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Best Sample Essays, Free Research Papers, Dissertation Samples. Satire is a literary way in which human vice or folly is attacked through irony, derision, wit and sarcasm. The purpose of satire is to bring about the improvement of humanity and human society. Satire is found in many different places. Satire is found in places such as drama, films, plays, music, art and most of all novels. Lord of the Flies, by William Golding, Brave New World, by Aldous Huxley, and Animal Farm, by George Orwell are wonderful examples of novels that include satire in them. Walden Dissertation Rubric. In all three of these novels the authors make use of satirical devices to bring human flaw into focus. History. Lord of the Flies satirizes many things in dissertation rubric it.
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Investor Relations. The success of our business model begins and ends with investment performance. The Board’s core purpose is to create and deliver the long term success of the walden Company and long term return for shareholders. This requires us to determine business strategy and our appetite for risk. We need to monitor management’s performance in delivering against that strategy and ensure that the risk management measures and internal controls they put in place are appropriate and voltage phd thesis effective. We must ensure that the funding and talent available to the business will support it long term. Finally, we must remain aware of the Company’s obligations to its shareholders and other stakeholders and respond to their needs with transparent reporting and walden rubric active engagement. Lord Livingston of Parkhead, Chairman of the Board of Directors, Man Group. Members of the Remuneration Committee : Richard Berliand (Chairman), Lord Livingston of Parkhead, Nina Shapiro, Katharine Barker Members of the Nomination Committee : Lord Livingston of Parkhead (Chairman), Richard Berliand, Matthew Lester Members of the Audit and Risk Committee : Matthew Lester (Chairman), Andrew Horton, Dev Sanyal. Chairman’s and Chief Executive Officer’s roles and responsibilities.
In line with the juliet essay UK Corporate Governance Code, we have established a clear and written division between the Chairman’s and Chief Executive Officer’s roles and responsibilities. In brief Ian Livingston, as Chairman of the Board, is responsible for leading the dissertation Board and Luke Ellis, as Chief Executive Officer, is responsible for leading the voltage stability business. Full details of walden rubric their respective roles and essays responsibilities are set out below. To lead the Board, set its agenda and manage its business and meetings effectively. This includes ensuring that the Board discharges its prime roles of setting strategy, determining risk appetite and monitoring business and management performance. To ensure regular flows of accurate and walden dissertation rubric relevant management information to enable the Board to make sound decisions and monitor business performance; To support and constructively challenge the Chief Executive Officer, to resume foster effective relationships between executive and non-executive Board members, and to walden dissertation create a culture of character sketch essay open debate; To ensure that the Board undertakes a formal annual evaluation of its performance and that of its Committees and acts on dissertation rubric, the findings of the evaluation; To ensure the provision of appropriate induction for chemistry coursework new directors and the regular update by all directors of the knowledge they require for their role; To ensure, with the support of the Nomination Committee, effective Board succession planning and to take the lead on walden dissertation rubric, the search process for new directors (except for the appointment of a successor to the Chairman which should be led by the Senior Independent Director); and To ensure that the chemistry coursework analysis Company maintains effective communications with shareholders and that the Board understands the views of shareholders and other key stakeholders. To lead the Executive Committee in developing business strategy, medium term plans and annual budgets for Board approval and in delivering against them. To run the business, supported by walden rubric executive management, on a day to day basis and ensure that appropriate risk management systems and internal controls are in place; To report to the Board on juliet character essay, the performance of the business and keep it advised on a continuing basis of any significant developments or potential impacts; To develop an effective relationship with the Chairman and to make the best use of the knowledge and experience of non-executive Board members; To develop, communicate and instil throughout the business a shared purpose, culture and set of dissertation business values; To build and maintain, through management development and succession planning, an effective executive management team; and To maintain in person and in conjunction with the Chief Financial Officer and investor relations team an effective dialogue with shareholders on resume stopped, the performance and strategy of the Company. Role and responsibilities of the Senior Independent Director (“SID”) Gain a comprehensive overview of the work of the Board, ideally through service on each of the three main Board Committees.
Develop good working relationships with both executive and non-executive Board members and maintain an awareness of any issues or concerns. Provide a sounding board for the Chairman on all Board matters. Act as a focal point for communications with the non-executive directors should Board or business circumstances require this. Work to maintain effective Board relationships during any period of Board stress and walden rubric act as an intermediary for other Board members if required. Chairman – evaluation and succession. Lead the non-executive directors in the annual performance evaluation of the Chairman, taking account of the views of the executive directors.
Hold a meeting of the non-executive directors at least annually for the purpose of this evaluation and coursework analysis provide feedback to the Chairman on the outcome of the process. Hold other non-executive director meetings (without the presence of the Chairman) for such purposes and on such occasions as may be appropriate. Chair the Nomination Committee when it is considering the walden rubric succession to the role of the Chairman and take the lead on the search for coursework and appointment of a suitable candidate.* * NB if the Senior Independent Director has put himself/herself forward as a candidate for walden rubric the succession, the appointment process should be led and the Nomination Committee chaired by chemistry another independent non-executive director. Engagement with shareholders and regulator. Keep abreast of dissertation shareholder issues and sentiment in order to maintain a balanced understanding of their concerns. Attend meetings with major shareholders if required. Be available to and engage with shareholders who have concerns which contact through the chemistry usual channels (ie with the Chairman, Chief Executive Officer, Chief Financial Officer or other executive directors) has failed to resolve or for rubric which such contact is inappropriate. Ensure that any such concerns are shared with and understood by the Board. Attend and be available for discussion with shareholders at the Company’s Annual General Meeting. Phd Thesis! Be available to engage with the FCA if requested as part of their supervision of the firm and programme of meetings with key Board members.
Schedule of matters reserved for Board decision (July 2017) In accordance with the UK Corporate Governance Code, the Board has adopted a formal schedule of matters reserved for its decision. This document details the issues that must be considered and decided on by the Board and which form the walden dissertation basis of the Board’s core agenda. Edexcel History Essays! A link to the full document is provided here and a summary is set out below: The Board delegates all decision making on and management of the business to the Chief Executive Officer with the exception of the matters set out below which are reserved for Board decision: Determining strategy and approving budgets and medium term plans. Overseeing the setting and implementation of the Company’s values and business principles. Overseeing business and executive management performance. Walden Rubric! Approving major acquisitions and disposals. History! Approving new ventures which materially extend beyond the Company’s current business mandate.
Risk appetite, funding and liquidity. Determining the Company’s risk appetites. Agreeing the Group's capital structure, borrowing limits, borrowing facilities and liquidity. Approving Treasury policies including credit exposures and interest rate and foreign exchange hedging. Approving the Value at Risk limit for dissertation seeding new investments. Risk management and juliet sketch essay internal controls. Monitoring and reviewing the effectiveness of the Company’s risk management framework and internal controls and reporting on the review to walden dissertation shareholders. An Essay Comparing! Undertaking a robust assessment of the principal risks facing the walden dissertation rubric Company and reporting to shareholders: how the prospects of the Company have been assessed and over what period; and whether the directors have a reasonable expectation that the Company will be able to continue in operation and write meet its liabilities over walden, this period. Approving the Company’s capital adequacy submission to resume stopped the Financial Conduct Authority (the “ICAAP”).
Financial reporting and dividends. Determining the walden dissertation dividend policy and sketch essay recommending and declaring dividends. Rubric! Approving, on the recommendation of the Audit Risk Committee, major accounting policies. Approving financial statements, results announcements and trading statements. Approving shareholder circulars and chemistry notices of meeting. Appointing directors. Rubric! Appointing the Company’s auditors. Determining the terms of reference and membership of Board Committees. Approving, on the recommendation of the Remuneration Committee: the Company’s broad policy on remuneration, including the Directors’ Remuneration policy and the Directors’ Remuneration report; and the compensation for the non-executive directors and the Chairman, subject to such compensation falling within the edexcel essays limits set by the Directors’ Remuneration policy and to the proviso that no director should participate in walden, the approval of his or her compensation; and the annual objectives for each executive director.
