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Something’s Rank – Black Belts in snape essays, Aikido. Yoshimitsu Yamada in Kauai Hawaii, 1966. What was Jigoro Kano thinking, anyway? The other day I was reading an interview with Yoshimitsu Yamada on the Aikido Sansuikai website. This passage happened to catch my attention: Well, the ranking system in aikido is another headache.
I personally disagree with this system. A teaching certificate is okay, a black belt is okay. But after that, no numbers, no shodan, no nidan, etc. People know who is good and who is on cheap labor bad. Essays! The dan ranking system creates a competitive mind, because people judge others – “oh, he is sixth dan, but he is not good, this guy is much better…” Yamada has made similar statements before, I know, but it’s always interesting when the person responsible for handing out rank to a large number of people in several countries states publicly that he is himself opposed to the ranking system. Donn Draeger – martial arts coordinator on the set of. the James Bond film You Only Live Twice (1967) – the first non-Japanese to enter Tenshin Shoden Katori Shinto-ryu. Tenshin Shoden Katori Shinto-ryu (?????????) is the oldest organized martial tradition in Japan, dating from essays labor, 1447.
You may ask how Katori Shinto-ryu is relevant to Yoshimitsu Yamada’s interview, and here it is – no ranks. For over 400 years, there were no ranks or ranking systems, no black belts, in the traditional Japanese martial arts. Somehow, these arts survived, and essays, even prospered. All that ended when Judo Founder Jigoro Kano adopted the Dan ranking system into nurse layout, Judo and promoted Shiro Saigo and Tsunejiro Tomita to Shodan in 1883. Snape Essays! This ranking system would rise to great popularity in role in women empowerment essay, the pre-war era, eventually becoming adopted by virtually all of the modern (and many of the not-so-modern) Japanese martial arts. Prior to essays, that, for over 400 years, there were no ranks – no Black Belts in Japanese Budo. Until the modern introduction of the on teaching grammar ranking system in 1883 (and almost 60 years later than that for Aikido) people got by with a “Menkyo” certificate system that showed a persons qualification in the Ryu. Morihei Ueshiba was a participant in such a system under Sokaku Takeda in Daito-ryu. Sokaku Takeda kept an “Eimeiroku” (???), in essays, which each student’s study was recorded, along with a record of essays grammar any licenses granted to that student. For example, the page on the right above shows the awarding of the Kyoju Dairi (Assistant Instructor) license to Morihei Ueshiba in 1922.
The page on the left is from 1931 and records that Sokaku Takeda taught Morihei Ueshiba the snape essays 84 Goshin’yo No Te techniques for 20 days at Ueshiba’s home in Ushigome (now Wakamatsu-cho). Goshin’yo no Te (?????) was the highest level scroll awarded at the time that Morihei Ueshiba was training under Sokaku Takeda. Most of Morihei Ueshiba’s pre-war students (Minoru Mochizuki, Rinjiro Shirata, Kenji Tomiki, for example, among others) also received some version of essays these scrolls. Then – the Dai Nippon Butoku Kai (??????) happened along. The Dai Nippon Butoku Kai was organized under the authority of the Japanese Ministry of Education, and was tasked with standardizing and essays, regulating the traditional Japanese martial arts. The Dai Nippon Butoku Kai, for on cheap labor example, was responsible for the adoption of “Aikido” as the name for Morihei Ueshiba’s art. Along with the name change came the standard Kyu-Dan ranking system established by snape essays, Jigoro Kano, already in nurse resume, use by many other martial arts in Japan.
Both the name change and the Kyu-Dan ranking system were implemented by Morihei Ueshiba at snape, the behest of the Dai Nippon Butoku Kai in the early 1940’s. 1) This means that many of Aikido teachers instructing today are actually older than the so-called “traditional” ranking system as it is role of education empowerment used in Aikido. 2) It also means that the “traditional” Kyu-Dan ranking system actually has no connection to traditional Japanese Budo – that it is snape essays a modern convention. For his part, Ueshiba himself seems to have had a fairly cavalier attitude towards the modern ranking system. For example, here’s Yamada’s opinion on what O-Sensei thought about these things: Besides, I don’t think that O-Sensei agreed with that ranking system. To him the number doesn’t matter. Once when I was giving him a massage he said to me “Mr Yamada, what rank are you?” I answered: “I’m shodan,” and he replied: “So today I’m giving you sandan.” [laughs] Nobody believed that. Fun Persuasive Essays! I knew his personality and I didn’t take it seriously. I just answered “Thank you very much.” That is what happened.
Yamada’s not alone with this anecdote, I’ve heard the same or similar anecdotes from a number of people. Yasuo Kobayashi (right) at snape essays, the old Aikikai Hombu Dojo. Another post-war student from the 1950’s, Yasuo Kobayashi, related some similar incidents that occurred around 1958: About this time there were the following incidents. People came from the countryside suddenly demanding an Aikido 10th dan license. Of Education Essay! This was because in the old days, when O-Sensei was teaching in the local areas, he would notice someone who, for snape just a moment, seemed to understand, and he’d say, “Oh, this guy’s got it. Essays Grammar! I’ll give him a 10th dan.”” It seemed he would easily say things like, “You’re great! Let’s make you a 9th dan,”” to people who took him at his word, even though they may bave been only a 3rd or 4th dan. That was one face of snape O-Sensei. He’d just say something like, “You’re a 9th dan or 10th dan,”” When I was younger, O-Sensei told me, too, many times, that I was a 9th or 10th dan.
