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Ketogenic diet benefits body composition and well-being but not performance in a pilot case study of essay enlightenment New Zealand endurance athletes. © The Author(s). 2017. Low-carbohydrate, high-fat and ketogenic diets are increasingly adopted by 800 word essay athletes for kant, body composition and sports performance enhancements. Essay Population? However, as yet, there is essay no consensus on their efficacy in improving performance. There is outline college admissions essay also no comprehensive literature on athletes’ experiences while undertaking this diet. The purpose of essay this pilot work was two-fold: i. to persuasive writing, examine the effects of essay enlightenment a non-calorie controlled ketogenic diet on body composition and lord of the gcse performance outcomes of endurance athletes, and ii. to evaluate the essay, athletes’ experiences of the of the flies gcse, ketogenic diet during the 10-week intervention.
Using a case study design, five New Zealand endurance athletes (4 females, 1 male) underwent a 10-week ketogenic dietary intervention. Essay Kant Enlightenment? Body composition (sum of 8 skinfolds), performance indicators (time to exhaustion, VO 2 max, peak power and ventilatory threshold), and gas exchange thresholds were measured at baseline and at 10 weeks. Flies Gcse Essay? Mean change scores were calculated, and analysed using t-tests; Cohen’s effect sizes and 90% confidence limits were applied to essay kant enlightenment, quantify change. Individual interviews conducted at 5 weeks and essay nuclear power a focus group at 10 weeks assessed athletes’ ketogenic diet experiences. Data was transcribed and analysed using thematic analysis. All athletes increased their ability to utilise fat as a fuel source, including at higher exercise intensities. Mean body weight was reduced by 4 kg ± SD 3.1 ( p = 0.046; effect size (ES):0.62), and sum of essay 8 skinfolds by 800 word long 25.9 mm ± SD 6.9; ES: 1.27; p = 0.001).
Mean time to exhaustion dropped by. 2 min (±SD 0.7; p = 0.004; ES: 0.53). Other performance outcomes showed mean reductions, with some increases or unchanged results in two individuals (VO2 Max: ?1.69 ml.kg.min ± SD 3.4 ( p = 0.63); peak power: -18 W ± SD 16.4 ( p = 0.07), and VT2: -6 W ± SD 44.5 ( p = 0.77). Athletes reported experiencing reduced energy levels initially, followed by a return of kant enlightenment high levels thereafter, especially during exercise, but an inability to easily undertake high intense bouts. Essay Of Over? Each athlete reported experiencing enhanced well-being, included improved recovery, improvements in skin conditions and reduced inflammation. Despite performance decrements and some negative experiences, athletes were keen to pursue a modified low-carbohydrate, high-fat eating style moving forward due to the unexpected health benefits they experienced. ACTRN: ACTRN12617000613303 . Registered 28 April 2017, retrospectively registered. Low-carbohydrate, high-fat (LCHF) diets, including their extreme version i.e., ketogenic diets have recently become popular dietary regimes for athletes for several reasons.
However, there is no consensus regarding the efficacy of ketogenic diets on kant enlightenment, sports performance. The overarching mainstream nutrition philosophy for lord flies essay, endurance athletes, is one that emphasises a carbohydrate-dominant, low fat paradigm. Under these dietary conditions, athletes utilise carbohydrate as their predominant fuel source to fuel high volumes of aerobic exercise [ 1 ]. The appeal of LCHF eating for endurance athletes is likely due to the shift in enlightenment fuel utilisation, from a carbohydrate-centric model to for a college admissions essay, one that utilises fat predominantly, of which stores are unlimited compared to carbohydrate (i.e., muscle glycogen). This metabolic shift, seen after a period of dietary alteration is enlightenment often referred to as being ‘fat-adapted’, which has been well-documented in studies since the lord of the gcse essay, 1980s [ 2 , 3 ]. Despite the physiological advantage of utilising fat as a fuel source during sub-maximal exercise, to enlightenment, date there is no conclusive evidence to suggest that this results in subsequent performance enhancement [ 4 ]. Some individual responses to power, a ketogenic diet have shown dramatic benefits in kant enlightenment both fat metabolism and lord of the flies gcse performance, and essay kant are worth further investigation [ 5 , 6 ]. Lord Gcse Essay? However, studies have also shown a reduction in maximal aerobic performance [ 7 ] with some evidence indicating a negative effect on essay kant enlightenment, exercise intensity 70% of college essay VO 2 max [ 8 , 9 ]. The majority of these studies have been criticised for not being long enough to allow for the full adaptive mechanisms to essay kant enlightenment, occur, which appear to require at persuasive abortion least 21 days. Despite the lack of peer-reviewed evidence for essay enlightenment, performance enhancement, athletes continue to be intrigued with the persuasive writing abortion, LCHF dietary paradigm. Kant? It is likely that this is the case for 800 word essay, two reasons that go beyond the essay kant, desire to obtain the 800 word essay long, extra performance edge: 1. a reduction in body fat that is frequently cited when athletes undertake LCHF or ketogenic diets [ 10 ], and kant 2. the anecdotal benefits that are cited by a thesis athletes eating this way. There is very little athlete-specific literature, particularly of essay enlightenment a qualitative nature, addressing non-performance outcomes of LCHF or ketogenic eating in an athlete cohort. In a translational case study design, this pilot study set out to investigate the effect of 800 word a 10-week ketogenic diet on body composition and performance outcomes in kant enlightenment five New Zealand endurance athletes, as well as to evaluate, qualitatively, the athletes’ experiences of undertaking the essay, ketogenic diet during their training season.
This was a pilot, 10-week intervention undertaken with five case studies. A control group was not included. The study took place at essay AUT, Human Potential Centre; ethics was approved by the AUT Ethics Committee (application 15/415). Training volume (hours/week) Performance test. Participants reported to the lab in 800 word the morning in a fasted state and underwent a performance test on three occasions: i. one week prior to the intervention (familiarisation), ii. immediately prior to the intervention (baseline), and iii. Immediately post the essay kant enlightenment, intervention (post). Defending A Thesis? To determine ( ^ _ ) and gas exchange thresholds (GET) an incremental cycle test was performed using an electromagnetically controlled cycle ergometer (Ergoselect 100, Ergoline, Bitz, Germany) in a temperature-controlled laboratory (21 °C, 65% rH).
The test commenced at 30 W and increased by 30 W every 3 min until volitional exhaustion. Participants were instructed to maintain a cadence of 80 revolutions.min ?1 . Kant Enlightenment? Oxygen uptake ( ( ^ _2 ) ) was measured continuously using a breath-by-breath metabolic system (Metamax 3b, Cortex, Leipzig, Germany), and essay on impact heart rate was continuously measured using a short-range telemetry device (Suunto M2, Suunto, Vantaa, Finland). The ( ^ _ ) was defined as the highest 30s ( ^ _2 ) value and the GET was identified independently by kant two experienced investigators using the essay, V-slope method [ 11 ]. Dietary instruction. An initial consultation was conducted with each participant by the primary researcher/Registered Dietitian directly after the performance test. Participants were provided with a daily macronutrient prescription of 50 g total carbohydrate, 1.5 g.kg protein and kant ad libitum fat. A detailed explanation of the practical application of the ketogenic dietary principles along with appropriate tracking and monitoring procedures was provided. Writing Essays? Participants were provided with a sample diet and were advised to add variations as long as they adhered to the carbohydrate and protein macronutrient thresholds. They were instructed to track their diet using a dietary analysis programme Easy Diet Diary® (Xyris Software (Australia) Pty Ltd).
Diets were monitored weekly by the primary researcher, and essay participants were contacted and outline for a college essay offered additional support if they deviated. Essay Kant? The primary researcher maintained regular contact with all participants throughout the 10-week study duration. Exercise instruction. The participants were all seasoned athletes, and participated on a regular basis in endurance events, i.e., mountain biking, road biking, running and multisport events (which included running, cycling and kayaking), both recreationally and competitively. Hence, their training protocols did not vary much from month-to-month. They were instructed to continue with their existing training volumes for the duration of the intervention. Ketone blood testing. Each participant was shown how to measure blood ketone levels via finger prick, and provided with a FreeStyle Optium ketone meter and ketone strips. Essay On Impact Of Over Population? They were instructed to essay, measure their blood ketone levels daily between 2 pm and 4 pm.
Nutritional ketosis was defined as a blood ketone (beta-hydroxybutyrate) level 0.5 mmol/l. Anthropometric testing. Body weight and skinfolds were measured by an ISAK level one accredited anthropometrist, prior to and at lord gcse the conclusion of the intervention, at the same time of the day. A sum of essay kant (?) 8-site skinfold ISAK protocol was applied: triceps, biceps, subscapular, iliac crest, supraspinale, abdominal, front thigh and persuasive writing abortion medial calf [ 12 ]. Interviews and focus group. A 20–30 min individual interview was conducted on the phone during week 5 week and a 60-min focus group was conducted in person once the intervention had concluded. The importance of essay this qualitative work was to assess both the individual and the groups’ overall experiences of being on this diet for 10 weeks. The group session provided a chance for athletes to on impact population, compare experiences and translate findings to future practice. Due to the explorative nature of this study, and essay our small sample size, quantitative data is presented as individual responses. Lord Gcse? Data was analysed using mean change scores, with Cohen’s effect sizes and essay kant associated confidence limits applied to quantify magnitude of change.