Approving new share incentive plans prior to their submission to shareholders for approval. Approving the Company’s corporate responsibility and charitable giving strategy and Ethics Policy. Providing a comprehensive induction programme for new directors is essential in order to assist them to become effective in their role as quickly as possible. Determines Papers Spread Swap U.s Working World! Man creates a detailed induction programme for each director which is tailored to rubric their individual needs. The programme is built around a series of meetings with Executive Committee members and the heads of key business units covering all aspects of the business. Stability! An outline of the walden dissertation main programme with an indication of the topics covered is given below. This is supplemented by edexcel history additional technical briefings for Audit and Risk and Remuneration Committee members where required. We strive to capture the value that is brought to Board debate and decision making by directors with diverse backgrounds, experience, expertise and outlook.
The Board has processes in place to manage all potential conflicts of interest involving directors in accordance with the Company’s articles of association. Each individual director is under an obligation to notify the Chairman and Company Secretary of walden dissertation any potential conflicts as soon as they arise. Any such interests are reported to the Board which decides whether they are likely to represent a real or potential conflict of stopped jobs interest and, if so, whether they wish to authorise such conflict and on what terms. In addition, the walden dissertation Company Secretary, on an annual basis, confirms with each director their current external business interests. All such interests are reported to the Board for review and reconfirmation that they do not present any conflict with the interests of the Company. The formal provisions regarding directors’ conflicts of interests are set out in articles 111 and 112 of the Company’s articles of association.
The Company’s articles of association (the ‘Articles’) set out the basis of the Company’s constitution and the rules by which it is run. They are a key element of corporate governance. Amendments to how to the Articles may only be made by a special resolution of shareholders which requires a majority of at dissertation least 75% to an essay two novels vote in favour. The Articles cover the following main areas: Shares including details of the different classes of walden rubric shares and rights attaching thereto, procedures on transfers and allotments. Directors including the rules on their appointment and retirement, powers of and proceedings of the Board and stopped remuneration. General meetings including rules on dissertation rubric, providing notice of and meeting proceedings. Bank Determines Swap U.s Working World! Miscellaneous provisions including rules on maintaining company records, the rubric Company Secretary, the how to write an essay execution of documents and other administrative issues.
The Board receives regular and detailed feedback on market views from our Investor Relations team and corporate advisers. Walden Rubric! The executive directors have regular meetings with our institutional shareholder base and are in chemistry coursework analysis, regular contact with analysts and walden dissertation rubric other market commentators. Man holds results presentations for both the write an essay comparing full year and interim results announcements and undertakes conference calls following the walden rubric publication of Interim Management Statements. It also hosts ad-hoc investor events from time to time. The Chairman of the Remuneration Committee and our Head of Compensation consult shareholders in advance of stopped any proposed material changes to Man’s remuneration practices. Both the Chairman and Senior Independent Director are always available to talk to shareholders about any issues of concern. We are always keen to hear the views of our private shareholders and we encourage them to use our shareholder mailbox ( [emailprotected] ) for detailed enquiries and walden our website for Company reports and determines spread business information.
One of the key dates for private shareholders is the Company’s Annual General Meeting (‘AGM’). The notice of each AGM and related papers are circulated to walden dissertation all shareholders at least 20 working days before the meeting, to provide shareholders with sufficient time to review and consider the documentation and proposed resolutions. All directors, including the Chairmen of each of the Committees, attend the AGM and are available to answer shareholder questions during the meeting. The Chief Executive Officer gives a presentation on the progress and performance of the business in the course of the meeting. There is a wealth of information for chemistry coursework analysis shareholders about Man and walden rubric its business on our website. Links to essays some useful pages are set out below: About Us Within this section you will find information on Man’s business, its strategy and objectives, our investment management expertise and our corporate responsibility. Investor Relations This is a key tool for shareholders and dissertation contains information on the share price, our results (see Results centre), our corporate calendar and shareholder information.
The shareholder information section contains information on dividends, shareholder meetings and a ‘Frequently asked questions’ section aimed at our private shareholders. The risk appetite statements are set by the Board and cover all significant risk categories. They apply to both the juliet essay investment management functions and Man Group itself. The statements express the Board’s appetite for risk, promote a risk aware culture and set out walden dissertation objectives and boundaries for Man Group’s business. Terms of reference of the Audit and Risk Committee (the “Committee”) of the Board of Directors of Man Group plc (the “Company”) which were originally constituted by juliet character sketch a resolution of the Directors passed on 23 August 1994. These revised terms of walden rubric reference were approved by bank determines papers swap the Board on 2 November 2016.
Members of the Audit Risk Committee. The Committee supports the walden rubric Board by performing defined roles in relation to essays the interim and annual financial statements; the Company’s relationship with its external auditor; the effectiveness of risk management and internal controls; and oversight of the Compliance and Internal Audit functions. Walden! Specific responsibilities are set out for each of these roles. The existence of the Committee does not relieve the directors of any of their responsibilities. The members of the Committee shall be appointed by the Board. All members of the Committee shall be independent non-executive directors of the Company and the Committee as a whole shall have competence relevant to the sector in which the Company operates. The Committee shall consist of no fewer than three members, one of whom shall have significant, recent and relevant financial experience. The quorum shall be two independent non-executive directors but, in the absence of a quorum for a particular Committee meeting, the Committee may appoint such other independent non-executive director(s) (to be nominated by the Chair of the Committee) as are required, to act as alternate(s) for those members of the Committee who are unable to attend that meeting.
The Board shall, from time to time, review the determines spread swap u.s working world composition of the Committee in order that, where appropriate, membership of the Committee rotates amongst the Company's independent non-executive directors. The Chair of the Committee shall be appointed by the Board from amongst the independent non-executive directors. The Chief Executive Officer, Chief Financial Officer, Chief Administrative Officer, Chief Risk Officer, Chief Operating Officer, Head of Internal Audit, Group Financial Controller, Head of Compliance Regulatory and walden dissertation a representative of the character essay external auditor will usually attend meetings on walden, the invitation of the Committee. All non-executive directors and the Chairman of the Board have the right to attend Committee meetings if they so wish. Other relevant parties may attend meetings of the Committee if invited by the Committee. There should be at edexcel essays least one meeting each year, or part thereof, where the external auditor attend without management present and similarly one such meeting with Internal Audit.
The Secretary of the walden Committee shall be designated by an essay comparing two novels the Chair of the Committee and shall attend meetings. In some circumstances it may be necessary for members to attend meetings by walden rubric telephone or video conference, which shall be permitted. Meetings shall be held not less than four times a year and, where appropriate, should coincide with key dates in the Company's financial reporting cycle. The external auditor or Internal Audit may request an additional meeting of the Committee if they consider that one is essays necessary. The Committee shall be authorised by the Board to: investigate any activity within its terms of reference; seek any information that it requires from any employee of the Group; and obtain, at the Company's expense, outside legal or independent professional advice and dissertation rubric such advisors may, if invited, attend meetings as necessary. The Committee shall have access to history sufficient resources in order to carry out its duties. Responsibilities: Interim and Annual Financial Statements.
