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benefits coursework Learning from GCSE Coursework: Fostering independent learning, critical thinking and creativity? Susan Martin, Alan Reid, Keith Bishop, Kate Bullock. Department of Education, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY. Paper presented at the British Educational Research Association Conference Cardiff University, September 7-10 2000. Alan Resume? Paper arising out of ESRC funded project Learning from GCSE Coursework (Award no: R000222684) This is a draft paper and should not be quoted or cited without the express permission of one of the authors.

This paper arises from a project the principal aim of which was to explore the potential of GCSE coursework to develop skills associated with critical thinking, creativity and independent learning (CCI). The paper briefly outlines the background to benjamin competition, and overview of the project with the main research questions and foci and then sets out the main findings to date in relation to alan resume, the research question focusing on assessment. On Wind Energy Pros? A The Research Project. Background to and overview of project. Over the past fifteen years, the original arguments for coursework as a part of the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) examination system for 16 year olds in the UK have diminished in influence. Among other things, this trend appears to stem, firstly, from an increasing emphasis on resume accountability in the education system, with GCSE results now used as a measure of school, department and teacher performance as well as pupil performance, and secondly, from perceptions of rigour and fairness in representing the no to homework, standards which should be engendered by the national examinations at the end of alan brunton compulsory schooling. At the inception of the GCSE, coursework was included as a central component of the examination which would raise the validity of the assessment process and enhance the learning of students. A coursework element to parents responsibility in children s education, the qualification, it was argued, would promote and give value to less tangible transferable skills such as critical thinking, creativity and alan resume, independent learning.

The advantages of such approaches were thought to include: providing a useful vehicle for communication skills; giving pupils credit for initiating tasks and assuming responsibility for their own work; increasing the 'reliability' of the assessment by providing wider evidence of pupils' achievement; developing an understanding of the part that school subjects play in the everyday world and parents in children s education, their relevance to pupils' own lives. The aim of this research study was to examine the potential of GCSE coursework to develop in 16 year old pupils in mainstream schools the alan, skills associated with critical thinking, creativity and independent learning. Essay? The research began by exploring the nature of the three attributes, and in addition, it probed the influence of the assessment of coursework on this type of learning. The study used a qualitative approach to investigate teachers', parents' and alan brunton, students' conceptions of the skills of critical thinking, creativity and independent learning and to explore the values, organisation and practice related to GCSE coursework which might develop such qualities in young people. No To Homework? Within six case study schools, University researchers worked with teacher researchers in English and geography departments to alan resume, appraise past and current practice in GCSE coursework, to imperial essay, examine its potential to contribute to alan, critical thinking, creativity and independent learning and to set out any extending and limiting factors of assessment. The six case study schools were identified through the essay pros and cons, working relationships already established between the alan, University and local schools in the five contiguous counties. The sample represented differences in gender mix, location, socio-economic status and funding. The teacher representatives in each school were drawn equally from ferencz competition geography and English backgrounds and all were keen to alan resume, be involved in no to homework the research. Data collecting techniques comprised focussed group meetings, semi-structured interviews and a scrutiny of alan resume coursework in English and geography. The first task was to develop a common understanding of the three constructs, critical thinking, creativity and independent learning. Initial workshops were arranged for the University and teacher researchers.

These used synopses of current papers in the field, brainstorming techniques and priority exercises to explore perceptions and identifiers of the imperial essay, three constructs. From the workshops semi-structured interview schedules were constructed by the University researchers and returned to the teacher researchers for validation and comment. The schedules were then trialled with appropriate pupils and parents from different schools. In-depth interviews were carried out between June 1999 and June 2000. A systematic sample was obtained with respondents from particular categories identified by the teacher researchers as follows: Table 1 Interviews. 1 The current picture. To what extent are the original qualities attributed to coursework achieved in current practice? It is claimed that coursework offers a set of benefits for alan the learner (see above). A scrutiny and analysis of current practice investigated the extent to which coursework: gives students credit for initiating tasks and assuming responsibility for nyc their own work; supports and develops creativity and critical thinking; increases the reliability of the assessment by providing wider evidence of students' achievement.

Ways in alan which coursework is introduced, organised and supported at school, departmental and individual teacher level and by parents at home was also captured. Examples of on wind energy specific strategies for fostering skills of independent learning, critical thinking and creativity were also explored as was the alan, value attributed to coursework by the school, teachers, students and parents both in essay terms of its contribution to assessment and to the learning process. Where coursework is seen to be limited, reasons for this will were explored. 2 Students' learning. Alan? To what extent does coursework contribute to the development of skills associated with independent learning, critical thinking and creativity? Recent research into perceptions of the GCSE (Bishop et al, 1997a; Winter et al, 1997) indicates that the vast majority of GCSE students find coursework motivating. It is the one form of work in of tennis the students' experience which allows them some degree of freedom in their approach to learning.

Students have more control over their learning in brunton resume coursework and it provides an opportunity for those pupils with different learning styles to demonstrate their understanding; it also can provide teachers with opportunities to use their own favoured approaches (Goulding, 1995). Students' conceptions of how they learn from creative writing camps coursework were explored. Individual approaches to the following aspects of coursework were also be investigated: how topics are selected and how the work is alan resume, planned; which resources are used and from whom help is sought; how students like to learn and what strategies they use to parents responsibility in children s education, evaluate their work. Students' understanding of their own organisation and approaches to learning from alan brunton coursework were probed (Riding and imperial essay, Read, 1996) in brunton order to identify outcomes of the high level skills aspired to by the Pacific Rim countries. Issues of gender, level of no to homework attainment and home and cultural background were also considered (Bishop et al, 1997b).

3 Issues of assessment. What is the influence of assessment frameworks upon students' learning? Assessment is a central feature of western educational systems and brunton resume, plays a fundamental role in learning, both at a formative and summative level where the role of assessment is usually to judge performance. Perhaps of greater import is the influence that assessment has on how students learn (Gow and Kember, 1993; Marton S ä ljö, 1976; Entwistle, 1981). Essay On Wind Energy? Assessment can limit learning by, for example, inducing a type of learning that is superficial and can encourage students to adopt strategies which do not match their preferred approaches (Riding Read, 1996). If types of learning such as 'deep learning' are to be encouraged then the assessment component of the education system must be authentic and, therefore, be broadened, rather than the current situation which constrains this (James and brunton, Gipps, 1998). The research investigated how teachers use the assessment framework in their teaching in relation to coursework and how the students perceive the framework and how it influences the way they undertake their coursework.

Issues concerned with learning and assessment explored included: the use of student feedback; ownership of work and learning; teacher diagnosis of learning difficulties and the suitability of coursework to students' learning styles. The constraints of assessment in respect of what is learned and which strategies students adopt was also be investigated. For example: what are the imperial essay, learning outcomes expected from coursework? to what extent do these models match SEAC 'ideals'? what emphasis is given to coursework in comparison with other forms of teaching and learning? Findings and Discussion. One of the purposes of incorporating coursework into the GCSE was to promote and give value to the 'softer' less tangible transferable skills such as critical thinking, creativity and independent learning. It is clear from alan resume this research that such skills are valued and recognised by teachers, parents and students and that they think that coursework has an important role in giving students an parents in children opportunity to develop and demonstrate them. It is also evident that these skills have a role in producing good quality coursework. However, evidence from all three groups clearly indicates that such process skills are of secondary importance to alan, the goal of achieving a GCSE grade for coursework. Thus, GCSE coursework is not primarily seen as developing critical thinking, creativity and independent learning skills so much as using them.

It is recognised that assessment has an influence on students' learning. No To Homework? This link or influence was a particular aim of the research and the remainder of the paper focuses on three themes emerging from the interviews in brunton resume relation to this. These are 'playing the game', 'giving feedback to students' and pros and cons, 'locus of control'. Playing the game. Although for students coursework is seen as being valuable it is, nevertheless, primarily about jumping through hoops, fulfilling requirements or being compliant. Typically the students focus on the requirements for coursework with the grade as the ultimate end point towards which they work. Skills such as critical thinking, creativity and independent learning are not a specific focus for alan them in their coursework and they have a tendency to 'play safe' rather than go for opportunities to extend their thinking.

For most students, doing coursework is seen to be a way of making a contribution to their final GCSE grade(s). Many of those students interviewed expressed the view that they would not perform as well in their final examinations as they would in coursework. Thus coursework is perceived as a different and cumulative way of gaining marks, i.e. 'getting marks in the bank'. The teachers' view of on wind energy pros coursework has similarities. Although teachers, too, are concerned about helping students to get 'play the brunton resume, game', the pressure from accountability through league tables further leads to the promotion of the importance of maximising students' grades. Increasingly such high stakes factors influence the practice of completing coursework to the extent where the development of critical thinking, creativity and independent learning is of a second order and importance. In other words the teachers' focus is heavily weighted towards the product of coursework rather than the process of completing it.

One possible consequence of imperial essay this is that students' opportunities for alan brunton taking and encouragement to in children, take risks is limited. A further dimension here is that teachers don't readily recognise their role in the constraining influence of assessment on their teaching and facilitation of the completion of coursework. Giving feedback to students. Many students assume that they know what the requirements are for completing coursework, i.e. what it is that the teacher wants them to do. Some students realise this and invest their time in alan brunton resume enhancing their learning, focusing on developing their skills. Other students do not know that doing coursework is not about getting right (or wrong) answers. In other words, while students may believe they are working towards 'the right answer' the teacher is in essay on history of tennis fact looking for alan brunton resume quality through a well argued stance rather than the 'right' stance.

This is likely to affect students' understanding not only of how to about their coursework but also in terms of improving it. Teachers, however, believe they are clear in terms of their expectations for completing coursework and communicating this to their students. This is no to homework, based on their own perspective, on materials used (such as assessment criteria), and on lesson observations. This is both in relation to the process of doing coursework and the desired outcomes. However, there is less certainty about the extent to which students (as a result of teachers telling them) know how to alan, do well in coursework. Some degree of this uncertainty was simply because teachers seemed not to be asking the students. Parents Responsibility In Children S Education? Some students respond appropriately to alan brunton resume, feedback while others do not set appropriate targets for improving their work (suggesting they do not know how to do well). Thus, teachers are clear what 'better' looks like or means.

Teacher support and feedback is provided in different ways e.g. advice, 'up to them', 1-1 support, modelling. Teachers are aware of typical weaknesses in responsibility in children s education essay students' coursework (Geography e.g. using inappropriate research methods, not aware of limitations of their work, not linking results with theory) but feedback tends to alan brunton resume, focus on advice (e.g. 'putting things in own words', 'analyse what you've found out') rather than these specific problems. Teacher feedback doesn't consistently match the weaknesses identified in students' work. However, students are less clear [about what 'better' means] with a typical perception being that 'better' is synonymous with 'more'. Creative Writing Summer Nyc? This is particularly so for lower ability students who aim in alan the dark thinking that they need to do more of the same, improve spelling etc. This may be an interpretation of imperial essay actual feedback e.g. 'you need to expand on this', 'more detail needed' or this can come from looking at coursework which has been graded highly and alan resume, is, inevitably, longer. Additionally, floundering students were seen to be disadvantaged by complex terms with many students having to deconstruct teachers' codes and command words. Students are generally good imitators in the sense of internalising what teachers require of them. A parental concern was that students don't get told about what to leave out.

Thus, teacher feedback is not appropriately formative. There could be more of a closing of the loop with respect to feedback in that it appears that it would be (more) beneficial to students if they were involved more, for example, in target setting and discussing strategies for improvement. Students would be helped by on history teachers modelling their expectations: of doing coursework, of examples of good coursework and poor coursework (i.e. meeting criteria and not meeting criteria) and resume, of involving students in such discussions. Although modelling is not used much for coursework it is seen (by some teachers) as a major tool for effective teaching. You have to model and an effective teacher does model and show. And they're constantly thinking on their feet and giving examples. Telling a student isn't fair for communicating coursework requirements effectively. What you need to parents responsibility in children s education, do is with students - you show them them examples of A and E grade work, you come to a consensus together about alan brunton resume, what is a successful piece of coursework, so that that is about ownership.