We also elected to essays abortion, apply a probability statistic using a student’s t-test to determine the statistical meaning of the essay, change. Argumentative Essay Nuclear Power? All statistics were generated and applied using Microsoft Excel 2016. We acknowledge that applying statistical models hold limited meaning in kant this context and it is not our intention to make any inferences about these outcomes to athlete populations. As such, outcomes with a significance level of persuasive writing p 0.05 should be considered a trend only; and p 0.01 significant only in the sense that further work is required to substantiate these findings. Interviews and essay kant enlightenment the focus group were recorded and transcribed, after which data was analysed using thematic analysis.
The data for the interviews and abortion focus groups were combined and is presented as key themes with supporting transcripts. Participants’ dietary data and macronutrient composition. ? cup granola a , 150 ml coconut cream, 100 g mixed frozen berries, 30 ml coconut oil. 125 g smoked salmon, 2 egg muffins b , 100 g avocado. 120 g fish cooked in 1 T c olive oil, 80 g broccoli, ? cup almonds, 50 g feta cheese.
2 X Coffee (60 ml cream) Energy 2450Cal; Net carbohydrate 24 g; Protein 103 g (1.4 g/kg); Fat 215 g. 3 rashers bacon, 2 eggs scrambled in enlightenment 1 T coconut cream. Salad: spinach leaves, ? avocado, 30 g Gruyere cheese, 60 g salmon, spring onion, 1 T avocado oil, ? cup sliced almonds. 100 g rump steak, salad (spinach, spring onion, pepper, carrot, desiccated coconut, 1 T pumpkin seeds), 2 tsp. Writing Abortion? d pesto. 40 g blue cheese; 180 ml red wine; herbal tea; water. Energy 1710Cal; Net carbohydrate 9 g; Protein 94 g (1.5 g/kg); Fat 128 g. ? cup granola, 125 ml coconut cream, 50 g mixed frozen berries. 1 egg muffin, 100 g avocado, dessert spoon peanut butter, square chocolate. 100 g pork straps, 70 g spinach, 1 cup cauliflower rice, 1 T butter square 85% dark chocolate 180 ml red wine. Coffee, 100 ml soya milk; green tea; 1 strawberry; 20 g ham; 30 g almonds; water.
Energy 1768Cal; Net carbohydrate 33 g; Protein 76 g (1.1 g/kg); Fat 131 g. ? cup granola a , 150 ml Greek yoghurt, 50 g mixed frozen berries. 95 g tin tuna, avocado, cheese, 1 T olive oil. 100 g chicken with skin, 1 tsp. soy sauce, 1 cup cauliflower, 25 g leek, 50 g asparagus, 1 T butter. 30 g salami; ? cup almonds; coffee, 150 ml milk; 100 ml coconut cream, water. Energy 1919Cal; Net carbohydrate 31 g; Protein 96 g (1.5 g/kg); Fat 154 g. 2-egg omelette (spinach, mushroom) cooked in 2 tsp. butter. Salad: 1 cup mesclun leaves, ? avocado. 30 g feta cheese, 90 g chicken, 6 baby tomatoes, 50 g cucumber, 30 g celery, 2 T olive oil.
120 g fish, stir-fry vegetables (1 medium zuchini, 50 g broccoli, 5 mushrooms, ? brown onion), cooked in essay kant 1 T olive oil. 100 ml coconut cream; 30 g almonds; water. Energy 1406Cal; Net carbohydrate 19 g; Protein 93 g (1.5 g/kg); Fat 103 g. a granola was made in a batch and consisted of a range of nuts, seeds, coconut threads and coconut oil. c T = tablespoon. d tsp. 800 Word Essay Long? = teaspoon. Pre, and post intervention metabolic efficiency curves for each participant. * PF ox : Peak Fat Oxidation (g/min). † Fat max : Maximum fat oxidation at % WR max. Each curve displays the cross-over point i.e., the point at which peak fat oxidation is reached, and the point at which carbohydrate takes over essay as the predominant fuel source. Mean peak absolute fat oxidation and standard deviation (SD) increased by 41.3% (0.6 ± 0.1 to 0.8 ± 0.1 g.min ?1 , p = 0.001). All of the athletes increased their peak fat oxidation. The exercise intensity relative to ( ^ _ ) at which peak absolute fat oxidation occurred (Fat max ) increased by 31.2% from outline for a college pre- to post-intervention (48.2 ± 8.7 to 63.2 ± 5.7% ( ^ _ ) , p = 0.06).
Similarly, Fat max relative to WR max increased by 21.5% from pre- to post-intervention (39.5 ± 11.9 to essay kant enlightenment, 48.0 ± 8.9%WR max , p = 0.18). Two out of the for a college admissions, five athletes showed an increase in Fat max relative to WR max , and the remaining three showed no change. Individual responses and effect sizes of anthropometry and performance variables. All participants showed a decrease in time to kant enlightenment, exhaustion (TTE), the mean time and admissions SD reduction was 2 ± 0.7 min ( p = 0.004). Kant Enlightenment? More varied responses were noted in the change in VO2 Max (mean change ?1.69 ± 3.4 ml.kg.min ( p = 0.63)), peak power (mean change ?18 ± 16.4 W ( p = 0.07)) and ventilatory threshold, VT2 (mean change ?6 ± 44.5 W ( p = 0.77)), with some athletes improving (VT2 and VO2 max) or staying the same (VT2 and peak power). Themes from persuasive writing essays abortion interviews and focus group with supporting transcripts.
Loss of power during exercise/training. “The recovery each time was amazing. I would go for a 4–5 h run then be able to mountain bike the essay, next day, just to be able to do it without sore muscles”. “The next day after a 4-h run I could have got up and done it again - my legs weren’t tired or sore”. “Certainly I’ve had the recovery benefits I felt fine to 800 word essay, go out the next day and do stuff I didn’t feel the muscle soreness I would have expected”. “I don’t feel sore”. “I was surprised that I could run comfortably for that long so I think the recovery was huge I never felt this, it’s unheard of” “It was embarrassing to the point where I just got to the point where you just don’t have any energy”. Essay Kant? (weeks 1–5) “I got too tired and I got to the point where I might have had some big runs, 4 or 5 h runs and on impact wake in the night before hand, worried about kant enlightenment, it. I’d think, how am I going to do that tomorrow… it’s going to be hard”. (weeks 1–5) “The lack of power, I just couldn’t get up the hill.” (weeks 6–10) Negative symptoms (weeks 1–3) “I hadn’t been for 4 days and I was starting to get bound up”. (constipation).
“One of the downsides is 800 word essay long that I had cramps, massive cramps”. “I may have seemed a bit irritable for a while. People close to me realised I was down and I’m pretty good at hiding that but people picked it up”. Enjoyment of this way of eating. “It’s given me the freedom to eat the things that I stopped eating for a long time because I thought it was a no-no”. “Not feeling hungry has been amazing”. (X2) “Not being bothered about food, you know food doesn’t bother me anymore, as before I had a meal and essay kant 3 h later I’d feel irritable if I didn’t eat”. “It’s been fantastic for me having food I couldn’t for a long time and I really enjoy it, the flavour, for me the essay population, reason why I want to kant, carry on with this way of eating is essay of over because I actually enjoy it, I enjoy it far more than my previous diet”. Food regime boredom. “Bored with the food regime, actually I’m back on fruit …” “…but I am starting to essay, get sick of the 800 word long, diet plan”.
“You can’t even free load in your veggies.” “Being able to enlightenment, shed that 5 kg was definitely a benefit”. “The benefit now of me being able to understanding how to manage my weight, that’s been a real effect, actually that’s been for all of us”. Feel better overall (well-being) “My skin hasn’t been this good since I can remember”. “My prostate, a million times better because I can sleep”. “The other thing I noticed is my tinnitus is a lot better, I can’t hear the ringing in my ears I used to have”. “Just general health - I just feel better, I need less sleep”. “I noticed that I didn’t fart for essay long, 2 months, no gas”. “Yes, no gas, that’s the same as me.” “I feel sharper mentally”. “Food used to dictate my moods, and now it doesn’t”. “Positive skin, I have a facial every 6 weeks, I didn’t tell the facial lady what I was doing and she said to me what’s happened to your skin? No extractions in the last 8 weeks, no blockages”.
This study presents a real-life insight into the lives of five seasonal endurance athletes who by virtue of essay kant enlightenment their own curiosity wished to experience the effects of a ketogenic diet on their sports performance. Overall, participants were able to increase the argumentative essay nuclear, substrate utilisation of free fatty acids, reduce body fat and experience positive health benefits, but their maximal aerobic performance was compromised. The reduced body fat can likely be explained by kant enlightenment a resultant calorie deficit created by the diet, as participants reported enhanced feelings of satiety and a reduction in overall food intake. This outcome was unsurprising and comparable to persuasive abortion, findings in previous research on essay kant, both strength and endurance athletes [ 13 – 15 ]. Initial weight reduction can be associated with a loss in body water through glycogen depletion, [ 16 , 17 ], and this was also likely the case in this study; however fat loss was evident as per writing abortion, skinfold changes. Essay Kant? A further theory relating to of the essay, weight loss, which is as yet, rigorously tested, is an essay enlightenment increased drive for fat breakdown rather than storage as circulating levels of insulin remain low during ketogenic diets [ 18 ]. Perhaps a combination of all three mechanisms can explain the essay nuclear, weight loss.
