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anne dillard essay THIS IS THE LIFE. By Annie Dillard from the Fall issue of sociology Image : A Journal of the Arts and Religion, published by the Center for Religious Humanism at Seattle Pacific University. Reflective! Dillard's most recent book is sociology proposals, For the reflective, Time Being . Any culture tells you how to live your one and only life: to wit as everyone else does. Probably most cultures prize, as ours rightly does, making a contribution by working hard at research thesis, work that you love; being in thesis on anger, the know, and intelligent; gathering a surplus; and loving your family above all, and thesis proposals your dog, your boat, bird-watching. Beyond those things our culture might specialize in medical cover, money, and celebrity, and natural beauty. These are not universal. You enjoy work and will love your grandchildren, and somewhere in research thesis proposals, there you die. Another contemporary consensus might be: You wear the best shoes you can afford, you seek to know Rome's best restaurants and their staffs, drive the best car, and my personal essay vacation on Tenerife.
And what a cook you are! Or you take the thesis proposals, next tribe's pigs in thrilling raids; you grill yams; you trade for televisions and hunt white-plumed birds. Everyone you know agrees: this is the life. Perhaps you burn captives. Sales Cover Letters! You set fire to thesis proposals, a drunk. Yours is the human struggle, or the elite one, to sapir-whorf, achieve. whatever your own culture tells you: to publish the paper that proves the sociology thesis, point; to progress in the firm and gain high title and salary, stock options, benefits; to get the loan to store the sales, beans till their price rises; to elude capture, to feed your children or educate them to a feather edge; or to count coup or perfect your calligraphy; to eat the king's deer or catch the poacher; to spear the seal, intimidate the enemy, and be a big man or beloved woman and die respected for the pigs or the title or the shoes. Not a funeral. Forget funeral.
A big birthday party. Since everyone around you agrees. Thesis Proposals! Since everyone around you agrees ever since there were people on earth that land is value, or labor is value, or learning is value, or. title, necklaces, degree, murex shells, or ownership of slaves. Everyone knows bees sting and ghosts haunt and giving your robes away humiliates your rivals. That the enemies are barbarians. That wise men swim through the sapir-whorf, rock of the earth; that houses breed filth, airstrips attract airplanes, tornadoes punish, ancestors watch, and you can buy a shorter stay in research proposals, purgatory. The black rock is sales, holy, or the sociology thesis, scroll; or the pangolin is holy, the quetzal is holy, this tree, water, rock, stone, cow, cross, or mountain and it's all true. The Red Sox.
Or nothing at all is holy, as everyone intelligent knows. Who is your everyone? Chess masters scarcely surround themselves with motocross racers. Do you want aborigines at your birthday party? Or are you serving yak-butter tea? Popular culture deals not in its distant past, or any other past, or any other culture. You know no one who longs to buy a mule or be named to court or thrown into statements on anger, a volcano. So the illusion, like the visual field, is complete It has no holes except books you read and sociology research thesis proposals soon forget. And death takes us by storm.
What was that, that life? What else offered? If for him it was contract bridge, if for her it was copyright law, if for everyone it was and is an optimal mix of family and friends, learning, contribution, and joy of making and reflective essay amelioratingwhat else is there, or was there, or will there ever be? What else is thesis proposals, a vision or fact of time and the peoples it bears issuing from the mouth of the cosmos, from the round mouth of case study and cost of capital in international eternity, in a wide and parti-colored utterance. In the complex weave of this utterance like fabric, in its infinite domestic interstices, the thesis proposals, centuries and continents and classes dwell. Each people knows only its own squares in statements, the weave, its wars and instruments and sociology research thesis arts, and also the resume verne, starry sky. Okay, and then what? Say you scale your own weft and see time's breadth and sociology thesis the length of space. Reflective Essay! You see the way the sociology thesis proposals, fabric both passes among the stars and encloses them. You see in the weave nearby, and aslant farther off, the peoples variously scandalized or exalted in their squares. They work on medical sales cover, their projects they flake. spear points, hoe, plant; they kill aurochs or one another; they prepare sacrifices as we here and now work on our projects.
What, seeing this spread multiply infinitely in every direction, would you do differently? No one could love your children more; would you love them less? Would you change your project? To what? Whatever you do, it has likely brought delight to fewer people than either contract bridge or the Red Sox. However hypnotized you and sociology thesis proposals your people are, you will be just as dead in their war, our war. However dead you are, more people will come. However many more people come, your time and its passions, and yourself and your passions, weigh equally in mini case on capital of capital, the balance with those of any dead who pulled waterwheel poles by the Nile or Yellow rivers, or painted their foreheads black, or starved in the wilderness, or wasted from disease then or now. Our lives and our deaths count equally, or we must abandon one-man-one-vote dismantle democracy, and assign six billion people an importance-of-life ranking from one to six billiona ranking whose number decreases, like gravity, with the sociology research thesis proposals, square of the distance between us and medical sales cover them. Sociology Research Thesis Proposals! What would you do differently, you up on your beanstalk looking at scenes of resume all peoples at all times in all places?
When you climb down, would you dance any less to the music you love, knowing that music to be as provisional as a bug? Somebody has to make jugs and sociology thesis shoes, to turn the soil, fish. If you descend the long rope-ladders back to your people and time in the fabric, if you tell them what you have seen, and even if someone cares to listen, then what? Everyone knows times and cultures are plural. If you come back a shrugging relativist or tongue-tied absolutist, then what?
If you spend hours a day looking around, high astraddle the warp or woof of your people's wall, then what new wisdom can you take to your grave for worms to sales, untangle? Well, maybe you will not go into advertising. Research Proposals! Then you would know your own death better but perhaps not dread it less. Try to bring people up the wall, carry children to see it to. what end? Fewer golf courses?
What is wrong with golf? Nothing at all. Equality of wealth? Sure; how? The woman watching sheep over there, the man who carries embers in a pierced clay ball, the engineer, the girl who spins wool into yarn as she climbs, the smelter, the babies learning to recognize speech in their own languages, the man whipping a slave's flayed back, the medical cover letters, man digging roots, the sociology research thesis, woman digging roots, the child digging roots what would you tell them? And the future people what are they doing? What excitements sweep peoples here and study and cost of capital in international there from time to time? Into the muddy river they go, into the trenches, into the caves, into the mines, into sociology, the granary, into the sea in boats.
Most humans who were ever alive lived inside one single culture that never changed for hundreds of thousands of years; archaeologists scratch their heads at so conservative and essay on christmas static a culture. Over here, the rains fail; they are starving. There, the caribou fail; they are starving. Corrupt leaders take the wealth. Not only there but here. Rust and sociology research thesis smut spoil the rye. When pigs and cattle starve or freeze, people die soon after. My Personal Reflective! Disease empties a sector, a billion sectors.
People look at the sky and at the other animals. They make beautiful objects, beautiful sounds, beautiful motions of their bodies beating drums in lines. They pray; they toss people in peat bogs; they help the sick and injured; they pierce their lips, their noses, ears; they make the same mistakes despite religion, written language, philosophy, and science; they build, they kill, they preserve, they count and figure, they boil the pot, they keep the embers alive; they tell their stories and gird themselves. Will knowledge you experience directly make you a Buddhist? Must you forfeit excitement per se? To what end?
Say you have seen something. You have seen an research proposals, ordinary bit of what is real, the my personal essay, infinite fabric of time that eternity shoots through, and time's soft-skinned people working and dying under slowly shifting stars. Then what?
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Christianity and the History of Technology. Longform version of a six-part series on Christianity and the history of technology. Since the thesis mid-twentieth century, there has been a sustained, if modest, scholarly conversation about the relationship between technology and religion. Among scholars who have specifically addressed the nature of this relationship, research has focused on sales cover letters, the following set of concerns: religion’s role in determining Western society’s posture toward the thesis proposals natural world, religions’s role in abetting technological development, religion’s role in shaping Western attitudes toward “labor and labor’s tools,” and, more recently, the use of religious language and categories to of the sapir-whorf thesis, describe technology. The majority of these studies focus almost exclusively on European and North American context and so “religion” amounts to sociology research thesis, Christianity.
Jacques Ellul, Lynn White, George Ovitt, Susan White, David Noble, and Bronislaw Szerszynski have been among the essay on christmas more notable contributors to this conversation. Jacques Ellul’s comments are the earliest, but they do not set the terms of the debate. That honor falls to Lynn White who in his 1968 essay, “The Historical Roots of Our Ecological Crisis,” first proposed that Europe’s relationship to technology had been distinctly shaped by the Christian worldview. Scholars have repeatedly returned to further scrutinize this thesis and its ecological frame. George Ovitt’s The Restoration of Perfection: Labor and Technology in Medieval Culture remains the most thorough treatment of the nexus of questions generated by White’s essay. Ovitt concludes that there is good reason to significantly qualify White’s claims. Susan White’s study, Christian Worship and Technological Change , stands apart as a consideration of technology’s influence on Christian liturgy. David Noble builds on the work of research, White and Ovitt to cover, offer an account of what he terms “the religion of technology” which amounts to a pervasive intermingling of religious concerns with the project of technology as a well as a tendency to link the quest for transcendence to technology.
Finally, Bronislaw Szerszynski’s Nature, Technology, and the Sacred offers a theoretically sophisticated reconsideration of research proposals, White’s argument which, with respect to the technological character of contemporary society, embraces Ellul’s diagnosis of technological society. Szerszynski also moves the argument out of the medieval period to argue that the really decisive transformations in the intellectual and religious context of Europe’s technological history should be located in the Protestant Reformation. Jacques Ellul: A-technical Christianity. Ellul’s The Technological Society was first published in French in 1954 and on christmas break the first English translation appeared in 1964. Within the brief historical sketch Ellul provides of the evolution of technique, he examines the relationship between Christianity and technology. In Ellul’s estimation, Christianity as it was practiced through the late Medieval period was at best ambivalent to the advance of technology.
He recognizes that received opinion contrasts the Eastern religions, which were supposedly “passive, fatalist, contemptuous of life and action” with Christianity, the sociology religion of the West, which was supposedly “active, conquering, turning nature to profit.” Although this characterization was widely accepted, Ellul believed it to essay on christmas, be in error. Sociology Proposals! It both ignored the real technical advances of Eastern civilizations and misunderstood the thesis statements posture of Christianity to technical development. According to Ellul, the emergence of Christianity marked the “breakdown of Roman technique in every area — on the level of sociology research thesis proposals, organization as well as in the construction of cities, in industry, and in transport.” In his view, Julian the Apostate, and later Gibbon, were not altogether mistaken in attributing the withering of the Empire to my personal essay, rise of the Church. Following the collapse of the Roman Empire in the west, a society emerged under the thesis tutelage of Christianity, which Ellul characterized as “‘a-capitalistic’ as well as ‘a-technical.’” In every sphere of on christmas break, Medieval culture save architecture Ellul sees “the same nearly total absence of technique.” Ellul goes on to challenge the two historical arguments employed by those who believed that Christianity “paved the research way for technical development.” According to the first, Christianity’s suppression of slavery gave impetus to thesis statements on anger, the development of thesis proposals, technology to relieve the miseries of manual labor. Reflective Essay! According to the second, Christianity’s disenchantment of the natural world removed metaphysical and research psychological obstacles to its technologically enabled exploitation. Resume Verne! The former fails to account for the impressive technical achievements of slave societies, and the latter, while valid to sociology, a certain extent, ignores the other strictures Christian faith placed on technical activity, namely its other-worldly and ascetic tendencies.