The Committee shall monitor the integrity of walden dissertation rubric financial information through review and challenge, where necessary, of the actions and judgements of management, in relation to the interim and annual financial statements before submission to the Board paying particular attention to: critical accounting policies and practices, and any changes in them; decisions requiring a significant element of judgement; the methods used to account for significant or unusual transactions where different approaches are possible; off balance sheet items; the extent to which the financial statements are affected by any unusual transactions in bank determines papers spread swap, the relevant period and the manner in which they are disclosed; the adequacy and completeness of disclosures; significant adjustments resulting from the walden audit, including the requirement to be advised of unadjusted differences; the assumptions or qualifications in juliet, support of the going concern statement (including any material uncertainties as to the Company’s ability to dissertation rubric continue as a going concern over a period of at least twelve months from the date of approval of the financial statements) and the longer term viability statement (including an comparing two novels, assessment of the prospects of the Company and the Group looking forward over an appropriate and justified period); compliance with applicable accounting and financial reporting standards; compliance with applicable UKLA, stock exchange and other regulatory requirements; and any other matter referred to it by the Board or the Remuneration Committee. The Committee shall consider the walden dissertation rubric following matters of relevance to the remuneration of Man staff: items in the financial statements where there is a current or future risk of the outcome being significantly different from the reported position; the timing or likelihood of future revenues; the impact of planned bonus payments on character essay, Man’s capital and liquidity position, or its growth prospects. The Committee shall, where requested by the Board, review the content of the annual/interim report and accounts and advise the Board on whether, taken as a whole, it is fair, balanced and understandable and provides the information necessary for shareholders to walden assess the Company’s performance, business model and edexcel history essays strategy. The Committee shall review all statements to be included in the annual report concerning internal controls and risk management prior to endorsement by the Board. This shall include all other material information presented with the financial statements, such as the strategic report, the Directors’ statement regarding their robust assessment of the dissertation principal risks facing the Company and the corporate governance statement (insofar as it relates to the audit and risk management). The Committee shall: have primary responsibility for making a recommendation on the appointment, reappointment and removal of the external auditor. If the Board does not accept the Committee's recommendation, it should include in the annual report, and in any papers recommending appointment or re-appointment, a statement from the Committee explaining the recommendation and should set out reasons why the Board has taken a different position; ensure that the tendering, selection and papers u.s working world rotation of the external audit services contract is rubric carried out at such intervals and in a manner as may be determined by applicable law, regulation and best practice; discuss with the external auditor and coursework with management the accounting principles, policies and practices adopted in the preparation of the financial statements and to walden be assured that they comply with statutory requirements and generally accepted accounting standards; review the findings of the bank papers u.s working audit with the external auditor which shall include but not be limited to, a discussion of any major issues which arose during the audit, any accounting and audit judgements, levels of errors identified during the audit and the responses of management to external audit findings and recommendations; assess the dissertation independence of the external auditor, with specific focus on the rotation of bank determines papers spread swap key partners at rubric / representatives of the external auditor at appropriate intervals; approve the letter of voltage stability appointment and annual engagement letter of the external auditor and the audit fee and dissertation pre-approve fees in accordance with the Committee's policy on non-audit services provided by the external auditor and to avoid any threat to the external auditor's independence or objectivity; monitor and review, on an annual basis, the how to write comparing two novels external auditor's qualifications, independence, objectivity and effectiveness, taking into consideration relevant law, regulations and professional requirements and ethical standards for auditors and, if the Committee considers it appropriate, obtain a report on the external auditor's own internal quality control procedures; assess, at the end of the audit cycle, the effectiveness of the audit process; review the dissertation external auditor's management letter and any other material written or email communication from the external auditor and the management's response to these; approve and monitor the policy relating to stopped jobs the hiring of personnel from the external auditor; consider any significant items of discussion between external audit and senior management and external audit and the Chair since the last Committee meeting; review annually the policy on the engagement of the external auditor to supply non-audit services and report to the Board on the nature and extent of non-audit services supplied by the external auditor, identifying any matters in respect of which action or improvement is needed and making recommendations as to the steps to be taken; discuss with the external auditor, before the audit commences, the nature and scope of the audit, the auditor’s quality control procedures and steps taken by the auditor to respond to changes in regulatory and other requirements; and meet the external auditor at least once a year, without management being present, to discuss their remit and dissertation rubric any issues arising from the audit. Responsibilities: Risk Management, Internal Control and Compliance. The Committee shall review the effectiveness of systems for risk management, internal control and compliance, including a periodic review of: the Group’s policies and process for the identification, assessment and management of chemistry analysis risk; the Group Risk Framework including reports on walden, the Group's risk profile and related internal controls; all significant issues reported to it by the Chair of the Risk and Finance Committee; the Group's regulatory reporting activities and Compliance functions, supported by appropriate report as may be requested by the Committee which should include an annual presentation by an essay the Head of Compliance Regulatory; the Money Laundering Reporting Officer’s annual report including the adequacy and effectiveness of the Company’s anti-money laundering systems and controls; the Group's arrangements for its staff to raise concerns, in confidence, about possible wrongdoing in financial reporting or other matters, where there have been material changes to such arrangements. These arrangements should allow proportionate and independent investigation of such matters and appropriate follow up action; and management's follow-up of dissertation rubric risk management and compliance failures and consideration of whether any are relevant to the remuneration of individuals, or groups of staff.
The Committee shall, on behalf of the Board, ensure that a robust assessment of the principal risks facing the Company has been undertaken (including those risks that would threaten its business model, future performance, solvency or liquidity) and advise on the management and mitigation of these risks. The Committee shall report to the Board on how, taking into account the Company’s position and principal risks, the Company’s prospects have been assessed, over what period and why the period is regarded as appropriate. The Committee shall also advise on whether there is a reasonable expectation that the Company will be able to continue in stability, operation and meet its liabilities as they fall due over the said period, drawing attention to dissertation any qualifications and assumptions as necessary. In relation to the Board’s obligations under the UK Corporate Governance Code, the Committee shall monitor and, at least annually, carry out a review of the effectiveness of the Group’s risk management and how to internal controls systems and report its conclusions and walden rubric recommendations to stopped the Board. The review shall cover all material controls, including financial, operational and compliance controls, risk management systems and internal controls over financial reporting. The Committee shall: consider whether any current or future risks may be relevant to remuneration of dissertation Man staff; consider other relevant risk or internal control topics, as and jobs when required by the Board or requested by the Remuneration Committee; and be consulted on and give input into the remuneration of and the appointment or dismissal of the Chief Risk Officer. The Committee shall: review annually the remit and effectiveness of Internal Audit function including the Internal Audit Plan and Internal Audit Charter and walden dissertation assess whether the Internal Audit function is adequately resourced and has appropriate standing within the Group. This review is to be supported by a report from resume, external/independent consultants at walden rubric least every three years; review promptly all significant internal audit recommendations and findings; consider management's response to and progress in addressing Internal Audit recommendations and determines spread swap u.s working world findings; consider whether any individual control finding or the control environment within a particular business area is a matter relevant to walden the remuneration of individuals, or groups of staff; be consulted on and give input into the remuneration of and the appointment or dismissal of the outsourced Internal Audit provider; oversee the co-ordination of spread swap u.s working internal and external audit activities; and meet the Head of Internal Audit at least once a year, without management being present, to discuss their remit and rubric any issues arising from the internal audits carried out. The Secretary of the Committee shall circulate the minutes of meetings of the Committee to resume the Chair of the walden dissertation rubric Committee and all members of the write two novels Board.
Following each meeting, the Chair of the Committee shall report formally to the Board on its proceedings. The Committee shall make whatever recommendations to the Board it deems appropriate on any area within its remit where action or improvement is needed. The Chair of the Committee shall make reports formally to the Remuneration Committee ahead of the financial period end: on the robustness of the risk control framework in place for the financial period; to notify any risk items in dissertation rubric, the financial statements that may have an impact on the bonus compensation pool principles and calculation; and to notify any risk or control matter relevant to the remuneration of individuals, or groups of staff. The Chair of the Committee or, as a minimum, another member of the Committee, shall attend the Board meeting at which the accounts are approved. The Committee shall prepare a report on its activities to be included in the Company’s annual report (the “Committee Report”). The Committee Report shall include: details of the membership of the Committee, number of meetings held and papers spread world attendance over the course of the year; the significant issues that the Committee considered in relation to the financial statements and how these issues were addressed, an walden rubric, explanation of how the Committee has assessed the juliet character essay effectiveness of the external audit process and the approach taken to the appointment or reappointment of the external auditor, information on the length of tenure of the current audit firm, the current audit partner’s tenure, when a tender was last conducted and advance notice of any retendering plans; if the external auditors provide non-audit services, the Committee’s policy for approval of non-audit services and an explanation of how auditor objectivity and independence are safeguarded; and an explanation of how the walden Committee has assessed the effectiveness of the Internal Audit process. The Committee shall conduct an annual review of its effectiveness and recommend any necessary changes to the Board. An explanation of the how the Committee’s performance evaluation has been conducted shall be included in the Committee Report. The Committee shall review, on an annual basis, these terms of reference and may recommend to the Board any changes it considers necessary. The Chair of the Committee shall attend the Company's Annual General Meeting and shall answer any questions, through the Chairman of the Board, on voltage stability phd thesis, the Committee's activities and its responsibilities.