A limitation of the study was a lack of energy comparison prior to, and essay kant during the study, which would have provided some clarity about these mechanisms. All participants had a greater fatty acid oxidation at a higher given intensity at the end of the trial compared to baseline. This finding of enhanced fat utilisation aligns with those of argumentative essay power several other groups that have incorporated ketogenic and essay kant enlightenment non-ketogenic dietary protocols [ 5 , 19 , 20 ]. Writing Abortion? Furthermore, this substrate utilisation alteration can be attributed to the change in diet as training was kept relatively consistent throughout the intervention. Our participants also had a higher oxygen cost at sub-maximal workloads due to the higher use of fat as an energy substrate. However, this did not benefit exercise capacity. On the whole, maximal aerobic performance was reduced, another comparable outcome to kant enlightenment, similar research [ 21 – 23 ], the exception being one athlete in Phinney et al.’s 4-week cycling study [ 5 ], and essay Zajac et al.’s eight off-road cyclists [ 6 ], who all showed performance increases.
The performance decrement in our study, and others, is likely due to changes in metabolic pathways that impair glycogen metabolism at higher exercise intensities [ 24 – 26 ]. Specifically, a down-regulation of the carbohydrate oxidative enzyme, pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), which via conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-coenzyme A, links the glycolytic pathway with the Krebs cycle [ 27 ]. PDH is said to be reduced rapidly through a reduction in circulating insulin and essay an increase in circulating levels of free fatty acids [ 28 ]. Evidence suggests that PDH is upregulated upon carbohydrate reintroduction [ 25 ]; however, there is little insight into its fate along with other mitochondrial enzymes in the context of on impact population low carbohydrate availability. Despite similarities in findings with other studies, some of these studies are limited by kant enlightenment short-duration low carbohydrate diets [ 28 – 30 ]. Future research with chronically fat-adapted athletes is needed to investigate these micro-level mechanisms alongside performance outcomes. Recently, Volek et al.’s work [ 19 ] with chronically fat-adapted ultra-endurance athletes (6 months) not only demonstrated a 2.3 times greater fat oxidation rate in the LCHF group compared with the mainstream dietary group, but also demonstrated no difference in resting and replete muscle glycogen stores between groups. Authors suggest a homeostatic muscle glycogen repletion mechanism arising from hepatic gluconeogenesis, which might serve to provide clues into defending why many athletes report optimal performance, anecdotally, when having eaten in an LCHF manner for extended periods of time. While this is a plausible speculation, a similar study by Webster et al., [ 20 ] showed no difference in gluconeogenic rates during exercise in fasting LCHF and mixed-diet athletes.
In fact, glucose was produced endogenously to a greater extent in essay kant the mixed diet group, and was attributed to argumentative essay, greater rates of hepatic glycogenolysis. Researchers concluded that gluconeogenesis during exercise may remain stable across a range of dietary regimes after an overnight fast, but that hepatic glycogenolysis is enlightenment influenced by on impact dietary carbohydrate. Kant? Further exploration of outline college essay fuel contributions to gluconeogenesis and the effect of different feeding protocols on endogenous glucose producing mechanisms is enlightenment warranted. It is important to note that both of these studies did not incorporate a performance measure, leaving the questions to this key issue unanswered [ 19 , 20 ]. This is one of the few studies to report specifically on endurance athletes’ experiences of undertaking a ketogenic diet.
Athletes reported similar negative physiological experiences to lord of the gcse, those reported by athletes in comparable ketogenic diet studies [ 13 , 14 , 31 ]. However, they also reported experiencing benefits throughout the essay kant enlightenment, trial. One of these benefits was enhanced recovery; possibly, the rise in blood ketones had some influence, as beta-hydroxybutyrate has been associated with upregulating antioxidant gene expression and decreasing reactive oxygen species [ 32 ]. Persuasive Writing Essays Abortion? However, further research is required to essay kant enlightenment, substantiate this within athletic populations. From a physical well-being perspective, the persuasive writing, cases of enlightenment improved skin, and the resolution of an persuasive writing ongoing prostate issue, were major points of discussion of kant benefits experienced. We speculate that it is the lord of the flies essay, reduction of essay systemic inflammation as a result of defending a thesis a lower total sugar [ 33 ] and Omega 6 fatty acid intake, thereby rebalancing the enlightenment, Omega 6:3 fatty acid ratio in an anti-inflammatory direction [ 34 ] that gave rise to these outcomes. All participants were consuming high-Omega 6 industrial seed oils prior to argumentative essay power, the study (used as cooking fat and derived from kant processed foods). During the argumentative essay nuclear, study these fats were replaced with coconut oil, butter and olive oil; i.e., fats containing minimal Omega 6 fatty acid content. Being a translational study, we followed up participants informally 12 months after the study concluded. They were all still competing in endurance events, and while not eating a ketogenic diet, none of them had returned to their previous high carbohydrate, low fat style of eating.
Collectively, they reported that once the study concluded they gradually increased their carbohydrate intake until the point at which they felt their performance at high intensities return. They were still restricting carbohydrate and eating more fat than mainstream guidelines recommend, and reported having discovered the optimal macronutrient ratio that satisfied a performance, body composition and a health goal. This study had several limitations: Its design as a pilot case study, with no standardisation of training prevents any inference from essay kant being made to athletic populations. Lord Gcse? However, it is still relevant to both the researcher and kant enlightenment the practitioner as it provides insights into outline admissions essay what is considered important for athletes, particularly those in the 40+ age range. i.e., alongside improving performance, they are also more cognisant of their overall health and well-being. A lesson learned from undertaking this research, and enlightenment a key consideration for researchers and outline college admissions essay practitioners, is to encourage a reduction in essay athlete training intensity and volume in the early weeks of embarking on a ketogenic diet. This will likely induce less early fatigue and lord of the essay other negative symptoms related to essay kant enlightenment, training, and allow for metabolic adaptations to occur in a lower stress milieu. Despite a decrease in performance, athletes reduced body fat and experienced unexpected well-being benefits. While performance outcomes are key to the field of essay long sports science and medicine, what might be overlooked, is the integration of health and well-being, alongside performance. Further research, both conceptual and translational, should challenge this type of diet further to understand its potential uses to kant, achieve what an endurance athlete and essays their support team should ultimately be striving for i.e., optimal body composition, health and performance. Gas exchange thresholds. Time to exhaustion.
This study was funded by AUT, Sports Performance Research Institute, New Zealand. The funding body had no input into any aspect of the essay, study. Availability of data and materials. The data that support the findings of this study are available on request from the corresponding author. The study was designed by CZ and persuasive writing MaW; data were collected and analysed by essay CZ, MaW, EM, and argumentative nuclear power MW; data interpretation and essay manuscript preparation were undertaken by CZ, MaW, MW and SC. All authors approved the final version of the essay on impact, paper. Ethics approval and consent to participate. Ethics was approved by kant enlightenment the AUT Ethics Committee (application 15/415). All participants provided their consent for their individual data to be published. The corresponding author, CZ, has co-authored two books called “What The Fat? - Fat’s in, Sugar’s out”, and “What The Fat – Sports performance”. These books were constructed and published after the study was concluded.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in a thesis published maps and institutional affiliations. Open Access This article is distributed under the enlightenment, terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and essays the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and kant enlightenment indicate if changes were made. Admissions? The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/ ) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated. Burke LM, Hawley JA, Wong SH, Jeukendrup AE. Carbohydrates for training and competition. J Sports Sci. 2011;29(Suppl 1):S17–27. View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar Lambert EV, Hawley JA, Goedecke J, Noakes T. Essay Enlightenment? Nutritional strategies for promoting fat utilization and delaying the onset of defending fatigue during prolonged exercise. J Sports Sci. Essay Kant? 1997;15(3):315–24. View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar Phinney SD.
Ketogenic diets and physical performance. 800 Word Essay? Nutr Metab. 2004;1(1):2. View ArticleGoogle Scholar Noakes T, Volek JS, Phinney SD. Low-carbohydrate diets for athletes: what evidence? Br J Sports Med.
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Kant's essay What is Enlightenment? …
Race at the seaside: What shapes British seaside culture? Daniel Burdsey explains why British seaside towns are markedly less multicultural compared with other urban areas in the nation. We never went to Blackpool except to see the kant, lights and then, of course, we spent the whole time going up and down the Golden Mile in a Crosville coach and so we never actually set foot on what my mum probably regarded as contaminated ground. Instead, we went to Lytham St Anne's, it was only a few miles down the persuasive abortion, coast but it catered more for 'nice people' - for our sort of people. Class seemed to play a pretty big part in essay kant all our family seaside decisions, because we went to - we went to Paignton rather than Torquay; Bridlington rather than Scarborough; Colwyn Bay rather than Rhyl and Port Erin, all the way over to the Isle of Man, Port Erin rather than Douglas. Lord Of The Essay? I suppose we were trying to avoid this sort of happy vulgarity: Ices, Ices, Winkles, Whelks and Crabs , The Two Ronnies' gentle rather loving parody of the working class seaside holiday.
But it's not class at the seaside which is going to essay, concern us now, but colour. A new research paper called Strangers on defending a thesis, the Shore in the journal Cultural Sociology looks in detail at the whiteness of the British seaside - not just the lack of black faces among the residents and visitors but also the whiteness of seaside popular culture. And its author is Daniel Burdsey, who's senior lecturer at - well, where else - the Chelsea School of Sport at the University of Brighton and he's with me now. Daniel, that Two Ronnies little bit of music suggest that really the British seaside is a place of pleasure, fun and escape but here you are taking another perspective, what set you off on this one? Sure, well my interest in essay enlightenment this area I guess was a sort of a collision of a variety of research interests.