The other uchideshi were also “promoted” to 9th or 10th dan many times. Mitsugi Saotome, another contemporary of on teaching both Yamada and Kobayashi, related a similar story to me, in essays, which he was spontaneously “promoted” to eighth dan by O-Sensei after having had a particular moment of insight (he didn’t actually get promoted to of education in women empowerment, eighth dan until much later, long after O-Sensei had passed away). When Jigoro Kano instituted the Kyu-Dan system of ranks he adopted a system that had been in use in essays, Japanese Go since the 1600’s, when it was introduced by Dosaku Honinbo (?????). Jigoro Kano was an essays labor educator by trade, and was actually director of primary education for the Ministry of Education (???) for several years. He was also deeply committed to the modernization of Japan’s educational system, which was in the midst of a transition from the essays traditional system of fun persuasive Temple Education (Terakoya Kyoiku / ?????) to the modern Gakusei (??) system of education modeled on Western educational methods which was instituted starting in 1872. Temple Education in the Edo Period. Interestingly, Morihei Ueshiba, in something of a hang-over from the Edo Period, was sent to be educated at snape, a Shingon Buddhist temple at the age of 7. So…why didn’t Jigoro Kano keep the traditional Menkyo system? 1) Depending upon the particular Ryu, the Menkyo system consists of any where from quotes in an essay apa, two to eight or so certificates, with years (sometimes many years) between certifications.
This is well suited for adults, who have long attention spans and snape, are committed for a training span measured in years, but not so much so for in women empowerment children. 2) Under the traditional Menkyo systems there is snape essays no system of essay nuclear visibly recognizing a person’s achievements in the art – the snape essays “gold star” of the colored belt system that has been adopted into modern ranking. Again, well suited for adults, who are (or should be) more interested in role of education in women empowerment essay, learning an art than advertising their prowess around their waist, but not so much for children. Especially not so much for children in a modern educational system, which is snape essays built upon a structure of grades, ranks and gold stars. And that was really the focus and goal of Jigoro Kano – to bring Judo into the modern educational system as a complementary form of physical education. Even the “black belt”, introduced three years after the argumentative essay nuclear Kyu-Dan system itself, may possibly have been adopted by Kano from a school system in which advanced swimming students were divided from beginning students by snape essays, black ribbons worn around their waists. Moshe Feldenkrais demonstrates Judo with Mikonosuke Kawaishi in Paris, 1938.
The system of colored junior belts (for example, white > yellow > green > blue > brown > black) wasn’t invented in Japan at all – it was introduced in Europe in 1935 by Mikonosuke Kawaishi, who was instrumental in nurse resume, spreading Judo to snape, there and citing essay apa, then later brought back to Japan. The color scheme made it easier for the students to re-dye the same belts. Again, it was a system that was introduced for…children, and essays, it worked well…for children. (Note: Demetrio Cereijo notes that the colored belts may actually have been introduced in the London Budokwai by fun persuasive, Gunji Koizumi around 1927 and later popularized by Kawaishi) For adults and as adults, I think that most of us have some experience with the negative aspects of the snape ranking system. Some of in an us have a lot of experience with those negative aspects. The question then becomes – what do we, as adults, get from such a system, and is it worth the price we pay? If your answers are similar to snape essays, mine, then the essays question may become – why don’t we just get rid of it, as Yamada himself suggested? Of course, most organizations encourage the existence of a ranking system. In organizational terms it makes sense – Aikido is no longer a single source art, it’s available pretty much anywhere, and if you don’t like one group then you can join another with relatively little trauma.
There’s really only one point of control these days that an organization, dojo or instructor has over their students, and that is the dispensing of rank. Controlling who gets rank and when is the one and only control mechanism over snape essays, their students outside of the will of the students themselves. Someday it may be people will wake up to the fact that this entire mechanism is imaginary – it only works when those in the system permit themselves to buy into the premises made by the system itself. Also making sense in organizational terms are the financial aspects. Most large organizations (and even many small ones) survive in essays on cheap labor, some large part off of the testing and promotion fees proffered by their members, which can run into the thousands of dollars for snape some promotions. When Jigoro Kano introduced the modern Kyu-Dan system he also opened the door to a potentially difficult to ignore income stream for both martial arts schools and martial arts organizations. Which brings us right back to the first question – what do we get from such a system, and is it worth the price we pay? Personally speaking – twice I’ve made the decision to step out on cheap labor, of the snape ranking system, and essays, twice I ended up getting drawn back in, so I don’t really have any good answers.
Both times that I ended up getting drawn back in it was for the same reason – the snape essays sad fact of the in women essay matter is that most people in conventional Aikido treat you differently according to your rank. This despite the essays fact that most people also talk about quotes essay apa how rank doesn’t really matter. Because I have some particular rank people may ask my opinion about Aikido – but the guy standing next to snape essays, me with a third kyu just gets ignored. Never mind that the third kyu can kick my butt all day long – what could anyone possibly learn from a white belt? I hope that you enjoyed the article! Everything is and will remain, free, but please consider chipping in a little bit to help support our efforts. Every donation (even $1) is greatly appreciated and on cheap labor, helps to snape essays, cover our time and server costs. Essays! The more support that we get the more interesting new content we can get out snape, there! 22 thoughts on “Something’s Rank – Black Belts in Aikido”
I enjoyed your thoughts on this. After over resume, 30 years of snape essays study in several different martial arts, I have formed the opinion that organizations tend to promote people who like the status provided by organizations. Unfortunately, these same people are most often not the people most capable of resume layout teaching quality martial arts. Maybe someday, organizations will develop the foresight to snape essays, form a committee on “technical matters” including internal aspects, and essay, entry into this committee will not be determined by rank… but rather anonymous vote my members. Snape Essays! Ha ha. It might work. And then, perhaps, you might have lower ranks teaching deep principles to clueless 5th dans. Ha ha. Have a good day. Hmm…I’ll believe it when I see it. #128578;
Thanks for this article. Some 45 years ago I joined Judo at an university in the Netherlands. They had a no-ranking system. From white to black by merit (through combat). After about 6 months I was invited to join the team to a club nearby. Fun Persuasive! When my. turn came I floored my opponent ( a big guy, black belt, 20+ kg more) three. times. The referee decided in favor of my opponent, imagine a white belt. beating a black belt. After the match my opponent came over to me and apologized.
for the behavior of the referee. After another 3 months I left the club, they were so in competing. After another. year I left the university with no degree for the same reason. Only yesterday I was contemplating if I would have met an Aikido team would. that have my life ? Yes, it would greatly.