Additionally, Christianity subjected all activity to medical sales cover letters, moral judgment. Accordingly, technical activity was bounded by sociology non-technical considerations. It is within this “narrow compass” that certain technical advances were achieved and propagated by the monasteries. Lynn White: Christianity and the Cultural Climate of Technological Advance. In his classic essay, “The Historical Roots of Our Ecological Crisis,” Lynn White, Jr. staked out of the sapir-whorf, a position that departed from proposals, Ellul at essay on christmas break almost every conceivable point. White begins by describing the gap in technical achievement that opened up between Western Europe and both Islamic and Byzantine civilizations to thesis, the the east. This gap predated the “Scientific Revolution” of the sixteenth century and my personal reflective essay was already evident by the late Middle Ages. Consequently, White turns to the Middle Ages to understand the nature of Western technology. Although White is at this stage in his career moving from the research single-factor approach to technological change, elements of the approach are still evident in on anger the “The Historical Roots of thesis, Our Ecological Crisis” in which he points to the introduction of the on anger heavy plow as catalyst for changing attitudes about humanity’s relationship to proposals, nature.
In White’s words, the on capital budgeting and cost of capital finance heavy plow “attacked the land with such violence that cross-plowing was not needed.” White also notes that this new attitude of domination was soon given pictorial expression in Frankish calendars which depicted man and sociology research thesis nature in opposition with man as master. At this juncture in the essay, however, White shifts from a single technological factor analysis of social change to a consideration of the cultural influences that conditioned the development and deployment of technology in adversarial relationship to nature. My Personal Reflective! White finds the Christian religion, as practiced in Western Europe, to be the chief culprit. “Especially in its Western form,” White concludes, “Christianity is the most anthropocentric religion the world has seen.” After briefly recalling the well known plot points and language of the creation narrative in the opening chapter of the book of Genesis, White contrasts Christianity to ancient paganism and the Eastern religions and finds that Christianity “not only established a dualism of sociology thesis proposals, man and nature but also insisted that it is God’s will that man exploit nature for thesis, his proper ends.” Christianity accomplished this “psychic revolution” by disenchanting nature, making it “possible to exploit nature in a mood of indifference to the feelings of natural objects.” White, then, affirms the second argument Ellul dismissed in his analysis of the relationship between Christianity and nature. He surmounts one of Ellul’s criticisms — that eastern branches of Christianity did not yield the same relationship to nature and thus religion is not the key factor — by sociology proposals pointing to the significant differences in theological outlook that characterized the activist Latin churches in the West and the contemplative Greek churches of the East. Of The Thesis! Ellull had noted the difference, taking the Russian Orthodox Church as his case in point, but he concluded that the difference must be cultural and not religious. While the cultural shaping of ancient Christianity should not be overlooked, the fact remains that by the Middle Ages both Eastern and Western Christianity had taken on their distinct shape and were now, as culturally inflected variations of the same religion, shaping the intellectual climate of sociology research proposals, their respective societies. Furthermore, White also strengthens the argument by pointing to the sacramental vision of case study budgeting and cost of capital finance, eastern Christianity. Nature existed as a system of signs to be read and through which God spoke to humanity. This was, in White’s view, an “essentially artistic rather than scientific” view of nature.
While the West initially shared this sacramental vision, by the late Medieval period it had given way to sociology research proposals, a natural theology more inclined to “read” nature by understanding the workings of nature rather than merely contemplating its appearance. (Bronislaw Szerszynsk will later take up this semiotic argument in depth.) The rhetorical frame of White’s article concerns itself with the sources of “the present ecological crisis,” but the body of his argument addresses itself to another question: What accounts for the advance of Western technology beyond its civilizational rivals? White’s essay, while initially gesturing toward a single-factor account of technological change, on the whole points toward a social factors approach focusing on Latin Christianity as the force driving the evolution of western European technology. By so doing, it set the reflective essay terms and became a key point of departure for sociology research thesis, subsequent discussion of religion’s relationship to mini study finance, technology. Most notably, it anchored the debate in the Middle Ages, it pointed to the cultural significance of seemingly arcane theological distinctions, it identified Christianity as the most important cultural factor driving technological activity in the West, and it linked the historical question to environmental concerns. Lynn White further developed his thesis in a long 1971 article, “Cultural Climates and Technological Advance in the Middle Ages,” in which he directly set out to sociology thesis proposals, identify the sources of the thesis statements unprecedented “technological thrust of the medieval West.”
White begins by discussing medieval Europe’s propensity for thesis, borrowing and elaborating on technologies initially developed in other societies. The culture of medieval Europe “was unique in the receptivity of its climate to essay, transplants” and sociology thesis this accounts in part for the vigor of medieval technological output. However, this receptivity is itself in need of explanation and in response White reaffirms the logic of “The Historical Roots of Our Ecological Crisis”: “What a society does about technology is influenced by medical sales casual borrowings from other cultures, although the extent and uses of these borrowings are reciprocally affected by attitudes toward technological change. Fundamentally, however, such attitudes depend upon what people in thesis a society think about their personal relation to nature, their destiny, and how it is good to act. These are religious questions.” In what follows, White amplifies and augments the lines of argument adumbrated in the earlier essay while also drawing out additional lines of evidence in support of his thesis. The seminal work of medieval historian Ernst Benz, whose writing on sales, the subject had appeared in research thesis proposals Italian in critics of the 1964 and was presented in English in research thesis proposals 1966, is introduced into White’s argument for medical letters, the first time. Benz’s study of Zen Buddhism’s “anti-technological impulses” led him to locate Western Europe’s embrace of technological change in its religious outlook. Sociology Research Proposals! He pointed to Christianity’s linear conception of history, its presentation of God as architect and potter, its theological affirmation of the goodness of thesis statements, material creation, and research proposals its presupposition of the “intelligent craftsmanship” of the created order — all in his view unique to Christianity — as the components of what White terms a “cultural climate” remarkably hospitable to technological advance.
White affirms the contours of Benz analysis, but he finds room for improvement. Drawing on two articles independently published in 1956, White once again points to the disenchantment of nature supposedly accomplished by Christianity’s cultural triumph over ancient paganism. He also reaffirms and further develops the importance of the distinction between Latin and Eastern Christianity. Reflective Essay! Here White strengthens his earlier observations by drawing on iconographic and textual evidence. Beginning shortly after the turn of the first Christian millennium, Western iconography depicts God in the act of creation as a builder, master craftsman, and later a mechanic — it was a visual tradition never adopted in the Eastern churches. Exegetically, White points to thesis, the Western and Eastern interpretations of the statements story of sociology research proposals, Martha and Mary in Luke’s gospel. While a surface reading suggests an endorsement of contemplation over activism, Latin interpreters, beginning with Augustine, go out of their way to soften and even reverse the apparent critique of activism and labor. With this White then draws in what will become another key locus of attention in subsequent discussions of essay, technology and sociology Christianity: the attitude toward labor in the monastic orders, particularly the Benedictines. White notes that in resume jules the Byzantine world, which, unlike the West, did not suffer a general collapse of culture, the religious orders were not forced to bear the burden of sustaining all aspects of civilization, secular and religious. In the West, however, following the collapse of Roman authority, the religious orders, notably the Benedictines, found themselves in research the position of performing both religious and resume verne secular duties, of uniting worship and labor. This commitment to labor and the mechanical arts would, in White’s view, generate a uniquely religious impetus for the development of technology.
White supports his contention by drawing on the work of the pseudonymous Theophilus and Hugh of Saint Victor. Theophilus’ work, dating from the proposals early 12th century, provides an indispensable record of the era’s technological knowledge while attesting to the religiously motivated technical innovation that White takes to my personal, be characteristic of the age. Meanwhile, Theophilus’ contemporary, Hugh of Saint Victor incorporated the mechanical arts into his influential classification of knowledge and the arts. Research! While the mechanical arts were accorded the lowest place in the hierarchical ranking of the arts, they were nonetheless included and this was no small thing. Together, the work of Theophilus and Hugh supported White’s thesis regarding Western Christianity’s role in shaping Europe’s technological surge in the Middle Ages.
White concludes with one more corroborating piece of iconographic evidence. An illustration of Psalm 63 in the Utrecht Psalter dating from the mid-ninth century features a confrontation by between King David and the Righteous and a much larger force of the ungodly. While the ungodly use a whetstone to sharpen their sword, the critics of the sapir-whorf thesis godly employ “the first crank recorded outside China to rotate the first grindstone known anywhere.” Clearly, White concludes, “the artist is telling us that technological advance is God’s will.” While “The Historical Roots of Our Ecological Crisis” is cited more often and is more frequently taken as a point of departure, it is in sociology research thesis “Cultural Climates and Technological Advance in the Middle Ages” that White most persuasively argues the case for medical sales cover, Christianity’s formative influence on the history of technology in Western society. With its inclusion of Ernst Benz’ research and sociology thesis proposals its discussion of Benedictine spirituality, this essay frames the research agenda for subsequent research and discussion.
George Ovitt: Challenging the Lynn White Thesis. George Ovitt’s The Restoration of Perfection: Labor and Technology in Medieval Culture , published in 1987, provides the first book length treatment of the major themes advanced in White’s thesis. Ovitt, who in his preface pays appropriate academic homage to White, sets out to explore more fully the claims made on behalf of Christian faith and my personal reflective essay practice in relation to medieval attitudes toward technology. Sociology Research Thesis! Ovitt’s analysis is also deeply influenced by Max Weber and Lewis Mumford’s application of Weberian insights to Benedictine monasticism. Finally, Ovitt also tests the alternative claims made by Jacques Le Goff in his 1980 evaluation of medieval attitudes toward labor and technological development. Against White’s thesis, Le Goff argued that shifting theological attitudes toward labor and technology followed upon rather than instigated transformations in economic and material conditions. In addition to his evaluation of prior scholarship, Ovitt also contributes a chapter on the medieval and Christian roots of the notion of progress. The notion of progress becomes another important semantic net that catches significant elements of the relationship of religion and technology.
Ovitt concludes that early Christian writers, and their medieval heirs, acknowledged material progress and medical sales human sovereignty over nature, but these were linked inextricably to moral progress and sociology research thesis proposals “the striving for sovereignty over resume the more intractable self.” Notions of progress, in other words, were not yet, as they later would be, reduced to or considered equivalent to technical progress. Sociology Proposals! In this, as in countless other ways, the medical cover letters Western medieval church took its cue from Augustine whose view of the mechanical arts can best be labeled as ambiguous. Turning specifically to the claims advanced by White and Benz, Ovitt chooses to test them by conducting an extensive review of the medieval period’s hexaemeral literature, i.e., commentaries on the six days of creation. His review of this literature leads Ovitt to substantially qualify both Benz’s claims regarding the image of God as craftsman and White’s suggestion that Christian theology sanctioned a rapacious posture toward nature.
Ovitt finds that while there is ample evidence of the portrayals of God as craftsman in the hexaemeral literature of the Latin Church, it is balanced by the continued portrayal of God as a detached and research transcendent Creator — a portrayal shared with the Eastern Church — which appears just as frequently as the image of God as craftsman. Additionally, Ovitt suggests that when the image of God as craftsman is sales employed, it often suggests that as the research proposals finished products of the craftsman’s hand are often put to uses contrary to the craftsman’s intentions, so too the work of God’s hands, namely humanity, often rebels against the intentions of the Creator. Regarding, White’s thesis, Ovitt follows earlier critics in questioning whether, on the one hand, White has adequately described the biblical data and its theological elaboration, and, on the other, whether such a direct, causal connection could in any case be reasonably drawn between a religious perspective and the cultural consensus. Ovitt’s research additionally suggests that the reflective essay more common depiction of humanity’s relationship to creation is thesis better understood as one of custodianship or stewardship rather than unbridled exploitation. Moreover, Ovitt points out that the idea that nature exists to be used by human beings does not by itself explain the uses to which it is put.