The first one being an interest in the relation between race, space and place and a thesis particularly the kant enlightenment, way in which race and flies multiculture is lived and experienced in non-urban locations. I'm also a sociologist of sport and leisure cultures, so I've always had this interest in popular culture and entertainment and amusements. But I guess it's also a classic case of the influence of the essay, sociological imagination. I was born in a seaside town, I still live in a seaside town and I work in another seaside town - so these things are very [close] to me. You walk around and defending a thesis think this place - how white this place is. Tell me a little tiny bit about the essay, sort of demographic factors which have produced this whiteness. I actually have some figures here, I'm just looking at Brighton, I looked it up because I knew you were from there, and ethnicity - this is 800 word essay long a 2001 census: White 94.2%, Black or Black British 0.76% - it is, as you say, a very white place, isn't it?
Sure, seaside locations remain overwhelmingly white places. Essay? [There's] a number of reasons for for a admissions this, I think. Traditionally minority ethnic communities have lived in kant enlightenment urban locations of the bigger towns and cities and for a college admissions essay we can trace that back to the mass migrations of the 1950s and kant '60s to places of abortion, industry. And in kant many cases, of a thesis, course, they're coming in kant enlightenment and arriving and joining families who already are living in urban locations, aren't they, because of the work? Absolutely, absolutely. And more peripheral coastal locations tend to have relatively immobile populations who tend to live for generations without perhaps moving in or out. There's also an over-representation of writing essays, older populations which does tend to contribute to essay, a whiter demographic in these places. Nuclear Power? Simon Carey under CC-BY-SA licence under Creative-Commons license Welcome to Brighton for everyone? And you'd want to say, I think, that at the coast or in seaside towns there's an association somehow between being in a seaside town, being by the sea, and what people who are perhaps white feel about kant national identity - this place is somehow 'for' them? Yes, I think you're right.
I think the a thesis, seaside is still embedded in aspects of the national psyche and survey evidence suggests that people do still closely associate the seaside with aspects of national identity. I think there's a geographical issue here: the coast or the seaside is literally a place on the edge, the kant, edge of the 800 word, nation, it's a finite border and so it's habitually associated with notions of invasion and defence - both the white cliffs of Dover are the. And it fits nicely. It just suddenly came to me this, that [I think] Paul Theroux wrote about the number of sort of Brits who go and drive their cars to essay kant enlightenment, the edge of the a thesis, country and sit there staring out to sea, which he said, really they are imaginatively seeing themselves as the old imperialist, they see themselves, like their ancestors, sailing away. Possibly, that's a bit fanciful but anyway. Very interestingly though, after having analysed the demographic facts of essay enlightenment, this, you turned to persuasive writing, the ways in which really the social attractions of seaside towns [are], if you like,[. ] white attractions. Yes, I identified a number of themes within the seaside amusements and entertainments and other aspects of popular culture and the things I identified, firstly, was the essay kant, way in for a college which these amusements and entertainments promote and exoticised and/or orientalist representation of the enlightenment, ethnic or racial other; The way in which representations of white bodies are juxtaposed against black ones;
And finally the way in which seaside amusements and argumentative nuclear power entertainments engage in ideas of exploring and conquering sort of non-Western primitive landscapes, whether that be the essay, jungle or the wild west or ancient Egypt. So a lot of these old amusements, these arcades, these museums, these galleries or whatever, in many cases black faces are absent, but if they're present they're present in a rather stereotypical fashion? Absolutely. I mean there's strong historical reference to this, you can trace this back. But I suppose many people listening would say well it's a lot of old kitsch and essay on impact population it's stuck there and no doubt it has some of these resonances, I mean would you want to say however, if people came to kant enlightenment, look at essay on impact of over population, this they would feel themselves sort of absent or would they feel themselves offended by it? I think the bottom line is that most people engaging in seaside leisure, entertainments, amusements perhaps don't appreciate the signifying attributes of these things. It is a place for fantasy, of fun, adventure, escapism but I think just because they don't perhaps have these sort of functioning connotations for people we shouldn't ignore the kant enlightenment, sort of. Are we talking about attraction or repulsion? That black people decide that they don't want to essay nuclear, go to places like this because they feel of them as white, or do you feel that the sort of white people there are actively hostile? When you've looked at these towns are there other aspects of those towns and the way they behave, the political decisions they make, which suggests to you that really there is some ideology lurking behind these representations?
I think that might be a tenuous link. I think the issue around the way in which these environments are racialised from the sort of subsequent research is kant enlightenment more about the for a essay, sort of control and dominance of social space with certain parts of seafronts, towns, being seen as sort of safer spaces and others not. But what was clear I think which came out of this and essay kant some of the subsequent research is that what is often seen as innocent tradition for some people can actually have quite racialised and excluding connotations for other groups. But you would want to say that when arguments break out about asylum seeking and outline for a essay immigration that [. ] more emphasis is likely to be placed on essay kant, them in seaside towns? Well, I think this is related to the sort of 800 word essay long, changing demographics of migration and also issues around the dispersal of asylum seekers, refugees and people of a regular migration status. The policies may be hammered out in government but it is in seaside towns where the actual implications are being felt by essay, . And you reference actually specific campaigns insulting, for writing abortion example, against temporary housing and people who are asylum seekers.
Just a last question. What is happening now - I mean there are changes occurring now, you already refer to essay kant enlightenment, the fact that there are sort of ethnic minority groups who've often gravitated to the seaside, you've talked about sort of nuclear power, Italians and others who've found a place in the seaside town quite naturally, but there is a shift, a change, going on now, isn't there? Very much so and I think this is characteristic of essay enlightenment, what's happening in the UK more generally. What we're seeing is outline college diversity appearing in more and more sort of peripheral places. So what's been labelled in the literature as new spaces of multiculture or new gateways to immigration are being found in rural and essay kant enlightenment coastal spaces. And with the seaside I think the key dynamics are increasing migration, also people who may have migrated in the '50s and '60s from the Caribbean or the Indian subcontinent to the bigger cities are now retiring to the seaside, and also an increasingly youthful population of minority ethnic people who were born at essay, the seaside.
Good, thank you so much. It would be interesting, wouldn't it, to hear from - to hear from people who have - from black people, from others, other minority groups, who spend time at the seaside and felt, if you like, the type of essay, - the essays abortion, type of not discrimination, we want to kant enlightenment, call it, what would we want to of over, call it, perhaps the sort of the type of distance which is maintained by enlightenment, those who live at the seaside to essays, those sorts of outsiders. Daniel Burdsey thank you very much. With more difference within, rather than between, human groups, we ask how are children growing up with ideas of enlightenment, race? Sally Novello takes a nostalgic look at the British seaside of her youth.
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Health, Sports Psychology. Is there enough being invested in kant education for older people? Health, Sports Psychology. What does being 'old' really mean? In this debate, we look at the idea that age has nothing to do with how old you are. TV, Radio Events. What caused the summer 2011 UK's riots? Start the debate by putting your views across.
TV, Radio Events. Crematorium and cemetery registrar Angela Abbot talks to us about memorialisation and the emergence of fairy villages as well as the sustainability of burials. Society, Politics Law. Media and the arts in an interdependent world. A panel of experts discuss what the implications an 800 word long interdependent world has for the media and essay enlightenment arts. Health, Sports Psychology. Jolene : 'A Time to Live' - Extended Interview. Jolene, featured on the co-production 'A Time to Live', discusses her experiences of being diagnosed with a terminal illness.
Health, Sports Psychology. Nigel : 'A Time to Live' - Extended Interview. Nigel, featured on the co-production 'A Time to persuasive writing abortion, Live', discusses his experiences of being diagnosed with a terminal illness. Dominic Weston, a seasoned series producer of natural history programming, discusses the place of storytelling in natural history filmmaking, whether environmental messages can be packaged as entertaining television, and the future of wildlife television. Caroline Underwood - Earth in Vision. Caroline Underwood, award-winning series producer for Canadian television, looks back at how the kant enlightenment, landscape of lord of the gcse essay, environmental and natural history programming has transformed over the last few decades, and the challenges it faces today and moving forward into the future. Laurie Taylor was formerly professor of sociology at York. He presents BBC Radio 4's Thinking Allowed and is a columnist for enlightenment the Times Higher Educational Supplement.
Dan Burdsey is senior lecturer in the Chelsea School of Sport at the University of Brighton. Writing Essays Abortion? Amongst his research interests is race, ethnicity and identity in coastal environments. OpenLearn Search website. OpenLearn works with other organisations by providing free courses and resources that support our mission of opening up educational opportunities to more people in more places. ©2017.
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The Open University is incorporated by lord of the essay, Royal Charter (RC 000391), an exempt charity in England Wales and a charity registered in Scotland (SC 038302). The Open University is authorised and regulated by kant enlightenment, the Financial Conduct Authority in relation to its secondary activity of credit broking.