Some students don't know that doing coursework isn't about getting right (or wrong) answers i.e. while students may be working towards 'the right answer' the teacher does not have this expectation as they are looking for quality e.g. a well argued stance rather than the right stance. This is likely to affect students' understanding not only of how to about their coursework but also in terms of improving it. Some students are disadvantaged by not having full access to teachers' expectations and rationales. Locus of control. The data shows that the locus of control for completing coursework lies largely with teachers with the exception of high ability students: high ability students typically achieve their potential, middle ability students do not achieve their potential and low ability students do not achieve their potential but achieve more than they would without the support they receive. Teachers had developed strategies to support lower ability students attain the highest possible marks in coursework. Teachers used different approaches to support low(er) ability students. For example, some teachers were careful in their choice of imperial essay which work to select and others saw this choice as less significant than the choice of approach for the task, e.g. writing psychologist's report on alan resume character, reviewing children's books and, thus, not in any structure as such by the teacher in the carrying out of the task. One strategy used by teachers in essay on wind energy pros supporting and framing coursework was to hold a class discussion so that relevant arguments and theories can be shared.

This could be powerful in a mixed ability group. Issues of enabling strategies, frameworks and brunton resume, structuring were important for both geography and English teachers. Good teaching in coursework was seen as providing a supportive structure while allowing the pupils to make their own decisions regarding process and content. However, there was agreement that coursework is a greater challenge for lower ability students but that coursework allowed that particular group to achieve better grades. Teachers thought that a tension did exist between the degree of teacher support that students need to maximise their marks and on history of tennis, the flexibility to develop their own ideas more fully and wondered if students also felt this tension.

Many students are supported by teachers breaking things down for them. However, in teacher interviews teachers did not say that they told the students what they were doing which raises a question of whether this limits the 'transfer fee', i.e. the extent to which the students learn from teacher support. Alan Resume? One teacher recognised the imperial essay, importance to their own progress of knowing what expected of them but didn't (appear to) see the parallel with the importance of resume students knowing: I've certainly found over the years that one of the reasons why my classroom teaching has improved is on history, because I know what's expected. I know what the exam board are looking for and know the alan brunton resume, way their minds work, . and it's so much easier to be able to pros and cons, guide the students to resume, be able to do really good pieces of work. Teachers generally think that making choices for students is necessary (for example for no to homework purposes of differentiation, using what stock is available). In the case of brunton resume low(er) ability students there was a consensus that structuring was necessary to maximise marks attained (perhaps more so for writing summer geography than for alan brunton resume English).

This was particularly so that students would not miss aspects of the assessment criteria. Benjamin Essay? The structuring of low(er) ability students' work may extend their thinking but may (simultaneously) limit their independent learning by brunton channelling them in particular directions which prevent them from exploring other possible avenues. Energy? That is, in some cases the teachers explicitly limit the degree of creativity to maximise the 'average' opportunity for pupils to do well. However, it was recognised that by structuring coursework for low(er) ability students they may be 'debarred' from alan brunton resume attaining their potential but that this might not be possible within the confines of (the particular) coursework, and essay competition, so the actual mark would be greater than that attained without structure. Teachers weren't sure whether this ceiling of attainment was a reality. Pupils were seen as having autonomy in brunton completing coursework with flexibility and options available in the process. There exists a danger of students being too creative in benjamin competition coursework, i.e. with no structure and in going off on a 'complete wobbler.

Coursework can be structured to support students doing coursework but this doesn't need to militate against independence. There was a consensus that teachers are the resume, best judge of how to structure students' approaches to coursework as they know the assessment criteria and (associated) pitfalls. Some higher ability students abandon suggested structures and responsibility in children s education essay, do their own thing. Structuring by teachers is seen as a response to the current coursework climate rather than the ideal environment for completing coursework. There was a tendency to agree that low(er) ability students see the locus of control as external (and this is an obstacle to brunton, developing critical thinking, creativity and imperial essay, independent learning) in brunton resume contrast to high(er) ability students who see the locus of control as internal.

Although the students, parents and teachers saw coursework as an appropriate vehicle for utilising and essay on wind energy, developing transferable skills the research showed that it did not achieve its potential for realising this. For example, there is currently little scope for independent learning as most coursework is teacher led where the 'teacher tends to give them a framework or bullet points of things that they must include'. In reality, the opportunity for cultivating critical thinking, creativity and independent learning in coursework has decreased over the years. Resume? Our study suggests that it is appropriate to essay on history, consider redressing the balance so that greater attention is given to the process of coursework not only as an end in resume itself but also in enhancing the product . Focusing on the theme of assessment the following recommendations are those we would support if skills of essay and cons CCI are to be developed and for a greater match between the value that is attributed to them outside the resume, current assessment system. 1#9;Assessment has a clear influence on the extent to which the education system can develop skills of critical thinking, creativity and independent learning. Whilst intelligence is no to homework, increasingly becoming recognised as multi-dimensional, assessment has not moved in a similar vein and continues to traditionally favour the linguistic and mathematical based skills. 2#9;While skills of critical thinking, creativity and independent learning are treated and cultivated in relation to specific subjects, some students (those with an external locus of control) will find it more difficult to recognise and appreciate (for themselves) the generic aspects of critical thinking, creativity and independent learning thereby limiting the potential not only for their development but their use. Alan Resume? Ways must be explored which transfer a greater degree of essay on wind energy and cons control to students, particularly lower ability students. 3 Findings from the alan brunton, project suggest that students' learning would be enhanced (and the completion of coursework) from no to homework a more focused emphasis on resume either the generic skills associated with coursework and an inter-subject, rather than intra, subject approach. An inter-subject approach would emphasise a process approach.

It is our belief, supported by findings from the project, that it is necessary and vital that such skills be given appropriate value and on history, (thus) emphasis in alan resume the curriculum (learning process) and writing camps nyc, hence in the assessment system. Alan Brunton Resume? It is not the case that there is currently no opportunity or room for such an emphasis (indeed it seems clear that they are already valued in some measure) nor that it would be appropriate, were it deemed necessary to make further room, for there to be an add-on approach to including these skills in the curriculum. The value of the essay on wind energy, skills of critical thinking, creativity and independent learning must be maintained through each stage of inclusion in an education system: a bolt-on, subject by subject approach in alan brunton which the assessment does not recognise these will be virtually ineffective. Thus, emphasis should be placed on the development of imperial essay skills associated with CCI; a more whole-school, cross curricular approach is required, perhaps akin to or embodying a key skills approach. Bishop, K. N., Bullock, K., Martin, S. and Thompson, J. J. (1997a) Users' Perceptions of the GCSE , (Joint Council for the GCSE). Bishop, K. Resume? N., Bullock, K., Martin, S. and Thompson, J. Parents Responsibility In Children Essay? J. (1997b) Students' perceptions of coursework in the GCSE: the effects of gender and levels of attainment.

Educational Studies , 23 (2) pp. 295-310. Entwistle, N. (1981) Styles of alan resume Learning and essay, Teaching , London, John Wiley. Alan Brunton Resume? Goulding, M. (1995) GCSE coursework in Mathematics: teachers' perspectives and the performance of girls, Evaluation and Research in Education 9(3) pp. 111-119. Gow, L. and kember, D. (1993) Conceptions of teaching and their relationship to student learning, British Journal of creative writing summer camps Educational Psychology , 63, pp.

20-33. James, M. and Gipps, C. (1998) Broadening the basis of assessment to brunton resume, prevent the narrowing of learning, The Curriculum Journal 9(3), pp. 285-297. No To Homework? Marton, and S ä ljö (1976) On qualitative differences in learning I - Outcome and process , British Journal of Educational Psychology , 46 pp.4-11. Brunton Resume? Riding, R. J. and Read, G. Responsibility S Education Essay? (1996) Cognitive style and pupil learning preferences, Educational Psychology , 16(1) pp. 81-106. SEC (1985) Working Paper 2: Coursework assessment in GCSE , London: SEC.

Winter, J., Brown, L. and Sutherland, R. (1997) Curriculum Materials to Support the alan brunton, Courses Bridging the Gap Between GCSE and A Level Mathematics , Report carried out for SCAA, Graduate School of Education, University of Bristol. This document was added to the Education-line database on 26 September 2000.

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Natural Disasters on alan brunton resume Earth: Essay on Natural Disasters (9069 Words) Here is your comprehensive essay on Natural Disasters! A natural disaster is unforeseen, severe and immediate. Pollution, ozone depletion in the stratosphere and essay global warming come in this category. Alan Resume. Natural disasters include cyclones, earthquakes, floods, drought (though these two are now being increasingly considered ‘man- made’ disasters) heat and cold waves, landslides, avalanches, flash floods, severe thunder­storms, hail, low level wind shears, and microburst.

Image Courtesy : The destructive potential of any natural hazard is essay competition estimated basically by its spatial extent and severity. Spatial extent upto which the effect of a disastrous event could be felt may easily be classified into small, medium and large scales. The phenomenon extending from brunton a few kilometers to a few tens of on history of tennis kilometers are termed as small scale. Growing industrialisation and unjustified exploitation of natural resources have brought our echo system to a verge of alan non-reversibility and imbalance. This has led to a threat from a set of natural hazards like pollution, global warming and ozone depletion on essay on history of tennis large or global scale. The management aspect of disaster may be classified as: (a) early warning system; (b) rescue operations; (c) relief operations; (d) rehabilitation; and brunton resume (e) long range planning. Imperial Essay. The most important is the early warning systems.

Unless sufficient advance notice is available, evacuation of the population likely to be affected cannot be undertaken. There are two aspects of early warning system. One is the availability of an effective technique to forecast the disaster with its extent and the other is effective communication of the same to brunton resume the civil authority responsible for rescue operations. In some phenomena, such as cyclones, flood, etc. the time available to respond to the hazard is of the order of a few days. Hence early warning, communication, and parents in children essay rescue operations are possible. But, in a few cases like flash floods, microburst, etc., the response time is of the order of few minutes only, which calls for a very fast early warning and efficient communication system. The human-activity-induced hazards like pollution and global warming have already started showing their precur­sors, giving sufficient time to control and avoid these hazards by long term planning. On the contrary, in earthquakes no proven methods has yet been evolved to give any prior warning and so post-hazard mitigation is the only alternative. Role of Communication For a developing country like India, the role of resume communication in disaster mitigation is extremely critical. Vast areas of the ferencz competition country do not have telephone/ telegraph links.

These can neither be provided in a short span of time available for mitigation nor are there resources to do so. We have to depend on alan brunton existing links, many of which completely break down during the disaster. The various types available for parents responsibility dissemination of disaster warning as well as arranging mitigation are: (a) land line links; (b) underground cable links; (c) wireless links; (d) microwave (LOS); and (e) satellite links. The only effective communication which is alan resume likely to remain completely or partially unaf­fected is the satellite link. This assumes that the no to homework earth stations at the two ends are suitably located to alan brunton resume remain unaffected. Further link between the earth station and the affected area is usually through microwave/ land line, which has its limitation as it may break down. The most effective way of dissemination of warning is Disaster Warning System (DWS) used by the IMD for issue of cyclone bulletin to in children s education essay the coastal areas. This could be extended to the entire earthquake/ flood prone areas. Experience has shown that it remains completely unaffected under the alan brunton resume severest cyclonic condition. However, the system is limited to one way communication only. For effective two way communication, VHF/UHF links should be established from every earth station to the affected zone.

Use of existing police VHF/UHF link can be made. The only addition required is the missing link between the nearest earth station to police headquarters. The linking of these with police VHF/UHF stations would not involve large investments. This would be a cost effective and reliable communication system for no to homework disaster warning and mitigation. Stated simply, ‘an earthquake is a vehement shake of the earth from natural causes’. Technically an brunton resume, earthquake is a phenomenon of strong vibrations occurring on the ground, consequent to release of large amount of energy within a short period of essay time because of some disturbance in the earth’s crust or in the upper part of the mantle. The theory of plate tectonics offers a comprehensive explanation for several geological phenomena — continental drift, mountain building and volcanism, and, of course, earthquake. According to this theory, when the molten mass that was the alan resume earth billions of years ago cooled down, the crust that was formed was not one homogenous piece but broken into about a dozen large plates and several smaller ones with their thickness ranging from 30 km down to the lithosphere at depth of benjamin about 100 km or so.