Ovitt approvingly cites Mumford’s suggestion that it was not until Francis Bacon’s introduction of “‘a power-hungry technical mentality’ that the West took off on the self-destructive course it now follows.” Moreover, if we look for the “direct result of the medieval Christian ethic of domination” we find “a long-lived tradition of craftsmanship and subsistence farming” — “democratic polytechnics,” in Mumford’s terms, rather than “authoritarian megatechnics.” The “really significant question for the histoiry [sic] of technology” in Ovitt’s view, “is not what Christianity taught about the domination of nature, but what Christianity taught about the domination of verne, human beings by other human beings.” And with this Ovitt turns to consider medieval social and education systems, specifically the practice of labor in the monastic orders and the place of the thesis mechanical arts in medieval classifications of knowledge. On Capital And Cost Finance! Regarding the research proposals former, Ovitt indeed finds that the monastic tradition, in of the both its eremitic and cenobitic manifestations, upheld the fundamental dignity and spiritual usefulness of labor. Sociology Proposals! Moreover, Ovitt finds the Rule of St. Benedict to be the on christmas break most “effective reconciliation” of the spiritual needs of the individual and the economic needs of the community. Most importantly, he concludes that contrary to the later logic of capitalism, the significance of labor did not reside in sociology research proposals “its products or uses of technology and invention quantitatively as a means of enhancing productivity,” rather it resided in the “process of labor” which was aimed at personal holiness and communal self-sufficiency. Ovitt reasonably concludes that a Weberian analysis of monasticism’s role in incubating incipient capitalism as well as fostering a peculiarly Western enthusiasm for technology should be balanced by the spirit of Augustine’s prayer — “O Lord, I am working hard in this field, and the field of my labors is my own self” — which expressed the dominant medieval priorities. In his survey of medieval classifications of knowledge, particularly that of Hugh of Saint Victor in the twelfth century and Thomas Aquinas’ in the thirteenth, Ovitt finds a generally positive estimation of the mechanical arts even while they retain the lowest rank among the various arts. In his estimation, more than their admission into the theologians’ classifications of knowledge was needed to generate the particular enthusiasm for technology that would come to distinguish Western society.
What was needed was the decoupling of “labor, and labor’s tools from the on christmas break realm of the sacred and the control of theologians” and a renewed interest in judging technology by its products rather than its effects on the spiritual lives of its users. This would be achieved, ironically, by proposals the Gregorian Reform movement originating within the church which sought to clarify the respective roles of the church and the state. In so doing, the church sanctioned a three-fold division of society including those who ruled and fought, those who labored, and those who prayed. This division tacitly endorsed the separation of labor from the purview of the church and created the space for technology to evolve apart from moral and medical sales spiritual constraints or considerations. Contrary to White, then, Ovitt suggests that Christianity’s chief contribution to the evolution of distinctly Western attitudes to technology may have been its stepping out of the proposals way as it were.
Ovitt’s study significantly complicates the historical arguments made by thesis on anger Benz and White as well as Ellul’s earlier summary of Christianity’s relationship to technique. The total picture is on the whole more ambiguous than the work of any of these scholars would lead readers to believe. Medieval attitudes toward nature, labor, and sociology proposals the mechanical arts were on the whole positive but hardly enthusiastic. Essay On Christmas Break! More importantly, Ovitt convincingly showed that technical considerations were, as one might expect, consistently subordinated to spiritual ends as demonstrated by the Benedictine’s willingness to lay aside labor when it became possible to commission a lesser order of lay brothers or even paid laborers to perform the work necessitated by the community. Sociology Research! Ovitt’s work has appropriately taken its place beside that of White as a major contribution to the scholarly exploration of the relationship of medieval Christianity to Western technology. If we are to find the sources of western enthusiasm for technology it is necessary to begin with medieval Christianity, but after Ovitt’s thorough work it is critics thesis no longer possible to end there. Susan White: Technology and Liturgy. In 1994, Cambridge scholar Susan J. White, published a study entitled Christian Worship and Technological Change . White’s study reverses the direction of the inquiry by asking not about the effect of Christianity on the evolution of research, technology, but about the case study on capital and cost of capital finance consequences of technology for Christian worship. In providing the rationale for her study, White cited the earlier work of Ellul, Lynn White, Mumford, and Ovitt exploring the complex relationship between Christianity and technology. In her most compelling chapter, White discusses the role of astronomical technology — the astrolabe, the albion, and the rectangulus — in refining the Christian liturgical calendar which had been in acknowledged disarray as well as the role of the mechanical clock in recalibrating the rhythms of the liturgy. Sociology Thesis! On these points, however, White is mostly following the earlier work of Mumford and Lynn White.
Thus her noting the contrast between Eastern Orthodoxy’s longstanding rejection of the medical cover mechanical clock and its quick embrace in the western churches, a point also registered by Lynn White. In a subsequent chapter, “Liturgy and Mechanization,” White takes an approach that resonates with Ellul’s articulation of technique , noting how transformations in Christian liturgical practice during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries were often inspired by the goals and logic of machine technology. In her analogy, liturgy became a form of sociology research thesis, mechanistic technology. Susan White’s work is my personal reflective essay useful for sociology research thesis, its reframing of the question regarding technology and Christianity in light of cover, technology’s influence on the religion. Her work is especially helpful for those who have never considered the consequences of proposals, technological change on liturgical practice. She does not, however, advance the debate initiated by Lynn White regarding the relationship between Christianity and western technology. Resume Verne! In 1997, however, historian David F. Noble’s The Religion of Technology raised the question again with renewed vigor. David Noble: The Religion of Technology.
Noble describes “a thousand-year old Western tradition in which the advance of the sociology thesis useful arts was inspired by and grounded upon religious expectation.” Moreover, Noble claims that technology and faith “are merged, and always have been, the technological enterprise being, at the same time, an essentially religious endeavor.” Noble insists that this is not a metaphorical claim, but rather literally true: “modern technology and religion have evolved together …, and as a result, the technological enterprise has been and mini study on capital budgeting of capital in international finance remains suffused with religious belief.” In the end, however, it is difficult to isolate what exactly Noble has identified through his discussion of monasticism, millenarianism, Baconian enthusiasm, Free Masonry, and the twentieth century technologies of transcendence including the atomic bomb, space flight, artificial intelligence, and biotechnology. Noble has, from one angle, uncovered the history of an alternative religion, the religion of technology, which might be best understood as a Christian heresy with an immanentized eschatology. He builds on the work of White, Benz, and Ovitt to sociology research thesis proposals, argue for essay break, a major transformation in Christianity’s view of the research mechanical arts around the eleventh century, and, in his estimation, it was during this period that technological progress came to be equated with progress toward the material restoration of the created order. It was this faith in technological progress that would henceforth characterize the core of the “religion of technology.” From another angle, though, Noble has only shown that religious language and letters religious aspirations are frequently associated with technology, particularly by the elite practitioners that are driving the development and deployment of new technology. Any effort to arrive at a more clearly defined conclusion would falter under close examination since Noble has brought together a remarkably diverse collection of evidence and has not drawn very precise causal relationships. Instead, his method is to drive home a general sense of technology and religion’s entanglement by citing as many plausible instances of the claim as possible. Noble’s slippage between of the use of “faith” and “religion” is indicative of the sociology thesis general nature of his claims. It is also problematic that Noble’s borrowings from Benz, White, and essay break Ovitt give no indication that there is any underlying tension in their respective accounts of Christianity’s relationship with technology.
For example, although he is clearly familiar with Ovitt’s work, he approvingly cites White’s thesis in sociology thesis “The Historical Roots of Our Ecological Crisis” without qualification. Moreover his deployment of theological terminology in the opening chapter does not inspire confidence in his grasp of resume, nuance in sociology research thesis the relevant theological literature. But Noble is less interested in joining that debate than he is in registering a more general complaint. Noble is clearly concerned about the thesis religious hopes for thesis proposals, transcendence that have been repeatedly attached to new technologies throughout the history of mini case on capital budgeting and cost finance, Western society. In his view, this tendency clouds our ability to think clearly about sociology thesis proposals, technology, a problem that grows all the more acute as our technologies evolve into more complex, and potentially dangerous realities. In the end we may say that Noble has established the statements on anger presence of a religious veneer that frequently appears on the surface of technology to influence its development and adoption without clarifying or systematizing the varieties, sources, and consequences of that veneer. Bronislaw Szerszynski: Technology, Nature, and thesis proposals the Sacred. In his 2005 book, Nature, Technology, and the Sacred , Bronislaw Szerszynski traces the evolving understandings of nature and the sacred in medical order to provide an sociology thesis alternative account of secularization and disenchantment, two processes in which technology has traditionally been assigned a critical role. To begin with, he argues that the best way to understand the evolution of ideas about nature from thesis on anger, pre-modern to modern societies is, in fact, not as a process of secularization or disenchantment, but rather as a process of depersonalization. The advent of Christianity did not, as Lynn White (among others) suggested, simply empty nature of its metaphysical content leaving it vulnerable to research thesis proposals, exploitation.
Rather, Christianity removed personal agencies that inhabited nature and replaced them with a semiotic layer of reflective, meaning. Nature became alive, not with minor deities and research thesis spirits, but with meaning that could be allegorically interpreted. This conception of nature as a religiously meaningful system of medical sales, signs acted as a brake on the potential exploitation of nature that White and others imagined following on the Christian triumph over the pagan worldview. However, the Protestant Reformation, in Szerszynski’s view, did lead to a situation like that imagined by White when it collapsed all meanings and interpretations to the level of the literal and effectively contained them in the text of the research Bible. Sales! In this way, the semiotic cloak that had protected nature was pulled back leaving it defenseless against the advances of science and technology. The Reformation was decisive, but it did not act alone in reconfiguring the economy of the sacred in relation to nature. In the late twelfth century, conceptions of nature were already beginning to sociology thesis proposals, shift owing to the growing influence of voluntarist theology that privileged the unrestrained will and power of God over the potential intelligibility of the created order. Nonetheless, Szerszynski follows Ellul and Ovitt against White in taking medieval Christianity’s attitude toward technology and reflective nature to be mostly ambivalent and not by itself the cause of the Western technological mindset. Thesis! Even the Reformation, in statements Szerszynski’s view, did not entirely free technology from moral and religious constraints. The beginnings of this rupture are best traced to sociology research, Francis Bacon’s privileging of techne over epistme . From this point Szerszynski traces a straight line to the evolution Ellul’s technological society. At this juncture, Szerszynski introduces David Nye’s exploration of the statements on anger technological sublime to reinforce his conclusion that by the nineteenth century technology commanded near religious reverence.
This religious reverence, however, “echoes” the earlier voluntarist transformation in the theological conception of God: technology, like the research thesis proposals voluntarist God was to be “loved for itself, apart from its fitness for essay, human life and purpose.” Combined with the research rise of bio-power documented by Michel Foucault which focused narrowly on the preservation and governance of biological life this meant that all transcendent frames of essay break, reference that might have limited technology’s influence were now effectively displaced. As Noble noted, technology itself became the object of transcendent aspirations. Following Lynn White, the examination of thesis, Christianity’s relationship to technology has been firmly anchored in the Medieval period. With the exception of Szerszynski, none of the authors under consideration extensively explored the significance of the Reformation to the history of technology and resume Szerszynski’s work was thin on historical sources. More work is needed on the Reformation and its relationship to technology. Of course, much work has already been done on the Reformation and the history of one particular technology, the printing press. Research has thus far also been focused on the role of Christianity in the emergence of Western technology. It seems that more careful and serious work ought to be done on the way that technology has shaped Christianity. Susan White gestured in this direction, but her work was largely derivative of the studies undertaken by Lynn White and Lewis Mumford and was focused on only a handful of research proposals, illustrative cases.
Joseph Corn, whose work was not discussed above, has shown the importance of exploring religion’s role in the social construction of particular technologies. Medical Sales Cover Letters! Corn’s The Winged Gospel offers a case study in the social construction of the airplane. Drawing on a wide array of sociology thesis, sources including newspapers, popular and professional journals, memoirs, and an assortment of varied cultural ephemera, Corn makes his case for resume verne, the religious dimensions of the airplane’s social construction. The airplane was initially greeted by Thomas-like doubt that demanded sight in order to believe, and was thereafter frequently described with language that appealed to the supernatural — flight was a miracle. Additionally, the use of the airplane and proposals its celebration was often marked by ritual and ceremony that bore a striking resemblance to elements of Christian worship and my personal practice. Sociology Proposals! Finally, attitudes toward the airplane took on the character of a “technological messianism,” a faith in essay the power of the airplane to bring about a nearly eschatological reordering of society. Thesis Proposals! In the end, of course, these hopes are reigned in by reality. Similar narrow studies focused on particular technologies and the role religious belief played in break their social construction would strengthen our understanding of the relationship between technology and religion which thus far has been treated in mostly broad strokes. Finally, religious studies can also provide a helpful set of categories for understanding the role of sociology research thesis, technology in society, particularly given the pervasive interrelationship of critics thesis, technology and religion as documented by sociology thesis proposals Noble. Ritual studies, for example, may usefully augment our understanding of the thesis statements intersections of technology use and embodied practice. David Nye’s incorporation of research thesis, Durkheimian categories in his study of the technological sublime provides a helpful model for what this interdisciplinary exchange of methods can accomplish.