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Summary of Immanuel Kant's …
1984 essay intro George Orwell was born Eric Blair in essay kant 1903 into an upper middle-class English family which had a tradition of persuasive writing, government administration in the British Empire. Enlightenment! He was in fact born in India, where his father was then working. He was sent to Eton, one of the most expensive boys' schools in Britain and one of those with most prestige, but instead of going on lord flies essay, to university he followed the family tradition by joining the Indian Police Service and was sent to Burma. His five years there led him to reject every aspect of imperialism and essay kant enlightenment, the brutality it could create in those in authority, and to feel closer to those who were oppressed than to those who oppressed them. A similar sympathy and identification with those at the bottom of a social system led him, on his return to Europe, to travel around Britain and France, living on outline for a, the road among the poorest groups of society and entering as completely as he could into their way of life. It is true, of course, that he knew that because of his family background he, unlike them, could return to essay kant a different way of life when he wanted. He wrote about argumentative essay nuclear power, these experiences under the essay name of George Orwell, partly to protect his family from embarrassment and partly because he had never liked his own name very much. In the next few years he worked briefly as a teacher in private schools and in a bookshop, but his most important activity at this time was his writing: novels, descriptions of his time in Burma and among the poor of London and Paris, and book reviews. Outline For A Admissions! In 1937 he went to Spain to essay kant enlightenment fight in the Spanish Civil War on lord flies, the side of the Republic, with the force from the United Marxist Workers' Party (POUM), until he was badly wounded in the neck and essay, returned to lord essay England. By this time his writing had made him well-known in enlightenment left-wing circles; he wrote as a socialist who was aware of argumentative essay, some of the shortcomings of socialism and of the way that ordinary people, who should have been drawn towards socialism, were being turned away from it by the arguments and actions of some of the intellectual socialists. During World War II Orwell worked for the BBC producing programmes for India and South East Asia, and as manager of a bookshop, as well as producing a lot of journalism.
This was mainly on political subjects, but he also wrote articles about everyday wartime life in London and a considerable amount of literary criticism. Enlightenment! During this time he began to plan Nineteen Eighty-Four , before he started to work on essay, Animal Farm , which was published in 1945. Orwell's wife died while in hospital for a relatively minor operation before Nineteen Eighty-Four was published, so that she never saw the success and kant enlightenment, scandal it created. There is a strong suggestion that earlier medical attention could have given her a chance of college admissions, a longer life, but that concern over money meant that she did not consult a doctor in good time. Orwell equally neglected his own health, working on articles and kant enlightenment, reviews through attacks of illness and refusing to a thesis see a doctor. He had written an outline of the plot of essay, Nineteen Eighty-Four in 1943. By the time he came to write the first version of the novel, in 1947, neither world history nor the events of his personal life had made him any more hopeful about the future. He collapsed into bed for a month after writing this first version until, after finally consulting a doctor, he was sent to outline for a college essay a sanatorium where his tuberculosis could be treated.
As soon as he started to feel well, he began to write again, with a pen because the doctors had taken away his typewriter. He worked on alterations to Nineteen Eighty-Four in the sanatorium, and as soon as he was able to leave, he got to work on the second version of the novel, although he was still so weak that he had to spend half the day in bed. This final version was produced in 1948, and the year in which he set the novel was obtained by reversing the last two digits. The effort of typing the final version brought him near to essay enlightenment physical collapse, and he had to enter a sanatorium again. Orwell hoped that if he was willing to lead the life of an invalid there was some hope for him, and he planned to marry again and to go to essay on impact of over population Switzerland for his health. He did get married (in a hospital bed, too ill to essay kant go to a registry office), but Switzerland remained a dream ; on 21st January 1949 his lung collapsed and he died, at outline for a admissions once and alone.
The background to Nineteen Eighty-Four. To describe writing as Orwellian means that it expresses a pessimistic view of a dull, uniform world where every aspect of life is controlled and organized by the State. As Nineteen Eighty-Four was written when Orwell was already suffering from essay kant enlightenment, tuberculosis, the disease that killed him, it has often been regarded as the work of a dying man, written in defending a thesis disillusion with the present and despair for the future. This is misleading : the kant enlightenment outline of Nineteen Eighty-Four (which was originally to be called The Last Man in a thesis Europe ) had been planned five years earlier in 1943, before he wrote Animal Farm , the book for which he is probably best known. Orwell had been reading Zamyatin's novel We , whose vision of an anti-Utopia was of essay kant enlightenment, special interest when he was planning his own, but many of the themes of Nineteen Eighty-Four were drawn from his own concerns and experiences. During the Spanish Civil War he had seen for outline for a college essay himself evidence of the falsification of news and the invention of false news, and he later described in an essay how I saw history being written not in terms of essay kant enlightenment, what happened but of what ought to have happened, according to the party ; this kind of thing is frightening to me. If a leader says of such-and-such an event that it never happened - well, it never happened.
If he says that two and two are five -well, two and two are five. Another major concern was the on impact population way in which language was being twisted and corrupted for political ends. Essay Kant Enlightenment! In an essay entitled Why I Write , written in a thesis 1946, he commented : To write in plain vigorous language one has to think fearlessly, and essay, if one thinks fearlessly one cannot be politically orthodox , and one of the themes running through Nineteen Eighty-Four is the way in which the State uses language to further political control over the people who speak it. His alarm and disgust at writing essays the way some political writers of essay enlightenment, his time (particularly those who supported and defended Stalin's policies and outline for a college admissions, actions) distorted language in their attempts to justify what Orwell regarded as unjustifiable led him, in Nineteen Eighty-Four , to invent the next logical step for essay kant enlightenment a language twisted and corrupted for political ends: Newspeak. College Admissions! It is based on a theory held by essay kant many writers on language at that time, that thought is dependent on the words in outline admissions which it is expressed and essay kant enlightenment, that therefore if a language does not possess words for certain ideas it will be impossible for the people who use that language to hold those ideas. The aim of Newspeak is that all ideas which do not follow the principles of Ingsoc will be impossible to hold, and to this end all the politically undesirable words and meanings are being surgically removed from the language. The aim, as Syme makes clear in argumentative essay power the novel, is to achieve politically sound precision of language, so that, as he expresses it, the vagueness and useless shades of meaning of the old language will be destroyed, along with the works of the great writers of the past who used it. To Orwell, who believed that anything important could and should be expressed in words which could be understood by ordinary people, the deliberate use of complicated language was one of the greatest sins; the unconscious use of complicated language was even worse, because it meant that the user had lost all contact with the truth of what he wrote about. Essay Kant Enlightenment! Many aspects of wartime life in 800 word ; London are incorporated in Nineteen Eighty-Four , for example, the description of bombing attacks and bomb damage to the city itself and kant enlightenment, the news film of the boat of argumentative nuclear, refugees being bombed. The Ministry of Truth building in essay kant the novel was modelled on the London University building used during World War II by the Ministry of Information, and on of over, the BBC's main building, which also seems to have provided the inspiration for the canteen smelling of cabbage and the singing prole women - in this case, BBC office cleaners.
His wife's work at the wartime Ministry of Food, creating publicity to encourage the kant enlightenment public to eat the flies gcse right types of kant, food, seems to have suggested the use of the short crisp slogans of Nineteen Eighty-Four . Defending! The way in which the leaders of the nations who had won World War II met after the war to divide the world into zones of influence also finds an echo in Nineteen Eighty-Four. Enlightenment! Orwell predicted in an essay that the world would be divided into three armed states, and although he hoped that the defending common people would combine to resist this he did not believe that it was likely. The common people, on the whole, are still living in the world of absolute good and evil from which the intellectuals have long since escaped , he wrote, and his. faith in the instincts of the common people and distrust of intellectuals is another element of Nineteen Eighty-Four. Winston not only essay enlightenment believes that any hope for the future must lie with the essay proles, but goes so far as to kant enlightenment tell Julia, The proles are human beings. We are not human. In Eastern Europe as well as in the West, he had seen intellectuals betray the persuasive essays abortion revolution by accepting the idea of a dictatorship if it would work to their advantage and give them power and privilege.
His concern and anger were expressed in Animal Farm , in enlightenment which he used episodes from the Russian revolution told through the of over population story of a farm where the pigs, who have led the animals' revolution, become as determined to keep and use power for themselves as the farmer whom they drove out kant, had been. Defending A Thesis! Throughout his writing life. Orwell worked to achieve a balance between public and private values, between creative work and necessary labour. His major concerns were public and political, yet he was equally aware of the importance of the individual's private life and essay kant, the matters of essay, everyday existence. One reason why he felt, as in Winston's comment to Julia quoted above, that the proles in Nineteen Eighty-Four remained human beings was that their private lives of kant, emotional ties and individual concerns are their own, untouched by the controlling hand of the State. The members of the Party have privileges that the proles do not possess, but the Party influences and ultimately controls who they meet, how they spend their free time, who they marry, who they have sexual contact with, and their attitudes to all of 800 word, these. Orwell believed that the State should provide a social framework for its citizens but not dictate how their private lives are to be lived ; if it does, they become, in essay kant enlightenment a basic sense, less than human. Nineteen Eighty-Four: the novel.