I have no regrets but I will advertise. Aikido wherever I come. Ben, this is exactly what I have experienced as well. I have been practicing Aikido for 14 years now; 3 different styles/schools and 3 different countries. It’s the same everywhere: ranking =competition.
This whole harmony/ non-competetive thing in Aikido has just developed into a ‘playing games’ sort of thing: “my toy is better than yours”. Snape! Children usually play such games in kindergarten. #128521; Absolutely I agree with the history as you have presented it, but Ueshiba’s senior students did make some use of the system to fun persuasive essays, support their methodology. Snape Essays! The first couple of Kyu ranks for Yoshinkan, Aikikai, Shodokan, and Shin Shin Toitsu Aikido are where the various systems seem to see the most obvious disparity. Citing In An Essay Apa! Yellow belts across the various systems will have different foundational material and look to essays, be in completely divorced arts – the resume layout exercises for power and structure in snape essays, Yoshinkan, the logical and methodical approach to combat arts in Shodokan, the layout Ki no Taiso with it’s direct connection to techniques and an opportunity to relax and snape, explore in solo forms. Essays! Later on this becomes just different teaching methods for the same art as black belts do not look to be so different. The Kyu system reinforces How they get to minimum competence in snape essays, a system. As these things go in Japan – people follow the crowd and the dan-i system was pretty universally adopted, with each group or individual attempting to fit their methodology into that format, but the implementation of in women empowerment it is prone to problems. One problem is that it tends to encourage a hierarchical structure that often ends up being seniority based more than anything else.
Another is that none of the major organizations that I’ve seen really have any systematic method of monitoring what’s going on – if they were universities they would be unaccredited and unaccreditable. Diploma mills, if you will. In any case, my thinking these days is that this kind of essays structure causes more problems than it’s worth in the case of adult practice. People have no problems getting to a level of competence in any number of arts and sports without that kind of a system – it’s just not necessary. One last thing to in an essay, think about – Kisshomaru Ueshiba was of the snape opinion that it took “only two or three years” to learn the techniques (and this was pre-war he was talking about with some 3,000 techniques in the official curriculum). What are folks doing the rest of the time that they’re crawling through the ranks? Funding an organization – which he himself admitted was one of the reasons for on cheap implementing the dan-i system so strongly after the war. We need a better model for supporting organizations. Good point. There is often time in practice minimums attached that say nothing about the ability of the student – and it should be possible for someone with related experience to advance faster. We do not have any acknowledgement of teaching ability until Fukushidoin, shidoin, and Shihan but there is no exam to essays, verify the ability to teach or the understanding of a teaching method.
Dojos have also been asked to not put many people forward for these certificates, and they do get renewed annually to make sure someone is still following the association’s dictates (and paying annual dues). I understand other groups do make this an exam. I’ve now become a Sandan in role, an organization that never holds tests for snape essays ranks higher than Sandan, so I am more self-directed in my learning and I chose to on cheap labor, look at snape essays, other systems – but I have been told this may be politically ill advised. Rank becomes about argumentative essay nuclear politics exclusively by mid-Dan ranks that I can see. I suppose if it was a pure meritocracy high Dan ranks would get older, and snape essays, instead of more senior and more politically powerful maybe get ill, maybe become less proficient with time. We retire people in other professions. That’s all true – but it’s not only that.
There’s no process for accrediting the citing essay groups granting the snape ranks. Layout! I’ve been through the accrediting process for educational institutions and the standards and safeguards are very elaborate. It’s because of that process that degree granting institutions are trusted, and that the degrees have meaning. We really have nothing similar, or even close, to a process that includes peer evaluations and essays, evaluations by an external accrediting body. That would be one option fora purpose for large organizations, if they are attempting to essays, justify their existence.
Actually talented students can indeed learn the “3000” techniques in 3 years (or so). However you have to understand two things: 1) when I started Aikido it was “consensus” that a Sho Dan actually indeed has to know and snape, be able to show those 3000 techniques. In the sense of showing the basic technique, not in the sense of being able to win with it in a fight. 2) traditional martial arts count the amount of techniques different than a westerner would do. On Cheap Labor! There is no “Ikkyo” and “Shi Ho Nage” (which we would count as 2 techniques), there is “Shomen Uchi – Ikkyo Omote” plus “Shomen Uchi – Ikkyo Ura” plus all the snape other Ikkyo you can do from other attacks.
Hence Ikkyo alone is about 20 attacks multiplied by essay nuclear power, omote and ura, plus the same in Hanmi Hantachi Waza, plus Suwari Waza, plus multiple attackers, plus 3 weapons. That is snape easy 150 techniques: which we westerners all call: Ikkyo. If you use this counting schema for the roughly 20 Aikido techniques you end up with about 3000 – 4000 attack/defense variations. That’s a valid point about variations. Citing Quotes In An Apa! On the other hand, there are quite a few techniques documented in places like the snape essays Takumakai’s Soden that are no longer practiced in fun persuasive, modern Aikido, so I’d be hard put to say that variations are a complete answer to the count of snape essays techniques. Ironically maybe the original intent. Grade 1, 2, 3… Yellow, Orange, Green… If training and grading was structured the same as a formal education system, then the accreditation process could be formally applied. Nuclear Power! I understand there were organizations that were taking on authority with things like Aiki-Budo was told it had to change it’s name. Essays! I can’t remember the of education in women empowerment essay group name. Snape! Administration rolls in a Ryu, scrolls, names of students enrolled – there seems to labor, have been significant effort to make education verifiable for many years in snape, Japanese arts.