The plates are in incessant motion, with speeds of about 1 cm to 5 cm a year. This mobile jigsaw puzzle is what is termed as the continental drift, which results in the formation of resume mountains, midoceanic ridges, ocean trenches, volcanoes and seismic energy build­up. Where two places converge or collide, a deep trench forms and one plate is parents responsibility deflected downwards into the asthenosphere which lies below the crust and the lithosphere. When two thick continential plates collide, rocks on alan the land are relatively light and too buoyant to descend into the asthenosphere. No To Homework. The result is a huge zone of crushing, with rocks and other materials being folded. And this is how the Himalayas have emerged or, in fact, are continuing to emerge. As the deformation of the plate margins goes on, energy builds up in rocks in the form of alan brunton elastic strain which continues till it exceeds their elastic limits and the rocks give way.

The sudden release of stored elastic energy causes earthquakes. Earthquakes in India are caused by imperial essay, the release of alan brunton elastic strain energy created and replenished by the stresses from the collision between the Indian plate and imperial essay the Eurasian plate. The most intense earthquakes occur on the boundaries of the Indian plate to the east, north and west. In the resume Indian plate, faults are created when this rubs against the Eurasian plate. (When an earthquake occurs along a fault line within the imperial essay plate, it is called an resume, intra-plate earthquake. The majority of the earthquakes occur along plate boundaries.) Earthquakes are also caused by volcanic activity. Construction of benjamin competition large water reservoirs may also cause earthquakes—these are called reservoir-induced earthquakes. The movement of the plates and occurrence of earthquakes seem to be concentrated in certain areas or zones of the earth. Based on intensity and frequency of occurrence, world map is alan divided into the following earthquake zones or belts— Circum-Pacific Belt Surrounds the Pacific Ocean and accounts for more than three-fourths of the world’s earthquakes.

Sometimes called the ‘Ring of Fire’, its epicentre are the coastal margins of writing summer camps nyc North and South America and East Asia. These represent the eastern and western margins of the Pacific Ocean respectively. Alan Brunton Resume. The occurrence of maximum number of no to homework earthquakes in this region is alan due to four ideal conditions— (i) Junction of continental and oceanic margins. (ii) Zone of young folded mountains. (iii) Zone of parents in children essay active volcanoes. (iv) Subduction zone of resume destructive or convergent plate boundaries. Also called the Mediterranean Belt or Alpine-Himalayan Belt, it accounts for about 21 per cent of the of tennis total seismic shocks. Alan. It includes the epicentres of the Alpine mountains and their offshoots in Europe, Mediterranean Sea, Northern Africa, Eastern Africa, Himalayan Mountains and Burmese hills. Mid-Atlantic Ridge Belt:

The epicentres of benjamin ferencz this region are along the mid-Atlantic Ridge and the islands near the ridge. This belt represents the zone of resume moderate and shallow focus earthquakes—the reason for this being the creation of transform faults and fractures because of splitting of plates followed by their movement in the opposite direction. Based on seismic data and different geological and geophysical parameters, the Bureau of essay on history of tennis Indian Standards (BIS) had initially divided the country into five seismic zones. In 2003, however, BIS redefined the seismic map of India by merging zones I and alan brunton II. Thus India has four such zones now—II, III, IV and V. No To Homework. There is thus no part of the country that can be termed earthquake free. Of the five seismic zones, zone V is the most active region and zone I shows least seismic activity. The entire north-eastern region falls in brunton zone V. Besides the North- East, zone V includes parts of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Rann of Kachch in Gujarat, northern Bihar and the Andaman and Nicobar islands. One of the reasons for this region being prone to earthquake is the presence of the young-fold Himalayan Mountains here which have frequent tectonic movements. Zone IV which is the next most active region of seismic activity covers Sikkim, Delhi, remaining parts of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Bihar, northern parts of Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal, parts of essay on wind energy pros and cons Gujarat and small portions of Maharashtra near the west coast. Zone III comprises Kerala, Goa, Lakshadweep, remaining parts of Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal, parts of brunton resume Punjab, Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh and no to homework Karnataka.

The remaining states with lesser known activity fall in zone II. The states of Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, the brunton resume Bihar-Nepal border, the Rann of Katchh in Gujarat and the Andaman Islands fall into the unstable belt which stretches right across the globe. The high seismicity of the Indian subcontinent arises from the imperial essay tectonic disturbances associated with the northward movement of the Indian plate, which is underthrasting the Eurasian plate. The Himalayan region has been the site for great earthquakes of the world of magnitude greater than 8.0. This highly seismic belt is a branch of one of the three major seismic belts of the world called the “Alpide-Himalayan Belt”. Resume. The high seismicity region extends from ferencz essay Hindukush in the west to Sadiya in the northeast which further extends down to the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Different institutions including the Indian Meteorogical Department and the Indian School of alan resume Mines, have after a study of mechanics of several earthquakes in the north- eastern region found that the thrust faulting was generally indicated along with Dawki fault and the Indo-Burma border.

Dr. H. Teiedemann, a member of the Earthquake Engineering Research Institute of the Seismological Society of America, said in 1985 that the increased interplay activity near the north-eastern boundary in the Indian plate coupled with thrusting of the Himalayan Burmese sector pointed to the danger of earthquakes in the region. There are three kinds of seismic waves. Waves that move the fastest are called primary, or P, waves. These waves, like sound waves, travel longitudinally by imperial essay, alternate compression and expansion of the medium, like the movement of the bellows of an accordion. Somewhat slower are the secondary, or S, waves which propagate transversely in the form of snakelike wriggles at right angle to the directions of travel. These cannot travel through liquids or gases. The slowest earthquake waves are the long, or L, waves which cause the most extensive damage as they move along the earth’s surface.

Incidentally, ‘L’ waves on sea floor cause sea waves on the surface called tsunamis. They rise to brunton resume 100 feet or more and creative writing cause damage when they break on habitated coasts. All three kinds can be detected and recorded by sensitive instru­ments called seismographs. A seismograph is usually anchored to the ground and carries a hinged or suspended mass that is set into oscillation by ground movement during an earthquake. The instrument can record both horizontal and vertical ground movement in the form of wavy lines on paper or film. From the record, called a seismogram, it is brunton resume possible to find out how strong the quake was, where it began and how long it lasted. The location of the epicentre of a quake is determined from the time of arrival of the P and S waves at essay and cons, the seismographic station. Since P waves travel at a speed of about 8 km per second and S waves at 5 km per second, it is possible to compute the distance of their origin from the seismic record. If the distance from three stations are computed, the exact location can be pin pointed.

A circle of appropriate radius is drawn around each station. The epicentre lies where the circles intersect. ‘Magnitude’ and ‘intensity’ are the two ways in alan resume which a quake’s strength is generally expressed. The magnitude is a measure that depends on the seismic energy radiated by the quake as recorded on benjamin competition seismographs. The intensity, in turn, is alan a measure that depends on essay energy pros the damage caused by the quake. Alan Brunton. It does not have a mathematical basis but is based on of tennis observed effects.

A quake’s magnitude is usually measured in terms of the Richter scale. Devised by the American seismologist, Charles Francis Richter, in alan brunton 1932, the Richter scale is not a physical device but a logarithmic scale based on recordings of seismographs, instruments which automatically detect and record the essay on history intensity, direction and duration of alan brunton a movement on the ground. The scale starts at one and has no upper limit. Since it is a logarithmic scale, each unit is no to homework 10 times greater than the previous one; in alan resume other words, an increase of one unit (whole number) on the Richter scale signifies a 10-fold jump in s education the quake’s size (or 31 times more energy released). On this scale, the smallest quake felt by humans is about 3.0, and the smallest quake capable of causing damage is about 4.5. The strongest quake ever recorded had a magnitude of 8.9. Richter magnitude effects are confined to the vicinity of the epicentre. The Richter scale has been immensely modified and upgraded since it was introduced.

It remains the most widely known and used scale for measuring the magnitude of an brunton resume, earthquake. For measurement of the intensity of an earthquake, the Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale is used. The 12-point Mercalli scale measures the intensity of shaking during an essay energy, earthquake and is assessed by inspecting the damage and interviewing survivors of the alan brunton resume earthquake. As such, it is extremely subjective. Furthermore, because the intensity of shaking varies from parents responsibility s education essay one place to alan another during an earthquake, different Mercalli ratings can be given for the same earthquake. Unlike the Mercalli scale, the Richter scale measures the magnitude of an earthquake at its epicentre.

What are aftershocks? Aftershocks are earthquakes that often occur during the essay competition days and months that follow some larger quake. Aftershocks occur in the same general region as the main shock and brunton are believed to be the result of minor readjustment of stress at pros, place in the fault zones. Alan. Generally, major quakes are followed by a larger number of aftershocks, decreasing in frequency with time. Aftershocks may rock a region for as long as four to six months after the parents responsibility essay initial quake. Alan Brunton Resume. However, strong ones last only a few days. Aftershocks are generally not as strong in magnitude as the initial tremor.

But a small chance of them being stronger in magnitude cannot be ruled out, in which case the first and aftershocks become known as foreshocks. How frequently do quakes occur? Earthquakes occur every day around the world. S Education. Each day there are about alan resume, 1,000 very small earthquakes measuring 1 to 2 on the Richter scale. Approximately, there is one every 87 seconds. Annually, on an average, there are 800 quakes capable of no to homework causing damage with a magnitude of 5-5.9, and 18 major ones with a magnitude of 7 or more. The science of earthquake prediction is at brunton, its infancy at present, even though several intensive attempts in this direction have been going on essay on history of tennis for the last two to three decades in the USA, Russia, Japan, China and brunton resume India. In spite of some breakthroughs— the parents responsibility essay notable example being the prediction of the 1975 Haicheng earthquake of China (7.3M)—there is yet no reliable system to predict an earthquake. For, just a year later in 1976, the seismologists could not predict the Tangshan earthquake.

To predict earthquakes one has to first fully understand the underlying dynamics. For example, even though it is known that this intense seismic activity is resume a result of the north-northeastern movement and under thrusting of the Indian plate, it is not known what fraction of the strain energy is being released by earthquakes along the belt. Aside from s education such dynamic imputs, an empirical basis of prediction can be founded by recognising, monitoring and interpreting observable and decipherable precursory phenomena. Present day earthquake prediction techniques have mainly to do with precursory phenomena. The parameters that are normally looked at include electrical resistivities, geomagnetic properties, variation in alan resume the ratio of compressional to shear wave velocities, etc. Even radon emission from the earth’s crustal layers increase before an impending earthquake. One approach is to predict earthquakes on the basis of changes believed or known to precede an earthquake. Such earthquake precursors include abnormal tilting of ground, change in strain in rock, dilatancy of rocks which could be measured by a change in velocities, ground and water levels, sharp changes in pressure, and parents responsibility in children essay unusual lights in the sky.

The behaviour of some animals is also believed to alan brunton resume undergo a distinct change prior to parents in children s education an earthquake. Some lower creatures are perhaps more sensitive to sound and vibrations than humans; or endowed with what one may call prescience. Another approach is to estimate the probabilistic occurrence of an earthquake statistically by relating the past occurrences to weather conditions, volcanic activity and tidal forces. There have been some notable Indian efforts too in developing prediction models in resume the Himalayan-belt context. One relates to ferencz competition the so- called seismic gaps, which postulates that great earthquakes rupture the Himalayan arc whose total length is about 1700 km. Alan Brunton Resume. Of this, about 1400 km is supposed to have been ruptured releasing part of the pent-up energy during the last four great earthquakes, leaving a portion of about 300 km to be broken in a “future great earthquake”. The most likely unruptured gaps in the Himalayan arc are stated to be in Uttar Pradesh (Ganga Basin), and in Kashmir. Proponents of this model have postulated that the entire Himalayan detachment would rupture in 180-240 years, the rupture being caused by on history, a 8.0 M plus earthquake. This hypothesis forms the basis for the apprehension of the Tehri dam being subjected to earthquakes of this magnitude. Some scientists have noted that certain cycles of low and high seismicity characterise the Alpide belt.

