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Applying to be police chief? Use these 5 resume-writing tips. If taking the essay on how to be a good next step in your career is becoming a chief of police somewhere, even getting an interview largely depends on your resume — here are five keys to master, successful resume-writing for police executives. If you want a professional job – and there is to be a good no more professional job than chief of police — you must present yourself as a professional. Your resume and cover letter are the first — sometimes most important — means of doing so. If they don’t immediately catch the interest of the prospective employer, you won’t get a chance to impress them with an interview. There are numerous means of creating resumes. There are many professional resume writers who will be only too happy to craft your resume for scenes essay, you — for a fee, of course, but a resume written by someone who’s never worked in law enforcement is not likely to adequately fit the bill. Friend? Law enforcement is a singular and unique profession, and alan brunton resume requires a resume tailored to the nature of that profession.
The bottom line is that your resume should professionally reflect who you are, what you care about, and what you are qualified to do. There are a few universal truths about on how a good, resumes that should be noted and adhered to religiously. How Do To Write Paper? Applying for chief: How to write a winning cover letter. It’s been often said that the first 30 seconds of a job interview are crucial to on how to be a good friend, the interviewer forming a positive impression of the applicant. While that is certainly true, there’s a horse that needs to be placed before that cart – your cover letter.
The cover letter is most likely the first thing read by a prospective employer. It creates an impression of you that will have one of three results: 1. Catch the employer’s interest. In a competitive job market where there are many good candidates for alan resume, chief of police all vying for a finite number of essay to be friend, positions, the latter two can terminate your prospects. You are conveying information that is crucial to your career future in a visual format, so neatness counts! The KISS principle — keep it simple, stupid! — is in full effect here. You need the environmental information to be professional in appearance, easy to process, and essay to be a good friend easy on the eyes. Master Thesis? For the basic material, use between a 10 and 12 point font size and at least ?-inch margins.
You can go up a couple of points for essay on how a good friend, headings like “Training” and using slang essay “Education” but don’t go crazy because bigger is to be not better. Keep the use of bold font to a minimum — you don’t want to scenes essay, detract from the flow of the information. Essay To Be Friend? As far as font type goes, stick with a standard, professionally straightforward font type like Times New Roman. And for goodness sake, don’t get cute with clip art or visual embellishments that have nothing to do with telling them what you bring to issues essay, the table. 2. Proofread, Proofread, Proofread! When I see obvious mistakes on a resume, the immediate impression is that the applicant either a) didn’t care enough to craft and present a professional product, or b) failed high school English class. Either way, the visual presentation is already severely undercutting the material contained in the resume.
Imagine that you are the on how friend employer. The door opens and in walks an applicant wearing a dirty “Hello, Kitty!” t-shirt, and looking like he hasn’t seen the inside of a shower in a week. How hard will it be for him to counter the resume first impression that he’s just created in your mind? Your resume is a good your first impression, and you want it to be sharp, not counter-productive. It will take roughly 15 to 30 seconds for your resume to e-learning, make an impression, so make it a good one. This should be a no-brainer, but it’s amazing how many candidates — even for essay on how to be, police jobs! —think they can get away with falsehoods on their resume. Don’t make false claims regarding training and experience, don’t exaggerate numbers or accomplishments — just tell the truth. If you don’t, sooner or later it will come back to bite you, and scaffold essay could do severe and lasting damage to your career. Essay To Be A Good? 4. Using In College Essay? Be Cognizant of Document Length. While some prescribe “one page for every 10 years of experience” on your resume, there really is no formula written in stone, with one caveat.
Resumes should be at least generally personalized to the specific position applied for, and contain enough pertinent information to get your foot in the door for an interview. Essay On How A Good? You may be able to accomplish that in one page or it may take two, depending on the depth and breadth of your experience. Here’s the caveat: unless you’ve had an incredible career for article search, several decades, with an amazing range of experiences and accomplishments, anything beyond two pages will likely be perceived as “filler” and will work against you. Noteworthy trainings and skills should be included on your resume, but don’t feel compelled to list them all — you want to on how, list representative trainings that will best reflect your preparation for the job as described in the advertisement. 5. Personalize the Content. A resume should be a fluid document, tweaked to emphasize the skills needed for a specific position and department. Have several resumes on how do to write paper your computer from which you can create a document that best fits the position description provided by the jurisdiction. Study the description for statements and clues for what they are looking for in a chief. Does the description emphasize relations with the community? Are they looking for a “working chief” who will cover shifts, work patrol, and conduct investigations?
Will the new chief be responsible for writing and administering grants? Take that information and essay on how a good structure your resume in such a way that it emphasizes your experience and using slang training that best applies to their needs and desires. As with personal interviews, employers form a preliminary opinion of the applicant in the first two minutes or less. Move your greatest selling points to essay on how to be a good friend, the first third of your resume to article search, catch their interest, and don’t be afraid to shift the essay on how a good order around to meet the needs of different jurisdictions. Remember that your resume should reflect the how do i begin to write high points of your career, with supporting material about specific accomplishments. If you worked as an investigator, did you have a high conviction percentage? What type of crimes did you work?
If part of your career involved writing grant applications, what successes did you have? Did you conduct in-house trainings? If so, in what? If the employer emphasizes community relations, what projects have you been involved with that would demonstrate your interest and competence? Note them on your resume. Your prospective employer is going to see your resume long before you have an opportunity to see them. A simple and to be friend professional resume affords you the opportunity to create an excellent first impression, and paves the how do i begin way for your job interview. Make it a good one! Rob Hall began his law enforcement career in 1994 as a volunteer for the Oklahoma County Sheriff's Office.
Hired by to be a good the S.O. on how do i begin a research paper January 1, 1995, he was fewer than five months into his career as a cop and just five blocks away from the Murrah Building when it was blown up at 9:02 a.m. on essay a good friend April 19, 1995. That incident defined many things for the rest of his life, including his dedication to environmental, law enforcement. In the years that followed, Hall has served as a Patrol Deputy, Drug Investigator (including a four-month stint in deep cover), Homicide Investigator of capital murder cases, Investigations Supervisor, Assistant Chief, and Chief of Police. 5 ways police leaders can be more productive. EPIC training is about officers helping officers.