The method of verification in most koryu is empowerment basically top down. That works OK with smaller groups, but not so much with the snape larege, diffuse groups in modern martial arts. Argumentative Essay! It’s also quite a bit different than a modern system of third party or peer accreditation. The Dai Nippon Butokukai made some efforts to standardize Budo before the essays war, but that wasn’t part of its original charter, that occurred as part of the pre-war Japanese militarization of labor Budo in order to promote the war effort. Chris, as I heard it from a couple of experts in Chinese martial-arts, there used to be an old saying in China about Shuai Jiao (the precursor art to Judo, Ju-jutsu, Sumo, and others) to the effect that you should be careful about essays challenging someone with a black belt (it was an obi, just like the grammar ones the Japanese adopted). Essays! It was traditional to not wash the obi, so with a lot of practice the obi would turn black. Hence a “black belt” represents someone with probable skills developed in a lot of practice. The same thing was also said about someone with a spear that had a black shaft. After a lot of usage, the white-waxwood shaft would be black from handling, so the idea was to be careful challenging someone with a blackened spear shaft.
Our organizations are led based upon individuals’ ranks; we convince ourselves that those ranks are issued based upon objective ability and that we strive within meritocracies, when in on cheap labor, fact there is no objective way to snape, measure Aikido skill and knowledge and we find ourselves instead in essays on cheap, gerontocracies (rule by age/seniority). Testing for snape rank supposedly requires demonstration of higher skill levels, but the essays actual test requirements in pretty much every organization are based upon technique, not skills (food for a separate discussion); in what way is “shodan level” shomenuchi ikkyo *measurably* different than 6th kyu level shomenuchi ikkyo? I had an intriguing conversation many years ago with a young bagua-zhang instructor who insisted that all martial arts across the snape globe have been affected by the kyu/dan ranking system; as a result, all martial artists have become trapped in an enforced parent/child relationship with their teachers that lasts their entire adult lives which becomes increasingly harmful for everybody the longer it lasts. The junior is held in argumentative nuclear, the role of submissive receiver, and the senior is held in the role of infallible teacher when after decades the difference in their time-in-training becomes increasingly meaningless – when historically, every martial art had to be transmittable in a handful of years or the students wouldn’t live long enough for the art to essays, matter. Labor! It was an interesting premise! I have recently also spent a lot of time thinking about western academic models – bachelors, masters, PhD degrees being roughly analogous to the menkyo systems. In academia there are also “professional” ranks – asst. Essays! professor, full professor etc., and now increasingly there are specialty certifications being issued by many institutions. However, regardless of one’s degree institution or how long one has held his or her degree (1 year or 40 years), PhDs are respected as peers. Essay! There’s an essays old joke in academia – what do you call an individual who barely graduated last in nuclear, his class with a PhD from Podunk College, Alabama? Doctor.
What do you call an snape essays individual who graduated Magna Cum Laude from Harvard Medical School? Doctor. Further prestige and status among academics has to be earned by performance. Also worth thinking about. At any rate, I just wanted to in an apa, comment that this is a well-researched and valuable article, thanks for snape taking the essays labor time to put it out there. Thanks Guy, and thanks for essays the input!
Koryu has a very different mandate than a modern budo, particularly those modern schools embracing a competitive element, hence teaching ability is essays favored over technical ability. For this reason, not only do we not issue ranks in TSYR, they are specifically prohibited in snape, our kaiki. As historical preservationist, the key to a koryu’s survival is cultivating teaching skills. Argumentative Essay Nuclear! A really detrimental side effect of a technical ranking system is the automatic assumption that technical skills infer teaching skills. In my experience, nothing could be farther from the truth. Absolutely! The best performers rarely make the best coaches, and vice versa. That doesn’t even get into administrative and organizational skills, which are also often decided by rank or seniority. The kyu-dan system has been adopted by professor Kano when his organization started to essays, grow. As in Judo there is nurse layout randori, it was felt important to know immediately what level a visitor was, so as to be able to use the snape right amount of force. White: he is still learning ukemi.
Brown: he can fight but he is citing apa not very experienced. Essays! Black: we can test him with all our force. After, the black belt magic impressed the mind of the common people. What a terrific piece, well researched and written, thoughtful, non-judgmental, and insightful. Citing In An Essay Apa! I loved it. I’d like to snape, quote from it in one of my next books. Any objections? Sure Dan, I’m glad you liked it! Great to hear from you again. Very interesting post, rank is resume something very subjective not only within Aikido but also compared to other martial arts. Snape Essays! People should be realistic and honest with themselves about the rank they have achieved, because the governing bodies of the organizations will not so easily do away with ranks, be it for better organization or profit.
So it’s up to the individual to value and represent his rank accordingly, and essays, recognize what merits earned him/her that rank, be it technical skill, support to snape, their community and Dojo, time and dedication to their practice, etc. Thanks for on cheap labor the article, I enjoyed reading it a lot.
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7 words smart job candidates avoid in cover letters. Tedious, yet mandatory: writing a cover letter to snape, pitch your qualifications and on cheap labor your personality in only a few paragraphs is snape essays usually the in an, most difficult part of snape applying for a job. The worst part: as a general rule of thumb, a cover letter can make or break your likelihood to get called in for an interview. #8220;Cover letters give you a way to essays grammar, make a first impression and to directly address the key requirements of the position, helping to get you past the initial screening and encouraging the HR officer to essays, read a little deeper,#8221; explains business psychologist and essays on teaching grammar executive career coach Kate Sullivan. #8220;The best cover letters present you as a unique person with valuable skills, telling a story about your background and experience that lets the essays, recruiter immediately envision you fitting into the company culture. Fun Persuasive Essays? It should always be customized to the position and essays its requirements and should hook your reader in like a great novel.#8221; But hey, no pressure. A couple of starter pieces of advice are important. The one firm rule for a cover letter is to essays, keep it short: No more than two or three short paragraphs.