For example, after an brunton resume, extremely active cycle from 1934 to 1951, with 14 earthquakes of magnitude greater than 7.7 a quiet phase began in 1952, and till now only four such events have occurred. In the parents essay world scientific community, the latest in earthquake prediction techniques have come from the United States. One method developed by the Americans involves the use of laser beams. Resume. These beams are shot from an observatory to a geostationary satellite in space. On hitting the satellite, the waves are reflected back to the observatory. A substantial difference in the time taken by the laser beams to travel between the on wind energy two points is an indication of considerable tectonic plate movement, and perhaps an imminent earthquake. A recent study of Indonesian reefs showed that corals record cyclical environmental events and could predict a massive earthquake in the eastern Indian Ocean within the alan brunton resume next 20 years. The study conducted off Indonesia’s Sumatra Island showed they have annual growth rings, like those in tree trunks, which record cyclical events such as earthquakes. Scientists said the earthquake could be similar to the magnitude 9.15 earthquake which sparked the essay on history devastating 2004 tsunami and left more than two lakh people either dead or missing across Asia. The corals off Sumatra’s Mentawai Islands showed a major earth­quake had occurred every 200 years since 1300. When earthquakes push the seafloor upward, lowering local sea level, the corals cannot grow upward and grew outward instead, a major indication.

An area off Sumatra that has been the source of disastrous earthquakes, still carries a lot of pent-up pressure that could result in another strong quake, noted the study reported in the journal Nature. It is not, however, clear as of now whether a precise earthquake prediction and warning system can be developed and put to any effective use. The greatest damage in an earthquake is caused by the destruction of buildings and resultant loss of life and property and destruction of infrastructure. The earthquakes having the same magnitude on the Richter scale may vary in alan resume damage from place to place. The extent of damage that an earthquake can cause may depend on more than one factor. The depth of the focus may be one factor. Earthquakes can be very deep and in such cases surface damage may be less. The extent of damage also depends on essay on history how populated and developed an area is. A ‘great’ earthquake in an uninhabited or virtually uninhabited area will be less damaging than a ‘large’ earthquake in a highly populated area. The National Buildings Organisation of India lists weaknesses in burnt brick buildings as follows: i. Poor strength of material in tension-and shear.

ii. Toothed joint causing a vertical plane of weakness between perpendicular walls. iii. Large openings placed too close to the corners. Long rooms having long walls unsupported by cross-walls. iv. Unsymmetrical plan, or with too many projections. v. Use of heavy roofs having flexibility in plan. vi.

Use of light roofs with little binding effects on walls. Some measures to prevent building collapse during the earthquake are: symmetry and brunton resume rectangularity of building; symmetry in locating openings; simplicity in elevation or avoidance of ornamentation; intersecting internal walls so as to divide the total plan in square enclosures of not more than 6 m wide; use of steel or wooden dowels going into walls meeting at corners (shear walls) or T-junctions to provide effective bonding; use of bond beam or band of reinforced concrete at lintel levels of openings and serving as lintel too. The last one is the one feature that is most effective in on wind energy and cons ensuring the integrity of enclosures like a rigid box. For masonry construction, the BIS has specified that materials to be used should be well-burnt bricks and alan brunton not sun-dried bricks. The use of arches to imperial essay span over alan brunton openings is a source of weakness and should be avoided unless steel ties are provided. Scientists have suggested designing buildings to counter quake movement by shifting the centre of gravity with the help of a steel weight placed on parents responsibility s education the top of the buildings.

In plain areas or towns which are located on a river bank, or situated on a thick layer of brunton resume alluvial soil (like Ahmedabad), the ‘deep piles technology’ may be useful. In this technique, thick, columns of benjamin ferencz essay competition concrete and steel are inserted 10-30 metre deep into the soil beneath the regular foundation. In case of alan brunton earthquakes, these pillars provide extra strength and on history of tennis prevent the buildings from collapsing. In the ‘base isolation technique’, heavy blocks of rubber and steel are put between the foundation and the building. During a quake, the rubber absorbs the alan brunton resume shocks. In high-rises, enlarged structures on the top floors should be avoided. Enlarged top storeys shift the centre of gravity higher making the building more unstable during the earthquake. ‘Soft first storeys’ should be avoided.

In cities, many buildings stand on columns. The ground floor is in children essay generally used for parking and alan walls start from the first floor. No To Homework. These buildings collapse quickly during an alan resume, earthquake. Independent tall cores should be avoided unless they are tied to the main structure. Tropical cyclones, the essay on history most destructive of nature’s phenomena, are known to form over resume all tropical oceans except over the South Atlantic and the South Pacific, east of about 140° W. No To Homework. An intense low pressure area in the atmosphere is formed before/after the monsoon. It is associated with fierce wind and heavy rainfall. Horizontally it extends from 500 to 1000 km and vertically from the surface to about 14 km. Severe tropical cyclones cause considerable damage to resume property and agricultural crops. The principal dangers posed are: (a) fierce winds; (b) torrential rains and associated flooding; and (c) high storm tides (combined effect of storm surge and no to homework tides).

Rainfall up to 20 to 30 cm a day is alan brunton resume common. The highest ever sustained winds recorded in no to homework the case of brunton resume tropical cyclones are 317 kmph. Storm surge (rise of sea level) of four metres are common. The highest sea level elevation in the world due to continued effect of storm surge and astronomical high tide occurred in 1876 near Bakerganj, where the sea level rose by about 12 metres above the mean sea level on that occasion. Tropical cyclones over the Bay of Bengal occur in two district seasons, the pre-monsoon months of April-May and the post-monsoon months of October-November. Summer Camps Nyc. On an average, in alan resume fact, almost half a dozen tropical cyclones form in the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea every year, out of which two or three may be severe. Out of these, the stormiest months are May-June, October and November.

Compared to the pre- monsoon season of May, June, when severe storms are rare, the months of October and November are known for severe cyclones. The IMD has published the tracks of the essay on history cyclones since 1891 and updates them every year in its quarterly scientific journal, Mausam. As 90 per cent of the deaths in severe cyclones all over the world occur in high storm surges accompanying them, the only feasible method to alan save the lives of human beings and animals is to evacuate them to safe inland cyclone shelters as early as possible after the receipt of advance cyclone warnings from the imperial essay IMD. The evacuation of people is difficult in flat coastal districts as in Bangladesh where the tides of six to 10 metres above the sea level submerges offshore islands and travels inland for considerable distances. Tropical cyclones are by nature devastating mainly because of brunton resume their place of birth, namely, the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). This is a narrow belt at responsibility in children, the equator, where the trade winds of the two hemispheres meet. It is a region of high radiation energy which supplies the necessary heat for the vaporisation of sea water into the air.

This moist unstable air rises, generates convective clouds and leads to alan an atmospheric disturbance with a fall in surface atmospheric pressure. This causes a convergence of surrounding air towards this region of low pressure. The converging mass of air gains a rotary motion because of what is known as the Coriolis force caused by the rotation of the Earth. However, under favourable circumstances, such as high sea-surface temperatures, this low pressure area can get accentuated. The convective instability builds up into an organised system with high-speed winds circulating around the imperial essay low pressure interior. The net result is a well formed cyclone consisting of a central region of light winds known as the ‘eye’. The eye has an average radius of 20 to 30 km. in alan fact, in on wind and cons a mature storm like in Bangladesh. It can even be as much as 50 km.

Given the existing scientific knowledge about alan resume, cyclones, it is not yet possible to physically dissipate the buildup of a massive cyclone. Cures are generally worse than the disease. For example, while seeding by sodium iodide crystals has been attempted in essay on history of tennis some parts of the world— with marginal success—a more effective prescription proposed sometimes is a nuclear explosion. Obviously, that would be trading one disaster for an even greater one. Accepted technology, therefore, only provides the capability to detect and track cyclones with sophisticated satellite imagery and resume ground- based radar systems. But here too the limitations are glaring. Atmospheric science, for example, is imperial essay not yet in a position to unambiguously predict the motion and behaviour of alan resume a cyclone more than 24 hours ahead of its arrival. So all that is on history of tennis possible in that brief span is to warn the resume vulnerable sections of the population of the imminent danger and adopt measures to move them to safer cyclone withstanding structures.

The frequency, intensity and coastal impact of cyclones varies from region to region. Interestingly, the benjamin ferencz essay frequency of tropical cyclones is the least in the north Indian Ocean regions of the Bay of Bengal and resume the Arabian Sea; they are also of moderate intensities. But the cyclones are deadliest when they cross the coast bordering North Bay of Bengal (coastal areas of no to homework Orissa, West Bengal and brunton Bangladesh). This is on history of tennis mainly due to storm surges (tidal waves) that occur in this region inundating the coastal areas. Alan Resume. Over the last two-and-a-half centuries, 17 of the 22 severe tropical cyclones—each causing loss of more than 10,000 human lives—took place in the North Bay of Bengal. While gales and strong winds, as well as torrential rain, that usually accompany a cyclone can cause sufficient havoc to property and agriculture, loss of human life and cattle is mainly due to storm surges.

If the parents responsibility in children essay terrain is shallow and shaped like a funnel, like that of Bangladesh—much of the exposed land is just about at alan brunton, the mean sea level or even less—storm surges get enormously amplified. Coastal inundation due to a combination of high tide and storm surge can cause the essay on wind energy pros and cons worst disaster. India has an efficient cyclone warning system. Tropical cyclones are tracked with the help of (i) regular observation from weather network of surface and upper air observation stations, (ii) ships report, (iii) cyclone detection radars, (iv) satellites, and (v) reports from commercial aircraft. Ships of merchant fleet have meteorological instruments for taking observations at sea. A network of cyclone detection radars have been set up along the coast at Kolkata, Paradip, Visakhapatnam, Machilipatnam, Chennai, Karaikal, Kochi, Goa, Mumbai and alan resume Bhuj. The range of these radars is 400 km. When the cyclone is beyond the range of coastal radars, its intensity and movement is monitored with weather satellites. Warnings are issued by the area cyclone warning centres located at Kolkata, Chennai and Mumbai, and cyclone warning centres at Bhubaneswar, Visakhapatnam and Ahmedabad. IMD has developed a system known as Disaster Warning System (DWS) to transmit cyclone warning bulletins through INSAT-DWS to the recipients.

This consists of the following elements: (i) The cyclone warning centre for originating the area code of the districts and disaster warning message; (ii) The earth station located near the cyclone warning centre with uplink facility in C-band and suitable communication links; (iii) The C/S band transponder on board INSAT; and. (iv) The INSAT-DWS receivers located in cyclone prone areas. Typically, in a cyclone the maximum devastative effects are within about responsibility essay, 100 km from the resume centre and on the right of the storm track where all the islands lie. Evacuating the population just 24 hours before would require an army of high speed boats, an unfeasible proposition for a resource—poor country. The obvious solution, therefore, would be to provide a large number of parents responsibility storm shelters in brunton the particularly vulnerable areas. So inured are we to the annual phenomena of floods in season, that one more village practically washed away by on wind and cons, a flash flood causes no more than a ripple.

But for the people there it is a traumatic experience. In most cases ‘flooding’ is caused by a river over-spilling its banks due to (a) excessive precipitation, (b) obstruction in the river bed, (c) inadequate waterways at rail/road crossings, (d) drainage congestion, and (e) change in river course. Flood forecasting in India commenced in 1958 with the establish­ment of a unit in Central Water Commission (CWC). Earlier, it used to alan be done by a conventional method—gauge to gauge or discharge correlation by which future gauges at forecast points are estimated on the basis of gauge discharge observed at some upstream station. Gradually, other parameters like precipitation, etc. were incorporated. Writing Nyc. Nowadays, computer-based hydrological models are being used for inflow and flood forecasting. The basic information required for alan brunton resume flood forecasting is rainfall data of the catchment area of the river.

Due to poor communication and inaccessibility, complete information is not always available. However, with sophisticated high-powered S-band radars, it is now possible to estimate the rainfall in an area of up to 200 km around the radar site. This system is used extensively in essay of tennis the US for estimating the rainfall potential in the catchment areas of major rivers an issue of brunton flood forecast warning. The use of radar for the precipitation estimate is based on the principle that the imperial essay amount of echo return from a volume of cloud depends on the number and size of hydrometeros in brunton it. Creative. The empirical relationship between the echo return and the rainfall rates has been developed for various types of rain. Using fast switching digital circuits, the return video is digitised, integrated, normalised and contoured into standard six or seven rainfall rates. Observations taken every ten minutes can be cumulatively added and averaged to give 24-hour rainfall prediction over the region. Through appropriate modes, the information from resume a number of radar sites can be sent to on wind energy and cons a central office where powerful computers process the data and resume yield the on wind energy pros and cons overall rainfall potential of the weather system.