Christianity and the History of Technology, Part Three. This is the third in a series of posts discussing the of the thesis work of a handful of scholars exploring the historical relationship between Christianity and technology. Research Thesis! First and second post. Lynn White further developed his thesis in a long 1971 article, “Cultural Climates and Technological Advance in the Middle Ages,” in which he directly set out to identify the medical sales cover letters sources of the unprecedented “technological thrust of the medieval West.” White begins by discussing medieval Europe’s propensity for borrowing and elaborating on technologies initially developed in other societies. The culture of medieval Europe “was unique in the receptivity of its climate to sociology, transplants” and this accounts in part for the vigor of medieval technological output. Reflective Essay! However, this receptivity is itself in need of explanation and in response White reaffirms the logic of “The Historical Roots of Our Ecological Crisis”: “What a society does about technology is influenced by casual borrowings from other cultures, although the extent and uses of these borrowings are reciprocally affected by attitudes toward technological change. Fundamentally, however, such attitudes depend upon what people in a society think about their personal relation to nature, their destiny, and research proposals how it is good to act.
These are religious questions.” In what follows, White amplifies and augments the lines of argument adumbrated in my personal reflective the earlier essay while also drawing out sociology thesis, additional lines of evidence in thesis support of his thesis. The seminal work of medieval historian Ernst Benz, whose writing on the subject had appeared in Italian in 1964 and was presented in English in 1966, is introduced into White’s argument for the first time. Benz’s study of Zen Buddhism’s “anti-technological impulses” led him to locate Western Europe’s embrace of technological change in its religious outlook. Thesis! He pointed to Christianity’s linear conception of history, its presentation of God as architect and essay potter, its theological affirmation of the goodness of sociology, material creation, and its presupposition of the “intelligent craftsmanship” of the statements on anger created order — all in proposals his view unique to Christianity — as the components of what White terms a “cultural climate” remarkably hospitable to medical sales cover, technological advance. White affirms the contours of Benz analysis, but he finds room for improvement. Drawing on thesis, two articles independently published in 1956, White once again points to the disenchantment of nature supposedly accomplished by Christianity’s cultural triumph over ancient paganism. He also reaffirms and further develops the importance of the jules distinction between Latin and Eastern Christianity. Here White strengthens his earlier observations by drawing on iconographic and textual evidence.
Beginning shortly after the sociology research turn of the first Christian millennium, Western iconography depicts God in the act of creation as a builder, master craftsman, and later a mechanic — it was a visual tradition never adopted in the Eastern churches. Exegetically, White points to the Western and Eastern interpretations of the story of Martha and Mary in Luke’s gospel. While a surface reading suggests an critics of the sapir-whorf thesis endorsement of contemplation over activism, Latin interpreters, beginning with Augustine, go out of their way to soften and even reverse the apparent critique of research thesis, activism and of the labor. With this White then draws in what will become another key locus of attention in subsequent discussions of technology and Christianity: the attitude toward labor in the monastic orders, particularly the Benedictines. White notes that in the Byzantine world, which, unlike the West, did not suffer a general collapse of research thesis proposals, culture, the religious orders were not forced to bear the burden of sustaining all aspects of civilization, secular and religious. In the West, however, following the reflective essay collapse of Roman authority, the religious orders, notably the Benedictines, found themselves in the position of performing both religious and secular duties, of uniting worship and labor. This commitment to labor and research thesis proposals the mechanical arts would, in White’s view, generate a uniquely religious impetus for the development of on christmas break, technology.
White supports his contention by sociology thesis drawing on medical sales, the work of the pseudonymous Theophilus and Hugh of Saint Victor. Theophilus’ work, dating from the early 12th century, provides an indispensable record of the era’s technological knowledge while attesting to the religiously motivated technical innovation that White takes to be characteristic of the age. Sociology Research! Meanwhile, Theophilus’ contemporary, Hugh of Saint Victor incorporated the mechanical arts into his influential classification of knowledge and the arts. Medical! While the mechanical arts were accorded the lowest place in the hierarchical ranking of the arts, they were nonetheless included and thesis this was no small thing. Together, the work of Theophilus and break Hugh supported White’s thesis regarding Western Christianity’s role in shaping Europe’s technological surge in the Middle Ages. White concludes with one more corroborating piece of iconographic evidence. An illustration of Psalm 63 in the Utrecht Psalter dating from the mid-ninth century features a confrontation by between King David and the Righteous and a much larger force of the ungodly. While the ungodly use a whetstone to sharpen their sword, the godly employ “the first crank recorded outside China to rotate the sociology research thesis proposals first grindstone known anywhere.” Clearly, White concludes, “the artist is telling us that technological advance is God’s will.” While “The Historical Roots of Our Ecological Crisis” is cited more often and is more frequently taken as a point of departure, it is in verne “Cultural Climates and Technological Advance in the Middle Ages” that White most persuasively argues the case for Christianity’s formative influence on the history of technology in Western society.
With its inclusion of Ernst Benz’ research and thesis its discussion of mini budgeting of capital in international finance, Benedictine spirituality, this essay frames the research agenda for subsequent research and discussion. (Next up: George Ovitt’s challenge to sociology research, White’s thesis.) Christianity and the History of Technology, Part Two. This is the second in a series of posts discussing the work of statements on anger, a handful of thesis proposals, scholars exploring the historical relationship between Christianity and technology. First post. In his classic essay, “The Historical Roots of Our Ecological Crisis,” Lynn White, Jr. staked out a position that departed from Ellul at almost every conceivable point. White begins by describing the gap in technical achievement that opened up between Western Europe and both Islamic and Byzantine civilizations to the the east. This gap predated the “Scientific Revolution” of the sixteenth century and was already evident by the late Middle Ages.
Consequently, White turns to the Middle Ages to medical sales, understand the nature of Western technology. Although White is at this stage in his career moving from the single-factor approach to technological change, elements of the approach are still evident in the “The Historical Roots of research thesis, Our Ecological Crisis” in which he points to cover, the introduction of the heavy plow as catalyst for changing attitudes about humanity’s relationship to nature. In White’s words, the heavy plow “attacked the land with such violence that cross-plowing was not needed.” White also notes that this new attitude of domination was soon given pictorial expression in Frankish calendars which depicted man and nature in opposition with man as master. At this juncture in the essay, however, White shifts from a single technological factor analysis of social change to a consideration of the sociology thesis proposals cultural influences that conditioned the development and deployment of technology in adversarial relationship to nature. White finds the Christian religion, as practiced in Western Europe, to be the chief culprit. “Especially in its Western form,” White concludes, “Christianity is the most anthropocentric religion the mini study budgeting of capital world has seen.” After briefly recalling the well known plot points and language of the creation narrative in the opening chapter of the sociology book of Genesis, White contrasts Christianity to cover letters, ancient paganism and the Eastern religions and finds that Christianity “not only established a dualism of man and nature but also insisted that it is thesis God’s will that man exploit nature for medical sales, his proper ends.” Christianity accomplished this “psychic revolution” by disenchanting nature, making it “possible to exploit nature in sociology research thesis proposals a mood of indifference to the feelings of natural objects.” White, then, affirms the second argument Ellul dismissed in his analysis of the relationship between Christianity and nature. He surmounts one of Ellul’s criticisms — that eastern branches of Christianity did not yield the same relationship to of the sapir-whorf, nature and thus religion is not the key factor — by pointing to the significant differences in theological outlook that characterized the activist Latin churches in the West and the contemplative Greek churches of the East. Sociology Proposals! Ellull had noted the difference, taking the Russian Orthodox Church as his case in point, but he concluded that the difference must be cultural and not religious. While the cultural shaping of essay, ancient Christianity should not be overlooked, the fact remains that by the Middle Ages both Eastern and Western Christianity had taken on their distinct shape and were now, as culturally inflected variations of the proposals same religion, shaping the intellectual climate of their respective societies. Furthermore, White also strengthens the argument by pointing to the sacramental vision of eastern Christianity.
Nature existed as a system of signs to be read and thesis through which God spoke to humanity. This was, in White’s view, an “essentially artistic rather than scientific” view of nature. While the West initially shared this sacramental vision, by the late Medieval period it had given way to a natural theology more inclined to “read” nature by understanding the workings of nature rather than merely contemplating its appearance. (Bronislaw Szerszynsk will later take up this semiotic argument in depth.) The rhetorical frame of White’s article concerns itself with the sociology proposals sources of “the present ecological crisis,” but the mini study on capital budgeting of capital in international body of his argument addresses itself to another question: What accounts for the advance of Western technology beyond its civilizational rivals? White’s essay, while initially gesturing toward a single-factor account of technological change, on the whole points toward a social factors approach focusing on sociology research thesis, Latin Christianity as the force driving the evolution of western European technology. By so doing, it set the terms and became a key point of essay on christmas, departure for sociology research proposals, subsequent discussion of religion’s relationship to my personal reflective essay, technology. Most notably, it anchored the debate in the Middle Ages, it pointed to the cultural significance of seemingly arcane theological distinctions, it identified Christianity as the most important cultural factor driving technological activity in the West, and it linked the proposals historical question to environmental concerns. Cell Phones and Longbows: Watershed Moments In History And The Technologies That Facilitate Them.
In a recent NY Times editorial, historian Paul Kennedy drew our attention away from developments in and cost of capital finance consumer technology and toward what he called “the hard worlds of economics and politics.” Kennedy believes that we may be passing through a watershed moment in human history largely unawares because we are distracted by less important facets of proposals, present circumstances. Rather than obsess about the latest gadgets that come on the market, we should be paying attention to at least four developments that are, according to Kennedy, of on christmas break, momentous import. They are, in his words: a. “the waning of the dollar’s heft” b. “the unwinding of European dreams” of political union. c. “the arms race in Asia” d. “the paralysis of the U.N. Security Council”
These are indeed significant developments and one should hope that they are not being ignored, by either the voting public, or those voted into sociology office to steer the ship of state through these turbulent waters (although on the latter see the last post.) But it is unfortunate that Kennedy opposes attention to essay on christmas, these economic and political developments and attention given to technological developments. It is unfortunate, and also curious given some of what Kennedy himself alludes to thesis, in his essay. Describing two previous watershed moments in the history of the West he writes, “No one alive in 1480 would recognize the world of essay on christmas, 1530 — a world of new nation-states, Christendom splintered, European expansion into Asia and the Americas, the Gutenberg communications revolution. Perhaps this was the greatest historical watershed of all time, at least in the West. There are other examples, of course. Someone living in England in 1750, before the widespread use of the steam engine, would have been staggered at its application 50 years later: The Industrial Revolution had arrived!” Well, as I think about these moments of great historical change, it seems to me that technology was inextricably implicated in each. Technology, or better, technologies were not the sole factor driving historical change in these instances, but it would be hard to imagine the change taking place without the technologies.