The Committee shall be provided with appropriate and timely training, both in the form of an induction programme for new members and on an ongoing basis for all members. Members of the Nomination Committee. The Chair and members of the Committee shall be appointed by the Board. The Committee shall comprise the dissertation rubric Chairman of the Board, the Senior Independent Director and the Chairmen of the Audit and Risk and Remuneration Committees. The Chair shall be the Chairman of the Board but he or she will not chair the Committee when it is phd thesis dealing with the succession to the Chairmanship of the Board. The quorum for meetings shall be two members. The Committee may invite the Chief Executive Officer to attend any meeting or any part of a meeting but he is not a member of the Committee. The Committee may request the advice, support and attendance of any other person to assist in their work.
The Company Secretary or his/her nominee shall be Secretary of the walden Committee. To evaluate and keep under review the size, structure and composition of the Board and make recommendations to the Board on stopped, any proposed changes, taking into account the challenges and opportunities facing the Company and the skills, knowledge, experience, independence and time commitment required. To consider and agree the knowledge, experience and competencies required for a particular Board appointment (executive and non-executive). To appoint and take advice from independent search consultants as appropriate on the search for walden and selection of candidates for Board appointments. To identify and recommend to the Board, against the agreed specification, candidates for Board appointments. To keep under review management development and succession planning for executive directors and other top management roles below Board level. To review and make recommendations to the Board on the reappointment of non-executive directors on the expiry of their term of jobs office. To report on the description of the Committee’s activities and the process that it has followed in relation to Board appointments for inclusion in the Annual Report each year. To report to the Board on the proceedings of the dissertation Committee after each meeting and to make available to Board members the minutes of Committee meetings as appropriate. Members of the Remuneration Committee.
The Chair and edexcel members of the Committee shall be appointed by the Board. The Committee shall consist of at least three independent non-executive directors. The Chairman of the Board, provided that he or she was still considered to be independent at the time of his/her appointment as Chairman of the Board, may also be a member of, but may not chair, the Committee. Dissertation Rubric! The Chairman of the Board may not be counted as one of the three independent non-executive directors mentioned in essays, clause 2 above. The quorum for meetings shall be two independent non-executive director members. The Chief Executive Officer and the Chief Financial Officer will attend all meetings unless asked to walden dissertation absent themselves for particular items of business. Bank Papers Spread Swap! The Committee will be supported and advised by Man’s Reward team and the Committee’s external advisors who will attend all or any part of a meeting at the Chairman’s discretion. The Committee will receive reports from the Audit and Risk Committee as required and the Chief Risk Officer will be invited to attend when appropriate. The Committee may invite other members of Man staff to attend meetings as required.
The Company Secretary or his/her nominee will act as Secretary to the Committee. The Committee will meet at rubric least five times a year. In carrying out the responsibilities listed below, the Committee shall have regard to all relevant legal and regulatory requirements including the how to an essay principles and walden provisions of the UK Corporate Governance Code, the coursework analysis UKLA listing rules, the Financial Conduct Authority Remuneration Code and the Alternative Investment Fund Managers Remuneration Code of practice on remuneration policies. It will also take account of leading investor representative body guidelines and feedback from the Company’s major shareholders on the operation of the Company’s directors’ remuneration policy and practice. To determine and agree with the Board the Company’s remuneration philosophy and the principles of its remuneration policy, ensuring that these are in line with the business strategy, objectives, values and long-term interests of the Company and comply with all regulatory requirements. These will be subject to annual review. Walden! To approve the process for determining the roles deemed to be Remuneration Code Staff roles under relevant rules and regulations, to agree those roles, to require that records of such Code Staff roles are maintained and to determine when the character sketch essay records should be reviewed.
To review the Company’s remuneration practices and proposed compensation awards in relation to the Board’s risk appetite statements ensuring that remuneration does not encourage excessive risk-taking, is determined within the Company's risk management and internal control framework and takes account of the Company’s business principles and the long-term interests of shareholders, fund investors and dissertation rubric other stakeholders. To determine the principles for the calculation of and to approve management proposals for the quantum of the variable compensation spend each year to be recommended by the Committee for subsequent approval by the Board. To review the performance evaluations of the executive directors and recommend to the Board for papers swap world approval, within the broad remuneration policy and in consultation with the Chairman and Chief Executive Officer as appropriate, the total annual compensation for walden dissertation rubric individual executive directors (including salary, annual bonus, deferred awards and pension). No director shall be present during or participate in the discussion or approval of his or her own compensation. To have oversight of the performance evaluations for essay and to review and approve, within the dissertation rubric broad remuneration policy, the total annual compensation package for Executive Committee members and Remuneration Code Staff (including salary, annual bonus and deferred awards). To have oversight of the performance evaluations and compensation proposals for staff whose total compensation exceeds $1m. To approve compensation guarantees above a level delegated to management as agreed by the Committee from time to time. To approve the terms of deferred bonus plans (share, fund product and cash) for staff. To review and recommend to character the Board for approval the dissertation annual objectives for executive directors against which their performance for compensation purposes will be evaluated. No director will participate in the discussion or approval of his or her annual objectives.
To approve the design of and determine the performance and vesting criteria attaching to juliet character essay share incentive plans for executive directors prior to recommendation to the Board and submission to shareholders for approval. To review the vesting criteria of share incentive plans for executive directors against the Company’s results each year and determine the extent to which these have been achieved. To determine the contractual termination terms for executive directors and approve any severance payments or arrangements. To recommend to rubric the Board for approval the total compensation for the Chairman of the how to write comparing two novels Board. The remuneration of the non-executive directors shall be a matter for the Chairman and the executive directors of the Board.
The Chairman, if he is dissertation rubric a member of the Committee, shall not be present during or participate in the discussion or approval of his own compensation. Edexcel! To select, appoint and set the terms of reference for walden dissertation rubric any remuneration consultants used by the Committee and to chemistry coursework analysis obtain information on remuneration policy and practice in other comparable companies. To review and recommend to the Board the walden rubric Directors’ Remuneration Policy and juliet character any changes thereto prior to submission to shareholders for approval and to review and recommend to the Board the Directors’ Remuneration Report for publication in the Annual Report each year in line with applicable statutory and regulatory disclosure requirements. To review and/or make decisions on walden, any other matters referred to the Committee by the Board. To report to the Board on the proceedings of the resume jobs Committee after each meeting and make available to walden dissertation rubric Board members the minutes of Committee meetings where appropriate. The Committee may delegate certain authorities as it deems appropriate to the Chairman of the Committee or to a sub-committee consisting of the resume Chairman of the Committee plus one other member or, if the Chairman of the Committee is unavailable, the walden Chairman of the Board plus one other Committee member. Juliet Character Sketch! Appropriate resources, including induction on appointment and subsequent technical and regulatory updates as required, shall be made available to Committee members to support the continuing development of the knowledge, skills and rubric expertise they require to discharge their role. Statement of Remuneration Principles. Our approach is intended to be equitable and robust against variable business conditions and timespans.
As performance measurement and character essay remuneration design continue to evolve we will keep these principles under continuous review to walden ensure that we are aligned with best practice and regulation. We remain open to continuing dialogue with our shareholders. Our Directors’ Remuneration Policy was approved by shareholders at our Annual General Meeting on 8 May 2015 and became effective as of that date. Global Non Employees. All Unauthenticated Users. Rest of the World All. Global ex Singapore and NA All Prices.
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25 Editing Tips for Tightening Your Copy. Writers rarely spit out their best copy on the first draft. (If you meet a writer who claims to dissertation have the bank spread secret for doing so, please let the rest of us know.) First drafts — and second drafts and sometimes thirds — exist to dissertation hash your ideas out on jobs paper. After you’ve revised your book, story, blog post or article until you can revise no more, you just hand it off to your editor to clean up, right? Well, that’d be ideal. But most of us don’t have the luxury of walden rubric, hiring an expensive editor to review our personal blog post. And since procrastination is the writer’s best friend, you probably don’t have time to even ask a fellow writer pal take a quick peek for errors. Bank Determines Swap World? And so, it falls to you to be your own editor. Is it really possible edit your own work when all the dissertation words you just finished writing are so precious? Yes! It can be done — and for the sake of bank determines swap, making your writing stand out, it must be done. Grab your red pen, pull up your most recently saved draft, and get to work with these 25 tips to walden dissertation rubric tighten your own copy.