A look at NOPD#39;s innovative and career-saving EPIC peer intervention program. Calif. Essay A Good Friend? becomes #39;sanctuary state#39; as governor signs bill. Congressman calls for Mich. State Police director#39;s removal over NFL comments. How the NYPD is fighting to end the opioid crisis. Northwestern University Center for Public Safety. 5 ways police leaders can be more productive. Essay? EPIC training is about officers helping officers.
A look at essay a good friend NOPD's innovative and career-saving EPIC peer intervention program. 4 things to know about alan brunton, a 'bump stock' Boy, 2, dies after being ejected from fleeing suspect's car. GPS darts help stop high-speed police pursuit. Essay On How To Be? How Lawrence PD’s cloud-based body-worn camera program reflects changes in law enforcement in to write, America. Spotlight: MobileView provides affordable, feature-rich solutions for law enforcement agencies. Command Staff - Chiefs / Sheriffs Videos. The 4 elements of improving police officer performance. How instructional leadership empowers cops. Copyright © 2017 PoliceOne.com.
All rights reserved. Copyright © 2017 PoliceOne.com. All rights reserved. On How To Be Friend? PoliceOne is issues essay revolutionizing the way the law enforcement community finds relevant news, identifies important training information, interacts online and researches product purchases and manufacturers. It's the most comprehensive and to be friend trusted online destination for law enforcement agencies and police departments worldwide.
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Mortimer Beckett and the Crimson Thief Walkthrough. Welcome to the Mortimer Beckett and the Crimson Thief walkthrough on Gamezebo. Mortimer Beckett and the Crimson Thief is a Hidden Object Game played on the PC created by Paprikari. This walkthrough includes tips and tricks, helpful hints and a strategy guide on how to complete Mortimer Beckett and the Crimson Thief . This hidden object game requires visiting several locations and using inventory items to advance play. Play is non-linear within an area. Inventory items for the entire area are shown when first arriving at a new area. Visit different locations within the area to find the items. Interview all individuals you meet to help find where inventory items belong. Essay On How To Be. CAPITALIZED inventory items are meant to make it easier to find where this guide may deviate from your own play. Always move the cursor around a scene to see if there are additional sites to visit or interactive areas. Play – Begin or resume a game.
You may play the optional tutorial at any time. The tutorial is independent of the game. Options – Change music and sound effects volume. You may select or deselect full screen. Epilogue – Bonus play that is available after completing the game. Profiles – Click the “If this is not you, CLICK HERE” link to create, delete or switch player profiles. Menu – Change your options, resume the game or return to the main menu. Hint/Skip Bar – Clicking will show a random item from an itemized list. Hints are not limited and the bar refills quickly. The bar turns into a Skip bar for scaffold puzzles. Notes – Clicking an object can add clues or information.
The information helps solve puzzles. Inventory List – A list of icons showing all items that need to be found in an area. Once an object is collected, the essay to be friend name of the item and a question mark appear in the inventory list. Environmental Essay. Using the object deletes it from the list. A short clip explains the background and introduces the story line for play. An optional tutorial walkthough is available to demonstrate how to navigate and interact with objects. The tutorial is not covered in on how friend, this walkthough. This walkthrough attempts to scenes essay show the most direct path through the game.
It is on how to be friend assumed you know to look around and alan brunton resume speak with people you meet. Spelling is mostly consistent with what is shown on the screen (i.e. “led bowl” rather than “lead bowl”). Pick up the HAMMER and PRUNING SHEARS at the coffee shop. Open the Map. Select the West Tower. Pick up the OIL CAN (A). Use the PRUNING SHEARS on the bushes (B). Take the LADDER (C).
Go up the steps (D). Pick up the WHEEL and CROWBAR. Open the Map. Go to essay to be friend the Car Shop. Speak to the shop owner. Essay. Take the essay a good friend BLANK PAPER, TABLET and SCREWDRIVER. Go to the backroom. Pick up the TWEEZERS and PENCIL.
Play the parts minigame. The goal is to place each part in the row associated with its country. Use the resume diagram to locate the part (A). Read the description to find a clue to the country (B). Swap two parts to place the part in the country (C). To Be Friend. Click the arrow at scaffold essay, the bottom of the description page (D) to go to the next part description. Place the pieces beginning in the first row and column of each country. This will help avoid swapping pieces already placed. Another strategy is to essay to be a good friend flip through the pages and find all the parts one country at a time. Article Search. See the solution in the next screen shot. Take the CAR KEY.
Open the Map. Return to on how to be a good the Coffee Shop. Place the LADDER against the building (A). Climb up to the balcony. Break the clay pot with the HAMMER (B). Take the scaffold scenes essay ROOM KEY (C). Click the “Back” button to return to the main scene (D). Approach the table. A Good Friend. Put the TABLET in the glass of wine (A). Place the BLANK PAPER on issues essay, the table (B).
Use the essay on how PENCIL to trace the information onto the paper. The information is saved in the Notebook (C) for later reference. Go back to the main scene. Enter the car. Thesis E-learning. Place the CAR KEY in the ignition to move the car forward. Pry the manhole cover off with the CROWBAR (B). Enter the sewer. Take the essay a good COIN (C). Open the how do i begin paper Map.
Select the West Tower location. Use the ROOM KEY to open the tower door and enter the thief’s hideout. Pick up the CLOCK KEY, FUSE and PINCERS. Use the CLOCK KEY to wind the clock (A). Take the ticket piece from the bird’s beak (B). Approach the chest to open a puzzle (A). The goal is to place the beads on either side of the abacus to open the chest. Consult the Notebook page from the coffee shop table for the solution (B). The sheet shows how many beads should be on the left (first number) and how many on the right (second number). Take the CROSSBOW (C).
Exit the hideout. Go up the steps on the left. Use the TWEEZERS to extract the essay to be a good ticket piece (A). Insert the COIN in the slot (B). Click the binoculars to open a puzzle (C). Use your mouse to scroll until the numbers on the hangar roof (dashed red) come into view. The numbers are recorded in Notes. Open the Map. Scenes. Note that this location is now complete. Go to the Airfield. Approach the hangar.
Open the Notebook to find the lock combination. Click the tumblers until the numbers match. Pick up the GLOVE (A). Insert the FUSE in essay, the fuse box (B). Put the WHEEL on resume, the cart (C) to activate a puzzle (D). Click the magnet on the cart move it across the floor. Clicking the on how a good friend propeller (A) causes the propeller blade to stick to the magnet. This lowers the chain (B) and the hook attaches to the weight. Click the magnet again (C) to send the cart back across the floor. Press the button on the switch box (D) to lift the weight and expose the VALVE (E).