Notably, Kennedy later refers to the critical role of the thesis proposals printing press in a rather odd paragraph: “So what about today? Many newspaper correspondents and technology pundits point excitedly to our ongoing communications revolution (cell phone, iPad and other gadgetry), and to its impact upon states and essay break peoples, upon sociology proposals, traditional authorities and new liberation movements. The evidence for thesis on anger, this view is clear across the entire Middle East, and even in the very tame “Occupy Wall Street” movement, although one wonders if any of the proposals high-tech prophets proclaiming that a new era in world affairs has arrived have ever bothered to study the impact of the Gutenberg printing press, or of F.D.R.’s radio chats to tens of millions of Americans in the 1930s and early 1940s.” This is an odd paragraph because the events it cites seem to undermine the gist of his argument, and because of the closing line. I’m not sure which “hight-tech prophets” Kennedy has in mind, but, in fact, the printing press is often enough cited as a precedent of note when exploring the social transformations wrought by technological change.
While I doubt her work informs much of the popular level discourse, Elizabeth Eisenstein’s magisterial two-volume, The Printing Press as an mini study on capital budgeting in international Agent of Change certainly explores the consequences of the printing press in fine-grain detail. I suspect that Kennedy may be mostly distraught by the attention given to something like the sociology research proposals release of the reflective latest iPhone and the ensuing consumerist frenzy/orgy. Fair enough. But when we consider the larger “communications revolution,” to use Kennedy’s own formulation, of which the latest iPhone is but a bit part, then the focus on technology is research thesis proposals not at all misplaced. In fact, I wonder whether technology could not be implicated in reflective essay the four developments that Kennedy himself lists from the hard world of economics and politics. Sociology Research Thesis Proposals! I suspect so. For example, I would think it impossible to case on capital finance, discuss the current monetary situation and fluctuations in thesis proposals currency values from the interconnected world of electronic, computerized buying, selling, and trading. Finally, it was Kennedy’s conclusion that led to the train of thought developed in this post.
Kennedy wrapped with the following: “It is as if one were back in 1500, emerging from the Middle Ages to the early-modern world. The crowds at that time were marveling at a new and more powerful longbow. Surely we can take our world a bit more seriously than that?” The irony here is that if you consider Lynn White’s work on medieval society, then you might conclude the attention to the longbow was not at all misplaced. White’s thesis taken by itself is probably reductionistic, but it does point to important factors. He argued that the feudal system and the consequent social order was premised on the invention of the stirrup which led to the appearance of mounted, armored soldiers and the rise of wealthy, landed aristocrats who could afford to maintain mounted knights in their service. This social order was itself challenged by the invention of the essay longbow which, given its long range and armor piercing capability, drastically undermined the combat effectiveness of mounted knights. Historian Theodore Rabb, in The Last Days of the Renaissance , has likewise argued for the analogous role played by gunpowder in the evolution of the modern nation state.
Looking only at technology, especially if by that we mean consumer electronics in suburban context, is certainly too narrow a frame by which to understand our times. But the reverse is sociology thesis also true: trying to understand political and economic realities while ignoring the underlying technologies that shape those realities is likewise ill advised. Technology, politics, and economics — not to cover, mention all of the research thesis other complex social realities we too neatly compartmentalize by the very act of naming them — these are all recursively interrelated and entangled in fascinating ways and we do well resist the temptation to medical sales cover, take refuge in explanations and understandings that refuse the research thesis proposals complexity by unduly privileging one dimension of social reality over all others.
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8 Simple Business Plan Templates for Entrepreneurs. Sociology Research Thesis. Writing a business plan is an important step in cover letters the startup process. It helps you and your partners decide if you will work well together, teaches you about the research thesis proposals, marketplace, and lets you brainstorm business and product goals. Thesis Statements On Anger. But because of all the effort and detail involved, many entrepreneurs dread the thought of sitting down and creating this critical but time-consuming document. Research. While business plans can be frustrating if you#39;re writing one from my personal reflective, scratch, there are plenty of online templates available to take some of the pain out proposals of the process. Small business owners can benefit from essay on christmas break, simple, easy-to-follow business-plan tools so they can spend less time writing and more time launching. Proposals. Here are eight resources you can use to help you craft a professional business plan quickly and easily. You#39;ve heard about resume those entrepreneurs who started off by jotting down their ideas on a napkin at a bar, café or restaurant. $100 Startup#39;s One-Page Business Plan is research thesis proposals, a little like that, but more organized. Designed for entrepreneurs who are itching to sapir-whorf get started, this simple business-plan template asks a handful of questions that you can easily answer in one or two sentences. It covers everything from what you sell and proposals who will buy it to how you will get paid, hustle to break find customers, foresee challenges and overcome the sociology thesis, obstacles all in a single page. [Writing a Business Plan? Do These 5 Things First] Not all small businesses are concerned with credit lines, partnerships and sales office space at least not in the beginning.
So why should their initial business plans include these things? Copyblogger#39;s Remarkably Simple Business Plan doesn#39;t. Instead, it offers a business-plan template fit for the real would-be entrepreneur#39;s world. Whereas most business-plan templates assume all businesses are uniform, Copyblogger#39;s Remarkably Simple Business Plan was created to get to what entrepreneurs really need to know to sociology thesis proposals start a business: the ins and outs of the case study, product or service, how customers will find the sociology research thesis, business and how the business will make money. Reflective Essay. Simply copy and paste the sociology research thesis, template of the Remarkably Simple Business Plan, created by Sonia Simone, co-founder and chief content officer of Copyblogger Media, and you#39;re good to go. Founded in 2011, Enloop is regarded as an innovative player in critics sapir-whorf thesis the business-plan-creation industry.
Like many others, the sociology, service uses an online interface to help automate your business plan#39;s creation. Jules. To get started, users enter basic information about research proposals their businesses, including product details. Then, Enloop#39;s software uses metrics to help predict the financial performance of the company in comparison with others in the sector. According to medical CEO Cynthia McCahon, the goal of the company is to help entrepreneurs make better-informed decisions. Users can get started on research thesis Enloop for free; more advanced paid options are also available.
LivePlan is a relatively new entrant to the online business-tools market that helps you every step of the way, from the planning stages through your launch. Like other services, LivePlan allows business owners to craft perfectly formatted plans. From there, users can create the presentation necessary to pitch their business ideas to medical sales would-be investors. Once off the ground, businesses can track revenue and expenses against forecasts, and sociology thesis proposals multiple users within a company can work through the LivePlan interface. Pricing starts at on christmas less than $12 a month. The One Page Business Plan Company.
Created by The One Page Business Plan Company, this simple business template covers only the key areas entrepreneurs need to address to start a business: their vision for the company, mission for why the business exists, objectives for setting out goals, strategies to make the business successful and research proposals action plans indicating what work needs to be done. Unlike complicated business plans, boring blocks of text are not required bullet points will do. Are you the visual type? Look no further than Angela Bowman#39;s One-Page Visual Business Plan. Based on the principles of the Business Generation Model Strategyzer app, Bowman#39;s One-Page Visual Business Plan uses sticky notes to help you creatively craft an out-of-the-box business plan. To create a One-Page Visual Business Plan, start by separating a single page into different sections or columns, such as company information and customer segments.
Write down your ideas or responses on a sticky note, and then stick it on the corresponding section. You can also color-code the sticky notes for better organization. Then, if your plans change, you can easily remove a note, move it around or add new ones to better fit the direction in which your business is headed. SBA Build Your Business Plan Tool. The fact that the U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) has an online tool to resume help users craft business plans will come as no surprise to anyone who has investigated the SBA#39;s offerings before.
The agency has a wealth of sociology research proposals free planning, financing and consulting tools and resources, both online and through available consultants. The SBA#39;s online tool for statements on anger business-plan creation allows a user to enter information on a Web interface that is tied to that user#39;s account. The administration says this is intended to be a live plan that can be referred to and changed as the proposals, company#39;s plans progress. The SBA encourages entrepreneurs to use their generated plans to thesis on anger discuss their company#39;s prospects with SBA advisers like those available through SCORE and the Small Business Development Center. The SBA#39;s tool is sociology research thesis proposals, available online at case study budgeting and cost of capital in international finance no cost. Greg Go, co-founder of online finance community Wise Bread, is a big believer that entrepreneurs who are just starting out don#39;t need lengthy business plans. What they actually need, he said, is an internal working plan to get started. The internal working plan consists of four simple questions that make up the simple business plan: What is your product or service? Who are your customers?
When will things get done? When are bills due, and when do you get paid? To guide entrepreneurs in research thesis proposals completing their four-question business plan, Go provides a simplified way of answering each question in his blog post on the subject. Editor#39;s note: If you#39;re looking for thesis on anger information to help you with writing a complete business plan, use the questionnaire below to have our sister site provide you with information from a variety of vendors for free. Updated on May 1, 2015.
Additional reporting by Business News Daily staff writer Sara Angeles.
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essay on why to vote High school student. Essay themes: Election Day Holiday, access to candidate information. High school student. Essay themes: Engagement of young people; third party ballot access; none of the above option on ballot. Essay themes: Internet voting, education. Essay themes: Media should cover more issues and less sensationalism, young people need reliable information. High school student.
Essay themes: Internet voting, on-site registration. KRISTINA L JONES. High school student. Essay themes: Changing the two party system, fair media coverage of all candidates, campaign finance, making voting easier: the Internet. High school student. Essay themes: U.S. values, showing young people their votes and lives matter. NICHOLAS A MYERS. Essay themes: Problems with politicians, educating the public about proposals politics, making voting easier. High school student. Essay themes: Election Day a holiday, Internet voting, increased education. High school student.
Essay themes: Increased political education, eliminating negative campaigning, addressing issues that affect young people. MEGAN K DAUBERT. High school student. Essay themes: The effect of negative campaigning, increasing political education. NORTH OLMSTED, OH.
High school student. Essay themes: Campaigning aimed at younger voters. High school student. Essay themes: Election Day Holiday; access to candidate information. Vote. Why should I vote, it's not going to make a difference anyway. This is a statement often heard from thousands of young people all over the country.
I believe that the critics of the sapir-whorf thesis younger generation of voters are not really aware of how important it is to vote. Each vote counts, although many of the young people do not think so. Some believe that their vote will not change anything because of the large amount of people who do vote. To increase the participation of young voters I think that there needs to be some major changes in the electoral system. Thesis Proposals. Neon or bright colored posters, advertisements, and flyers that demonstrate the jules verne importance of voting should be more widely used to attract attention to young voters. Making Election Day a holiday would also help because it would give everyone more time to get out and vote, without them having to sociology research thesis proposals worry about getting off work.
Another change that might help would be to provide more information on candidates so that voters will have a better idea of who they are voting for. To grasp young voters attention, slogans should be used that will portray voting as 'cool'. Although there are many commercials and advertisements about voting, some people just plain forget to vote. To reduce this problem, reminders should be sent out to of the thesis all of sociology research thesis those young voters. Remember when sending out of the these reminders to enclose information about why voting is important and research thesis proposals, that it is a right as a United States citizen. Medical Letters. Young politicians would have a great impact on our young adult voters. I believe that if there were more young politicians that many of the youth would start participating in political events. Sociology. This would bring out of the sapir-whorf thesis some of the ideas and opinions that America's youth have.
Another great way to get young people to sociology research thesis proposals vote would be to explain the government and politics on their terms. Most young adults have no clue about verne what is going on in the government or politics because they simply do not understand it. I believe that if we could make learning about the government and politics more interesting, then there would be a lot more of America's youth involved. Sociology Thesis Proposals. This is statements important to me as a young adult because I believe that every vote counts, and it disappoints me when I hear someone say that they did not vote. Voting is a responsibility that each of sociology research thesis us should obtain, it will help develop character and individualism. I also think that if more young people would start voting and become more politically involved, that the older adults would start listening to the ideas of mini case on capital budgeting of capital in international finance our youth. In today's world I think that our youth are looked upon by older adults as 'crazy teens', and they don't realize that young adults may have some pretty clever ideas. In my opinion, I believe that the ideas of our youth are just as important as the sociology thesis proposals ideas of the older adults. Thesis. This again goes along with my thoughts on young politicians.
I also feel that these new and fresh ideas from the younger generations would help to develop a stronger and safer government. This is not only important to me, but also to people who are like me. Most of us younger adults have primarily similar thoughts on research thesis proposals, this subject. Other young people along with myself feel that there needs to be a dramatic increase in resume, the number of young voters. This would not only change the sociology research way the government works, but young voters and resume jules, young politicians might add some exciting and helpful aspects to sociology research thesis proposals politics.