The advantage of using radars for hydrological work lies in the fact that the information over the inaccessible region is available without actual human intervention. Of course, there are many assumptions which do not always hold good, thereby introducing large errors in brunton resume the result. But with suitable calibration with actual gauge measurements correction factors could be applied. Another advantage of the summer camps radar measurement that it puts the time for the collection of rainfall data thereby increasing the lead time available for rescue/evacuation efforts in the region likely to be affected. There are two ways to reduce flood damage—structural and non­structural measures. The former include construction of dams, embank­ments, drainage channels, etc. Alan Brunton Resume. This has not helped much as population has moved into areas where flooding used to occur and essay on wind has been controlled due to structure. Whenever flooding level is higher than what the brunton structure can hold, the result is devastating. The non-structural approach calls for removing populations from the flood plains. Another important aspect is to reduce the silting of rivers.

Afforestation in the catchment areas, along the river banks, helps in maintaining the no to homework effective river volume. The National Flood Commission (NFC) was set up specifically to deal with the problem of floods. But it is evident that, over the last four decades or so, flood control efforts have proved counter-productive because they have not included adequate planning for conservation of watersheds. As a result the increasing siltation of rivers is accelerating their rate of brunton flow in essay of tennis flood, eventually forcing even well built embankments to give way. Alan Resume. As is well known, embankments increase the force of the river by parents s education essay, channelling it over a narrow area instead of permitting it to alan spread. The danger of essay and cons relying too heavily on the system of embankments for flood control has been well documented. Apart from the alan resume depletion in forest cover, overgrazing contributes greatly to essay on wind soil loss in the catchment areas. Even in the mountainous areas, where efforts have been made to plant trees on steep slopes to reduce the soil loss during rains, mountain goats have impeded the process of regeneration. Cattle and goats also destroy the plant cover that springs up after the rain which is alan resume crucial for holding down the soil. Human activity is yet another factor. Quarrying, road construction, and other building activity in sensitive catchment areas add to the soil loss.

As a result of all these factors, the responsibility silt load of many rivers has increased greatly. The siltation level of dams, which has generally been underestimated at the time of construction has had to be revised by 50 to 400 per cent in some cases. Siltation reduces the capacity of reservoirs. Consequently in order to save the dam, unscheduled and alan brunton panic releases of water are resorted to often without giving adequate warning to people downstream who live in the path of the released water. Thus ironically dams built partly to no to homework assist in flood control, are today contributing to the devastation caused by floods. The phenomenon that really ought to engage the minds of planners is how and why the flood-prone area in alan the country is increasing each year. Even areas which have never known floods in the past are now affected. No To Homework. The NFC estimates that 40 million hectares are flood-prone of which 32 million hectares can be protected.

Although flood management is alan brunton resume a state subject, the Union govern­ment provides Central assistance to the flood-prone states for a few specified schemes, which are technical and energy pros and cons promotional in nature. Some such Centrally-sponsored schemes are: critical anti-erosion works in Ganga basin states, critical anti-erosion works in coastal and other than Ganga basin states, maintenance of flood protection works of Kosi and Gandak projects, etc. The Central government provides special assistance to the Border States and north eastern states for taking up some special priority works. The Central Water Commission is engaged in flood forecasting on inter-state river basins through 134 river-level forecasting and alan 25 inflow forecasting stations on major dams/barrages throughout the country. A tsunami is a series of travelling ocean waves which are set off by geological disturbances near the floor of the ocean. No To Homework. The waves of very, very long wavelengths and brunton resume period rush across the ocean and increase their momentum over a stretch of thousands of kilometers. Some tsunamis may appear as a tide but they are not tidal waves in reality. While tides are caused by gravitational influences of the moon, sun and the planets, tsunamis are seismic sea waves. That is, they are related to an earthquake- related mechanism of no to homework generation.

Tsunamis are usually a result of earthquakes, but may be at times caused by landslides or volcanic eruption or, very rarely, a large meteorite impact on the ocean. The tsunami can be understood at the basic level by looking at alan, the series of concentric ripples formed in a lake when a stone is thrown into it. A tsunami is like those ripples but caused by a disturbance much greater in magnitude. Tsunamis are shallow-water waves different from the wind-generated waves which usually have a period of five to twenty seconds which refers to the time between two successional waves of energy pros and cons about 100 to resume 200 metres. Tsunamis behave as shallow-water waves because of imperial essay their long wave­lengths. They have a period in the range of ten minutes to two hours and a wavelength exceeding 500 km. The rate of energy loss of a wave is inversely related to its wavelength. Alan Resume. So tsunamis lose little energy as they propagate as they have a very large wavelength. In Children S Education Essay. So they will travel at high speeds in deep waters and travel great distances as well losing little energy. A tsunami that occurs 1000 metres deep in alan brunton resume water has a speed of 356 km per on wind energy pros and cons hour.

At 6000 m, it travels at 873 Ion per hour. It travels at brunton resume, different speeds in water: it travels slow in water that is shallow and fast in deep water. As an average ocean depth of 5000 m is assumed, one talks of tsunamis as having an average speed of about 750 km per hour. The long gravity tsunami waves are caused by two interacting processes. There is the slope of the sea surface which creates a horizontal pressure force. Then there is the parents in children piling up or lowering of sea surface as water moves in varying speeds in the direction that the wave form is moving. These processes together create propagating waves. A tsunami can be caused by any disturbance that displaces a large water mass from its equilibrium position. An undersea earthquake causes buckling of the sea floor, something that occurs at subduction zones, places where drifting plates that constitute the outer shell of the earth converge and the heavier oceanic plate dips below the lighter continents. As a plate plunges into the interior of the brunton resume earth it gets stuck against the edge of no to homework a continental plate for a while, when stresses build up, then the locked zone gives way.

Parts of the ocean floor then snap upward and other areas sink downward. In the alan resume instant after the quake, the sea surface shape resembles the contours of the seafloor. But then gravity acts to return the sea surface to its original shape. The ripples then race outward and a tsunami is caused. Killer tsunamis have been generated by subduction zones off Chile, Nicaragua, Mexico and energy and cons Indo­nesia in the past. There were 17 tsunamis in the Pacific from 1992 to 1996 which resulted in 1,700 deaths.

During a submarine landslide, the equilibrium sea-level is altered by alan brunton, sediment moving along the floor of the sea. Gravitational forces then propagate a tsunami. Writing Camps. Again, a marine volcanic eruption can generate an impulsive force that displaces the water column and gives birth to alan brunton resume a tsunami. Above water landslides and objects in space are capable of disturbing the water when the falling debris, like meteorites, displace the water from its equilibrium position. As a tsunami leaves deep waters and propagates into the shallow waters, it transforms. This is because as the depth of the water decreases, the speed of the tsunami reduces. But the change of total energy of the imperial essay tsunami remains constant. With decrease in speed, height of the tsunami wave grows.

A tsunami which was imperceptible in deep water may grow to many metres high and this is called the ‘shoaling’ effect. Tsunami attacks can come in different forms depending upon the geometry of the alan resume seafloor warping that first caused the waves. Essay. Sometimes, the sea seems to at first draw a breath but then this withdrawal is followed by brunton, arrival of the crest of a tsunami wave. Tsunamis have been known to occur suddenly without warning. The water level on the shore rises to many metres: more than 15 m for essay tsunamis originating at brunton, a distance and over 30 metres for tsunamis that originate near the earthquake’s epicentre.

Waves can be large and violent in one coastal area while another is not affected. No To Homework. Areas can be flooded inland to 305 metres or more; when tsunami waves retreat, they carry things and people out to sea. Tsunamis may reach a maximum vertical height onshore above sea level of 30 metres. The size of the tsunami waves is determined by the quantum of deformation of the sea floor. Greater the alan brunton vertical displacement, greater will be the wave size. For tsunamis to occur, earthquakes must happen underneath or near the ocean. They must be large and create movements in the ocean floor. The size of the tsunami is determined by the earthquake’s magnitude, depth, fault characteristics and coincident slump­ing of sediments or secondary faulting. Subduction zones off Chile, Nicaragua, Mexico and no to homework Indonesia have created killer tsunamis. The Pacific among the oceans has witnessed most number of tsunamis (over 790 since 1990). One of the deadliest tsunamis occurred in Asia on December 26, 2005.

Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India, Malaysia, Maldives, Myanmar, Bangladesh and Somalia bore the brunt of the disaster that killed over 55,000 people. It was triggered by the most powerful earthquake recorded in the past four decades—one whose magnitude was 8.9 on the Richter scale. A tsunami with a magnitude 9.2 temblor struck Alaska in 1964. Geographical Changes Caused by Tsunamis: Tsunamis and earthquakes can cause changes in geography. The December 26 earth­quake and tsunami shifted the North Pole by 2.5 cm in the direction of brunton 145 degrees East longitude and on wind pros and cons reduced the length of the day by 2.68 microseconds.

This in turn affected the velocity of earth’s rotation and the Coriolis force which plays a strong role in weather patterns. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands may have moved by about 1.25 m owing to the impact of the alan brunton colossal earthquake and the tsunami. The warning of an oncoming tsunami cannot be obtained by merely detecting an earthquake in the seas; it involves a number of complex steps which have to be completed in a systematic and quick fashion. It was in 1965, that the international warning system was started. It is administered by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).

The member states of the NOAA include the major Pacific Rim countries in creative nyc North America, Asia and South America, Pacific Islands, Australia and New Zealand. The NOAA includes France, which has sovereignty over some Pacific islands, and Russia. Computer systems at the Pacific Tsunami Warning Centre (PTWC) in Hawaii monitor data from seismic stations in the USA and elsewhere warning is issued when an earthquake is shallow, located under the sea or close to it and has a magnitude that is alan brunton more than a pre-determined threshold. The NOAA has developed the ‘Deep Ocean Assessment and Reporting of imperial essay Tsunamis’ (DART) gauge. Resume. Each gauge has a very sensitive pressure recorder on the sea floor in energy pros and cons which can detect the change in the height of the resume ocean it even if it is by just one cm. Ferencz Essay Competition. The data is transmitted acoustically to a surface buoy which then relays it over satellite to the warning centre. Alan Brunton Resume. There are seven DART gauges deployed at summer camps nyc, present and four more are being planned. PTWC has improved its performance rapidly as high-quality seismic data has been made available to alan resume it. Benjamin Ferencz Competition. The time it needed to issue a warning has fallen from resume up to on wind pros 90 minutes some six years ago to 25 minutes or even less today. The Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) constitutes computer models developed by the NOAA which can simulate the generation of a tsunami and its inundation of dry land. The Indian Ocean is not prone to tsunamis.

Only two have occurred in this ocean including one on December 26, 2004. India has been a leader in the initiative to develop a reliable tsunami warning system for the ocean. It has decided to set up a sophisticated system for detecting deep sea movements and develop a network with the countries in the Indian Ocean region for sharing information on tsunamis. The Deep Ocean Assessment and Reporting System (DOARS) will be set up six kilometers deep under the sea. Alan Resume. It will have pressure sensors to detect the water movement. The sensors will be linked to parents responsibility in children essay the satellite that will relay information to the earth station.

Some 6-12 more sensors would be installed later and the data buoys would be linked to the system that would record changes in the water level. The Indian government plans to set up a network with Indonesia, Myanmar and Thailand which would calculate the magnitude and intensity of tsunamis from the data available to it. DART-type gauges will be installed by resume, the government and it will join 26 countries in a network that warn each other about tsunamis. A state-of-the-art National Tsunami Early Warning Centre, which has the capability to detect earthquakes of more than 6 magnitude in the Indian Ocean was inaugurated in 2007 in India. Set up by the Ministry of Earth Sciences in the Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services (INCOIS), the 125-crore tsunami warning system would take 30 minutes to analyse the responsibility seismic data following an earthquake. The system comprises a real-time network of seismic stations, bottom pressure recorders (BPRs), and 30 tide gauges to brunton resume detect tsunamigenic earthquakes and monitor tsunamis. Many regions in India are highly vulnerable to natural and other disasters on on wind energy pros and cons account of geological conditions. Disaster management has therefore emerged as a high priority. Going beyond the historical focus on relief and alan resume rehabilitation after the catastrophe, there is a need to look ahead and plan for disaster preparedness and mitigation. So, the development process needs to be sensitive towards disaster prevention, preparedness as well as mitigation to essay on wind pros ensure that periodic shocks to alan brunton resume development efforts are minimised. About 60 per cent of the landmass in India is susceptible to earthquakes and over 8 per cent is prone to floods.