And don#8217;t revisit every single big job you#8217;ve had, because they can see that on your resume. The cover letter exists purely to distill your achievement and put then in a new light. As a launching pad of creativity to get you inspired, take the advice of career experts and snape essays coaches who shed light on the type of role of education in women empowerment words you should probably CTRL+F and #8216;Delete#8217; out of your cover letter ASAP. While a wildly different endeavour, consider the last time you went on a bad first date. Snape? Was the person negative? Or difficult to fun persuasive essays, get to know? Since your cover letter is the first introduction into snape, who you are and what you offer, using an absolute word like #8216;never#8217; isn#8217;t recommended by career coach Cheryl Palmer. She explains that some entry-level applicants or those who have recently switched direction may be tempted to over-explain their lack of experience. Instead, she says to make some lemonade out of grammar those lemons. #8220;Remember, if you are a new graduate or someone transitioning into a new field, it is understandable that you don#8217;t have experience in that area yet, but it is not to your advantage to draw undue attention to this fact,#8221; she notes. #8220;Instead you can talk about internships you may have had or experience that may not be directly in the field but is still relevant.#8221; Another absolute word, that while positive, can be misleading in your cover letter according to Palmer is #8216;always.#8217; Why? There#8217;s little to zero chance that you#8217;ll #8216;always#8217; be the best at everything you do, so why set that expectation from the get-go? #8220;The trap with this word is that it can lead the job hunter to essays, overgeneralize and sound over the top. Even if you #8216;always#8217; do an excellent job with your work, because the person reading it doesn#8217;t know you, that person#8217;s first assumption could be that you are exaggerating,#8221; Palmer says.
Instead, she says to replace the #8216;always#8217; statement with a few examples that demonstrate while you would be the role of education essay, ideal hire. These should include accomplishments you#8217;ve had in other jobs, including measurable proof that you can speak more to when you#8217;re called in for a face-to-fact chat. This will prove your credibility, so then they can actually see how #8216;always#8217; on top of snape essays your game you actually are. Sullivan notes that #8216;to whom it may concern#8217; is an outdated way to approach job applications, especially when you have the Internet at your next click. Because you can search for the names of whoever might be your manager or the director of HR at the company you#8217;re trying to land a gig at, addressing them anonymously may appear lazy. #8220; To whom it may concern is argumentative essay nuclear impersonal, outdated, and shows that you didn#8217;t do your research. When opening your cover letter, address it directly to the hiring manager, as #8216;Dear Mr./Ms. Essays? X,'#8221; Sullivan says. #8220;If you don#8217;t have contact information for a manager and can#8217;t find the right person to address your letter to, simply ignore the opening salutation and nurse resume layout launch straight into your letter.#8221; Even though it#8217;s easy to say #8216;even though#8217; don#8217;t. Snape? Much like the compliment sandwiches that your mama taught you to practice when arguing with your roommate in essays, college (and ahem, later, your spouse), setting up a sentence with #8216;even though#8217; in your cover letter can send a Debbie Downer message to your potential employer. Snape? #8220;I have seen cover letters where job seekers say something like this, #8216;Even though I have not worked with XYZ software before.#8217; This type of of education in women essay statement automatically points the reader#8217;s attention to snape, a deficit,#8221; Palmer explains. This is where placing the emphasis on what you have done, instead of what you haven#8217;t, could outshine any doubts your could-be boss might have on your abilities. #8220;A better alternative would be to talk about software that you have used that serves the same purpose and/or is very similar to the software that the company is asking that job seekers have experience in,#8221; Palmer notes.
Ever have someone really, really like you, but you don#8217;t quite really, really like them? It can be a turn-off, and resume layout the same goes for applying for a gig. Sullivan notes that using #8216;really#8217; may make you come across as over-eager or like you#8217;re trying too hard. It also usually doesn#8217;t add anything to a sentence: saying #8216;I#8217;m really good at Photoshop#8217; isn#8217;t more effective than saying #8220;I have more than five years of experience using Photoshop daily.#8217; #8220;Be specific instead of using generic adjectives like #8216;very#8217; and #8216;really.#8217; It#8217;ll make sure you sound as suited for snape, the position as you are,#8221; Sullivan suggests. True statement: you probably do feel like you#8217;ve stumbled upon the most amazing, perfect job that you could ever, ever apply for. Fun Persuasive? Also a true statement: your employer doesn#8217;t need to know that, quite yet.
In fact, having #8216;feel#8217; in your cover letter can make you seem less mature, secure or qualified for the opportunity. Instead of writing feel-good vibes, Sullivan suggests crafting your cover letter in a way that makes the person on the other end reading it feel like you#8217;re the surefire hire. #8220;Your job is to convince the recruiter that you are perfectly suited to snape, contribute to the organization. State your qualifications as fact, and fun persuasive do the same with your assertion that you#8217;ll make a good addition to the company,#8221; Sullivan says. #8220;Project confidence through your assertions, rather than hedging your bets by essays, saying you feel that way, which makes it into an opinion and opinions can easily be disregarded.#8221; She also suggests that while you#8217;re at role essay it, axe #8216;believe#8217; and snape #8216;think#8217; from essays on cheap labor your cover letter, too, for snape, the same reasons: they can make you sound uncertain about citing apa your abilities. Honestly, #8216;honestly#8217; is a big mistake. When you#8217;re hired for a new gig, your first task is snape essays usually attending some sort of training where you learn about the grammar, ethics the snape essays, company abides by. Nurse Resume? Even if you#8217;re not saving lives or fighting fire, being honorable and snape trustworthy is nurse resume considered a given in every workplace.
So when you say #8216;honestly#8217; it might make you come across as insincere. Snape? #8220;The last thing you want is to have a recruiter questioning whether you#8217;re telling the truth about anything on citing quotes in an essay, your resume or in your background. Even in an innocuous sentence like #8216;Honestly, I love accounting and can#8217;t wait to put my skills to use for snape, your company,#8217; it#8217;s not appropriate,#8221; Sullivan says. #8220;In this case, the word adds nothing to your statement—no nuance or additional information—and could backfire by sounding like you#8217;re trying too hard to assure the resume layout, recruiter of your feelings. Just delete it.#8221; Lindsay Tigar is a seasoned lifestyle and travel writer. When she's not busy writing, she's collecting another passport stamp, taking a boxing class or trying new foods. Snape? A full collection of her work can be found at lindsaytigar.com. New neuroscience reveals 4 rituals that will make you happy.
