thus the terrorists had specific and solid reasons to target them. The Indian government was criticized for its delayed response during the attacks, poor disaster preparedness and delay in arrival of the National Security Guards. In order to moderate the severity of is the better of valour-essay, such attacks in future, Indian police must be given adequate funds and novel, proper training to improve its capacity and performance. The government should also acquire state-of-the-art weapons and missiles to replace obsolete weapons currently held at government arsenals. Is The Part! The Indian parliamenterians should also push for proper and full implementation of Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Amendments Bill which would help boost security in the country. The security forces along the coast and at window theory definition, border regions of discretion is the of valour-essay, Indian should be enforced. They should be well equipped.
Additionally, the early childhood, Research and Analysis Wing (RAW) from United States of America predicted a possibility of terror attacks in India. However, these warnings were taken less serious. The government of India did not take any preventive measures either. Better Part! In my view, therefore, such serious negligence by the government must be avoided in future. Similarly, private partnerships can formulate their own techniques of ensuring high security within their business premises, for essays, instance, through installation of Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) systems. The laxity of frontline security at the entrance of major buildings gave the is the part, terrorists chances of entering into the hotel buildings with their grenades and guns without detection by metal detectors at of science and technology, respective hotel entrances. This indicates that private organizations should also tighten security levels in their premises.
Similarly, India should be willing to incorporate external assistance in times of disasters. For example, in the 2008 attacks, little efforts were made to seek external assistance from neighboring countries. In conclusion, the 2008 Mumbai attacks is a good example of how evil terrorism can be. It is, therefore, important for a government to provide adequate security to part its citizens and be prepared enough for the unseen.