Of the essay pros and cons nearly 7,500 km long coastline, more than 5,500 km is prone to cyclones. Around 68 per alan brunton cent area is also susceptible to drought. All this entails huge economic losses and causes developmental setbacks. However, India’s commitment to mainstreaming disaster risk reduction into the process of development planning at no to homework, all levels so as to achieve sustainable develop­ment is yet to be carried forward across sectors through actionable programmes for achieving the desired result. Tenth Five Year Plan Strategy and Approach : The Tenth Five Year Plan (2002-07) recognised disaster management as a development issue for the first time.

It was prepared in the backdrop of the Orissa super cyclone (1999) and the massive Gujarat earthquake (2001). Later the Tsunami in the Indian Ocean which devastated coastal communities in Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Puducherry and Andaman in 2004 became the tipping point for alan resume initiating a series of steps by the government. India became one of the first countries to declare a national commitment to set up appropriate institutional mechanisms for more effective disaster management at the national, state and district levels. The Disaster Management Bill was subsequently adopted unani­mously. The Plan devoted a separate article to no to homework disaster management and made a number of important prescriptions to mainstream disaster risk reduction into alan brunton, the process of development. The prescriptions were broadly divided into three categories: I. Policy guidelines at macro level to inform and guide the preparation and implementation of essay on wind energy pros development plans-across sectors. II. Operational guidelines for alan integrating disaster management practices into development plans and programmes, and. III.

Specific developmental schemes for prevention and mitigation of disasters. The significant initiatives on disaster management taken during the Plan period included the following: i. The Disaster Management Act, 2005 was enacted for establishing requisite institutional mechanisms for drawing up and monitoring the implementation of disaster management plans, and for undertaking a holistic, coordinated, and prompt response to any disaster situation. ii. Setting up of the National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) as an benjamin ferencz essay, apex body responsible for laying down of policies, plans and guidelines on disaster management so as to ensure timely and effective response to disasters. iii. Brunton Resume. The guidelines on management of essay pros earthquake, chemical disasters, and chemical (industrial) disasters were finalised during the Plan period. iv. Arunachal Pradesh, Goa, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, Mizoram, Puducherry, Punjab and Uttar Pradesh have constituted State Disaster Management Authorities (SDMAs).

The other states and UTs are in the process of constituting the same. v. An eight battalion-strong National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) was set up comprising 144 specialised response teams on various types of disasters of alan brunton which around 72 are for nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) disasters. vi. Revamping of the civil defence set-up to strengthen local efforts for disaster preparedness and effective response. Fire services also strengthened and modernised to a multi-hazard response force.

vii. Essay. A comprehensive Human Resource Plan for disaster management was developed. viii. Inclusion of disaster management in the curriculum of middle and secondary school education. The subject has also been included in the post-induction and in-service training of civil and police officers. Modules have also been identified to include disaster management aspects in the course curriculum for alan brunton engineering, architecture, and medical degrees. ix. The National Institute for Disaster Management (NIDM) was established as the apex training institute for essay of tennis disaster management in India. x. Model-building by-laws for town and alan country planning legislations, land use zonation, development control legislations were finalised.

xi. The Bureau of Indian Standards issued building codes for construction of different types of buildings in different seismic zones in India. The National Building Code was also revised, taking into consid­eration the natural hazards and risks of essay on history of tennis various regions of India. xii. Implementation of the National Programme for Capacity Building of Engineers in Earthquake Risk Management to train 10,000 engineers and 10,000 architects on safe construction techniques and architectural practices. xiii. A web-enabled centralised inventory of resources was developed to minimise response time in emergencies. Over 1, 10,000 records from 600 districts have already been uploaded. xiv. Sale construction practices and alan “dos” and “don’ts” for various hazards were also disseminated for creating public awareness. Eleventh Plan Strategies and Initiatives : The Eleventh Plan (2008-2013) aims at consolidating the entire process of disaster management by giving impetus to projects and programmes that develop and on history of tennis nurture the culture of safety and integration of disaster prevention and mitigation into the development process.

To assist the Planning Commission in appraisal of brunton resume projects, broad and generic guide­lines which are not disaster or theme specific have to be adopted. Conceptualisation of hazard scenarios and ferencz associated vulnerability and risk assessments in a given situation will necessarily have to depend on available maps, master plans and alan brunton building and parents responsibility essay land use regulations, National Building Code of India, and the various Safety Standards and Codes of the Bureau of Indian Standards. The guidelines will cover the alan following aspects in the Eleventh Plan: i. Multi-hazard prone area/district recognised by the NDMA will be reported in ferencz essay the revised National Building Code of India of the Bureau of Indian Standards. ii. Alan Brunton Resume. A project/scheme should be based on a detailed hazard and risk assessment and wherever required, environmental clearance will also be taken. iii. All major stages of project/scheme development, namely, plan­ning, site investigations and designs, will be subject to a process of rigorous peer review and will be accordingly certified. iv.

All schemes for generating basic input data for imperial essay hazard and vulnerability impact analysis to be made operational. v. Alan. Mainstreaming disaster reduction into already approved projects in sectors of education, housing, infrastructure, urban development, and the like. Design of school buildings under the programme would include hazard resistant features, in multi-hazard prone (earthquake, cyclone, flood), high-risk areas. Benjamin Ferencz Essay. Similarly, existing infrastructure like bridges and alan resume roads will also be strengthened and imperial essay upgraded to mitigate disaster at a subsequent stage. Outside the framework of Plan schemes, many innovative measures will also be adopted to encourage disaster risk reduction measures in the corporate sector, non-government organisations, and among individuals. Fiscal measures like rebates on income and property tax for retrofitting unsafe buildings, compulsory risk insurance for bank loan on all types of properties will also be introduced to mobilise resources for safe construction and retrofitting of existing constructions in all disaster prone areas. Alan. Many innovative measures for promoting public-private-community partnership for disaster risk reduction will also be taken up during the Plan period. An “Extended Disaster Risk Mitigation Project” has been identified for being taken up for preparation of a ‘Project Report’ during the Eleventh Plan. This will be supplemented by activities under various other national/state level mitigation projects. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply.

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6th grade essays Sixth Grade Writing Standards. Writing standards for sixth grade define the knowledge and skills needed for writing proficiency at this grade level. By understanding 6th grade writing standards, parents can be more effective in helping their children meet grade level expectations. What is 6th Grade Writing? Sixth grade students are expected to produce cohesive, coherent, and error-free multi-paragraph essays on a regular basis. Sixth-graders write essays of increasing complexity containing formal introductions, ample supporting evidence, and conclusions. Students select the appropriate form and develop an brunton identifiable voice and style suitable for the writing purpose and the audience. Sixth grade student writing should demonstrate a command of standard American English and writing skills such as organizing ideas, using effective transitions, and choosing precise wording. S Education. Sixth-graders use every phase of the writing process and continue to build their knowledge of writing conventions, as well as how to evaluate writing and conduct research.

The following writing standards represent what states* typically specify as 6th grade benchmarks in writing proficiency: Sixth grade writing standards focus on the writing process as the primary tool to help children become independent writers. In Grade 6, students are taught to alan brunton resume use each phase of the parents responsibility, process as follows: Prewriting: In grade 6, students generate ideas and organize information for writing by alan brunton using such prewriting strategies as brainstorming, graphic organizers, notes, and no to homework, logs. Brunton. Students choose the form of essay on wind energy pros and cons writing that best suits the intended purpose and then make a plan for writing that prioritizes ideas, addresses purpose, audience, main idea, and logical sequence. Drafting: In sixth grade, students develop drafts by categorizing ideas, organizing them into paragraphs, and blending paragraphs within larger units of text. Writing exhibits the students’ awareness of the audience and purpose. Students analyze language techniques of professional authors (e.g., point of view, establishing mood) to enhance the use of descriptive language and word choices. Revising: In sixth grade, students revise selected drafts by resume elaborating, deleting, combining, and rearranging text. Other grade 6 revision techniques include adding transitional words, incorporating sources directly and indirectly into writing, using generalizations where appropriate, and connecting conclusion to beginning (e.g., use of the circular ending). Goals for revision include improving coherence, progression, and the logical support of ideas by focusing on the organization and consistency of ideas within and essay, between paragraphs. Alan. Students also evaluate drafts for use of voice, point of view, and imperial essay, language techniques (e.g., foreshadowing, imagery, simile, metaphor, sensory language, connotation, denotation) to create a vivid expression of ideas. Editing: Students edit their writing based on their knowledge of grammar and alan brunton resume, usage, spelling, punctuation, and other features of polished writing, such as clarity, varied sentence structure, and word choice (e.g., eliminating slang and selecting more precise verbs, nouns, and adjectives).

Students also proofread using reference materials, word processor, and other resources. Publishing: Sixth graders refine selected pieces frequently to energy pros and cons “publish” for intended audiences. Brunton Resume. Published pieces use appropriate formatting and graphics (e.g., tables, drawings, charts, graphs) when applicable to enhance the appearance of the creative summer, document. Use of technology: Sixth grade students use available technology to alan brunton support aspects of writing summer camps creating, revising, editing, and publishing texts. Students compose documents with appropriate formatting by using word-processing skills and principles of design (e.g., margins, tabs, spacing, columns, page orientation). In sixth grade, students write to express, discover, record, develop, and reflect on ideas. They problem solve and produce texts of at least 500 to 700 words. Specifically, 6th grade writing standards stipulate that students write in the following forms: Narrative: Students write narrative accounts that establish a point of view, setting, and plot (including rising action, conflict, climax, falling action, and resume, resolution). Writing should employ precise sensory details and concrete language to develop plot and character and use a range of narrative devices (e.g., dialogue, suspense, and figurative language) to enhance style and tone.

Expository: Students write to no to homework describe, explain, compare and contrast, and alan resume, problem solve. Essays should engage the interest of the reader and include a thesis statement, supporting details, and parents responsibility s education essay, introductory, body, and concluding paragraphs. Students use a variety of organizational patterns, including by categories, spatial order, order of importance, or climactic order. Alan Resume. Research Reports: Students pose relevant questions with a scope narrow enough to be thoroughly covered. Writing supports the main idea or ideas with facts, details, examples, and explanations from essay of tennis, multiple authoritative sources (e.g., speakers, periodicals, online information searches), and includes a bibliography. Persuasive: Students write to influence, such as to persuade, argue, and alan brunton resume, request. In grade 6, persuasive compositions should state a clear position, support the position with organized and relevant evidence, anticipate and essay, address reader concerns and counter arguments. Creative: Students write to entertain, using a variety of expressive forms (e.g., short play, song lyrics, historical fiction, limericks) that employ figurative language, rhythm, dialogue, characterization, plot, and/or appropriate format. Responses to Literature: Sixth grade students develop an alan resume interpretation exhibiting careful reading, understanding, and insight. Writing shows organization around clear ideas, premises, or images, supported by examples and textual evidence. In addition, sixth graders choose the appropriate form for their own purpose for writing, including journals, letters, editorials, reviews, poems, presentations, and parents responsibility in children s education, narratives, and instructions.

Grade 6: Writing Evaluation. Sixth grade students learn to alan respond constructively to others#8217; writing and determine if their own writing achieves its purposes. Essay On Wind Energy. In Grade 6, students also apply criteria to evaluate writing and brunton, analyze published examples as models for on wind energy pros and cons, writing. Writing standards recommend that each student keep and review a collection of his/her own written work to determine its strengths and brunton, weaknesses and to set goals as a writer. In addition, sixth grade students evaluate the purposes and effects of film, print, and technology presentations. Students assess how language, medium, and presentation contribute to meaning. Grade 6: Written English Language Conventions.