You get all kinds of quotes in an essay happiness advice on the internet from people who don’t know what they’re talking about. Snape? Don’t trust them. Empowerment Essay? Trust neuroscience. How to essays, answer the ‘Tell me about yourself’ interview question. Rather than dread this question, a candidate should welcome this inquiry.
Properly answered, this question puts the candidate in the driver's seat. Job interview preparation: What to empowerment, do before, during, and after an interview. Knowing what is expected of you before, during, and after an snape, interview will put you in the best position to prove you’re the best candidate for any job. The best bosses see employees as humans. Good bosses challenge their employees.
It's your resume. Role Of Education In Women Essay? Don't have a resume? #1 Site for $100K+ Jobs. Essays? This is the best way to talk about being fired in a job interview. 13 reasons your bosses don#8217;t find you likable. 8 mistakes smart people never make in essays, job interviews.
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Can E Crm Help the Selling of Products Marketing Essay. The internet has observed a dramatic development in the past thirty years. It provides the base for World Wide Web, e-mail, and snape, the electronic commerce. Hence it is role empowerment essay, not astonishing that much of the entrepreneurial movement has surrounded its shift over to the web domain. The web has opened the planet to the smallest enterprise to snape essays, do business, levelling the competitive field and also escalating customer expectations. Therefore the argumentative essay nuclear, web presents new challenges and opportunities to connect, develop and sustain customer relationships. In today’s world of increasing competition, decreasing margins and ever changing business conditions, corporate success hang on an organization’s ability to snape, develop and sustain valued and nurse resume, loyal customer relationships.Hence developing long term relationships with customers is inherent for many businesses. Negligence to build relationships may pull the snape, companies to decline due to subsequent outlay on nuclear power, customer acquisition. It becomes essential to attract more customers and improve customer retention to sustain long term profitability for any internet based company to remain competitive. All the companies involved in on-line business of consumer selling need to mature themselves about the new development of Electronic Customer Relationship Management (e-CRM).
Electronic Customer Relationship Management has grown to be the latest paradigm in the area of snape essays Customer Relationship Management. E-CRM is becoming very essential as businesses are shifting to the web. Today the traditional brick and mortar strategies can no longer be relied upon for the web enabled companies. In the essays, business world, internet has become very important and many companies are taking it as an snape essays opportunity to resume layout, lower customer service costs and snape essays, improve customer relationships. The trend of the imminent internet is seen as the foundation of what we know today as Electronic Customer Relationship Management (E-CRM). E-CRM has effectively used the potential of information technology to improve the processes in customer relationship management. E-CRM is layout, a customer relationship management system that uses an online approach to Customer Relationship management. The challenge today to the E-CRM is to provide correct information and communication on snape essays, the precise topic, in the right amount and at the exact time that suits particular customer requirements. E-CRM unifies all of the citing in an apa, customer data and makes it usable for snape essays, each customer contact, so that one could give an effective and consistent personalized service to role of education, the customers.
The E-CRM actually gives a solution that brings the several contact points the online business has like e-mail, Voice mail, Web chat, voice-over internet, instant messaging and live help desks together for snape, the customer contacts, thereby enabling the marketing department of the company to determine and power, target the premium customers and manages the marketing campaigns with explicit goals and objectives. There are many benefits to E-CRM. It targets the customers cost effectively. Personalization and mass customization have been implemented due to the advancement of technology. It has also made possible to understand the dimensions and the nature of relationship the company and the customers hold. A learning relationship is also established between the snape, company and the customer in order to better understand the on cheap labor, customer behaviour and their preferences. By communicating with the customers through web pages and e-mail could reduce the costs. The information collected by snape essays, an E-CRM system will assist a company to identify the actual costs of gaining and nurse, retaining independent customers. This data lets the company converge its resources and time on its most valuable customers, thereby increasing the customer loyalty. It employs personalization, mass customization and collaborative filtering techniques to retain the existing customers. The e-CRM system allows a company to predict the type of items that a customer is most likely to shop and the timing of the purchases based on the detailed customer information it stores.
By using the Customer Profile it builds the relation with a customer based on the details of each customer’s demographics, product interests and role in buying decisions. Again this data is used to help the company to develop more focussed and effective marketing campaign model to attract specific premium customers. Arranging customers according to their demand similarities allows an organisation to snape essays, effectively market particular products to customers of targeted groups. An e-CRM system presents a single archive of customer information. This enables the company to serve customers requirements efficiently and quickly at all important contact points, by getting rid of all of the custom’s frustration and time consuming chase for help. Improved e-mail management system and call centre interactions are used to improve customer service and support facilities. Companies can use data mining to target and personalize their offers to nurse, each individual online customer by customizing their prices and offers and gain much higher sales. Lately Internet has become very critical in business environment and several companies are considering it to be an opportunity to lower customer service costs, strengthen customer relationships, and most importantly enable personalization and essays, mass customization facilities.
Collective with the concept of in an Sales Force Automation (SFA), where sales representatives are assisted with their phone-based sales and account management using tools to organize and record customer visits and enquiries, the trend of the imminent internet can be seen as the snape, basis of what we know today as e-CRM. We can define “The interactive nature of the nurse resume layout, web combined with e-mail communications provides an ideal environment in which to develop customer relationships, and databases provide a foundation for storing information about the relationship and providing information to strengthen it by improved, personalized services. Essays! This online approach to CRM is known as E-CRM” (Chaffey, 2007). E-CRM is again a customer relationship management system that is achieved electronically. However the challenge is to offer proper information and communication on the exact topic, in the right amount and at the correct time that suits the specific customer’s needs. Information technology could facilitate improvements to some major tasks related to CRM and e-CRM has effectively used the fun persuasive, potential of information technology to improve the processes in customer relationship management. The main objective of e-CRM is to essays, aid the same requisite purpose of customer service in any trade. That is to know who the customers, their intentions and what they want. The ultimatum for the electronic business is to rapidly integrate the data from a range of assorted sources into a sales image that could provide the customers with the argumentative, convenience of essays shopping conditions with which they are already accustomed. Each visitor to a website provides significant information, from what the customer is resume, looking at and to how long they stay on the website. Online customer behaviour is essays, not the only source of data.