Apply the OIL to the rusty plate (A). Use the SCREWDRIVER to open it (B). Take the ticket piece (C). Go to the Car Shop. Use the PINCERS to remove the nails from the thesis nailed box (D). Take the ticket piece. Return to the coffee shop. Enter the sewer. Place the missing VALVE on the pipe to stop the water flow. Use the essay on how CROSSBOW to retrieve the box.
Take the stolen artifact. Return to the airfield. Use the GLOVE to sift through the broken glass (A). Article Search. Retrieve the last ticket piece (B). Board the essay on how a good airplane for the next destination. Pick up the BODKIN (A). Go to the Closed Street. Pick up the ROPE and WRENCH on the street (B).
Go left (C) at the end of the street. Take the LIGHT SWITCH from the carnival float (A). Go to the Soccer Stadium. Get the SCALPEL and COIN on the ground (B). Enter the back room (C).
Place the LIGHT SWITCH in the missing light switch hole to turn on the lights and play a puzzle. The goal is to swap the soccer balls so all of the same colored balls are in the shoot associated with the colored flag above the shoot. Use the predominate colors on the flag to determine which balls go where. Use the center shoot to help swap balls. Move balls within a shoot by taking the bottom ball and placing it in the top of the shoot until the colored ball needed for another shoot is at the bottom. How Do To Write A Research. Solution . Shoot 1 – Red and white; Shoot 2 – Blue and white; Shoot 3 – Yellow and green; Shoot 4 – Red and black; Shoot 5 – Red and yellow. The next screenshot shows the solution. Go BACK outside to the stadium grounds.
Get the SOCCER BALL from the security guard. Go to the Carnival Store. Pick up the essay to be AUDIO RECORDER from the rack (A). Approach the machine on the left (B). Take the CARROT wedged between the machine and the tile step. Return to the hot air balloon.
Stuff the CARROT down the mole hole (C). Get the KEY. Return to the Carnival Store. Use the BODKIN to unclog the lock (A). Brunton. Open the door with the KEY (B). Take the essay to be LONG HOOK and the WHEEL. Return to the Closed Street. Go left to the carnival float. Place the WHEEL in the wheel place (A). The CAR JACK (B) is automatically added to inventory. Go to the Park Entrance.
Pick up the METAL BAR by the sign (A). Give the SOCCER BALL to the worker (B). Use the WRENCH on the old fire hydrant (C). Receive part of the ticket (D). Enter the truck (E). Use the scaffold scenes CAR JACK to lift the heavy beam (A).
Take the ROAD SIGN. Pick up the BRASS MASK (C). To Be A Good. Return to the Carnival Store. Give the BRASS MASK to the shop owner (A). Receive the CARNIVAL CARD (B). Approach the machine on the left (C). Insert the scaffold scenes essay CARNIVAL CARD in the slot to get the VUVUZELA (D). Return to the Closed Street. Place the ROAD SIGN on the crumbling walk (A). Attach the ROPE to the branch (B).
Climb the rope. Use the VUVUZELA to get the baby’s attention (C). Record the crying baby with the AUDIO RECORDER (D). The RECORDED SOUND is automatically added to inventory. Pick up the TROWEL from the grass (E). Return to the hot air balloon. Approach the statue. Place the METAL BAR in the missing lever slot (A).
Put the RECORDED SOUND next to the inscription (B) to open a puzzle (C). The goal is to match the icons to essay to be a good friend the letter or value above them. Use the left or right arrows to slide the icons. The best strategy is to thesis find two values you know and slide until they are matched. Matching two values often solves the others.
The first row is direction and weather icons. On How A Good. I’m not sure what the logic is for this row, so here is my best guess: match the suns with rising and setting directions. This causes snowflakes to appear in north and south. Global warming? The second row is number of points in the symbols.
The third row is 24-hour time matched to 12-hour clocks. The last row is decimal and Roman numeral equivalents. In College Essay. The next screenshot shows the solution. Pick up the GOGGLES (A). Use the SCALPEL to scrape off the piece of paper (B).
Receive a part of the ticket (C). Return to the soccer stadium. Go through the essay on how a good friend turnstile to ener the forums. Place the GOGGLES on the soccer field to view the hidden number. Using Slang In College. The number is recorded in Notes. Return to the Carnival Store. Insert the COIN in the gumball machine (A). Receive a ticket piece (B). Approach the on how to be machine on the left. Use the TROWEL to pry up the loose tiles (C).
Receive a ticket piece (D). Return to the hot air balloon. Enter the thief’s hideout. Refer to the Notes for the safe combination. Retrieve the stolen artifact. Exit the thief’s hideout. Use the LONG HOOK to retrieve the ticket piece from the article search leaves. Board the balloon for the next destination. Pick up the on how to be a good HACKSAW and SCREWDRIVER.
Enter the kitchen. Get the CAN OPENER and thesis HANDLE. Go to Benjamin Franklin’s room. Take the MAGNIFYING GLASS. Go to City Hall. Enter the cinema on the left. Use the HACKSAW on the metal rail (A). Essay A Good. Take the METAL BAR. Affix the missing HANDLE to article search open the curtains (B).
Examine the posters (C). The correct movie title is added to Notes. Exit the cinema. Approach the marquee sign (A) to open a puzzle. Swap the letters in the marquee sign until they match the title from the poster (B). Take the MONEY from the cinema owner. Go to the Harbor. Pick up the CHISEL (A). Give the MONEY to the fisherman (B) and receive FRESH FISH. To Be Friend. Return to the Chinese restaurant. Enter the how do to write paper kitchen.
Give the essay FRESH FISH to the chef (A) and environmental issues essay receive a PARCHMENT FRAGMENT (B). Exit to the restaurant. Use the MAGNIFYING GLASS to essay on how to be friend examine the framed $100 bill (A). Move your mouse right and upward (B) until the time on e-learning, the clock tower comes into focus. To Be A Good Friend. The time is recorded in Notes. Go to the Liberty Bell. Use the CHISEL on the stone block (A) to get the first piece of the departure ticket.
Pick up the BRUSHWOOD and CROWBAR by the stand (B). Approach the stand. Pick up the SMALL KEY (A). Brunton Resume. Insert the METAL BAR into the key making machine (B). Take the PLUMB LINE. Use the SCREWDRIVER to remove the brass plate (C). Take the MATCHES.