Students in sixth grade are expected to write with more complex sentences, capitalization, and essay of tennis, punctuation. In particular, sixth grade writing standards specify these key markers of proficiency: —Write in complete sentences, using a variety of sentence structures to expand and embed ideas (e.g., simple, compound, and complex sentences; parallel structure, such as similar grammatical forms or juxtaposed items). —Employ effective coordination and subordination of ideas to express complete thoughts. —Use explicit transitional devices. —Correctly employ Standard English usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun referents, and resume, the eight parts of of tennis speech (noun, pronoun, verb, adverb, adjective, conjunction, preposition, interjection). Resume. Ensure that verbs agree with compound subjects. And Cons. —Use verb tenses appropriately and consistently such as present, past, future, perfect, and progressive. —Identify and properly use indefinite pronouns. —Use adjectives (comparative and superlative forms) and adverbs appropriately to alan brunton make writing vivid or precise. —Use prepositional phrases to and cons elaborate written ideas. —Use conjunctions to connect ideas meaningfully. —Use regular and irregular plurals correctly. —Write with increasing accuracy when using pronoun case such as “He and they joined him.” —Punctuate correctly to clarify and enhance meaning such as using hyphens, semicolons, colons, possessives, and brunton, sentence punctuation. —Use correct punctuation for clauses (e.g., dependent and imperial essay, independent clauses), appositives and appositive phrases, and in cited sources, including quotations for exact words from sources. —Write with increasing accuracy when using apostrophes in resume contractions such as doesn’t and possessives such as Maria’s. Imperial Essay. —Capitalize correctly to clarify and enhance meaning. —Sixth grades pay particular attention to capitalization of major words in titles of books, plays, movies, and television programs. —Use knowledge of spelling rules, orthographic patterns, generalizations, prefixes, suffixes, and roots, including Greek and Latin root words. —Spell frequently misspelled words correctly (e.g., their, they’re, there). —Write with accurate spelling of roots words such as drink, speak, read, or happy, inflections such as those that change tense or number, suffixes such as -able or -less, and prefixes such as re- or un. —Write with accurate spelling of contractions and syllable constructions, including closed, open, consonant before -le, and syllable boundary patterns. —Understand the influence of other languages and cultures on the spelling of English words. Alan Brunton Resume. —Use resources to find correct spellings and spell accurately in final drafts. —Write fluidly and legibly in energy cursive or manuscript as appropriate. Grade 6: Research and Inquiry. Resume. In sixth grade, students select and use reference materials and resources as needed for writing, revising, and editing final drafts. Students learn how to gather information systematically and use writing as a tool for research and on history of tennis, inquiry in the following ways: Search out multiple texts to alan complete research reports and writing, projects.

Organize prior knowledge about a topic in a variety of alan brunton resume ways such as by producing a graphic organizer. No To Homework. Formulate a research plan, take notes, and apply evaluative criteria (e.g., relevance, accuracy, organization, validity, publication date) to alan resume select and use appropriate resources. Frame questions for research. Evaluate own research and raise new questions for further investigation. Select and use a variety of relevant and essay, authoritative sources and reference materials (e.g., experts, periodicals, online information, dictionary, encyclopedias, online information) to aid in writing. Summarize and organize ideas gained from multiple sources in useful ways such as outlines, conceptual maps, learning logs, and alan brunton resume, timelines.

Use organizational features of electronic text (e.g., bulletin boards, databases, keyword searches, e-mail addresses) to locate information. Follow accepted formats for on wind pros and cons, writing research, including documenting sources. Explain and demonstrate an understanding of the importance of ethical research practices, including the need to avoid plagiarism, and know the alan, associated consequences. Sixth Grade Writing Tests. In some states, sixth graders take standardized writing assessments, either with pencil and paper or, increasingly, on no to homework, a computer. Students will be given questions about grammar and mechanics, as well as a timed essay writing exercise, in which they must write an alan brunton essay in response to a writing prompt. While tests vary, some states test at intervals throughout the year, each time asking students to respond to a different writing prompt that requires a different form of writing, (i.e., narrative, expository, persuasive). Another type of question asks students to write a summary statement in response to a reading passage. Students are also given classroom-based sixth grade writing tests and s education, writing portfolio evaluations.

State writing assessments are correlated to state writing standards. Alan Brunton. These standards-based tests measure what students know in relation to what they’ve been taught. If students do well on essay of tennis, school writing assignments, they should do well on such a test. Educators consider standards-based tests to be the most useful as these tests show how each student is meeting grade-level expectations. These assessments are designed to pinpoint where each student needs improvement and resume, help teachers tailor instruction to no to homework fit individual needs.

State departments of brunton resume education often include information on writing standards and writing assessments on their websites, including sample questions. Writing Test Preparation. The best writing test preparation in sixth grade is simply encouraging your child to write, raising awareness of the no to homework, written word, and alan, offering guidance on writing homework. For example, you can talk about the different purposes of in children writing as you encounter them, such as those of letters, recipes, grocery lists, instructions, and menus. By becoming familiar with 6th grade writing standards, parents can offer more constructive homework support. Remember, the best writing help for kids is not to correct their essays, but offer positive feedback that prompts them use the strategies of writing process to revise their own work. Time4Writing Online Writing Courses Support 6th Grade Writing Standards. Time4Writing is an excellent complement to sixth grade writing curriculum. Developed by classroom teachers, Time4Writing targets the fundamentals of writing.

Students build writing skills and deepen their understanding of the writing process by working on standard-based, grade-appropriate writing tasks under the alan brunton, individual guidance of a certified teacher. Writing on a computer inspires many students, even reluctant writers. Learn more about Time4Writing online courses for sixth grade. For more information about general learning objectives for benjamin, sixth grade students including math and language arts, please visit *K-12 writing standards are defined by each state. Time4Writing relies on a representative sampling of state writing standards, notably from Florida, Texas, and California, as well as on the standards published by nationally recognized education organizations, such as the National Council of alan brunton Teachers of English and the International Reading Association.

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Free Essays on Romeo Juliet Persuasive Essay Capulet. 2011 Jennifer Romeo and brunton resume, Juliet Persuasive Essay Draft Everything in life happens for a reason, and ultimately fate has a special way in imperial essay making it all happen. Within the alan brunton tragic love story of parents responsibility essay William Shakespeare’s classic, “ Romeo and Juliet ” fate decides the two lover’s destiny. Romeo Juliet Author William Shakespeare was born in Statford-upon-Avon on April 23 1564. He went to free grammar school in Stratford. It was a good school where he learned even Greek and Latin. But he didn’t go to college that’s so people thought he didn’t write his work, because apparently. A Compare and Contrast Essay on Apocalypse Now and Heart of Darkness. Romeo and Juliet Films are made with the directors different personal opinions based on the original screenplay. For the resume movie version of Romeo + Juliet (1996), the quote above illustrates this perfectly. For this essay , I will discuss contrasts between the imperial essay original screenplay.

Who Is Most to Blame for the Deaths of Romeo and alan brunton, Juliet. Essay topic: Who is most to blame for the deaths of Romeo and Juliet ? The tragic death of Romeo and Juliet can be amounted to the many factors and influences, however, it can be condensed to the feuding households of Capulets and Montagues, the good-hearted Friar Lawrence and the actions of the ‘star-cross’d. How Is Loyalty and Betrayal Part of Romeo and benjamin, Juliet. Michael M Romeo and Juliet Essay January 1, 2012 Essay ‘ Romeo and Juliet ’ by William Shakespeare is a romantic tragedy that expresses true love as well as main elements such as loyalty and betrayal and this essay will discuss how they all are equal parts of the play. There is loyalty between. Romeo and Juliet Act 3 Scene 5 Analysis. ?Academic Essay Comment on Shakespeare’s stagecraft in Act 3 Scene 5 of ‘ Romeo and Juliet ’. William Shakespeare, the celebrated playwright, wrote many famous plays.

Yet few are as renowned as his ‘ Romeo and Juliet ’, the tragic love story about two star-crossed lovers from alan resume feuding families, denied. Romeo and Juliet Essay “Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day?” Many people all over essay on wind energy and cons the world have heard the expression from William Shakespeare’s play, Romeo and Juliet . The tragedy is about two star crossed lovers who are born into two different families, Juliet’s family. Opening Prologue - reveals what will happen during the play - Montague and Capulet are rich, feuding families, extreme hatred between the families - Chorus reveals an alan, important theme of the play: that Romeo and Juliet are destined to essay on history of tennis be with one another,and to die, which will end the feud - The tone. Does the Character of alan Romeo Conform to creative writing summer Aristotle’s Conventions of a Tragic Hero? Does the Character of Romeo Conform to Aristotle’s Conventions of a Tragic Hero? Romeo in “ Romeo and Juliet ” is one of two main characters. The other is Juliet . The play was written in the late 16th Century by William Shakespeare and it is a tragic romance. “Poetics” was written by Aristotle and it. What Do We Learn from Juliets Relationship with Her Father?' Shakespeare’s, ‘ Romeo and brunton resume, Juliet ’ provides an energy and cons, insight of the experience of women in an Elizabethan society.

The play was written in the late 1600’s, and is about two feuding families whose children fall in love. Brunton Resume? Their love leads to marriage, however, Juliet’s decision to no to homework marry Romeo was against her father’s. Romeo amp; Juliet Essay “While Romeo and Juliet is a love story it is really driven by passion and conflict.” How has Shakespeare used passion and conflict to create the classic tale of, Romeo and Juliet ? Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet , is a world famous play about brunton resume, two young people, Romeo and Juliet. Yr 9 Romeo and Juliet Essay Young People Should Obey Their Parents This essay argues that the true meaning of ‘ Romeo and Juliet ’ written by William Shakespeare is not ‘that young people should obey their parents’. Rather, this essay argues that ‘ Romeo and Juliet ’ is imperial essay a complex love story and to brunton say that the true meaning of the play is essay of tennis that young people should obey. because I think the tragic deaths of both Romeo and Juliet are caused by human decision. It is an indirect result of the decisions and resume, actions of several characters.

For example, Romeo decides to go to Capulet's party where he meets Juliet . Later on, Romeo and Juliet decide to get married which is another. Kami Knight. May 15, 2008. Romeo and essay energy pros, Juliet Essay . I chose the song “Realize” by Colbie Caillat because I thought this was a good song to express Romeo and Juliet’s feelings for brunton, each other. Imperial Essay? Another reason I chose this song was because it says “that we were perfect for each other and we’ll never.

Romeo and Juliet Coursework Essay The following text with the alan brunton resume commence on parents s education essay, the Act 2 scene 2 and Act 5 scene 3 will help us to understand an atmosphere, mood and feelings in the audience in the theatre. Relationships in Romeo and Juliet. ? Compare the way relationships are presented in Romeo and Juliet and Shakespeare’s Sonnets 130 and 18. From the beginning of alan “ Romeo and Juliet ”, Shakespeare emphasizes the inevitability of the “star cross’d lovers” tragic fate, as the prologue encapsulates the enmity between the two families. The. Love in all its Forms in - Romeo and Juliet Essay The theme of love is of tennis probably the most common theme in all literature and Romeo and Juliet is no exception.

The theme of alan resume love is predominant throughout the entire of play of Romeo and Juliet . There are many different forms of love and Shakespeare. Comparitive Essay-Romeo and Juliett. Romeo and Juliet -comparative essay The play Romeo and Juliet written by William Shakespeare in the 16th century definitely has powerful themes such as love, violence and family feuds and classic characters like Romeo and Tybalt. Although the movie Romeo and Juliet directed by Baz Luhrmann in 1996. Romeo and Juliet: Montagues and Capulets. between Montagues and Capulets . The Prince of Verona intervenes and declares that further breach of the peace will be punishable by death.

Meanwhile, Count Paris talks to Lord Capulet about marrying his daughter, but Capulet is wary of the on history suit because Juliet is still only resume, thirteen. Capulet asks Paris to wait. Act 3 Scene 5 of Romeo and Juliet. The effect on character and action; • The layer of meaning in language, ideas and themes. Act 3 Scene 5 was a dramatic turning point for Juliet . Romeo banished for the death of in children essay Tybalt means they only have one night together. He has to leave by dawn.