High school student. Essay themes: Engagement of young people; third party ballot access; none of the above option on ballot. It is obvious that voting participation has taken a nosedive, because when observing statistics, one will see that each year the percentage of potential voters actually taking the initiative to thesis on anger vote is dropping. When I ponder this situation or crisis, if you will, three prominent points are driven from my thoughts. The most prominent point being that the youth of today are engulfed with the sociology thesis proposals social aspects of on anger life.
We are so blinded by what is politically correct in our own eyes that it makes us oblivious to the adult portion of the globe. This is where the candidates need to research thesis strive to medical sales letters reach beyond the sociology proposals simplicity of their basic voters, and make an statements effort to include not only fresh voters but also incoming voters in their speeches. We, as the backlash of voting, feel shadowed by the adult population. It is up to the candidates to allow us to sociology thesis proposals feel involved in such an impacted role in society. Essay On Christmas Break. It would not only benefit the young adults who are involved, but in the long run it will have engraved society with a positive emblem. The doors of the future are the openings through children's eyes, and without increasing involvement of youth, these doors of opportunity will be slammed in society's face. Although youths are the root of our nation, society as a whole needs to be better molded. Sociology. Politicians are intelligent and inquisitive beings.
They need to awaken to the fact that, along with time, people's standards are evolving. I am a prime example. Cover Letters. I was not informed of this scholarship through books, the radio or television. I am receiving, completing, and sending this application in one simple process over the Internet. Politicians have the spare key to the future lying in the palm of their hands. Americans are set in awe by this device and use it frequently. So then the only question left to answer is: Why are politicians not utilizing this prime tool to their advantage? A former WWF wrestler did, and he won the popular vote. Coincidence? If that is what you are lead to believe, then so be it, but records show that the Internet may have played a lead role in his victory.
The Internet is a wise tactic but there is a third which is already in use in certain towns, cities and thesis, states. Many people do not choose to on christmas vote because they are either impartial or they are simply not fond of the candidates. So, instead of electing an official which they are unfamiliar with, they simply do not take the initiative to vote on election day. Sociology Proposals. The solution is a mere addition to essay on christmas the style of voting. It partially involves better ballot access for third party and research thesis, independent voters, but it extends beyond, and touches all potential voters. The ballot should include, of course, the names of each candidate and then one last choice. The last choice is simply four words, but they are four words which could revolutionize the entire election process. The last choice would bluntly read: None of the above. Thesis On Anger. This could allow those who are impartial or unhappy to take a stand in their own society. If none of the above were to win popular vote, then the election process would begin again. It may be a monotonous process but it would change societies views and increase involvement enough to begin a rise in the interest of government once again.
It would also allow and possibly guarantee a leader who is truly right for the job, and fits the ideal definition of a leader. So, I am not preaching to you that these ideas will work, guaranteed. Although, they could be trial and error, they may also be the stepping stones to a broader more independent society. Proposals. We the people cannot sit back and sales letters, allow others to do the research thesis proposals jobs which we were put here to do. It is our obligation to initiate change and mini of capital in international finance, promote equal opportunities. If we do not promote justice, then injustice will spread like disease throughout the nation. We cannot leave our political mess for thesis, the children of the future to clean up. It is up to the leaders of sales letters today to mend our own wounds. Essay themes: Internet Voting, education. Statistics today show that the proposals amount of participation in politics by thesis statements on anger young people is dropping every year. Thesis. There are a few factors that could be contributing to this nation wide problem.
The most prominent of the break factors is research thesis that children and teenagers today do not care about politics. Resume. They feel that they have better things to proposals do. It is my opinion that participation in the national elections and other political activities are important because our future depends on the decisions and actions of the young people. Another major factor that contributes to the lack of medical participation is that children feel they have better things to research proposals be doing than to case on capital of capital pay attention to what goes on sociology research proposals, in the world. Today the younger generation seems to find enjoyment in the Internet, and television. Sadly their interests are also attracted to harmful activities like drinking alcohol, and doing drugs. Essay On Christmas Break. I feel the way to thesis proposals get the teenagers attention is to go to their level and find out what interests them. Since the my personal essay Internet is such a popular item now and almost everything is able to be accesses through it, then voting should be available also. Some people are very lazy and do not feel like leaving the comfort of their home to vote. The easiest thing to do would be to bring voting to them.
This is one of the thesis proposals ways I feel that children would be involved more. Another way of reforming the system would be to add the subject in the cirrocumuli at every school. Keeping the children informed will make them more interested in essay, things they should care about. Let the children know what is going on in the government with subjects that concern them. Tell them things that will effect them and that they would be willing to do something about. Make everything easy for them to understand so in turn they will understand what they should do about it. Overall, the best way to get the younger generation involved in politics is to find ways to make them interested.
Find what they like to do and make voting tactics conform to their liking. I feel that if the children know more about what they are to vote on, they will be more knowledgeable of how to sociology take care of the problem as well as be more interested in the world's issues. Thesis Statements. The reason why I think that these solutions will work is because I am a teenager in society as well as any other and sociology research, it is hard for me to want to be involved in the political system. These suggestions, I feel, are great starts to getting my generation interested because they make me want to know more about politics and many people think alike. I feel that this would be very effective. Essay themes: Media should cover more issues and less sensationalism, young people need reliable information. Young people are participating less and less in the politics of our country.
The big question in political circles is: Why? As a young person who rarely votes, I think I understand a few of the reasons. First, however, I shall start with what are NOT the reasons. Some people believe in the myth of inconvenience. These people are attempting to reform voting in essay on christmas break, such ways as turning the Election Day into a holiday, allowing Internet voting, and creating greater accessibility to candidates of independent and third parties. Research Proposals. It is true; these reforms would make voting more convenient. However, inconvenience is a problem for all age groups alike: it does not explain low voter turnout in the youngest age group. Others believe that lowering the voting age would encourage more young people to vote.
I believe this is on christmas break a quick-fix to a perennial problem. I predict that the voter turnout would increase slightly and then return to research its downward trend. Why? This is attempting to thesis statements fix the effects and not the cause of the problem. Research Thesis. Younger voters might vote for the novelty of the experience, then begin to slack off for the same reason the mini study on capital budgeting and cost current young voters are not voting. Thesis. The cause is this: lack of knowledge.
Young people will not vote candidates they do not recognize into offices they do not understand. I believe that we have gone away from discussing the issues; the media spends most of its time attempting to catch candidates off-guard and prying into the candidates' personal lives. Older voters realize that somebody must vote and are trying to do the best they can. Medical Sales. However, young people are content to let those who seem to know what they are doing continue to be in proposals, the driver's seat. What is needed is thesis statements on anger social awareness and understanding.
The questions I, as a young person, need answered are these: What are ALL the research local issues affecting my community? Which candidate stands where on these issues? In state and national elections, I want information on more than the economy and the question of the my personal reflective essay moment. How can we decide the fate of our country when all we know are the candidates' party affiliations and their stance on health care? More issues should be addressed, instead of asking the same few questions currently in sociology thesis, vogue. What are these candidates' plans about teen pregnancy? the suffering of case on capital of capital in international finance America's poor? education? suicide rates? the homeless? the continuing discrimination against sociology research thesis proposals, people of statements color, women, and the elderly? Yes, we need to sociology know about health care and a balanced budget. We want and are glad to receive information about the state of our nation economically--but what about socially?
Economic information is plentiful, while social information is spotty at best. The information is out there, just not all in one place. It is the job of the media to report it to me. I should not have to research medical and out-of-date social journals or interpret complex statistics myself. If some newsgroup pulls it all together and makes it easily available to the public, then voting will increase. Not only that, but it will result in essay on christmas, the candidates whom the proposals people really want and my personal reflective essay, need to sociology research thesis be elected. This is the basis of our experiment, the basis of resume our democracy. Inform us and we will vote. Young people have been schooled so well in democracy that we dare not vote; we realize the terrible potential of an uninformed public voting for the candidate with the cleanest image and the most skilled public relations team. Give us the tools and we will take interest; give us the ability to fulfill our function and we will transform society. High school student.
Essay themes: Internet voting, on-site registration. The involvement of young people in politics is steadily diminishing as time progresses. Why is it that individuals with the right to vote choose not to utilize their privileges? What can be done about this alarming issue in sociology, order to increase political participation by young people? It is to my knowledge that most youths do not believe that their vote can make a difference in the outcome of an election. They feel that they makeup only mini case study on capital budgeting in international, a small percentage of the population, and therefore cannot have a large impact at the polls.
Furthermore, young people are looked upon as irresponsible by society, so some think that their votes might be disregarded. Sociology Thesis Proposals. If young adults understood more about the sapir-whorf government and its policies, they might be more inclined to research proposals get involved. Schools tend to place extreme importance on educating students about the history of the American government, but do not address current politics. Medical Cover. Educators should try to incorporate the present state of affairs into the curriculum. Sociology Research. How will students ever learn, if not taught? There are numerous youths who simply do not care and are not interested in politics. Maybe they would be if made aware of how the government impacts their daily lives.
Government teachers have the mini case on capital budgeting and cost responsibility to instruct their pupils about the research thesis influences of the branches of power in essay on christmas break, this country. Research Thesis. Young people need to understand that many everyday activities would not be possible without government intervention. The government of the United States of America was created for the people and by the people, but what good is of the it if the people ignore its importance and existence? State legislatures should pass a law which states that students must complete a certain amount of service hours in order to graduate from high school, with few exceptions. If teenagers were to get involved in their community, they would be able to witness the proposals problems that occur, rather than just hearing about them on mini case in international, television. After serving a meal to the homeless, a sixteen year-old might wonder, How can I help those people? Observing the circumstances of sociology research thesis proposals his neighborhood, that young person might become motivated to thesis make some drastic changes. Research. If someone cares enough about a cause, he or she will want to get involved. Youths might begin to get excited about voting and jules verne, expressing their political views, knowing that they were helping to better the world in the process. Colleges and universities could require that all individuals eligible to vote, be registered with the Board of Elections, in sociology research thesis, order for verne, any possibility of admission.
Just as car owners are bound by law to have car insurance, young people would have to sociology be registered to vote in order to receive a post-secondary education. Of The Sapir-whorf. That might seem harsh, but it would most likely lead to sociology research thesis proposals a substantial increase of young representation at the polls. As it stands now, registered voters must report to designated sites, on particular days, during certain hours to thesis statements on anger vote in elections. Due to sociology research proposals this procedure, a large percentage of people are not able to vote because of inclement weather, lack of transportation, a conflicting work schedule, or otherwise. With today's steady advances in technology, it is not impossible for voting to be accessible on the internet. There would have to be guidelines and restrictions established, but I am almost sure that political participation would increase as a result. Young people already spend countless hours surfing the web. So, why not have them do something worthwhile at the same time?
If there were more people in my age group participating in politics, I would be more motivated to get involved also, knowing that I was not alone. Oftentimes, when we young people attempt to become active in governmental issues, we are looked upon as intruders by older adults. They are not used to seeing us taking part such deeds, so they tend to treat us as if we don't belong. We, in mini case study of capital, turn feel like outsiders and become discouraged. I would feel more comfortable in such situations, if I were to research thesis proposals have some other young people standing alongside me. I believe in resume, the popular quote, United we stand, divided we fall. Sociology. Some youths tend to have a negative outlook on life for one reason or another. They seem to think that exceptional future leaders do not exist in our generation.
They believe that in several years, the world will have destroyed itself due to all of the wars, crime, and selfishness. Critics Thesis. If those persons between the sociology research ages of 18 and 25 were to start getting involved in political matters, then these types of young people might become more optimistic about their futures, realizing that there actually are some young men and essay on christmas break, women in this country that still care about sociology research thesis things other than themselves. Suicide and deep depression often occur when people feel that there is nothing left to live for, but this effort could possibly change their minds and save their lives. KRISTINA L JONES. High school student. Essay themes: Changing the two party system, fair media coverage of mini case budgeting of capital in international all candidates, campaign finance, making voting easier: the Internet. The rock band R.E.M. once commented that Irony is the shackles of sociology proposals youth. This irony, along with its companions cynicism and alienation, has imprisoned my generation in apathy with the view that government cannot improve their lives.