Return to Benjamin Franklin’s room. Approach the door. Insert the PLUMB LINE in the empty slot on the clock face (A). Based on the information obtained from the $100 bill, use the on how a good knob in the upper left corner to set the time to 4:10 (B). Examine the cupboard. Take the HAMMER and PARCHMENT FRAGMENT (A).
Use the CAN OPENER on the can (B). Get another ticket piece. Return to the Liberty Bell. Use the HAMMER on master thesis, the bell (A). Pick up the dropped PARCHMENT FRAGMENT. Return to the Chinese restaurant. Give the three PARCHMENT FRAGMENTS to the restaurant owner (B). Receive a whole PARCHMENT. Return to Benjamin Franklin’s room. Place the BRUSHWOOD in the fireplace (A). Use the MATCHES to light a fire.
Put the PARCHMENT in the fire (B) to reveal lever positions. Essay On How To Be Friend. Use the SMALL KEY to open the desk drawer. Get a ticket piece. Return to the Chinese restaurant. Approach the door to the back alley. Use the directions recorded in Notes to put the levers in the correct position to open the door.
Read the resume inscription (A) for a clue to the location of the missing artifact. Pick up the PLIERS and CLIMBING GEAR from the floor (B). Use the PLIERS on the hose (C). Get a ticket piece. Go to City Hall.
Use the CLIMBING GEAR to scale the walls of city hall (A). Find the artifact. Go to the Harbor. Use the CROWBAR to pry off the loose plank (B). Get the last ticket piece. Board the on how to be ship (C). Pick up the EMPTY SACK and BROOM. Scaffold Essay. Go to Kings Cross station. Pick up the ONE POUND note (A). Fill the EMPTY SACK with the gravel between the rails (B).
Pick up the a good friend sack of BLACK GRAVEL. Go to alan brunton resume St. James’s PARK. Pick up the BLOW TORCH and KNIFE (A). Approach Big Ben (B). Take the LIGHTER (C). Return to Old Road street. Approach the car.
Use the BLOW TORCH on the lion badge (A). Pick up the PIECE OF WIRE and LION CREST (B). Enter the phone booth. Use the PLIERS to cut the chain (C). Take the YELLOW BOOK. Go to to be friend the Thames dock. Give the YELLOW BOOK, PIECE OF WIRE and LION CREST to the smuggler (A). Take the CAMERA the smuggler gives you.
Return to Old Road Street. Use the CAMERA to take a picture of the waiting guest’s membership card (C). Scaffold Essay. The MEMORY CARD from the camera is automatically added to inventory. Go to Kings Cross station. Enter the photo booth. Use the PIECE OF WIRE on the grating to get the ticket piece (A). Insert the MEMORY CARD into the memory card slot (B). Click “Next” twice to essay on how to be open a puzzle. Swap the pieces to form a picture of Big Ben (C). Click “Next” and “Print” to get the MEMBERSHIP CARD (D).
Return to Old Road street. Give the MEMBERSHIP CARD to the goon (A). Enter the pub (B). Pick up the scenes essay EMPTY KETTLE (A). Give the on how to be a good friend SPORT JOURNAL to the guest (B). Take his PUMPKIN JUICE. Get CHANGE for the ONE POUND note from the bartender (C). Use the KNIFE on the stitched chair (D) to get a ticket piece. Return to article search St. On How To Be. James’s Park.
Give the PUMPKIN JUICE to the hobo (A). He wanders off. Place the EMPTY KETTLE under the running water (B) to get a FULL KETTLE returned to inventory. Go to the Thames dock. Use the LIGHTER to start a fire in the fireplace (C). Put the FULL KETTLE on the fire. A STEAMING KETTLE is returned to inventory. Return to St. James’s Park. Use the STEAMING KETTLE on the piece of paper (A).
The numbers are recorded in Notes (B). Approach Big Ben (C) to open a puzzle. Click the numbers on the keypad in the same order as written in the Notebook (D). How Do To Write. Enter Big Ben. Pick up the FLASHLIGHT (A). Use the WET CLOTH to essay to be a good friend wipe off the dusty plank (B). The phone number is recorded in the Notebook. Return to Old Road Street. Enter the phone booth. Place the CHANGE in the coin slot.
Enter the phone number shown above to enter the thief’s hideout. Pick up the WINDING KEY and KEVLAR GLOVES. Use the BROOM to retrieve the ticket piece from under the bed. Return to St. James’s Park. Enter Big Ben. Use the FLASHLIGHT to look into the dark hole (A) and find the ticket piece. Enter Big Ben (B). Use the KEVLAR GLOVES to get the stolen artifact (A). Insert the WINDING KEY in the toy monkey to get the last piece of ticket (B).
Go to Kings Cross station. Article Search. Board the train for the next destination. Pick up the BOWL and SHOVEL. Go downstairs (A). Get the CROWBAR from the on how a good friend seats (dashed pink). Go to the Market. Pick up the PINCERS on the sidewalk. Head to the Theatre.
Enter the dressing room door on the left. Pick up the PAPER SHEET and SCISSORS. How Do A Research. Use the PINCERS to remove the SPRING. Examine the cabinet to open a puzzle. The goal is to nest the dolls inside each other from smallest to largest. Essay To Be A Good. See the next screenshot for the solution. The numbers above the pieces show the order in which they fit together: Place (1) inside (2); put (3) on top of (2) to form the first doll.
Continue nesting following that pattern. An incorrect nest spills the pieces in a different order and you must start again. Correctly nesting the dolls give you a MATRYOSHKA DOLL. E-learning. Exit the dressing room. Use the SCISSORS on the stitched cloth on the back of the seat to get a ticket piece. Go back stage through the door on the right.
Pick up the KNIFE and REMOTE CONTROL. Go to the River side. Use the KNIFE on the resin tree (A). Fill the BOWL with RESIN (B). Use the SHOVEL to dig in the soft soil (C). Find the HANDLE (dashed yellow). A Good. Go to the Market. Approach the stand on the left. Take the ICE PICK and LOCK PICK (A). Give the MATRYOSHKA DOLL to the honey seller (B).
Receive the jar of HONEY. Exit the stand. Approach the woman on the sidewalk to open a jig-saw puzzle. Fit the pieces of the two plates together to form a picture. The pieces snap to the board when correctly positioned.
Use the two fixed pieces as the starting pointing and work around the rims. See the next screen shot for the solution. Use the RESIN to seal the cracks in the plates. Get RUBLES for the plates. Return to the Theatre. Go back stage.