I’m not talking about jobs, run-on sentences. Many long sentences are grammatically correct. But long sentences often contain several ideas, so they can easily lose the reader’s focus because they don’t provide a break, leading readers to dissertation rubric get stuck or lose interest, and perhaps the reader might get bored and go watch TV instead. See what I mean? If you spot a comma-heavy sentence, try to give each idea its own sentence. Adverbs weaken your copy because these excess words are not truly descriptive. Rather than saying the girl runs quickly, say she sprints. Instead of describing the cat as walking slowly, say he creeps or tiptoes. The screen door didn’t shut noisily, it banged shut.
Find a more powerful verb to replace the weak verb + weak -ly adverb combo. Sometimes it’s necessary to use both first and second person, but that can be jarring for readers. For example, you might start your introduction talking about edexcel history, yourself, then switch halfway through the piece and rubric start addressing the coursework reader. Try to stick to “I” voice or “you” voice throughout one piece of writing. And if you must switch, start with one and finish with the other. Don’t move back and forth between the two. Your readers will get lost. A powerful hyphen here and dissertation a thought-provoking semicolon there can be effective.
But a piece of writing littered with all sorts of determines swap u.s working, punctuation — parentheses, colons, ellipses, etc. Walden Rubric? — doesn’t flow well. Juliet Essay? Oftentimes, you can eliminate these extra pieces of punctuation with commas or by ending a sentence and starting a new one #8212; and that makes your writing that much stronger. Instead of saying what something isn’t, say what it is. “You don’t want to walden dissertation rubric make these mistakes in your writing” could be better stated as “You want to voltage stability phd thesis avoid these mistakes in dissertation your writing.” It’s more straightforward. If you find negative statements in your writing that contain don’t, shouldn’t, can’t or another such word, find a way to rewrite them without the “not.” That will probably mean you need to find a more powerful verb. History Essays? 6. Replace stuffy words with simple ones. Some people think jargon makes their writing sound smart, but you know better. Good writing does not confuse readers. If they need to rubric grab a dictionary to finish a sentence, your writing has room for improvement. To get your point across, use words people are familiar with. The English language has thousands of words. You can certainly find a shorter or more common word in your thesaurus than a jargony one.
You don’t need to how to an essay two novels say the exact same thing with two words. Did you catch the redundant words in that sentence? Here#8217;s a better version: you don’t need to say the walden dissertation same thing with two words. Brand new, advance planning, basic necessities#8230; the voltage phd thesis list of these common phrases is longer than this blog post. Check out About.com’s 200 Common Redundancies and then start snipping! Sometimes sneaky redundancies are separated by an #8220;and.#8221; If you say your sentences are straightforward and to-the-point, they are neither. You don’t need both words. Your sentences are straightforward. Rubric? Or, your sentences are to-the-point. Though prepositions (of, in, to, for, etc.) are helpful little words, they make sentences more lengthy because they cannot stand alone. Prepositions need lots of friends.
By cutting the history essays preposition and the words that follow, you can cut three, four or even five words. Sometimes a prepositional phrase can be replaced with just one more direct word, or cut completely. An easy way to walden cut prepositions is to voltage stability phd thesis look for opportunities to dissertation make something possessive. The car of your neighbor is really just your neighbor’s car. You never need it. If you’re going to the kitchen in voltage phd thesis order to make a sandwich… Your sentence could be tighter. Walden Rubric? Because you’re really going to the kitchen to make a sandwich. Character Essay? That #8220;in order to#8221; makes it take a millisecond longer to arrive at walden rubric, the meaty part of the sentence, which means your story is dragging more than it needs to. Did you start to walk the dog, or did you walk the dog? Is the analysis car starting to roll down the hill, or is walden dissertation, it rolling down the hill? “Start to” is a more difficult phrase to deal with than “in order to,” because sometimes you do need it.
But more likely than not, you don’t. Rather than making “start” the active verb, use the verb that’s actually more active — like walking or rolling — to tell your story. In about five percent of your sentences (total guess from the grammar police), “that” makes your idea easier to stopped jobs understand. In the other 95 percent, get rid of it! “I decided that journalism was a good career for me” reads better as “I decided journalism was a good career for me.” 12. Replace #8220;thing#8221; with a better word. Usually when we write “thing” or “things,” it’s because we were too lazy to think of a better word.
In every day life, we may ask for dissertation, “that thing over there,” but in your writing, calling anything a “thing” does not help your reader. Resume? Try to replace all “thing” or “things” with a more descriptive word. 13. Try really hard to spot instances of #8220;very#8221; and #8220;really#8221; This is dissertation rubric, a very difficult one to remember. I almost never get it right, until I go back through my copy, and the word jumps out at stability phd thesis, me, and then I change the sentence to rubric “This is juliet character essay, a difficult one to remember.” Because really, how much is that “very” helping you get your point across? It doesn’t make the task sound more difficult. Same thing with “really.” It’s not a “really” difficult tip to rubric remember. It’s simply a difficult tip to remember. Got it? “Make” is resume, sometimes used in the same way as “start to,” in place of what could be a stronger verb. For example, I first titled this post, I wrote “25 ways to make your copy stronger.” When I re-read it, I realized the verb wasn’t strong.
I’d used “make” as the verb, when it doesn’t tell the reader much at all. So I changed the title to “25 ways to walden rubric strengthen your copy.” Eventually I realized “tighten” was an even better verb. As this UNC handout explains, using the passive voice isn’t really wrong. But whenever you have the chances to make your writing clearer, you should — and determines spread swap u.s working avoiding the rubric passive voice is sketch essay, one of those instances. I know the passive voice when I see it, but I’m bad at explaining it, so I’m going to rubric leave that to edexcel history Grammar Girl. Explaining grammar is her specialty.
16. Refer to people as #8220;who#8221; not #8220;that#8221; John is the guy who always forgets his shoes, not the guy that always forgets his shoes. It’s easy to make this mistake because that has become acceptable in everyday conversations. Walden? But it’s more noticeable when it’s written down. #8220;Currently” is virtually always redundant. Don’t write: “Tom Jones is currently a communications director.” If Tom Jones is anything, he’s that at that moment; you don’t need “currently” to how to write two novels clarify. Just get rid of it. 18. Walden? Eliminate #8220;there is#8221; or #8220;there are#8221; at the beginning of edexcel history, sentences. Walden? This is often a symptom of lazy writing. There are lots of better, more interesting ways to start sentences.
Oops. Resume Stopped? See how easy it is to make this mistake? Instead of starting a sentence with “there is,” try turning the phrase around to include a verb or start with you. For example, replace the sentence above with #8220;Start your sentences in a more interesting way.#8221; If your copy includes a lot of phrases that begin with “there is” or “there are,” put some time into rewriting most of them. Bullet points are a popular and walden dissertation effective way to organize complex ideas. Just make sure your bullets correspond to how to comparing two novels one another. Too often, writers mix and match mistakes with what you should do or make transition to dissertation shoulds halfway through the post — which only comparing two novels, confuses the reader.
If your piece is called 3 Career Mistakes You Don’t Want to Make, here’s a bullet point that works: Forgetting to walden dissertation tailor your resume each time you apply for a job. Here’s one that doesn’t work (because it’s not actually a mistake — the jobs writer inadvertedly switched to what you should do): Make sure you tailor your resume. Rubric? Often you can turn any idea into a tip by jobs, adding a verb. For example: “Remember that sitting on your head helps you write better.” Make your bullet points consistent and your writing will read more smoothly. Which sounds more personable: I am heading to the market that is rubric, close to my house, or I’m heading to the market that’s close to my house? Contractions make your writing sound friendlier, like you’re (not you are) a real person. History? And that makes it easier to connect with readers. Contractions can also make your post easier to read and walden rubric comprehend. So go out of stopped, your way to include them in your posts! Your editor will thank you. “We were starting to …” or “She was skiing toward …” Whenever you see an walden rubric, ing in your copy, think twice about whether you need it — because you probably don’t. Instead, get rid of were or was, then eliminate that ing and replace it with past tense: “We started to essay …” or “She skied toward …” Pruning excessive “ings” makes your writing clearer and dissertation rubric easier to bank swap world read.
22. Check your commas with that and which. When used as a descriptor, the word “which” takes a comma. But the word “that” doesn’t. For example: “We went to the house that collapsed yesterday” or “We went to the house, which collapsed yesterday.” Confused about walden dissertation, when to character sketch use “that” vs. “which?” Grammar Girl offers a great explanation. 23.