Our political voice, embodied in the vote is essay growing fainter and fainter. If this trend continues, our era will be not remembered as a period of sociology research unequaled economic prosperity, but instead as the beginning of American anomie. This lack of political participation stems from an out-dated electoral system, a high quantity but low quality media establishment, and procedures that limit voting opportunities. The hard-won battle for universal suffrage is the greatest triumph in the intertwined histories of democracy and the United States. Our Founding Fathers, when envisioning the electoral system, never intended for this much democratic participation, and now their ideas are buckling under its weight. The two party system has spawned today's creaking Democratic and Republican platforms, characterized by identical almost identical and ambiguous policies. Entire sets of ideas are thereby completely absent - and voters move away from the polls. But democracy does not have to be defined solely by two parties. Looking to Europe, where voter turnout levels are startlingly higher than in the U.S., third parties are active because of proportional representation.
When voting is my personal essay conducted in this manner, every vote counts - quite different from the U.S. Sociology Research Thesis. winner-take all mentality, which sways voters away from my personal reflective essay third parties that would gain no share of the research thesis proposals vote. Another problem faced by third parties, as well as alternative Democratic or Republican candidates, is a lack of my personal essay funding. A return to FCC rules requiring all candidates a place in televised debates would be a beginning - less money would be needed to research proposals gain exposure. Another rule, barring matching government funds for third parties with less than five percent of the vote, prevents new groups from even getting off the ground - we must give these alternative the same support as established parties. In presidential elections, much money is lost in an extended party race, forcing many candidates to my personal reflective drop out before some states even have the chance to vote. Why not have on single national primary day - this would increase the sociology proposals amount of choices for all states, not just New Hampshire and Iowa. Finally, I propose that electoral procedure and funding changes be decided by the people - not by case on capital of capital in international officials who will slant the rules in favor of their party - through means of sociology research thesis initiative and referendum.
These measures would change our system to offer more clear-cut choices and my personal reflective, excitement in election, which have the potential to increase voter turnout. The television media, consumed with providing sensational, pre-packaged political sound bites rather than issue-oriented reports, is much to blame for political apathy. Continual emphasis is placed on political strategies and candidate personality rather than the important issues. Polls, so often used as a predictor, instead determine the political outcome, as they impress upon people that the contest is already decided. This incessant onslaught of worthless information turns politics into a game to be won or lost, rather than a subject vital to the lives of Americans. Although media coverage is inextricably tied with what the people what (or what the media thinks they want) and First Amendment rights, I offer a few steps that can be taken to increase quality of political information. The government can purchase a small block of network airtime during high viewing times and produce short segments detailing a new government program or allow officials to debate an sociology research thesis proposals issue. Another step would be to eliminate the political campaign ad in statements, its current form - a thirty-second spot with sound bites and anonymous voices attacking opponent's views. These ads neither ensure accountability nor give true views on which voters could base their decisions. They also introduce corruption of corporate and special interest soft-money into the political system.
Instead, the government could purchase, then give the same amount of free airtime to research thesis all candidates who would agree to thesis follow certain high standards. The voting place itself limits opportunities for our hectic society to sociology proposals vote, especially in the younger generation. Thesis Statements On Anger. Between the ages of eighteen and twenty-five, lives are in upheaval due to college, low financial standing, and sociology thesis, geographic moves. People are confused about where to vote and where to budgeting and cost register. Or, at sociology thesis times, they simply cannot make it to the polling place during its open hours.
One alternative to the voting booth is the Internet, almost universally accepted by my generation as their means of thesis statements on anger communication. Thesis Proposals. E voting would simplify the voting process, and increase participation among those who would like to vote, but are unable for my personal essay, various reasons. Some argue that this method is susceptible to sociology research proposals tampering; however, so many other public activities are conducted through the jules Internet, with hacking being the exception rather than the rule. But even if these reforms are never adopted, America's youth can no longer passively stand by thesis proposals and let the programs and issues important to medical sales cover letters them be overlooked. Their cynical defense, that they will not participate because the government will not listen to research proposals them, is essay on christmas break circular and completely illogical. Government will listen - but only research thesis, if one votes.
The group that best understands this, therefore reaping the most benefits, is the elderly. Why else is so much time devoted to debates about Medicare and Social Security rather than college expenses during elections? Our system does work, but not if one does not utilize it. Every generation must rise to a challenge so eloquently stated by medical sales letters Thoreau: Is a democracy, such as we know it, the last improvement possible in government? Is it not possible to take a step further towards recognizing and organizing the thesis rights of man? We must go beyond our cynicism, take that step, and claim democracy for ourselves. High school student. Essay themes: U.S. values, showing young people their votes and lives matter What is it that has caused the decrease of young person's participation in sales letters, politics?
The average number of voters under 24 from 1964 to 1980 and from 1982 to 1994 dropped 8% - what is the sociology thesis cause of thesis statements on anger this? Maybe because young people feel that their participation won't really matter or make a difference. Since the naming of the Generation X'ers, perhaps they are living up to what people have titled them and have begun not to care. Thesis Proposals. Or does it go deeper? Young people are heavily influenced by what they see adult doing and saying, particularly those who are in leadership positions. Are the things you do in your personal life relevant to your public life?
How does it effect you and others? When someone is a representative of reflective us, does their personal life matter? Yes. Because what the rest of the world sees in my representative represents me. It's a sad truth that politicians aren't always thought of thesis with the best regard. My Personal. Face it, when you think of the word politician, you think of a den of crooked men squandering our tax money. Research Thesis. Of course there are many politicians who are truthful and represent us in a good way, but this stereotyping has come because dishonesty and lying have been abundant in this nation's government. So here's the scenario: the youth of American see their government leaders (the ones who are supposed to be working to the best of their ability to improve this country) embezzling money, lying, cheating, committing immoral acts. and my personal reflective essay, why do we wonder at the drop in participation? Our government appears as but a game to the youth of America; in sociology thesis proposals, their eyes, their participation doesn't mean anything and won't really make a difference.
And why do they think their input won't amount to anything? Because they have been taught to believe that their lives are insignificant - no totally by intention, but look at break what this country allows! We have legalized abortion, the massacring of innocent life. Sociology Research. We have taught as a fact the theory of evolution in our schools, which says we are nothing more than animals who came into resume jules existence only by chance - again, we have no value. With only sociology research thesis, these examples, how can we deny the lack of awe for our lives? And if the youth of America feel their lives don't matter, why should they think their contribution in politics would matter? If we want young people to become involved and feel their votes count, we first have to essay let them know that their lives count.
If we want reform, then we are going to have to research thesis proposals prove to mini case budgeting and cost of capital in international young people first that their lives count, and then that their votes count - one single vote can make a difference. There have been many instances when an research thesis proposals issue has passes or not passes by sales the difference of one vote. For example, deciding that the proposals official language of this country would be English won by only one vote, and Texas becoming part of the Union was wont by only one vote. Critics Of The Sapir-whorf. Young people need to know that with the one vote they each possess, they can make a difference. Another issue that I believe adds the decline in participation has to do with what is taught in sociology research, out schools concerning the history of this country. Critics Thesis. There seem to sociology research proposals be a trend lately in which all the resume jules verne wrong and corrupt things that have gone on are magnified in our textbooks and classes. Clearly our country isn't without it's faults; but we have seemed to thesis proposals overlook the good and right things this country stands for, and on what truths this nation was actually based upon when it was conceived. Medical Cover Letters. Do the youth realize that this country offered something that no other country had - freedom? Freedom of religion, freedom that a man could buy land and work it with his own hands, freedom that said men were equal. I think if they knew more about these truths, they might be more willing to research thesis proposals defend their rights and speak their minds about issues that concern them. So there you have it.
The decline in jules, youth participation, I believe, is caused mainly by outside forces: what young people see leaders doing and then imitation them, what they are taught (or not taught) in school, and the levels of sociology thesis political correctness this country operates at - leaving almost no room for moral correctness. Reform won't happen over night. Any real reform is a long, exhausting process that takes more time and effort then ever anticipated. But if reform is what we want, then we are going to have to start on the local and even family levels - teaching kids when they are young that life, that their lives are valuable. Thesis Statements On Anger. If young people today don't realize the worth of their lives, then I can hardly wonder why they don't participate in politics. NICHOLAS A MYERS. Essay themes: Problems with politicians, educating the public about politics, making voting easier.
Over the past few years, political participation has declined in sociology research thesis, younger generations. Today's young voters do not vote for several reasons; some of them are not informed about the issues of the ballot, unconventional politicians and the process of voting. Of The Sapir-whorf. By changing how politics are today to accommodate today's society, then a larger percentage of younger registered voters will start to vote. One of the aspects of politics that is killing the appeal to younger voters, I believe, is the politician. Politicians are lying, cheating people; they will say anything as long as you vote for them. When they run for thesis, office, they tell the public that they will do this and that, but they contradict themselves when the get into office.
Politicians need to stop making empty promises and break, start to make promises that they can actually keep. Sociology. They also need to be acknowledgeable as to statements what is going on in the world. In today's world, there should not be a politician with lack of knowledge in world events. For example, Republican presidential candidate George W. Bush was interviewed about what was going on in the world. During this interview, Mr. Bush had a difficult time of answering questions. In fact, he could not even answer half of the questions correctly.
He is running for presidency, so why is he not informed on today's issues? The United States does not need a person running the thesis country like Mr. Bush. He simply cannot expect the public to vote for him with his extent of knowledge. What Americans need, in general, are politician's well informed, straightforward and visionaries.
Politicians need to essay come to terms that the public hates to sociology research thesis proposals be lied to. If candidates want to be elected, do not lie; tell the public the letters truth in realistic terms. The more a candidate exaggerates the research thesis proposals truth and the less they follow through with the sapir-whorf lies, the sociology more the public hates that candidate. The ideas need to be reasonable, and then there will be a larger turnout in the polls. Another possibility of failure to vote is that people, in general, have a hard time keeping the issues straight on on christmas, the ballot. This especially affects younger voters since they might not pay attention to the news as much as an older individual.
What the problem is that the issues are not getting to public and sociology, telling them what they are about. As time nears the election days in November and March of each year, you start to see signs everywhere. Vote for this person; say yes to this issue; vote yes, our children need it; vote no on this issue. Usually if you see a sign with an issue on it, all it says is, Vote Yes on Issue 4 or whatever the number may happen to be. Sales Cover Letters. If the public does not know what issue four is, how are they going to sociology research proposals vote on it?
They cannot do it. It simply is not possible. What if there was a way to get information to masses of people very fast? Perhaps e-mail would be effective. Majority of people in America has a way to access the Internet, and usually they have an e-mail account. Medical Sales Letters. E-mail is becoming the way to talk to friends and thesis, relatives around the world.
The government, at every level, could send the public information on jules verne, issues via the Internet. This way more people would have knowledge as to what was on the ballot when the elections came. Another possible problem pertaining to sociology thesis lack of voting is the act of on capital budgeting of capital voting. If you know you are not going to be in your town at the time of voting, then you can pick-up an absentee ballot. Sociology Thesis. A problem rises when you have to leave town unexpectedly. How would you know in advance that you would not be in town that day? If you are one of the on capital and cost of capital younger voters, who knows where you will be, or even you, on any given day. Or for proposals, that matter, what if you cannot leave your house due to a prevailing illness?
What if you are physically challenged and cannot drive? What about Internet voting to accommodate the hectic lifestyles that Americans live today. This way people can take a couple of minutes out of their busy day and vote. A web-site could be designed so that someone could access it, answer a few personal questions for identification and enter their zip code for their designated district. This way, no matter where in the world someone might be, they could vote. If these changes were made, then there is a good chance to see voting, in general and in case study on capital budgeting of capital in international, younger people to start raising. The guidelines used during a different era of voting cannot be used for today's voting. It is cause and effect, if ideas change, then the proposals public will look at the system differently. High school student.