By setting his novel nearly forty years ahead of the time he was writing it, Orwell was giving a warning about the future. As he constantly emphasized when writing about Nineteen Eighty-Four , it was not to be taken as a prophecy but as a picture of argumentative nuclear power, what could happen if not actively prevented. The sense of essay, unease is established immediately in the first sentence by the clocks striking thirteen; this is later explained by the fact that a twenty-four hour clock is in use, but the sinister associations of essay of over population, thirteen, and kant, the tradition that a clock striking thirteen is a sign that something is college admissions essay, wrong, set the atmosphere from the beginning. The following paragraphs establish the harsh dullness of the physical conditions of essay enlightenment, life, the constant sense of essay nuclear, being watched via the telescreen, and the overriding force of Big Brother's image. The physical appearance of Big Brother very strongly suggests Stalin, as do many of the elements of his regime and his methods of keeping power. Goldstein's appearance is modelled on Trotsky, and in his role as the former subordinate whose differences of political theory later made him his former leader's enemy, there are also clear similarities with Trotsky (whose origin, like Goldstein's, was Jewish). Yet the character of enlightenment, Goldstein also draws on elements of the life of Andres Nin, who had been the leader of the persuasive abortion POUM in Spain, with whom Orwell had fought. Nin came to believe that Stalin had betrayed the principles of the revolution, and he was killed by Russian agents; as Goldstein was said to have done, he left a document setting out his political beliefs and principles. Some elements of the novel's physical setting would be familiar to the first readers.
Others (those invented by Orwell) are almost always sinister in meaning if not in name: the telescreen, Ingsoc, Hate Week, the Thought Police, Airstrip One, etc. The names of the essay enlightenment four giant Ministries prepare the essay population reader for the later account of Ingsoc's distortion of essay kant, language, since each Ministry is really concerned with the a thesis quality directly opposed to essay kant its name. Some of the nightmare quality of this society is communicated by Winston's knowledge, as he starts to write in the diary, that although there are no laws any longer he will, if caught, probably be put to death for nuclear power doing something which is essay kant, technically legal. Winston himself is clearly established from the beginning as an defending unheroic figure ; he is thin and kant enlightenment, frail, on the way to middle age, and has a leg ulcer (we later discover that he has false teeth and is subject to coughing fits). He may, by his author's irony, have been named after Winston Churchill, the British Prime Minister during World War II when he was born, but in many ways it is clear that he is to stand for Everyman. He is presented as a man from an earlier age, old enough to have a vague memory of the distant world when he was a boy and to persuasive writing abortion respond to objects from an earlier era (the smooth creamy pages of the diary, the nib-pen which he feels the diary deserves, and the soft rainwatery glass of the essay kant coral paperweight) . His only persuasive writing essays abortion memory of unselfish and devoted love from one human being to another comes from his childhood, and the culture on which the enlightenment world of his childhood was based is so far removed from the one in which he now lives that when he dreams of Julia tearing off her clothes in lord of the flies gcse an act of sexual (and therefore political) defiance, he wakes up with the word Shakespeare on . his lips. Because Orwell wants to show him as a representative as well as an individual, it is important that, for example, Winston is shown genuinely to enlightenment respond to the Two-Minute Hate and of the flies essay, not as essentially different in this respect from other Party members, as would happen if he were shown from the beginning of the novel as very strong-minded or with his own clearly formed political ideas. At the beginning, Winston's rebellion consists mainly of essay, a dislike of the physical dullness of the world in which he lives and a vague feeling that things are not as they should be, and argumentative, his diary enables him to express his unease without having to formulate the principles which he feels Ingsoc has violated. His acts of rebellion against the society in which he lives (buying and writing in the diary, having an affair with Julia, visiting the prole area of the city, renting the room from essay, Charrington, and - the most openly political - making contact with O'Brien) are, in the last analysis, less important than the flies gcse essay rebellion of mind and feeling from which they all spring, and enlightenment, it is for this that he is punished. As he himself reflects in 800 word essay the first chapter : Only the Thought Police mattered.
His contact with Julia leads him to kant put into words ideas critical of the on impact of over population society in which they live, which before had been little more than vague feelings of unease - the mute protest in your own bones , as he describes it - even if she hardly listens to him when he explains these ideas to her and does not understand their significance, as when he tells her he has proof of official falsification of the essay enlightenment news about Jones, Aaronson and writing, Rutherford. Knowing Julia makes him-feel that he is no longer, in the words of the original working title, The Last Man in Europe , but also makes him realize clearly that he was doomed from the moment he started writing in the diary. So an act of madness such as renting the room above Charrington's shop and continuing to meet in it (in direct contradiction of Julia's dictum that no meeting-place is safe more than twice) can be seen as an attempt to make the most of the moment before the inevitable blow falls, rather than a seriously-held hope that he can escape punishment for such a flagrant offence. His last words to enlightenment Julia in the moment before the Thought Police arrest them are : We are the dead. Nuclear Power! His earlier impression of O'Brien as a man of intelligence who has the same doubts about Ingsoc as himself, and the conspiratorial feeling that this creates, are so strong that he trusts O'Brien without question. Both before his arrest and when imprisoned, this trust mirrors something of the emotional dependence which a loyal member of Ingsoc should feel for essay enlightenment Big Brother, so that in a sense O'Brien's purpose in their interviews in Miniluv is to turn Winston's love for outline for a college essay himself into love for Big Brother. One of Orwell's most important points is that mere obedience is not enough : Winston must achieve a moment of genuine love for Big Brother, just as earlier he achieved a moment of genuine hate for Big Brother's enemy. In order to feel this love Winston has to reject, and to admit to himself that he has rejected, all feelings of love and loyalty to anyone else. In the early stages of his time in Miniluv, although he suffers degradation, torture and essay, humiliation, there is still some integrity inside him. But finally, threatened with what is for him the gcse essay worst thing in the world, he betrays Julia by begging for her to suffer in his place, and by essay enlightenment betraying her he betrays himself.
After this, as he himself reflects, something is killed in his own heart : burnt out, cauterized out . Of The Flies! He has lost something vital to himself and is a shell of a man, no longer any possible threat to the State or to anyone else. Julia is younger than Winston and does not have his memories of the enlightenment world before Ingsoc changed it. Her rebellion is more instinctive and immediate than his, and defending a thesis, she is essay kant enlightenment, able to live within the State's system because she has stronger feelings of self-preservation and much greater self-confidence. She is not at all interested in the theoretical basis of rebellion; she starts to listen dutifully to Winston reading the book but soon goes to sleep. She is, however, much better than Winston not only at long practical arrangements (for making contact, hiding signs of their meetings, etc) but also at essay kant enlightenment understanding instinctively the underlying reasons for some of the Party's policies, particularly those connected with sexual matters. She understands that the reason for a thesis the Party's sexual puritanism is that by making the sexual act either a political duty between husband and enlightenment, wife (as it was for Katherine) or - for a man - a furtive and joyless encounter with a prole prostitute, the Party can use sexual frustration and the resulting hysteria for essay its own purposes.
Therefore any enjoyable act of lovemaking freely entered into by two Party members (as in essay enlightenment the first sexual contact between Winston and Julia before there is any emotional contact between them at all) is in itself a political act. Winston begins as a rebel with his mind and feelings and progresses to physical acts of rebellion via Julia's influence. She has been a rebel with her body all her adult life and has learned to survive in ways Winston does not have the capacity for, but both of them believe that they [the State, in the form of the Thought Police can't get inside you , and both are proved wrong. The other characters in the novel are sketched in more lightly. Perhaps the most interesting, and potentially the most complex, is O'Brien. On his first appearance Orwell, through Winston, points up two contrasting strands in outline for a college admissions essay his character: a coarse brutality, emphasized by his physical appearance, and the delicacy of gesture which Orwell compares to that of an eighteenth-century nobleman.
It is the combination of these qualities which is so dangerous for Winston; O'Brien has the sensitivity to be aware of Winston's secret disloyalty to the State, and t he force and essay kant, ability to indict pain by which he makes Winston suffer for it. He works on Winston in Miniluv with intelligent and fanatical devotion until Winston can be released back into society, cured for ever of the lord of the flies gcse essay infection in his mind (as O'Brien sees it) which prevents him from loving Big Brother. O'Brien is an example of the type of intellectual from whom Orwell feared the worst : he would use his energy and intelligence to essay kant preserve and support a dictatorship whose sole aim was to keep power. Syme's intellectual powers have also been corrupted by the State, although his interests are more academic and he does not possess O'Brien's force. Yet he still sees too clearly and speaks too plainly for defending his own safety, and, as Winston realizes at an early stage, is marked down for vapourization. It is essay kant, more of a surprise when Parsons also appears as a prisoner in Miniluv. Winston had assumed that his limited intelligence combined with his devoted orthodoxy of essay nuclear, political views would keep him safe as a valued worker for the Party, but he is doubly betrayed - by kant his unconscious mind and by the daughter whose skill at gcse essay discovering traitors he was so proud of- and he suffers the same fate as the others.
The image has been built up of a world where no one is to be trusted. People who seem innocent of all deceit, like the old prole junk-shopkeeper, turn out to be members of the essay kant Thought Police and are most dangerous because they were never suspected. Winston's visits to the prole quarter, which he thought (once the patrols were avoided) to 800 word essay long be a place of safety, prove fatal to him and to Julia. Considering Winston's belief that if there is hope, it lies in the proles , a theme which runs through the novel and which we are to understand as coming from kant enlightenment, Orwell himself, the proles play very little part in the novel. In some cases, like that of the woman singing as she hangs out her washing, they are merely in the background to point a contrast with the lives and behaviour of the members of the on impact population Party. When Winston makes an extended visit to the prole quarter and essay, attempts to ask the old man in 800 word essay the pub about his memories of kant enlightenment, his youth, the response is confused and uninformative. Orwell describes Winston's hopes for the proles as a mystical truth and a palpable absurdity , and essay, from the evidence in the novel, the latter part of the phrase is the more accurate description.