Replace #8220;over#8221; with #8220;more than#8221; for numbers. Dissertation? Over 200 people did not like your Facebook page — more than 200 people did. Of course, everyone will know what you mean if you use “over.” But using “more than” is stability phd thesis, one of those little details that will help your writing shine. Whenever you modify a noun with more than one word, you need a hyphen. Lots of walden dissertation, people don’t follow this rule, so it’s a great way to show you actually walk the juliet character sketch walk.
That means you need a hyphen if you’re writing about full-time work. Walden? But you don’t need one if you’re working full time. Got it? The exception: No need to hyphenate modifiers that end in “ly.” Those are OK on their own. Phd Thesis? So your newly hired employee doesn’t need that hyphen. No matter how good of dissertation, a writer you are, when you sit down to write a first draft, you have a tendency to spit out sentences in a certain way or use certain words. The more familiar you become with editing your own copy, the more quickly you should be able to pick up on your tells. Determines Spread? And, the more ruthless you can be to eliminate them from your writing. Walden Dissertation? #8220;Start to#8221; plagued me while writing my book; I made the chemistry coursework “start to” mistake again and again. But once I knew to walden dissertation look for it during revisions, I was able to correct it. Resume Stopped Jobs? (Hint: If this is a problem for walden dissertation rubric, you, try using Word’s search function to look for “start.” You’ll catch each one, so you can evaluate them individually.) We're a team of coursework analysis, writers and walden dissertation editors here to help you create, connect and earn. Edexcel Essays? This course by Danny Iny will teach you how to write great posts, get them published anywhere you want, and benefit from rubric traffic, reputation and sales. Awesome advice!
Ironically, #5 contains a duplicate word. #128578; Thanks for the heads up, Emma! Much appreciated #128578; These are great tips reminders. I teach a writing class at resume, the local college and will share these with my students. Useful reminders. I started off reading the list feeling quite smug (I know that etc) then gradually became more and walden dissertation more downhearted as I realised how many ways there are slip up … And I#8217;ve even used started off in sketch essay this brief comment! This post is rubric, bookmark-worthy!
Thanks for the great tips, TWL! Great advice. Edexcel History? Not only will I use it, I will pass it on walden to my students. Awesome! Cheers, Kate. Thank you for this informative post!
It is an excellent tutorial to improve my writing by resume, making it more concise and readable. You#8217;ve offered great tips I will refer back to and study. Thanks, Colleen! I#8217;m glad we could help. Walden Rubric? Brilliant!
Thank you. Juliet Essay? What a great post! I#8217;m on the second draft of my book, and read heaps of books and articles on self-editing. This article had a few points I haven#8217;t seen before. Thanks a billion. Rubric? This is a great resource! And I clearly have ALL THE THOUGHTS on it. #128578; 1. Don#8217;t use as well as when and u.s working world will do. Or perhaps #8220;simplify#8221; would be a better tip. 2. Don#8217;t be afraid to dissertation end your sentences in character essay prepositions. The original #8220;rule#8221; is for Latin, not English.
And the #8220;[preposition] which#8221; construction is wrong at walden dissertation rubric, least half the edexcel history essays time, if not more. Walden Dissertation Rubric? 3. Use indefinite adjectives with caution. Words like some or any can generally be dropped. 4. Read out loud. Our brain processes language differently when we read out loud, and this is an excellent way to spot mistakes we might otherwise miss. Redundancies are often the sign of an insecure, unsure, or verbose writer; it#8217;s an over-compensation. If you have a phrase that makes you say, #8220;Well, duh,#8221; you#8217;ve got redundancy. e.g. #8220;I thought in my head.#8221; Where else are your thoughts? The UNC passive voice link leads to a 404 page. As a passive voice champion (it#8217;s overused, yes, but more because we don#8217;t understand it, not because it#8217;s wrong), I recommend this passive voice infographic for a quick and easy look at what it is and does.
So I can end my sentences in prepositions? I fell I have been set free! Oh my! I had no idea. Character Sketch? I#8217;ve never read an article on dissertation editing I found useful. How To Write An Essay Comparing? My writing#8217;s quite bad and I publish every blog post at first draft. This article and the resource URLs has increased my confidence level. I#8217;m certain to improve my writing skills. Thanks for sharing these valuable tips with your readers. Thanks so much for walden rubric, the kind words, Eddie! This is really interesting.
I enjoy learning new grammar rules and learning more concrete ways to phd thesis engage in writing in order to make it better and stronger. And I#8217;ve heard of the #8220;don#8217;t use too many adverbs#8221; rule in the past. They#8217;re everywhere!! haha. Walden Dissertation Rubric? Thanks for this list! Great advice! I just scanned my WIP for #8220;start#8221; and got rid of a bunch. I found #8220;Perry and I together#8221; too. What IS that. *highlight, delete, rewrite* Thanks for voltage stability phd thesis, these tips!
I have been revising and editing my book for a few days now, and walden dissertation rubric reading this post has given me a better way to target my editing efforts. It#8217;s easy for me to edit other people#8217;s work, but I have always struggled with editing my own (mainly because I procrastinated and essays didn#8217;t leave time to edit while in school). My struggles are with #8220;really,#8221; #8220;the fact of the matter is,#8221; #8220;so,#8221; using #8220;that#8221; when it#8217;s not necessary, and changing voice. I will be returning to this post again before I#8217;m ready to publish! I#8217;m glad it helped, Erica! I agree, it#8217;s always harder to edit your own work. Good luck with your revisions! Bookmark-worthy. I hardly thought this topic could make me laugh, but you managed it! Nice work!
I#8217;m glad we could make you laugh, and that we#8217;ve made your bookmarks list! #8 needs correcting: Sometimes a prepositional phrases can be replaced with just one more direct word, or cut completely. Otherwise, this was a good post-well written and practical. Walden Dissertation? Thanks for sharing. Thanks for catching that, Alice! Superb!
I#8217;ve bookmarked this page. You can be sure I#8217;ll read it 25 times every day. I#8217;m glad you like the article and that it has made your bookmarks! Thanks, Diya! You#8217;ll also get a free copy of The Freelance Writer’s Pitch Checklist.
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concluding a paper Generics and dissertation, Biosimilars Initiative Journal (GaBI Journal). 2013;2(4):173-7. When an innovative biological product goes off-patent, biopharmaceutical or biotechnological companies may file an application for resume jobs regulatory approval of biosimilar products. Dissertation? In practice, however, important information on the innovative (reference) product may not be available for assessment. Thus, it is how to two novels, important to first establish a reference standard while assessing biosimilarity between a biosimilar product and the reference product. Rubric? In this paper, reference standard is established through the biosimilarity index approach based on essays a reference-replicated study (or R-R study), in which the reference product is compared with itself under various scenarios.
The reference standard can then be used for assessing the walden, degree of similarity between the test and reference drugs in biosimilar studies. Submitted: 24 April 2013; Revised: 10 June 2013; Accepted: 8 July 2013; Published online first: 31 July 2013. A biosimilar product is defined as a biological drug product that is highly similar to the reference product notwithstanding minor differences in clinically inactive components. No clinically meaningful differences exist in terms of safety, purity, and potency (Biologics Price Competition and chemistry analysis, Innovation [BPCI] Act 2009). In the BPCI Act, however, how ‘similar’ is rubric, considered ‘highly similar’ has not been addressed. The BPCI Act as part of the Affordable Care Act was signed into juliet character law in March 2010.
It gave FDA the authority to approve similar biological drug products. Currently, FDA has not set out clear standards for dissertation biosimilar approvals . Kang and Chow  proposed a method that uses the relative difference, i.e. the difference between test (T) and reference (R) products compared with the difference between R and R as the primary measure for assessing biosimilarity. As a result, the difference between R and juliet, R is important, as it serves as the reference standard for walden dissertation rubric comparison. In practice, important information such as variabilities in pharmacokinetic parameters of the determines spread swap u.s working world, reference product may not be accessible to the biosimilar manufacturers as they are proprietary knowledge. Thus, it is walden, important to conduct a reference-replicated study (R-R study), i.e. a study in which the character essay, reference product is compared with itself, to walden dissertation, obtain this information. As biosimilar products are made by living cells or organisms that are sensitive to papers spread swap u.s working world, small changes or variations in environmental factors, such as light or temperature, it is walden, expected that a small difference will occur between two reference products resulting from different manufacturing processes or locations, or different batches from the same manufacturing process. Character Sketch? The R-R study will provide the information on variability associated with the reference product, and rubric, also establish a baseline, i.e. similarity between R and R, for comparison in biosimilarity testing. The biosimilarity index approach was proposed by essays Chow et al. [3, 4] to rubric, assess the voltage phd thesis, level of similarity. The index is based on rubric the concept of reproducibility probability and is evaluated as the estimated power of the testing procedure when the alternative hypothesis is character essay, true.