She is thrown into an emotional anxiety, heartbreak. Explore how Shakespeare presents the development of Romeo and Juliet’s relationship In Act I, Scene V and Act II, Scene II. In this essay , I am going to analyse scenes from Shakespeare’s ‘ Romeo and Juliet ’ – a tragedy written early in Shakespeare’s career, between 1591 and 1595 – and explore how Shakespeare develops Romeo and Juliet’s relationship in 2 scenes: Act I, Scene V and Act II, Scene II. Alan Brunton? In the creative beginning of Act. Comparison and Contrast on Romeo and Juliet and West Side Story. Essay In plays, as in real life, individuals’ actions can change the course of events in theirs, as well as, other individuals’ lives. Resume? In both Romeo and Juliet and on history of tennis, West Side Story, the lovers were forced to alan brunton take their own lives or be killed because of fate and the actions of others. . Romeo and Juliet Act summaries Act 1: The Prologue starts out describing two families the Montagues and Capulets , who are constantly feuding. The first scene in this act only supports that as the imperial essay story starts off with a fight between the two families breaking out in town. After the fight Benvolio.

Romeo and Juliet (Juliet Character Progression) Set in fifteenth century Verona, “ Romeo and Juliet ” by William Shakespeare effectively presents a character which develops from a na?veand protected young girl, to brunton a passionate young woman who is prepared to die for her love, Romeo – a Montague, in the form of Juliet , Capulet’s daughter. At key stages. Motifs of Light and Darkness in Romeo and Juliet. feelings do these images arouse in the reader? In William Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet , a 3 days long feud between the Montague and Capulet families disrupts the city of imperial essay Verona and causes tragic results for Romeo and brunton resume, Juliet . Revenge, love, and a secret marriage force the young star-crossed lovers. The reason of the movie Romeo Juliet is to show others how love works in creative writing summer camps nyc mysterious ways. The movie starts off with the Capulets and the Montagues in alan brunton resume a shootout.

This version of Romeo Juliet uses guns instead of swords, like the original movie. After the shootout the Capulets and Montagues got arrested. Romeo Juliet - Parental Relationships. Shakespeare: Romeo amp; Juliet Parental Relationships – Sample Essay 1 Explore the essay on history way Shakespeare presents Juliet’s changing relationship with her parents to the audience during the course of the play. Juliet’s relationship with her parents changes during the course of the play, she is shy. plays Romeo and Juliet and Westside Story. Family and gangs fighting, people falling in love, and death. Romeo Juliet was written by Shakespeare in 1594 the setting is Verona, Itlay. Westside Story was written by Laurents in1957 the brunton setting is ferencz competition NewYork City in the 1950’s. Alan Brunton? In Romeo and Juliet thefamilies.

? Romeo and Juliet Essay Some believe that whatever happens during the course of their lives is inevitable and every event destined and laid out before them like a map to their life; in benjamin other words, fate. Fate is defined as a force, principle or power that predetermines events, it is the inevitable. Romeo and Juliet Different Genders. Hannah Wood 9RSH Romeo and Juliet Essay : Different Genders. In Romeo and alan brunton, Juliet , we encounter many differences between genders. There are tough, hard men where their main conversation topics are fighting and women.

There are also the more feminine men who are there for their friends who. Analytical and Critical Essay Romeo and Juliet By: Anna Su Shakespeare’s greatest romance tragedy Romeo and Juliet is the tale of responsibility in children essay two star cross`d lovers, recklessly choosing life changing decisions by their own will. The main cause is young Romeo and Juliet’s thoughtless actions brought upon their. Romeo and Juliet is resume a tragedy about two star crossed lovers whose love cannot apart them from their two feuding families. Essay On Wind Energy Pros And Cons? In this essay I will state who or what are responsible for their deaths, the alan main theme of the story is hate and fate.

Resulting in the feud all the members perpetuated the on wind and cons feud. Romeo and resume, Juliet’s love was doomed from the start. Juliet’s lust for power ( That's a very interesting idea. I only thought she had the boy-girl kind of lust. ) was destined to destroy her relations with Romeo . No To Homework? Capulet forces (betroths) Juliet to marry Count Paris, a man she does not love. When she. Romeo and Juliet is set in Verona, Italy, where there is an ongoing feud between the Montague and brunton, Capulet families. The play opens with servants from both houses engaged in imperial essay a street brawl that eventually draws in alan the family patriarchs and the city officials, including Prince Escalus.

The Prince ends. The Transformation of Romeo and Juliet. Yr 9 English Assignment - Romeo and Juliet ESSAY “Explain how composers have transformed Romeo and Juliet for different audiences. Refer to sections of the original text by ferencz essay, Shakespeare and sections of one or two transformations.” From the resume olden plays of creative writing summer camps nyc Shakespeare to the modern fantasy texts like. October 22, 2013 A Pair of brunton Star-Crossed Lovers Take Their Life Born in the midst of violence and hate, Romeo and Juliet grew up very much alike in similar households. They only knew of their families great pride and hate for one another, with no clue of each others existence. Just imagine how it.

Literary Analysis of Romeo and Juliet. The essay is a literary analysis of the play Romeo and Juliet . The format is Point, Proof and Explanation. Creative Writing Summer Camps? The question was What factors and/or characters lead to the eventual demise of Romeo and resume, Juliet I used Lady and Lord Capulet , Juliets Nurse, and Friar Laurence. There are direct quotes from the. Time and imperial essay, Fate in Romeo and Juliet Romeo and Juliet , said to alan resume be one of the most famous love stories of writing summer camps nyc all times, is a play anchored on brunton resume, time and fate. Some actions are believed to occur by chance or by destiny.

The timing of each action influences the outcome of the play. While some events are of. The Relationship Between Parents and parents responsibility s education, Children in 'Romeo and Juliet' of Have a little read: . GCSE ENGLISH COURSEWORK- ROMEO AND JULIET Explore The Relationship Between Parents And Children In ' Romeo and Juliet ' The tragedy of ' Romeo and Juliet ' is the result of feuding between two noble families in alan brunton Verona/Italy. Romeo was born into the Montague household, who were the. Romeo and Juliet Essay Baz Luhrmann’s film adaptation of Shakespeare’s ‘’ Romeo and Juliet ’’ explores a number of different issues one of the issues being love vs. lust. The question is; was Romeo and Juliet in love or where they lusting after each other. The scene where Romeo and Juliet meet for. ?How far Shakespeare presents Lord Capulet as a good father in this whole conversation. Part 1) In Act 1 Scene 2 Capulet is portrayed as a considerate, responsible and loving father who is concerned about what is best for his daughter and see her as more than just an ‘object’ to be married off which.

Romeo and Juliet -- Actions and Consequences of Many Characters of the Play and their effects of the plays outcome. said my intro was a little weak comparing to the rest of the no to homework essay , but it shouldn't be too hard to spruce up ] [ also the line references for the quotes my be different if your using a different version of Romeo and Juliet ] Romeo and Juliet is a play about decisions, and more importantly, about action. Romeo and Juliet - Conflicts in alan Act 3 Scene 1. What are the reasons for the conflicts in Act Three Scene One? How is this scene dramatically powerful?

The play Romeo and Juliet is imperial essay a tragic play. A tragedy is a play were the main characters die. It is about two young people who fall in love but their families are currently having a feud. Against. What Is the alan brunton Role of Fate in the Play Romeo and Juliet? Wright from the a Elizabethan era.

Shakespeare’s plays have stood the test and time and still appeal to audiences today. He wrote classics such as ` Romeo and Juliet `, `Macbeth’ and `The Taming of the Shrew`. Shakespeare was an incredibly popular play Wright during Elizabeth oreign as Queen of England and at. Romeo and Juliet+ Simon Armitage's Anchor and Kite : Parent+Child Essay. Romeo and Juliet Explore the ways relationships are presented in the text you studied In this essay I will be exploring the of tennis ways relationships are presented in Romeo and resume, Juliet and Simon Armitage’s Mother anywhere poem.

In the Petrarchan society, children were treated as slaves, and essay, their general. Gcse English/English literature Shakespeare coursework essay Analyse the ways in which the prologue and act 1 , scene 1 lines 1 to 94 prepare the audience for the rest of the play. How might a director interpret these opening lines to prepare the audience for what follows? The prologue offers. Shakespeare, William. “ Romeo and Juliet ”_. Patterns in Literature._ Ed.

Edmund J. Alan Brunton Resume? Farrell. Glenview, Illinois. 1991. 291–395. Friar Lawrence’s lack of good judgment, Capulet and Lady Capulet bad parenting, and The Nurse’s betrayal on Juliet help support the fate of Romeo and Juliet . I. Introduction A. How Romeo and Juliet Corresponds to The Road Not Taken: themes of the play Romeo and Juliet . The first line of the play says, “Two roads diverged in a yellow wood.” To me, this first line corresponds to the differences between both the Capulets and the Montagues. As we all know, these two families did not get along very well.

The Capulets especially had a. Romeo and Juliet: Why Do Romeo and essay pros and cons, Juliet Have to Die? Romeo and Juliet : why do Romeo and Juliet have to die? William Shakespeare’s masterpiece, Romeo and alan resume, Juliet is a classic tragic love story. This play is a tragedy because the hero and heroine both died at the end of this play due to the feud of the two families. Shakespeare demonstrated this in essay on history of tennis many. ?Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet Essay William Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet is a tragic love story with themes such as impatience, mistrust, miscommunication and many more, which all resulted in many deaths. The deaths of alan brunton Romeo and Juliet are caused by all the creative summer camps characters actions. Friar Laurence’s.

” To what extent is love the alan brunton resume cause of the deaths of Romeo and Juliet ? Widely considered William Shakespeare’s most famous play begins with a prologue, which is written in a sonnet form. This refers to later on imperial essay, in the play where Romeo and resume, Juliet share a sonnet for their first conversation. However. Romeo Juliet : Essay At times in life, due to certain circumstances we are forced to make quick decisions, some of which can result in imperial essay serious consequences, as in the play Romeo and Juliet . In this story, time shows its value as haste contributes to alan the tragic outcome of the play as can be. Shakespeare’s “ Romeo and Juliet ” is a play in which it explores the idea of two youths deeply in love but it is almost impossible for responsibility, them to be together because of their rivalling families. The play takes the audience through the lovers struggle to be together and how they were doomed from the.

Romeo and Juliet Persuasive Essay “ Romeo and Juliet ” , is a truly tragic tale of alan lovers that proves that the undeniable power of love can lead one to do anything. In this play love leads Romeo and essay, Juliet to alan brunton resume overcome the hatred between two feuding families, it leads them to fall in. ? Shakespeare was one of the greatest writers in the English language. His written play, Romeo and Juliet became one of the most well known plays all over the world. The play takes place in the beautiful city, Verona. About two star-crossed lovers from separate families that turn out to be enemies. The Tragic Love of benjamin ferencz competition Romeo and Juliet. bad situations worse. A great example of this comes from the play The Tragedy of resume Romeo and essay on wind energy pros and cons, Juliet , by William Shakespeare. In this play, two young lovers named Romeo and Juliet belong to two feuding families, the alan brunton Capulets and the Montagues.

They are destined to ferencz essay live happily ever after, but their destiny. Romeo and Juliet Study Guide Questions Act I 1. In the Prologue, what does the alan chorus say will happen to the two lovers? 2. What does Escalus say he will do to anyone who fights in the future? 3. How does Benvolio say the fighting began? 4. According to Benvolio and Mercutio, how has Romeo been acting. Emotions in Romeo and energy pros, Juliet - Love. Essay The emotion love is the most significant theme in the play Romeo and alan brunton, Juliet . It centres on about the love a couple share for one and another which can result to be quite a powerful, complex and dangerous emotion.

Love has proved to be a very powerful emotion throughout Romeo and Juliet. Romeo and Juliet At the beginning of the play, Samson and Gregory ( Capulets ) are walking in imperial essay the market and a fight breaks out between then and some Montagues. Benvolio tries to stop the fighting by saying that the Prince has forbidden any more brawls. Tybalt arrives and the fighting worsens. Alan? The Prince.

Examine Shakespeare's treatment of relationships in Romeo and on history of tennis, Juliet . Alan? In this essay I will be examining William Shakespeare's treatment of relationships in camps Romeo and Juliet . Shakespeare was born in 1564 in Stratford-Upon-Avon, Warwickshire and was alive during the Elizabethan era. He was an English.