Yet Winston needs to feel that there is some hope somewhere, and certainly there is none in the harsh world of fear and kant enlightenment, drabness in which Party members live. So the proles become for him not just a romantic hope for the future, but the only hope of all. In fact, the novel shows no hope, and certainly not for for a admissions Winston. He betrays Julia and his feelings for her, and thus betrays an innermost part of himself which, once lost, can never be recovered : his personal emotions and his individual integrity, which, for Orwell, should be out of the reach of any powers of the essay State. Winston is no more heroic under the pressure of Mintluv than he was earlier. Defending! At the end he is seen in the Chestnut Tree cafe, where he himself had watched other men who had been broken by the State. Here he finally admits to himself that all rebellion is over and the struggle is finished.
Orwell's warning is clear : Winston, with all the force of the State against him, comes not merely to accept that he is powerless against it, but actively to welcome his own defeat : he loves Big Brother. Orwell's work today. Some of Orwell's Newspeak vocabulary ( Newspeak itself, Big Brother , doublethink ) has entered the English language ; certainly his vision of enlightenment, a drab totalitarian future has entered the general consciousness, although it is difficult to know whether his warning has been fully understood. He warned of for a essay, a possibility for the future, to essay be resisted, rather than an argumentative power inescapable fate. Orwell always attempted to describe political reality as he saw it. As he wrote at the time he was working on Nineteen Eighty-Four. Most of us have a lingering belief that every choice, even political choice, is between good and evil, and that if a thing is necessary it is also right. We should, I think, get rid of this belief. In politics one can never do more than decide which of two evils is the lesser.
Orwell's aim was to show the evils as clearly as he could, in order that his fellow human beings could make their decision, and therefore their choice. 'Nineteen Eighty-Four' - George Orwell. First published by Martin Secker Warburg Ltd., 1949.
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Essay contest: What has changed your life? Essay contest winners write about how birth and death have affected them. Everyone has had an event that has changed his or her life. Mine was the enlightenment, birth of my little brother, Matthew. My whole life changed with his birth, but sometimes change can be a good thing, even when it’s not expected. When my parents first told me that they were having a baby and I would have another brother, but this time I’d be an essay of over, older brother, I was full of emotions. I was happy and essay sad at the same time.
My whole life was going to essay on impact population change and enlightenment I wasn’t sure if I was ready. Back then, I did not know what a positive impact this event would have on essays abortion my life. When Matthew was born (I picked out his name, by the way) I could not stop smiling. There, in the bed, was this little “creature” my parents called their son. Enlightenment. Not until I picked him up did I feel the weight of outline admissions essay his life on my shoulders, and the weight of the effect I would have on enlightenment him. I immediately felt I had more responsibility, and I was ready to do anything for my little brother. My whole family took care of him, even the cat, and life was somewhat peaceful during those first few weeks. When my mom went out for the first time in months, I fed him a bottle, and although he spit up most of it and only drank a few drops, it was just as satisfying for me as for Matthew.
I was there when he rolled over for essay long the first time, and I was there when he took his first steps. Kant Enlightenment. I saw his first tooth come in, and defending a thesis I will soon see his first tooth fall out. I helped feed him his first solid food, which he spit up as well, and I heard him say his first word, “momma.” Even when he started talking more and more, he called me “Donadan,” which was sufficient considering Jonathan is pretty hard to say. At least he was making an effort to talk to me. That was seven years ago, and enlightenment Matthew and I are closer than ever. My older brother is a senior in high school and getting ready for on impact population college, so he does not get to spend much time with us. My parents are constantly busy and when they’re not, they’re sleeping or doing something relaxing. And something relaxing in my house is essay kant enlightenment, anything that doesn’t involve Matthew. So that leaves me to spend time with my brother, which, although it is often difficult and 800 word essay long tiring, is quite gratifying. He may cheat in checkers, but he is only doing that to win and get respect from his big brother.
When he gets all 4s in first grade and says he is doing second-grade spelling words, I am just as happy as my parents. I baby-sit him constantly and kant enlightenment we have fun, even though he is pretty much in charge. It’s a wonderful feeling knowing that my little brother idolizes me. I don’t know any other 7-year-old today who likes Cat Stevens, Marvin Gaye, James Taylor and Stevie Wonder more than the Wiggles. He knows all the lord, words to dozens of enlightenment Ray Charles songs, and he even has his own blues-y voice. But more than just my music rubs off on Matthew. When I got an persuasive abortion, electric piano for Hanukkah, so did he. I haven’t had the time to schedule lessons, but Matthew is essay, learning to play every week. Of The. Of course we still play our “Heart and Soul” duet whenever we can.
Like me, he would rather watch Scrubs and kant enlightenment Seinfeld on TV than SpongeBob, although I’m pretty sure he doesn’t understand them at the same level that I do. I can’t help but smile when I walk Matthew to school or help him with his computer games. For A Admissions Essay. He drives my family crazy, maybe me more than everyone else, but I still love him. I teach him things every day and he teaches me things too, most of them about essay kant, myself. I’ve grown as a person since my brother was born, not just in age, but in essay responsibility and morality. He comes before everything else in kant enlightenment my life and essay nuclear power rightly so. He’s probably caused multiple viruses on our computer, but I’m so proud that he knows how to enlightenment use the computer (better than my parents). Every site I visit on the Internet he bookmarks in his folder. Although Matthew can still relate to kids his age, he is probably more mature than most of them just for having spent so much time with me. Although I am in intense classes and busy in my sophomore year, I sometimes feel like a little kid again as I unleash my inner child when I’m with Matthew.
Everything we do rubs off on each other. I didn’t really want a brother at first, but now I wouldn’t have it any other way. Natalie Reed , 13, Wilson MS (Glendale) A lot of things have changed and long affected my life. The most life-changing experience was the death of my mother. When I was young, around 5 years old, my sister Alisha died. Alisha was only 11 years old when she died and kant enlightenment I don’t remember much about for a college essay, her, but I’ve been told that she had a cold which got into her lungs and suffocated her. Right now, Alisha would probably be starting college. My mom was so depressed about essay, Alisha’s death that she committed suicide.
I don’t remember a lot about 800 word, my mom, just the way she looked, how she stood in front of the mirror putting on makeup, the Rice-A-Roni dinners and the smell of bacon and essay kant coffee in the morning. I remember once, while we were in lord flies gcse essay line to get food from El Pollo Loco, she was eating MM’s and essay enlightenment her tooth fell out. She just looked at it for a second and population stuck the tooth back in her mouth! I thought she was crazy! It was so funny, but gross at essay kant the same time.
Some people tell me that when you commit suicide, you go to hell. I don’t know if I don’t believe it, or just don’t want to believe it. I miss my mom a lot, and try to picture how my life would have, or could have been, if she were still alive. I sometimes wonder if she was even thinking about me when she killed herself. Persuasive Writing Abortion. Did she not care? Did she think that it would be best for essay kant me? The worst part of all is the fact that I was still in the house when she slit her wrist, and sometimes I get so angry at her for that. I was only 7 years old and defending a thesis clearly she wasn’t thinking about me or my future.
When I get married, she won’t be there for my wedding. My kids will never have a grandmother from my side of the essay kant enlightenment, family. I will never have a mom to go shopping for bras with, and I will never have a normal life. I will always be haunted by the memory of argumentative essay power what she did. Whenever someone describes slitting their wrist or anything about veins and arteries or anything that has to do with the essay kant enlightenment, details of essays it all, I get squirmy and chills go down my spine, and sometimes there is a tingle in my wrist. It irritates me until I calm down or forget about it, and I fear that the feeling will never go away. I don’t understand; I can watch bloody shows where people are being cut open and blood is everywhere, like House and Animal Cops, but I can’t stand people talking about veins.
It gets spooky, and essay kant I wish that she would have thought twice before she did anything. My life will never be the same, and I will never have a mother. Michelle Stevenson , 16, John R. Wooden HS (Reseda) I know exactly what can change a person’s life in essay population an instant. What, you may ask? When I was 12 years old, my father was diagnosed with pancreatic cancer. At this age I wasn’t very aware of what cancer was or what it could do to a person. Essay Enlightenment. I remember my dad couldn’t eat certain foods and he always had pain in his stomach. I remember my father would always help me with my schoolwork and was my best friend. He taught me everything, from essay long, how to use a computer to how to enlightenment fish.
He was the best blessing God gave me. No one could ask for a better father. Persuasive Writing Abortion. He always went out with my sisters and essay enlightenment me to go salsa dancing. As a family we would have the best times in the world. For A College. When he was diagnosed with pancreatic cancer, my two sisters and I formed a salsa group called Triple Threat. That year we performed in the fourth annual Salsa Congress. Essay Kant Enlightenment. Unfortunately, during the month of April my father failed his chemotherapy and was admitted to the hospital.
I remember going to defending the hospital every day after school. He was so weak. On May 17, 2003, God decided to take my father to heaven. I was too young to understand what had happened. Kant. Of course I was devastated, crying every day. 800 Word Essay. My mother forced me to go to school the next day.
She said my father had always wanted me to do well in school. At that age it didn’t hit me as much as it does today. I miss him so much. Enlightenment. I always wonder what it would have been like to have him here with me during my teen years. There’s not one day when I don’t think about him. I still cry at times. It’s so hard to lose a person that close. I was the most tomboyish of essay of over population my three sisters, so that’s most of the reason I was closest to my father. Nothing can take away that pain. The other day my mother and I were talking.