This approach has been shown to be robust to dissertation, the study endpoints, criteria and study designs. Thus, in this paper, we have chosen to establish the reference standards in the framework of this biosimilarity index approach. In the next section, the study design and statistical model used for the R-R study are described. In Section 3, biosimilar index based on reproducibility probability is introduced. In Section 4, the statistical properties of the spread, reference standards are discussed through simulation studies. We provide some concluding remarks and recommendations in the last section. Study design and statistical model. Crossover designs are often recommended for bioequivalence studies. Biosimilarity is often assessed in a parallel design in practice [ 5 ], however, because of the relatively long half-life and the possibility of dissertation immunogenicity of essays biological products, concerns are increasing over interchangeability in biosimilars, which can only be assessed in crossover designs.
Thus, we have chosen a standard two-sequence, two-period (2 ? 2) crossover design for the establishment of reference standards. A 2 ? 2 crossover study can be viewed as a two-arm parallel study with replicates; the advantage of using a crossover design is that the intra-subject variability could be estimated for rubric the reference standards. In a 2 ? 2 standard crossover study design, participants are randomly assigned to either sequence 1 (R 1 R 2 ) or sequence 2 (R 2 R 1 ) in the R-R study. For sequence 1, participants are first treated with R 1 and, after a sufficient washout period, are treated with R 2 ; for sequence 2, participants are first treated with R 2 and stability, then with R 1 . As mentioned, R 1 and dissertation, R 2 could be two different batches of the reference drug or drugs from different locations such as the US and edexcel essays, EU. The interval hypotheses of the similarity testing written in terms of parameters are: where ? is the study parameter chosen to assess biosimilarity; ? L and ? U are the biosimilarity limits, i.e. the accepted lower and upper bounds for declaring biosimilarity. In bioequivalence assessment for generic drug products, average bioequivalence criterion chooses ? as the dissertation, ratio of the geometric means between reference and stopped jobs, test products; and dissertation rubric, the corresponding limits are set to be 80% and 125%. The hypotheses in equation (1) are usually decomposed into two sets of character sketch one-sided hypotheses: Schuirmann’s two one-sided tests procedure is commonly used for testing the hypotheses in equation (2) . The overall p value is the larger of the p values from these two tests. For a standard 2 x 2 crossover study design, we consider the following statistical model with the assumption of rubric no carryover effects: where Y ijk is the response for subject i in the kth sequence at the jth period, where i = 1, … , n k indicates subject, j = 1, 2 indicates period, k = 1, 2 indicates sequence; µ represents the overall mean; S ik represents the random effect of ith subject in kth sequence, assumed independently and identically distributed (i.i.d.) as N(0, s s2 ); P j is the period effect; T (j,k) represents the fixed effect of the treatment in the kth sequence administered at the jth period; e ijk is the within-subject random error, assumed i.i.d. as N(0, s e2 ). Finally S ik ’s and e ijk ’s are assumed to be mutually independent. To establish the bank, reference standards, we have chosen the average biosimilarity criterion, i.e. ? = µ R2 – µ R1 . One concludes average biosimilarity if.
where and are the walden rubric, least square means for the two reference products; they can be obtained from the sequence-by-period means: and ; n 1 and n 2 are the edexcel, number of rubric subjects in sequence 1 and sequence 2; is the pooled sample variance of period difference from how to write an essay two novels both sequences, and can be obtained from , where . To reflect the characteristics and effect of variability on the therapeutic effect of biological products, Chow et al. [ 3 , 4 ] in 2011 proposed the development of an index based on the concept of the reproducibility probability to walden dissertation, assess ‘highly biosimilar’. Reproducibility probability in clinical trials was first proposed in 2002 by Shao and Chow  to provide assessment on the strength of evidence against null hypothesis for regulatory agencies in chemistry, deciding whether a single clinical trial is sufficient for approval. Reproducibility probability addresses the question of whether the observed significant result from a clinical trial is walden dissertation rubric, reproducible. Following a similar idea, a biosimilarity index was developed based on the reproducibility probability for the interval hypotheses in equation (2) to evaluate the degree of similarity between two drug products. Resume Jobs? That is, we define a reproducibility probability for walden evaluating the biosimilarity of two drug products as follows: P BI = concluding average biosimilarity between two products in a future trial given that the stopped jobs, average biosimilarity based on a chosen criterion has been established in the first trial. To evaluate the biosimilarity index, the index is expressed as the dissertation, estimated power of the testing procedure when the alternative hypothesis is true, replacing the parameter by its estimate based on history essays the data observed. Walden Rubric? By this estimated power approach, the biosimilarity index for the 2 ? 2 crossover design and average biosimilarity criterion can be obtained from the following equation: where T L and comparing two novels, T U are the test statistics given in equation (4) and equation (5). Both T L and T U follow non-central t-distribution, with n 1 + n 2 – 2 degree of freedom and walden dissertation rubric, non-centrality parameters d L and d U , respectively. d L and d U relate to phd thesis, the population means, variances and similarity limits; their estimate and can be obtained from the data using the formulas and. To apply the proposed biosimilarity index approach to assess biosimilarity, Chow et al. in 2013 proposed the following steps [ 8 ], see Table 1 . To establish p 0 , we recommend it be based on p RR , the biosimilarity index obtained in an R-R study.
By basing p 0 on p RR , the biosimilarity index approach allows us to assess the degree of similarity relative to the reference product. From the definition of the biosimilarity index and the testing steps illustrated above, we can see that this approach has the following advantages. First, it is robust with respect to the selected study endpoints, biosimilarity criteria, and study designs [ 7 ], because the biosimilarity index used in the second stage of testing ‘highly similar’ is calculated using the same selected study endpoint, biosimilarity criterion, and study design. Second, it takes variability into consideration in the calculation of the walden dissertation, index, and is sensitive to the variance of the test products. Third, it allows the definition and assessment of the degree of similarity. Or, in other words, it provides an answer to history, the question of ‘how similar is considered highly similar?’ In practice, important information about the innovative (reference) product may not be available for assessment. Thus, it is important to establish the reference standard (p 0 ) while assessing biosimilarity between a biosimilar and the reference product. In this section, we set out to conduct simulation studies to establish reference standards under various scenarios. Simulation studies were conducted to demonstrate how to walden dissertation, establish reference standards.
Standard 2 ? 2 crossover design and average biosimilarity criterion are used. The biosimilarity index is calculated as the steps outlined in resume stopped jobs, section 3. The study parameter ? is the mean difference, i.e. ? = µ R2 – µ R1 , and the corresponding similarity limits are those accepted in bioequivalence studies, i.e. (? L , ? U ) = (log0.8, log1.25) = (-0.223, 0.223). Walden Rubric? The data are assumed to following normal distribution, and the means and variances of the two reference products are assumed to be the same in the simulation, i.e. µ R1 = µ R2 = µ and s R1 = s R2 = s. To evaluate how reference standards are affected by variability of the resume stopped jobs, drug products, different coefficients of variation are chosen: 20–50% by walden rubric an increment of 5%. Note that coefficients of variation is the ratio of the standard deviation to the mean, therefore in terms of s and µ in the normal distribution, the chosen coefficients of variation values translate to s = 0.2µ, 0.25µ, 0.3µ, 0.35µ, 0.4µ, 0.45µ or 0.5µ. Analysis? In bioequivalence studies, it is recommended that data are first log-transformed. For lognormal distribution, coefficients of variation of 20%, 25%, 30%, 35%, 40%, 45% and dissertation, 50% translate to s = 0.2, 0.25, 0.294, 0.340, 0.385, 0.429 and 0.472 ( ). Comparing? We have chosen µ = 1 so that the results are comparable with those shown in original scales in bioequivalence studies. The effects of different sample sizes (n = n 1 + n 2 = 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100) with equal allocation are also investigated.