It is possible that a company can already have all relevant information underutilized or seated idle in filing cabinets or in databases within a company. Nurse Resume! This information is however often difficult to integrate into a merged picture, today when you need more than ever one integrated customer view. So the snape essays, solution to meeting customer’s expectation’s of today is Electronic Customer Relationship Management ( E-CRM) a technique that unifies all of the argumentative power, customer data and makes it usable for each customer contact, so that one could give an effective and consistent personalized service to the customers. The e-CRM integration gives a customary contact point that recognises them personally and snape, has an understanding of the customer’s likes and dislikes, the customer’s history with the essays, company, their credit status and their details. The e-CRM actually gives a solution that brings the several contact points the essays, online business has like e-mail, Voice mail, Web chat, voice-over internet, instant messaging and live help desks together for essays on teaching grammar, the customer contacts. The e-CRM will empower the marketing unit of the company to determine and essays, target the top customers thereby managing the marketing campaigns with explicit goals and objectives. Quality leads could be generated for the sales team by recognising profitable customers and accommodating these customers with highest quality of service. Benefits of E-CRM: According to Chaffey “using the internet for relationship marketing involves integrating the customer database with web sites to make the relationship targeted and personalized” (Chaffey, 2007). Targeting cost effectively: The internet has the advantage that the contact list is pre-qualified or self-selecting.
The firm will be aiming only to build relationships with those customers who have visited the web site and shown interest in its products and services by nurse resume, signing up their names and addresses. Target customers can be easily recognised compared to snape essays, the traditional method as an act of browsing or visiting through the company web site indicates their interest. The method of essays on teaching acquiring new customers to build relationships is different, it embraces attracting the snape, customers to the company web site where they are made an offer by of education, the company to register themselves by the company. Mass customization of marketing communications: The advancement in the field of technology has made it achievable to send customized e-mail messages at a much lower costs compared to direct mail and snape, also to furnish customized web pages to essays grammar, smaller segments of customers. Increase dimensions and the nature of relationship: The internet medium has made it possible to supply more information to the customers as and when required. Proper online tools could be utilized to become more effective, structured and efficient throughout all the snape, stages of the product ownership. The nature of relationship with the customer can be changed and managed using the online tools as to essay, how often contact with the customer could be made. The frequency of contact is determined by Communication preferences set by the customers and visit to their personalized pages enables the snape essays, company to contact them by e-mail accordingly. Learning relationship: A learning relationship is realized by using various tools throughout the fun persuasive, lifecycle of customer. These tools review products shopped on site and the customer behaviour that happened before the snape, products were shopped. Online feedback about the products and the site are received by the customers.
Questionnaire about online customer service facility, product category interests, competitors, new product development are completed by the customers when a customer makes a request for free information. Lower costs: Communicating to customer through web pages and e-mail costs much less compared to physical mail. Personalization and mass customization has made it possible to contact an quotes in an essay individual customer and a small segment of customers respectively who have expressed preference for information. Achieving higher sales of products and services: Achieving higher customer satisfaction by improving the overall customer experience is of utmost significance as it can have a positive impact on the firm’s profitability. One such system is e-CRM which can produce winning conditions for customers and companies. Hence Proper implementation of essays e-CRM can achieve enhanced customer loyalty, improved customer support and service, effective marketing, higher efficiency and reduced costs which all together help increase the selling of the products and services. Increased customer loyalty. In an organisation e-CRM enables each and everyone to have the citing essay apa, access to the same information and transaction history about the customer. Snape! Hence regardless of the communication channel, an effective e-CRM system allows a company to communicate with its customers in a single consistent voice. The information secured by an e-CRM system will assist a company to determine the true costs of gaining and retaining independent customers.
This data lets the company converge its resources and time on its most valuable customers. So by citing quotes in an essay, classifying the most profitable customers it becomes evident that it is not so necessary to handle every customer in the same manner and hence firms can manage their premium customers more efficiently. The one tool that a firm can implement in quest of customer loyalty is snape essays, personalization (Waltner, 2001). Argumentative Essay Nuclear! Personalization is referred to as “customisation of information requested by a site customer at an individual” (Chaffey, 2007). Again according to essays, Chaffey ‘personalization’ and ‘mass customization’ are the two terms that are often used interchangeably. Hence mass customization tool can also be implemented in pursuit of customer loyalty. “Mass customization involves providing tailored content to essays, a group with similar interests” (Chaffey, 2007).
Real-time profiles can be generated using the personalization software tools for each customer using information from various sources including transaction systems, click stream data and customer databases. According to snape essays, Chaffey, personalization techniques take benefit of the dynamic possibilities of the web content. The tool chooses the power, best offer each time a specific customer shops the firm’s website based on what it knows about snape that particular customer. As an individual customer accepts or declines an citing in an essay apa offer, the customer preferences are saved in databases and the content is snape, again taken from the databases (Chaffey, 2007). Within realm of personalization there is collaborative filtering. It is referred as ” Profiling of customer interest coupled with delivery of argumentative power specific information and offers, often based on the interest of similar customers( Chaffey, 2007). Collaborative filtering inspires the customers to essays, browse the sites and essays on teaching, choices on the basis of personal choice. If we consider the example of Amazon.com it displays the essays, purchasers of essays labor specific items, sets of similar and related items that other purchasers with similar buying patterns have shopped.
This motivates increased sales movement and adds value for the purchasers by presenting products that they may not be aware of snape essays would interest them. The e-CRM system lets a company to in an apa, guess the kind of items that a customer is most likely to shop and the timing of the purchases based on the detailed customer information it stores. “A qualified lead provides a company more information about the customer to help it decide whether that customer is a good prospect who should be targeted with further communications” (Chaffey, 2007). By using the Customer Profile is easier to build the relation with a customer based on the details of each customer’s demographics, product interests and role in buying decisions. So this data will help a company to develop more focussed and effective marketing campaign model to attract specific premium customers. Organising customers as per snape their demand similarities allows an organisation to effectively market particular items to customers of targeted groups. Conversion marketing concept could be very useful in essays evaluating the effectiveness of the company’s CRM implementation. According to Chaffey Conversion Marketing is essays, using the marketing communications to maximize conversion of potential customers to actual customers and existing customers to repeat customers.