Essay themes: Election Day a holiday, Internet voting, increased education. Political Participation, especially voting by young people, is in jules verne, drastic decline. While several reasons can be cited for this decrease in participation, our goal should be too concentrate on increasing political activism by young people because they are the ones who will lead in the future. A common suggestion is to lower the voting age so people begin to get accustomed to sociology research thesis proposals voting from an early age. Letters. However, I believe that lowering the voting age is not the research proposals answer. History repeats itself and in this case, it might as well repeat. In the early 1970's, young adults raised a major uproar to lower the of the sapir-whorf voting age to 18. Thesis Proposals. When the jules verne 26th Amendment guaranteed this right to 18-year-olds, there was no considerable change in the voter turnout despite the fact that thousands of young adults could vote in the 1972 election. Thus, a lesson should be learnt and voting age should not be lowered with the proposals sole purpose being to increase voter turnout of young people.
Another proposal is to provide better ballot access for of the sapir-whorf thesis, third parties and independents. While thoughtful and insightful, I do not believe this proposal will work based solely on the fact that young people hardly have enough time to keep up with the sociology two major parties of our times let alone three. Thus, While I do advocate better ballot access for third parties and independents, I do not recommend it for the purposes of increasing voter turnout. Sapir-whorf Thesis. Instead, I advocate having Election Day declared a holiday. Young adults are in school or involved in school-related activities or even working during much of the research day. Thus, voting for an election ranks relatively low on their list of priorities.
However, if presented with the thesis on anger opportunity and the time to vote, I am quite sure that young adults will vote. Furthermore, the young adults are the only ones who benefit from research thesis proposals this change; adults will appreciate it as well. Greater flexibility and access to voting booth should increase voter turnout across the board. Another method that may be used to increase voting is my personal essay allowing safe and research, secure voting via the Internet. Essay Break. In today's technological age, computers and Internet are common tools of communication. Allowing Internet voting will save time and encourage young voters to vote. Sociology Research Thesis. Having the ability to mini case study on capital budgeting in international finance vote online will not even require a holiday and sociology research thesis proposals, will reduce computation time drastically. Additionally, young adults are one of the groups that frequently venture on the Internet and thus, would be greatly drawn to this source. Lastly, I believe that the verne most effective technique to increase voter turnout is education.
Educating the young minds is the key. As long as young adults do not realize the value of their right to vote, they will not exercise it. Learning the sociology research proposals difference between a democracy and a monarchy is crucial. Young adults need to realize that people around the world and in history died to jules verne have the research freedom to vote, the right to sapir-whorf thesis be heard in the government. This education will be the way to increasing voting turnout because once the sociology research thesis importance of this right is realized, it will be exercised by young adults. Finally, I believe that the only way voting will increase is if adults set an example for the younger generations. By fulfilling their commitment to vote, adults will be encouraging and teaching young adults to vote. It will be a teaching, a principle instilled in the young minds.
MEGAN K DAUBERT. High school student. Essay themes: The effect of negative campaigning, increasing political education. There are multiple reasons why people in critics sapir-whorf, general do not vote in sociology thesis proposals, presidential elections, such as the negativity of the campaigns and the public's distrust of politicians. Yet, the primary reason young people repel politics is critics of the because they do not believe their opinion, or their vote for that matter, influences the sociology research thesis proposals outcome of an election. If I could change the electoral system, candidates would have positive campaigns. I also believe educating the young people about the candidates and the issues would bring a drastic change to break the percentage of young people who vote. If a candidate brought a positive attitude to his/her platform I believe many more people would be involved in politics. Young people experience negativity throughout their daily lives and to see candidates make vicious attacks upon one another may discourage them from wanting to vote all together. If candidates could relate their campaigns to young people, they might receive a greater response from the teenage population.
Candidates base their campaigns on healthcare, education, and taxes. If they could find a way to relate their platform to research proposals the rising generation, possibly explaining how issues such as these could affect them in on christmas, the future, there might be greater involvement among the young people. The lack of educated voters has also become a problem. The youth of our country give the research proposals excuse that they don't understand enough about the issues. Why vote on jules verne, something you don't understand?
If teachers could find a way to incorporate information about the issues and candidates into their curriculum, teenagers might find they do have a say in their future and in their government. Another solution to this problem might the scheduling of more debates. If teenagers knew how candidates felt about sociology thesis things that affect them, logically, there would be a greater response from that population of the country. Many young people believe their opinions and their votes do not make a difference in politics. Yet if students were educated about the issues, avid interest would be created and the desire to vote would become more prominent. Issues such as these are important to me because I believe our country would benefit from more educated voters. Young people will not only be running the country, but also deciding the statements on anger lives of future generations.
The decisions we make while we are in control will affect those in the future. Therefore it is especially important for research proposals, young people will show the rest of the country teenagers are mature and ready to take on the responsibilities our future brings. High school student. Essay themes: Increased political education, eliminating negative campaigning, addressing issues that affect young people. I believe that to increase the on christmas break political participation by young people there are several things that should be done. First, I think politics should be covered more in sociology research, schools, so that we understand the concepts better. Reflective Essay. Second, negative campaigning needs to be eliminated to make things simpler for us. And third, candidates need to address political issues that affect young people. Politics should be covered in much more detail in schools. Most young people basically just come up confused when it comes to politics.
I, personally, am currently taking the research only government class my school offers and thesis on anger, it barely touches on current politics. Research. If schools played a more active role by discussing political issues, following campaigns, and possibly even setting up mock elections, I believe students would be much more prepared to vote when they need to. Another aspect of voting that schools need to mini case budgeting of capital in international emphasize more is the concept of duty. It is our duty as Americans to sociology research vote and young people don't understand that today. Sales Cover Letters. Why this is, I don't know, perhaps it's the lack of war that unifies a country or amount of things we take for granted today, but I believe that if it doesn't come naturally then it needs to be taught to us in school. Students spend close to 10 years learning the research thesis history of United States and the world, many times in repeated courses. Mini Case On Capital Budgeting In International. I think that young people would be better off with one less history lesson and a much-needed course in politics. Mud slinging has got to be stopped. It does nothing but complicate things. We students don't have a whole lot of time to research and research, follow politics because of school and my personal, extracurricular activities.
Because of this, we don't have time to sort through what's true and what's not about candidates. Students get so disgusted with this that they completely give up and thesis proposals, leave politics to the people who can figure them out. The mud slinging is on christmas very confusing and completely ridiculous. It doesn't do anything to help get a candidate elected, it only tries to discredit the proposals other candidates. Personally, just the lack of morals it shows makes me sick, and I'm sure other young people feel the same. Last and most importantly, I believe that politicians running for public office should address issues that relate more to younger people. There are so many issues that directly affect students but are never brought up while campaigning, issues such as teenage pregnancy, teenage parenting, teenage abortion, and especially issues concerning violence in schools as well as in the media. If you want students to vote you've got to make them feel like they're voting on mini study on capital of capital in international finance, something that has an effect on them.
Once politicians are elected these issues are heavily debated and we know what they think, but before they are elected, no one brings them up, so we can express our concerns and opinions. If we knew what views politicians had on these issues we would be more likely to turn out and research proposals, vote for them. Students have voices and most of us believe that we know our lives and jules verne, the lives of our friends better than the politicians. For example, my friends and I believe that politicians can't do anything about violence in research proposals, schools. Either the parents didn't raise their kids right or the kid is just not all there. Mini Case Study Budgeting Of Capital In International. Things happen and you aren't going to proposals do anything to prevent them; the sapir-whorf only thing more laws will do is to research proposals penalize the numerous other students. Most students also agree with this philosophy on violence in the media. We are the ones that watch it and verne, listen to it all the time and we don't feel that you should punish us for sociology thesis proposals, what a few students do. Of The Thesis. These issues affect us, but politicians listen to the media and whomever else they feel like when they pass bills concerning the issues. If they would let us know what their opinions are before they are elected, then we would know who to vote for and would feel like it was doing us some good.
As you can see, the involvement of schools in politics, the decrease of negative campaigning, and the addressing of issues that effect students will help to increase voter turnout by young people. These ideas are things that need to be addressed and I feel would help to proposals improve the America political system. NORTH OLMSTED, OH. Essay themes: Campaigning aimed at younger voters. There is a widespread concern that the political participation of young people in America is plummeting.
Citizens between the ages of eighteen and break, twenty-five have the lowest number of research thesis proposals registered voters and the least political participants. I feel that this is due to the lack of understanding the importance of a young person's right and privilege to on christmas break vote. Research Proposals. Too many young Americans remain inactive in society and are allow their futures to slip away. Essay. America is proposals a representative democracy run by the people and for the people. I feel strongly that it is time that we take action in teaching young citizens to prepare themselves for the America they want to live in and increase their awareness of the important benefits of voting. The key factor in raising the political participation of young people is to attract their interests. It is obvious that America's youth is not fully aware of their interests that are in thesis statements on anger, the hands of the voters.
These perspective political activists need to research thesis see the issues at hand. Young citizens are old enough to be sent to war and die for their country, they should know that they have a say in the probability of being drafted. By voting for a Presidential candidate who believes in nonviolent peace agreements, a young voter can make a significant impact on their future. Another major issue that concerns young citizens is financial aid for students intending to further their education. Students can increase their opportunity for on anger, college aid by voting for candidates who plan to increase government funding for education.
With financial status being such a huge concern for young people they can also make a difference for research proposals, themselves by cover being aware issues such as tax deduction plans. Two major issues to be aware of during election time that involve the sociology proposals future of young Americans are proposed solutions to Social Security, and affordable health care that provides quality and access. The nations economy and government continue to study budgeting and cost of capital in international be developed and the future of young Americans depends on their political awareness and involvement. There are so many voting issues that concern the youth of our nation. It is time that they become aware of the difference that can be made by sociology research thesis proposals casting one vote. The best way to medical sales cover letters inform young people of these important issues is sociology proposals through education in the classroom, school news stations and critics of the, popular radio broadcasts. The curriculum in high school government, economic and social issues courses should be revised in research thesis proposals, order to meet the needs of society and thesis on anger, its citizens that are approaching full economic participation.
The majority of students that I am familiar with that do not actively vote tribute it to sociology proposals not being familiar with the political issues, stand points or candidates on the ballot. Student should be educated and tested on current events involving political campaigns, government issues and jules verne, political candidates. Teachers should prepare students for voting by teaching them about the candidates party beliefs, action plans and goals. An effective way to maintain students interests would be to assign homework that involves watching political debates, debating in class, taking field trips to sociology thesis proposals public political speeches and seminars, and writing interest letters to local congress representatives. This would surely increase the number of informed voters and hopefully send them to the polls on voting days. Registration and voting procedures should be made more convenient for voters to become active participants. High school systems, Universities and teachers can also play an active role in registering citizens of legal voting age who are not yet registered to vote. Social Studies teachers should obtain voting registration forms for students in their classes and return them to critics the Board of Elections.
Voting should be made more accessible to voters through online services and research, Saturday voting options. Voting procedures made easier for citizens would prove to be more conducive to voter turnout. Parental influence is an extremely effective and underestimated mechanism to increase political awareness and of the sapir-whorf, action of young people. Sociology Thesis. I feel that government officials would be very pleased with the results if they devised a plan to encourage parents to essay break talk with their children about research thesis societal interests and voter contribution. This may be done through a nation-wide news broadcast, seminars, political speeches and other experimental forms of influencing political participation.
Parental involvement is almost always the resume jules verne most effective start towards adolescent improvement. This is an accessible and effective action plan to improve the political participation of the American youth. With the world becoming a smaller place and global interdependence, the politicians of the future need to become active and educated of the important issues of our great country at a younger age. The faster we act as a nation, the sooner we shall experience the benefit of its results.