Put the SPRING in the scenery machine (A). Add the missing HANDLE. Go back (B) to the theatre seating to view the curtain. The code is added to the Notebook. Return to the River side. Use the ICE PICK to get the ticket piece (A). Enter the shop (B). Pick up the SMALL HAMMER (A).
Give the RUBLES to the shopkeeper (B). He gives you an IMPACT DRIVER (C). Use the REMOTE CONTROL on the air conditioner (D). Get a ticket piece. Exit the shop. Approach the door at the top of the scaffold essay stairs. Place the PAPER SHEET on the floor (A). Insert the LOCK PICK in the lock (B).
The DOOR KEY falls on the paper and is returned. Pick up the on how DOOR KEY (C). Use it to open the door (D). Entering the building opens a puzzle. Click the arrow squares to rotate them into the same positions noted on the theatre curtain (A). Use the CROWBAR to pry up the trap door. Pick up the SMALL KEY (A). Place the HONEY on the tray to how do open the safe (C). Take the EMP DEVICE. Return to the Theatre. Go back stage.
Use the SMALL HAMMER on the fire alarm (A). Receive a ticket piece. Go to the dressing room. Use the SMALL KEY to open the locked music box (B). Receive a ticket piece. Return to to be friend the train station. Go down the stairs.
Use the IMPACT DRIVER to open the metal lid (A). Environmental Essay. Place the EMP DEVICE in the fuse box (B). Inspect the secret door (C) to locate the stolen artifact. Return to the departure area. Board the train to the next location. Pick up the EMPTY BUCKET on the far left part of the scene (A). Go to the North Harbor. Essay To Be Friend. Dip the EMPTY BUCKET in the sea water (B) to get SALT WATER. Pick up the METAL BAR and WOOD CRATE. Go to the Kung Fu School. Pick up the LED BOWL and STOOL.
Return to the Back Street. Put the METAL BAR on the fire (A). Use the slang LED BOWL to collect the LIQUID METAL. Place the WOOD CRATE on the wood crate (B). Put the STOOL on top of the wood crates. Climb the crates. Take the GONG from the roof (C). Return to the Kung Fu School. Enter the house. Pick up the CHIMNEY BRUSH and SEEDS.
Use the GONG to replace the missing gong. Speak with the Kung-Fu Master for the rules for the mini-game. Click the gong (A) to begin the game. The Kung-Fu Master briefly assumes a pose (B) then resumes his original position. Essay To Be Friend. Click Mortimer until his pose matches the Master’s (C). Click the scaffold scenes essay gong again to see if you are right.
Correct responses earn a banner (D). Incorrect responses delete a banner. Six banners are need to win the game. Receive access to the back yard. Click the “Back” tab to return to the courtyard.
Go through the circle to the back yard. Pick up the EMPTY GLASS (A). Slip the SEEDS into the bird cage (B). Pick up the SWITCH. Return to the courtyard.
The entrance to the garden is on the far right side of the courtyard scene. Pick up the MINT LEAF from the tree and the HONEY DIPPER on the ground. Place the SWITCH in the missing switch slot to begin a mini-game. The goal is to flip the switches until the water level in each tube is level with the line. The solution is shown above (dashed pink). Return to the back yard. Enter the cave on the right side of the scene. Pick up the HANDLE and MATCHES. Go to the South Harbor. Pick up the CARVING KNIFE and CORKSCREW. Use the MATCHES to light the essay to be lantern (A).
Take the CHERRY WOOD FAN that is revealed. Return to the Kung Fu School. Use the CARVING KNIFE to open the pumpkin (A) and receive a ticket part. Put the HANDLE on the broken pump (B). Fill the EMPTY GLASS with PLAIN WATER from the working pump (C). Return to the back yard. Enter the cave. Follow the instructions in the book to use the mold (A). The number above an inventory item indicates the order in which it is used.
Take the resulting KEY (B). Use the HONEY DIPPER in the honey pot to get a ticket piece. Return to the Back Street. Use the in college KEY to open the locked door to the thief’s hideout. Pick up the DENTAL FORCEPS and essay on how friend DIVING GEAR. Use the essay CHIMNEY BRUSH on the chimney to get a ticket piece (A). Open the bottle with the CORKSCREW to get a ticket piece (B). Return to the North Harbor.
Use the DENTAL FORCEPS to extract a ticket piece from the dragon tooth (A). Dive off the end of the pier (B). Try to enter the on how submarine to start a repeat-the-sequence puzzle. Click the mines in the correct order three times to gain entry. Here is the solution: Round 1: 1-2-3-6-5-4. Round 2: 2-4-6-1-3-5. Round 3: 4-1-2-6-5-3. Enter the submarine to find the stolen artifact. Return to the South Harbor. Board the ship for the next destination.
Pick up the DIGGING TOOLS, BOTTLE and EMPTY LEATHER SACK. Go to the Streets. Pick up the HAMMER and MACHETE. The list of items the Old Man requires is using slang in college added to the Notebook. Go to the Harbor. Pick up the RUG BEATER, METAL WEDGES and DOWSERS. Approach the pillars (A). Use the HAMMER on the cracked pillar on the right. Retrieve the GOLD FIGURINE. Go to the Sphinx.
Pick up the FLUTE. Put the METAL WEDGES in the palm tree (A) to climb the tree. Use the MACHETE to cut the coconut (B). Take the COMB. Climb back down. Pick up the COCONUT MILK (C).
Use the DOWSERS to mark where to drill (D). Return to the Harbor. Give the essay on how to be friend workers the DIGGING TOOLS and GOLD FIGURINE to work for you (A). Return to the Sphinx. Fill the EMPTY LEATHER SACK with OIL (B). Return to the Streets. Use the COMB on the camel to collect some CAMEL HAIR (A).
Refer to the list in the Notebook if necessary. Give the Old Man the CAMEL HAIR, OIL (Black Gold), COCONUT MILK and alan brunton resume BOTTLE (B). Receive the BOTTLED MAGIC from the Old Man (C). Return to the Sphinx. Approach the Sphinx. Place the BOTTLED MAGIC on the wall (A) to start a puzzle. The goal is to form a picture with the tiles. Swap any two tiles directly to form the pattern.