A total of 1,000 random trials are generated for each parameter combinations. The percentage of trials that have passed the Step 1 biosimilarity test, i.e. the probability of walden rubric claiming biosimilarity on the basis of the average biosimilarity criterion, are shown in Table 2 and Figure 1. The results are in accordance with results observed in other studies . As the variability increases, the probability decreases. Even with no mean difference between the two drug products, the chemistry analysis, probability of concluding biosimilarity can be quite low when the coefficients of variation are high. For example, when the coefficients of variation is 50%, with a total sample size of 40, biosimilarity is concluded only about 30% of the times. The probability of concluding biosimilarity can be boosted by increasing sample size. In the previous scenario, the probability can be increased from 30% to 86% if a sample size of 100 is used instead of 40.
For those trials that have passed the Step 1 test, the p values from the Schuirmann’s two one-sided tests procedure are recorded and the averages are reported in dissertation rubric, Table 3 and Figure 2. As the coursework, variability increases, the p values also increase, becoming close to dissertation rubric, 0.05. In other words, as the variability increases, the evidence against null hypotheses weakens. For those trials that have passed the Step 1 test, we further report in Table 4 and edexcel, Figure 3 the walden dissertation, reproducibility probability or biosimilarity index, termed p RR in determines papers u.s working, R–R study. The p RR is calculated from equation (6). Rubric? As expected, the results show that the p RR increases as the sample size increases, and it decreases as variability increases. Notice that when the determines papers world, coefficients of variation are 45%, and the total sample size is 40, the p RR is walden dissertation, only 48.5%.
When a reference drug compared with itself can only have a 48.5% reproducibility probability, it is superfluous to follow the same study design to demonstrate that a ‘follow-on biologic’ is highly similar to this reference. There are two ways to correct a low p RR : one is to choose a different criterion as in bioequivalence studies with the use of a scaled criterion; the how to, other is to increase sample size. This also demonstrates the importance of walden rubric conducting an R–R study: one is coursework analysis, able to dissertation, choose an appropriate criterion, sample size, or both, to establish reference standards. As shown above in the simulation studies, as coefficients of variation increase, it is less likely that similarity can be declared even when R is compared with R. Chemistry Coursework? To further illustrate the effect of the high variability on the conclusion of biosimilarity, and how the walden dissertation rubric, biosimilarity index addresses the degree of juliet character essay similarity, we consider example data with a total sample size of 40 and coefficients of variation of 45%, again assuming no true mean difference. First, we obtain an example where H 0 is not rejected and give the sample means in Table 5. The observed mean difference and the observed variability . The 90% confidence interval of the walden, mean difference is (-0.065, 0.327); similarity is not declared. Under the same setting, another set of data is generated. Under this scenario, we observe that R 1 and R 2 are not identical yet similarity is declared. The sample means are given in coursework, Table 6, from which we could calculate the walden dissertation, sample mean difference and edexcel essays, the variability . From the observed mean difference and variability, the p RR as evaluated from equation (6) is 0.563.
This example shows that when coefficients of variation is high, even though biosimilarity is declared based on walden rubric the average similarity criterion, the degree of similarity as measured by biosimilarity index is low, so is the confidence that we have in the biosimilarity conclusion. The simulation studies have shown that, as variance increases, the probability of declaring biosimilarity in the Step 1 test decreases; and, for those trials that pass the Step 1 test, the degree of write an essay two novels similarity, quantified by biosimilarity index, decreases. The biosimilarity index is calculated for dissertation the trials that have passed the Step 1 test, thus it reflects the characteristics of the biological products that have already been declared biosimilar based on the average biosimilarity criterion. To apply the biosimilar index approach, an appropriate p 0 , see Table 1 for details of Step 3 in two novels, the testing procedure, needs to be determined. We recommend p 0 = 0.7p RR or 0.8p RR, such that the comparison is relative to the reference products. If we define d = p 0 /p RR , then d can be used to address the degree of similarity and the question of ‘how similar is highly similar?’ Thus, it is important to obtain reference standards because it establishes the baseline for testing biosimilar products.
In this paper, we show that an R-R study is conducted separately to obtain reference standards. Reference standards can also be established concurrently using the dissertation rubric, three-arm study as proposed by Kang and Chow . In the three-arm study, participants are randomly assigned to edexcel history, be treated with either test product (T) in one arm, or two different reference products (R 1 , R 2 ) in the other two arms, such that reference standards are established concurrently in the two reference arms and used as baseline for the test product. The idea as outlined in this paper can be applied to establish reference standards for biosimilarity index developed based on walden other criteria for the assessment of biosimilarity. Chemistry Coursework? For example, a biosimilarity index may be developed based on walden dissertation rubric the concepts of population bioequivalence or individual bioequivalence.
Another important concept in biosimilarity studies is jobs, interchangeability. Dissertation Rubric? To assess interchangeability, it needs to be shown that the risk, i.e. safety or diminished efficacy of alternating or switching between use of the biosimilar and the reference product, are not greater than the risk of using the reference product without such alternation or switch. The same idea could be followed to establish reference standards to be used as the an essay comparing two novels, baseline for the assessment of interchangeability. This work was partially supported by walden dissertation rubric National Institutes of Health grants P01 CA142538 to Associate Professor Jung-Ying Tzeng. Provenance and peer review: Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed. Associate Professor Jung-Ying Tzeng, Department of Statistics and an essay, Bioinformatics Research Center, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27607, USA. Professor Shein-Chung Chow, Professor of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Department of Bioinformatics and Biostatistics, Duke University School of Medicine, Suite 1102, Hock Plaza, 2424 Erwin Road, Durham, NC 27705, USA. 1. U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
Draft guidance for industry. Scientific considerations in demonstrating biosimilarity to dissertation, a reference product [homepage on character sketch essay the Internet]. 2012 Feb [cited 2013 Jun 10]. Available from: http://www.fda.gov/downloads/Drugs/GuidanceComplianceRegulatoryInformation/Guidances/UCM291128.pdf. 2. Kang SH, Chow SC. Statistical assessment of biosimilarity based on relative distance between follow-on biologics. Stat Med. Walden Dissertation Rubric? 2013;32(3):382-92. 3. Chow SC, Endreny L, Lachenbruch PA, Yang LY, Chi E. Scientific factors for assessing biosimilarity and drug interchangeability of follow-on biologics. Biosimilars.
2011;1:13-26. 4. Chow SC, Ju C. Assessing biosimilarity and bank determines papers world, interchangeability of biosimilar products under the Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act. Generics and Biosimilars Initiative Journal (GaBI Journal). 2013;2(1):20-5. Walden Dissertation? doi:10.5639/gabij.2013.0201.004. 5. Hsieh TV, Chow SC, Yang LY, Chi E. The evaluation of biosimilarity index based on reproducibility probability for edexcel essays assessing follow-on biologics. Stat Med. 2013;32(3):406-13. 6. Schuirmann DJ. A comparison of the two one-sided tests procedure and the power approach for assessing the equivalence of walden dissertation average bioavailability. J Pharmacokinet Biopharm.
1987;15(6):657-80. 7. Shao J, Chow SC. Reproducibility probability in clinical trials. Stat Med. Coursework? 2002; 21(12):1727-42. 8. Walden Dissertation Rubric? Chow SC, Yang LY, Starr A, Chiu ST. Statistical methods for write an essay two novels assessing interchangeability of biosimilars. Stat Med. 2013;32(3):442-8. 9. Chow SC, Liu PB.
Design and analysis of bioavailability and bioequivalence studies. 3rd ed. New York: Taylor and Francis; 2008. Author for correspondence: Aijing Zhang, PhD, 5109 SAS Hall, 2311 Stinson Drive, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA. Disclosure of Conflict of Interest Statement is available upon walden, request. Copyright © 2013 Pro Pharma Communications International. Permission granted to reproduce for personal and non-commercial use only. All other reproduction, copy or reprinting of bank determines papers spread u.s working all or part of any ‘Content’ found on this website is strictly prohibited without the prior consent of the publisher.
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