She, a widow at enlightenment 42 years old, said she would try hiding her feelings and grieving from me because she didn’t want to show me her pain. She said she would cry every day after dropping me off at school. She would try her hardest not to cry in outline for a college essay front of me and it showed me how strong she is. Then when we were talking it hit me I don’t have a father. After three and a half years, that just hit me. I will never have my dad to walk me down the essay enlightenment, aisle.
I will never have that father figure, and I lost my best friend who really understood me when I was growing up. It hurts me so. Although I may not have all those things, I try every day to realize how beautiful life is. For A College Admissions Essay. Ever since his death, my family has gotten closer. Essay Enlightenment. We realize that we have each other, and that’s what matters most. We have learned that family comes first before anything. In that way it helped. I have also been really independent. I work, I do well in school, I pay for my own phone bill and argumentative essay nuclear soon will be able to kant enlightenment afford my own car, and I dance. I also try every day to appreciate that I have a beautiful family and a loving boyfriend.
So in my opinion a death, no matter who it is, can change lives. My father was my hero. I thank God every day that he was in my life. Cyndhl Imaysay , Paramount HS. We do not get a chance to choose our family, we just end up with whomever God has chosen for us. Defending A Thesis. When I was young, everything seemed to be OK. But as I got older, I began to notice that my father was getting more and essay kant more verbally abusive. Not just to on impact my brother and me, but to my mom as well. When I first noticed the essay enlightenment, verbal abuse, I thought that maybe someone had done something or said something to make my dad upset. My dad would yell at outline admissions us and call us names, and then he would calm down and act as if nothing had happened.
But as the years went on, he started yelling and screaming obscenities at the drop of a hat. We were very careful about what we said and did around him, afraid that we might tip him off. I felt as if I was always stepping on essay kant enlightenment eggshells. I eventually got tired of the yelling and name-calling and started to talk back to my dad. I was raised not to talk back to flies my elders, but when you’ve had enough, you’ve just had enough. One afternoon I was watching the enlightenment, Oprah Winfrey Show and they were doing an episode on defending domestic violence. I paid close attention to what they were talking about. Ninety percent of what they said described how my dad was acting. Essay. I knew that my dad was verbally abusive, but I didn’t know that his actions fell under the category of domestic violence. I used to be a very fun-loving child. Outline For A College. I had a lot of friends and made new friends quickly.
My friends would hang out at my house and I would hang out at their houses. As soon as my dad started to act the way he did, I was embarrassed to kant enlightenment invite any of persuasive my friends over essay, because I was afraid that he would yell for outline for a admissions essay no reason. I was a normal child, but as the essay, abuse went on I noticed that my attitude started to change and I was always fatigued and hungry. I eventually went to see my doctor about my symptoms and he told me that I had borderline depression. He said that it wasn’t bad enough for medications, but he scheduled sessions with a social worker for me. I would go into the sessions calm and collected, but as soon as the outline, social worker asked me how I was doing, I would cry. I had so much pent-up anger toward my father that I couldn’t say anything. All I could do was cry.
My mom, brother and essay kant I left my dad back in June. We are now living with my grandmother and writing essays my two older siblings. We’re not totally healed from the enlightenment, domestic violence, but life is so much better now. Everything seems to of the gcse essay be getting back to normal. I keep telling myself to live one day at a time and not focus on essay enlightenment what has already changed, but for the changes yet to come. Yajaira Hernandez , Wilson MS. It wasn’t even worth it, the delicious food I missed out on. Persuasive Writing Abortion. Pasta, meat, pizza and even ice cream. All because I wanted to be perfect.
I saw models on essay kant enlightenment TV who had perfect bodies. Some models looked as skinny as a stick and defending a thesis healthy. I wanted to be like them, with the essay, perfect waist and of the flies gcse body. So I started to kant enlightenment starve myself. I wasn’t fat, but not perfect. I ate a little at breakfast (sometimes not at all), rarely at lunch and a little at gcse essay dinner. Essay. I drank water and orange juice all the time. I became very impatient when I saw that not eating wasn’t helping me become thinner.
So I went to the bathroom and threw up. Essay Nuclear Power. I was desperate. Every time I finished eating, my stomach ached. I felt it full so I emptied it in the bathroom. By sixth grade I weighed 70 pounds. I was pretty skinny, but not satisfied. It came to enlightenment a point where I was vomiting, not on purpose, and headaches were killing me. A Thesis. My stomach hurt and I could barely move myself around. My friends were worried about me. They were worried I would end up in a hospital. Kant Enlightenment. They forced me to eat many times.
I ignored them and told them to lord flies gcse essay leave me alone. My parents were too busy to see that I had a problem because we were going through a money crisis. But there was one person who noticed my eating disorder. Essay Kant Enlightenment. My babysitter took me to essay power the doctor one time. I was there to get shots but she took the essay, time to talk to the doctor. The doctor was concerned about essay of over, my weight.
She showed me pictures of girls who suffered from anorexia and bulimia. It was gross seeing how skinny they looked. She explained that this can cause stomach cancer and even lead to death. Because of throwing up, there’ll come a point when the body will not want any food. Kant. The body does not get all the persuasive writing, nutrients it needs and slows down; eventually, it stops working. Some of the pictures showed girls in bed with a tube stuck to essay kant enlightenment them. On Impact Of Over. The girls in the photos were so thin; you could see all their rib bones and essay kant enlightenment backbones. She said you soon get thin hair and are always cold. I started to defending a thesis cry because I didn’t want to end up that way. Essay. I wanted to live a long and healthy life.
After that day, I changed the on impact, way I acted. I was a new girl. Enlightenment. I was in of the treatment and followed guidelines that the doctor recommended. Today I look like a normal teenager. I’m a happy girl who blends in with the other girls. I’m still not fully recovered but I visit my doctor regularly.
I still wish I had that perfect body that a model has. Essay Kant Enlightenment. However, I am glad I changed my decision. Like most teenagers, I got a part-time job to earn some extra cash, but ended up learning a valuable lesson instead. I started working at essay a retail department store four months ago. My first day on essay the job was nerve-wracking because everything was hands-on training. After what felt like an lord, incredibly long day of work, I realized that I had only worked for four hours at $6.75 an hour! I continued going to essay enlightenment work feeling cheated for all the college, back-breaking work I was assigned to complete for minimum wage. Working in retail has changed my life for the better. It has made me realize that I can’t do that for kant the rest of my life. I refuse to. I would much rather do something that involves me using my brain because when I stand there folding clothes, I feel brain dead.
I want something better for myself and working there has helped me realize that. Since I’ve started working, my grades have improved dramatically. A Thesis. Last semester, I am proud to enlightenment say I earned a 4.0 GPA. I have dedicated much of argumentative essay my time to essay kant applying for financial aid and scholarships. Flies Gcse Essay. Knowing that I don’t want to end up folding sweaters has motivated me to essay enlightenment focus more on a thesis the future. Before, I had no idea what I was doing. I didn’t know if I was even going to college. My horrible job was a real eye-opener for me. Essay. I want something better for myself.
About a year and a half ago I got into defending a thesis a car crash that was horrible. That moment changed my view about essay enlightenment, life entirely. All my life I had been waiting until I could get my driver’s license and my first car. Argumentative Nuclear. When I finally got my license and my dad brought the car to essay enlightenment the house, I was thrilled. From that day on, the most important thing in my life was that car. Every day I would get home and see what else I could do to make it better. My car was my pride and joy and when I had fixed it up into “perfect” condition, I finally began to drive it. Every time I got into my car I felt invincible, as if nothing could stop me. But one day I was shown that just like every other person, I could be broken. One night after finishing up my errands, I was in a thesis the car with my friends. I felt unstoppable while driving.
But soon enough I was shown that I wasn’t. While driving down a main street I felt the car start to essay enlightenment skid and it kept skidding to the point where I lost control. At this point time wasn’t moving slow enough and of the when I realized what was happening, the only thing I could do was swerve the car so the impact would be on kant my side, and so I did. After the on impact, crash I don’t remember much, but I do remember the pain I was in, not only physical but also the essay kant enlightenment, thought that the lives of others were in a thesis my hands for a few seconds and essay kant I may have dropped them. Defending. One thing led to another and essay I was in the emergency room getting stitched up.
I didn’t sleep much that night but when I finally did wake up, I was in 800 word a lot of pain. Kant Enlightenment. But I also began to see things in a different light. The memory of a thesis that day will never leave me, but what I learned from that experience I’m glad for. Not only did I learn that I need to have a lot more appreciation for things, I also learned that material things should never be the most important things in your life. All that time that I spent working on the car could have been spent getting to know my family better. I have also become a much humbler person who realizes that I can bleed just like everyone else, and essay I am grateful for essay of over population that. Sometimes you need to essay kant go through rough moments to essays come out with the best. Having a car was what I waited for kant all my life, but now just being alive is essay, a blessing for me. Every day of one’s life should be made the best because you don’t know how many you have left. Letter to essay kant enlightenment an inanimate object.
When one of our teen staff writers told us that she heard someone reading a letter to an inanimate object on National Public Radio, we thought that would make a great essay question. We all have objects that we have such strong feelings for that they become almost like a person with his or her own personality. Here is your chance to tell them how you feel. Write a letter to an inanimate object to tell it what it means to you. It could be an object that makes you happy, like a favorite stuffed animal, or on object that drives you crazy, like a locker that always jams.
It could be an everyday object or something special that you cherish, like a necklace that a parent gave you. Share how it has affected your life in a positive or negative way.