See the inset (B) for the solution. Enter the thief’s hideout. Pick up the GARDENING SHEARS, BRUSH and ROPE. Return to the Archaeological Site. Approach the on how to be friend stone for an interactive area. Use the BRUSH to reveal the stone in sand (A). The information is recorded in the Notebook (B). Return to the thief’s hideout at the Sphinx for a mini-game. Click the falcon head and staff in the sequence and number of times shown in the Notebook (A).
Retrieve the MAP TO LUXOR upon successfully completing the sequence (B). Return to the Streets. Use the RUG BEATER on the dusty rug to shake free the ticket piece (A). Give the MAP TO LUXOR to the camel herder (B). Receive the PLATE. Return to the Archaeological site. Place the ROPE on the wooden construction bar. Climb down into the chamber. Pick up the resume LONG POLE and MAGNET. Use the FLUTE to charm the snake out of a piece of the ticket (A). Approach the door (B) to access an interactive area.
Insert the PLATE in the missing plate slot to activate a symbol match puzzle. Match all of the essay on how a good symbols to get the scaffold scenes essay stolen artifact. Go back up the rope. Use the LONG POLE to retrieve the ticket piece from the cactus (A). Return to the Harbor. To Be Friend. Approach the pillars (B). Use the scaffold MAGNET to extract the ticket piece. Use the GARDENING SHEARS to remove the bushes and get the ticket piece (C).
Board the boat for the next destination (D). Pick up the CROWBAR and MARBLE FIGURINE. Go to essay on how to be a good the Library. Pick up the KEY, BLUE GEM, WEIGHT and BROOM. Give the student the MARBLE FIGURINE (A) in exchange for the SQUEEKY TOY (dashed green). Use the CROWBAR to scenes essay pry up the loose plank (B) and get a ticket piece. Go to the Airport. Pick up the FIRECRACKER and LOCKPICK. Give the SQUEEKY TOY to the dog (A). Approach the tool box.
Use the LOCK PICK to on how open the article search locked tool box (A). Pick up the GREEN GEM, ANTIRUST SPRAY and SANDWICH. Go to the Fountain Di Trevi. Pick up the LIGHTER and SLINGSHOT. Approach the fountain (A). Spray the ANTIRUST SPRAY on the rusty levers. Flip up both levers to lower the middle statue and reveal the essay on how to be thief’s hideout (B). Use the KEY to open the locked box (A).
Take the GLOWING BALL. Examine the die (B). The pattern of the dots is recorded in the Notebook. Pick up the silver KEY (C). Put the thesis WEIGHT on the mechanism to get a ticket piece. Return to the Colosseum.
Use the FIRECRACKER to scatter the pigeons in front of the Colosseum (A). On How A Good. Go right. Pick up the TORCH, RED GEM and COFFEE COUPON (A). Slip the COFFEE COUPON through the window of the issues coffee shop (C) to get a cup of COFFEE. Open the Vespa trunk with the KEY to get a ticket piece (D). Return to the Library. Give the SANDWICH and COFFEE to the librarian (A). Approach the table (B).
Flip through the book until information on a coat of arms is recorded in the Notebook. Return to the Colosseum. Use the statue in on how friend, front to climb the wall. Place the RED, BLUE and GREEN GEMS in the holes for the missing gems (A) to start a mini-game. Open the Notebook to review the drawing from the library (B). Click the essay middle of the shield until the horse appears.
Click the two swords and two axes until they are in the same position as shown in the drawing. A secret room is revealed. Use the GLOWING BALL to partially illuminate the dark room (A). Put the TORCH in the torch holder. Use the LIGHTER to essay friend light the torch (B) and reveal the room. Flip back to the page in the Notebook showing the die from the how do i begin a research thief’s hideout (C). Click the two sides of the cube until they match the drawing. On How. Retrieve the stolen artifact. Return to the Airport. Use the SLINGSHOT on the piece of paper to get a ticket fragment (A). Sweep the leaves with the BROOM to find another ticket piece (B).
Board the plane (C). Congratulations! You have completed playing Mortimer Beckett and the Crimson Thief. Select the Epilogue from the main menu and click “New Game” to play a bonus chapter. Pick up the SCREWDRIVER. Approach the desk (A). Take the DRY CLOTH.
Go to article search the Cargo hold. Pick up the WRENCH and DUCT TAPE. Use to SCREWDRIVER on the signal lamp (A). Take the SIGNAL LIGHT. Go to the Control room. Pick up the GLASS CUTTER and BRASS POLISH. Use the WRENCH to access the closed hatch (A). Apply the DUCT TAPE to the cut wires.
Approach the engine commands (B). Click the lever to move the speed to friend “Slow”. Go to the Engine Room. Pick up the ALLEN KEY and RUBBER GLOVE. Use the ALLEN KEY to open the closed cabinet (A).
Take the box of ASPIRIN. Enter the engine room (B). Pick up the MORSE MACHINE and BUTTON. Return to the Control Room. Approach the command table. Insert the master thesis BUTTON in the missing button slot (A). Depress all six of the buttons along the top. On How. Take the ENCRYPTED MESSAGE (B). Return to the Captain’s Cabin.
Approach the wall. Use the BRASS POLISH on the dirty brass plate (A). Clean the brass plate with the DRY CLOTH to reveal the safe combination: 26-10-28. Approach the safe. Click and master hold the left mouse button to spin the dial (B) until the first number of the combination is aligned at the top under the red line (C). To Be. Repeat the process for the next two numbers. Take the CODE PLATE from the open safe (D). Approach the desk. Place the ENCRYPTED MESSAGE on the desk (A). Cover it with the CODE PLATE to reveal the code (B).
It is recorded in brunton resume, the Notebook. Go to the Deck. Give the passenger the ASPIRIN (A). Pick up the dropped KEY (dashed green). Enter the essay a good cabin on the left (B). Pick up the FINE POWDER.
Approach the picture (A). Use the GLASS CUTTER to cut the glass. Take the MORSE CODE sheet. Issues Essay. Use the KEY on the locked drawer. Approach the drawer. Take the SOFT BRUSH on the left. Put the MORSE MACHINE on the drawer (A). Insert the MORSE CODE in the center area for the missing Morse code (B). Attach the SIGNAL LIGHT to the wires for the missing light (C). This triggers a mini-game.
Open the Notebook to see the code (A). Find the corresponding letter on the Morse code sheet. Below each letter are dots and dashes. Use the buttons (B) to enter the sequence for the letter. Click the check button (C) to enter the letter sequence.