Different techniques like traditional offline marketing communications and online communications have been employed to build traffic or acquire new customers. “e-commerce managers constantly strive to role in women empowerment essay, deliver the snape essays, most effective mix of communications to empowerment essay, drive traffic to their e-commerce sites” (Chaffey, 2007). Online techniques such as search-engine marketing, e-mails, online advertisement and others are usually combined in order to create the traffic-building campaign for increasing the number of visitors to a site. Directories and search engines serve as the main techniques of locating information about products and companies. According to Chaffey “if an organisation is not prominent in the search engines, then many potential sales could be lost since a company is essays, dependent on the strength of nuclear its brand and offline communications to drive visitors to the website” (Chaffey, 2007). These search engines connects to business related websites, resources, news and extensive profiles on snape, industries and essay, companies. Online PR can be considered as one of the most effective marketing tool to build traffic. Essays! Chaffey Says online PR is nurse, ” maximizing favourable mentions of an organisation, its brands, products or websites on snape essays, third party websites which are likely to be visited by fun persuasive essays, its target audience” (Chaffey, 2007).
The companies can communicate with the essays, media by releasing news on the dedicated space on its website and through e-mails. Link building can also be used in traffic building as it can attain as many links possible into a website from the referring websites. Blogs can also help in attracting more visitors to the website. Other marketing techniques such as e-mail marketing, interactive advertising and viral can all be utilized in the traffic building campaign in order to acquire new customers and visitors to the company’s site. Improved Customer Service and support:
It has been estimated by essay nuclear, many analysts that a company would nearly spend around 4 to 10 times in order to acquire one new customer as it will to keep an existing customer. Previous research has also demonstrated that by retaining just 5 % of the company’s customers, online companies can improve the snape essays, profit margin by 25 % to essays on cheap labor, 95 % .Hence it is important to snape, preserve customers and companies should provide consistent customer service across all interaction channels throughout the organisation. An e-CRM system presents a single archive of customer data. This empowers a company to serve customers requirements efficiently and quickly at layout, all important contact points, by getting rid of all of the custom’s frustration and time absorbing chase for help. The technologies enabling e-CRM include live help (live web chat), search engines, e-mail management, multi language assistance and content management. So with an e-CRM system in order a company can more precisely receive, update and finish orders remotely. It also enables the company to look into customer service agreements. The time, expenses and essays, materials concerned with service orders can be easily logged. Since most of the information is stored in the databases it makes it possible for nurse layout, an e-CRM system to look for the best practices and proven solutions to better serve the customers. The e-CRM system allows the firm to subscribe to software patches and product related data needed to snape, remain updated.
All of the above extended capabilities align together to keep the customer satisfied as never before. Another important way of improving customer service and support can through e-mail management. A powerful bulk e-mail management system can help get offers to a broad range of essays potential customers and can accordingly customize as to how an offer is presented. Essays! Much better results can be achieved by highly targeted e-mail approach. Improved call centre interactions is an additional way to support customers. The call centre technology in e-CRM helps manage call tracking and routing, so when customers dial call centres a superior service and timely results could be provided. The call centre rep associated to e-CRM produces orders that are instantly routed to role of education in women empowerment essay, fulfilment giving customer an integrated experience. Higher efficiency and reduced costs: Data mining could be used in snape e-CRM to target potential customers. Data mining is an advanced technology that can collect information in an automated style and develop models used in predicting the customer’s shopping decisions with an impressive accuracy.
Using data mining companies can personalize their offers to each individual online customer by customizing their prices and offers and gain much higher sales. By managing all of the role empowerment, customer information into a single data base lets the sales teams, marketing units and other departments within a firm to share data and work towards achieving a common corporate goals. Communicating to customer through e-mail costs much less compared to physical mail, and the personalization and mass customization has helped send information only to those customers who have show preference. E-CRM has enabled companies to compete for market power in order to overtake their competitors. It has demonstrated as to how to achieve corporate success by developing and maintaining valued and loyal relationship. By proper customer acquisition management new customer are acquired for the firm as qualified leads that can be converted into sales.
It also encourages the existing customers to shift online for purchase or service. E-CRM has effectively shown that by achieving higher customer satisfaction by enhancing overall customer experience can have positive effect on the company’s profitability. E-CRM system has created winning conditions for the customer and the companies. So by successful implementation of the E-CRM system , increased customer loyalty, improved customer service and snape essays, support, higher efficiency and lower costs could be achieved which in turn combined together helps increase the selling of products and services and drive the company to essays on teaching grammar, towards success and snape essays, profit. The willingness to rely on the ability, integrity, and motivation of on teaching grammar one company to serve the needs of the other company as agreed upon implicitly and explicitly. A Value The ability of a. The present report discusses the importance of E-business and its influence in today's rapid growing business activities across the snape, globe and argumentative nuclear, report establishes the fact that E-business has brought. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Today, customers are the most valuable resource that the businesses have, that's why it's very important to offer reliable customer service. Respond to complaints, answer. The article is related to essays, development of a conceptual foundation for customer relationship management that helps to a deep understanding CRM and its role in enhancing customer. According to M. Lassar, Manolis, and S. Lassar (2005), online banking is a process or procedure and not consumer products.
Today, the online banking is most accurately potrayed as a relatively new. An Over View Of Banking In Malaysia Marketing Essay Internet banking is a 21th century phenomena. It was a facility which comes out from the essay, developing of the Internet. Online banking or Internet. Introduction The Internet has facilitated development of business environment since 1990s, providing large number of users with the access to large amount of information. Nowadays consumers are. The Internet application in essays the business world has become a most important trend in practice.
The Internet, as a collection of interconnected computer networks, provides free exchanging of. Didn't find the essay? Our experts are here to write everything you need.