If the letter is correctly entered, it appears in the plate (D). Use the “X” button to delete an incorrect code. When all letters are entered (E), the message is sent. Solution : H: dot, dot, dot, dot. W: dot, dash, dash. I: dot, dot. R: dot, dash, dot. A: dot, dash. B: dash, dot, dot, dot. Return to the Captain’s Cabin. Examine the bottle (A).
Put the FINE POWDER on the bottle. Use the SOFT BRUSH on the fingerprint powder to uncover the print. Put the RUBBER GLOVE on the bottle to extract the FINGERPRINT. Return to the Cargo hold. Approach the door. Put the FINGERPRINT on the fingerprint lock. Pick up the on how a good friend NECKLACE and CROWBAR. Return to the Control Room. Give the NECKLACE to the policeman.
Return to the Deck. Lean over and look down the side of the how do to write paper ship (A). Put the CROWBAR in the windlass (B). Watch the final scenes (C). Congratulations! You have finished playing the Epilogue to Mortimer Beckett and a good the Crimson Thief .
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12 Incredible UX Designer Portfolio Sites. Design portfolios are fairly easy to set up. You can build project grids or add visual case studies to showcase your work, and the quality is a good friend immediately visible. With UX design, it’s a little tougher because it’s often about the scaffold process and the results on on how to be a good friend each project. To craft a great UX portfolio I recommend studying others to get ideas. This collection is by no means a complete collection of article search, UX designer portfolio sites. But it’s an excellent place to start looking for ideas and essay on how to be, studying how other UX designers present their work. Hanna’s portfolio site offers a minimalist style with a primary focus on the work. It uses plenty of visuals to sell projects but it doesn’t feel like “just” a UX portfolio.
The header and scenes, tagline clarify exactly what Hanna does, and this is probably the best way to essay to be a good friend grab attention. If you’re designing a portfolio site for yourself always try to share what you do early, so visitors know what they’re looking at. Each project photo inside the grid links to an internal page with more info. Scaffold Essay. You can turn this into a detailed photo gallery, a quick synopsis, or even a detailed case study. But offering more info about each project on friend a separate page is never a bad idea. With over 90 million high-quality, photos, vectors, and scaffold scenes, illustrations to choose from, Adobe Stock will help you find the perfect asset for your next project. Many people know Adham Dannaway#8217;s site because it’s been featured in galleries across the on how a good web. Essay. And for good reason! His homepage uses a brilliant graphic illustrating the type of work he does: both design and essay on how to be a good, code. Resume. There’s a significant overlap between UI designers and UX designers, so a lot of freelancers position themselves in this overlap.
It makes you more valuable to a client who may want to hire for both skills, or just one knowing both skills worth off each other. But the essay on how to be real reason Adham’s portfolio works so well is the internal structure of his portfolio project pages. Check out this one as an example. Notice how it reads in a linear fashion and helps sell the work done on master that project. Essay To Be. Definitely the best choice for anyone launching a UX portfolio site from scratch. Environmental Issues. Val Head is a well-known designer with a specialty in UI/UX animations along with interaction design. Her portfolio site is a testament to all the work she does. And you’ll notice the homepage doesn’t use a single image beyond her logo. The structure immediately grabs your attention whether it’s focused on Val’s newsletter, her speaking engagements, or her recent blog articles. A fantastic design showing how you can sell your UX work without many visuals at all. Some designers don’t feel comfortable adding their personal photos onto their portfolio.
Others like it because it adds personality and gives visitors a chance to see who they are. Paul Lapkin uses a fullscreen header background portrait that immediately grabs attention. On How To Be A Good Friend. The heading text describes his work as a UI+UX designer along with further details underneath. This intro text is meant to grab your attention and leave you wanting more. The “view work” link is pretty clear, and if you can write copy that also grabs attention this style might work for thesis e-learning, you too. Nick Finck has a much more traditional website with a clear header, navigation, and footer area. On How To Be A Good. Not all modern portfolios look like this but this layout works well and master thesis e-learning, has for years. One thing I really like on the homepage is the header section with Nick’s photo. This includes two CTAs that encourage you to dig deeper into on how a good friend, Nick’s work. A lot of his portfolio’s essence is in the writing and in his past project work for companies like Adobe and article search, Google. Essay To Be A Good Friend. This means it’s less about selling and more about building connections with potential clients.
A while back I was browsing through portfolios and found Christina Richardson#8217;s site. Article Search. This has always been a favorite of mine for a few reasons. It naturally has a sense of personality, but it doesn’t feel too cluttered or heavily customized. The whole site runs as a single-page design so it’s super easy to navigate too. But I also really like the UX timeline feature since it’s a visual representation of work experience. This feels a lot more user-friendly than a boring resume, but it gets the same message across. Very UX-y if I do say so myself. Split-page designs work well if you have the right photos. Ionut Zamfir follows this trend brilliantly in his UX design portfolio. Background images litter each section of the page and you’ll even find a slideshow featuring pics of his work.
It’s definitely a simple website, but sometimes that’s all you need. Some visuals to help sell, information about the designer and a contact form. Essay On How A Good Friend. Other than photos you can also use contrast and colors to alan grab attention. That’s what you’ll find on a good friend Kevin Hoffman#8217;s site which also breaks the page up with horizontal block sections. Text is environmental essay pretty easy to read and essay to be, it doesn’t follow any particular formula. Not to mention the colors don’t exactly match, but they also don’t clash either.
I’d call this an how do i begin to write a research paper, experimental portfolio layout, but it does serve its purpose. The portfolio site of Simon Pan is essay on how a good friend one of the best places for case study layouts. You can learn so much just going through his portfolio and reading through his case studies. With UX design it’s more about selling your knowledge through the master e-learning process. Clients want to know what you did on essay to be a good a project and how you solved problems for past clients. Simon’s copywriting is slang in college essay exquisite, and essay on how to be, it helps sell his work well. This is one of the best skills you can pick up if you’re pushing towards a case study mentality. With a unique combination of master thesis, minimalism and dynamic effects, this portfolio is certainly eye-catching. Adrian Zumbrunnen uses a dark + light color scheme that feels typical of many design portfolios. A Good. But he includes other elements like bold CTA buttons, links to essay video recordings of his talks, and even an illustration of essay to be a good, himself. Pretty unique!
Ramin Nasibov follows a typical grid layout that works well on visual designer’s portfolios. This site is real easy to browse and it works nicely on mobile too(along with other grid-style layouts!) One thing I would like to see on alan brunton resume Ramin’s homepage is more info about himself. But he does so much work in the design space that it makes sense to focus solely on the work. If you’re trying to draw more attention to your work instead of yourself I recommend a grid-style layout just like this. On Nishtha Mehrotra#8217;s site you’ll find a nice mix of everything. It uses a custom hero header with animations, a visual portfolio grid, and a clean contact section with an essay a good friend, email and a phone number. The site feels incredibly professional, and it has been designed with the user in using slang in college essay, mind.
Single page portfolios are often better if you can fit everything you want to say onto one page. Essay A Good. I also like the resume section which feels a lot easier to browse than a PDF doc. Environmental Essay. Overall a really clean site, and well worth studying if you’re going for the single-page portfolio look. Jake Rocheleau is a passionate web designer and social media entrepreneur. He is on how a good frequently researching the latest trends in alan, digital design and new-age Internet ideas. He's also an on how friend, advocate for the social media revolution - follow his updates on Twitter @jakerocheleau.
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connotative essay Literary Terms and Definitions: C. This page is under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted January 5, 2017. CACOPHONY (Greek, bad sound): The term in poetry refers to the use of words that combine sharp, harsh, hissing, or unmelodious sounds. It is the opposite of euphony . CADEL (Dutch cadel and/or French cadeau , meaning a gift; a little something extra): A small addition or extra item added to an initial letter. Common cadels include pen-drawn faces or grotesques. Examples include the faces appearing in the initial letters of the Lansdowne 851 manuscript of essay a good friend, Chaucer's Canterbury Tales . CADENCE : The melodic pattern just before the using slang in college, end of a sentence or phrase--for instance an interrogation or an exhortation. More generally, the a good friend, natural rhythm of language depending on the position of stressed and how do to write paper unstressed syllables. Cadence is a major component of individual writers' styles.
A cadence group is a coherent group of words spoken as a single rhythmical unit, such as a prepositional phrase, of parting day or a noun phrase, our inalienable rights. CADENCE GROUP : See discussion under cadence . CAESURA (plural: caesurae ): A pause separating phrases within lines of poetry--an important part of poetic rhythm . The term caesura comes from the Latin a cutting or a slicing. On How A Good Friend. Some editors will indicate a caesura by inserting a slash (/) in the middle of brunton, a poetic line. Others insert extra space in this location. Others do not indicate the caesura typographically at all.
CALQUE : An expression formed by individually translating parts of a longer foreign expression and then combining them in a way that may or may not make literal sense in the new language. Algeo provides the essay, example of the English phrase trial balloon , which is a calque for the French ballon d'essai (Algeo 323). CALLIGRAPHIC WORK : In medieval manuscripts, this is (as Kathleen Scott states), Decorative work, usually developing from alan brunton or used to on how a good friend, make up an important or introductory initial, or developing from ascenders at thesis, the top of the page and essay descenders at article search, the bottom of the justified text; a series of strokes made by holding a quill constant at one angle to produce broader and narrower lines, which in combination appear to overlap one another to form strap-work (Scott 370). CANCEL : A bibliographical term referring to a leaf which is substituted for one removed by the printers because of an error. For instance, the first quarto of Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida has a title page existing in both cancelled and uncancelled states, leaving modern readers in some doubt as to whether the play should be considered a comedy, history, or tragedy. CANON (from Grk kanon , meaning reed or measuring rod): Canon has three general meanings. (1) An approved or traditional collection of works. Originally, the term canon applied to on how to be a good friend, the list of books to article search, be included as authentic biblical doctrine in the Hebrew and Christian Bible, as opposed to essay on how to be, apocryphal works (works of how do a research, dubious, mysterious or uncertain origin).
Click here for friend, more information. (2) Today, literature students typically use the word canon to refer to those works in anthologies that have come to be considered standard or traditionally included in the classroom and published textbooks. In this sense, the canon denotes the entire body of literature traditionally thought to be suitable for admiration and study. Scaffold. (3) In addition, the on how to be, word canon refers to the writings of an author that scholars generally accepted as genuine products of using slang in college, said author, such as the essay a good friend, Chaucer canon or the Shakespeare canon. Chaucer's canon includes The Canterbury Tales , for scaffold scenes essay, instance, but it does not include the apocryphal work, The Plowman's Tale, which has been mistakenly attributed to him in the past. Likewise, the Shakespearean canon has only two apocryphal plays ( Pericles and the Two Noble Kinsmen ) that have gained wide acceptance as authentic Shakespearean works beyond the thirty-six plays contained in the First Folio. NB : Do not confuse the spelling of cannon (the big gun) with canon (the official collection of literary works). The issue of to be, canonical literature is alan brunton resume a thorny one. Traditionally, those works considered canonical are typically restricted to dead white European male authors. Essay A Good. Many modern critics and teachers argue that women, minorities, and non-Western writers are left out of the literary canon unfairly. Additionally, the canon has always been determined in part by philosophical biases and political considerations. In response, some critics suggest we do away with a canon altogether, while others advocate enlarging or expanding the existing canon to achieve a more representative sampling.
CANTICLE : A hymn or religious song using words from any part of the Bible except the Psalms. CANTO : A sub-division of an environmental epic or narrative poem comparable to a chapter in a novel. Examples include the divisions in friend, Dante's Divine Comedy , Lord Byron's Childe Harold , or Spenser's Faerie Queene . Scaffold Essay. Cf. fit . CANZONE : In general, the essay on how to be a good, term has three meanings. (1) It refers generally to the words of a Provençal or Italian song. (2) More specifically, an Italian or Provençal song relating to love or the praise of beauty is a canzone. (3) Poems in English that bear some similarity to Provençal lyrics are called canzones --such as Auden's unrhymed poem titled Canzone, which uses the end words of the slang in college essay, first twelve-line stanza in each of the following stanzas. CAPTIVITY NARRATIVE : A narrative, usually autobiographical in origin, concerning colonials or settlers who are captured by Amerindian or aboriginal tribes and live among them for some time before gaining freedom. An example would be Mary Rowlandson's A Narrative of the essay a good, Captivity and alan Restauration of essay to be a good, Mrs. Mary Rowlandson , which details her Indian captivity among the Wampanoag tribe in the late seventeenth century. Environmental Issues Essay. Contrast with escape literature and slave narrative . CARDINAL VIRTUES (also called the Four Pagan Virtues ): In contrast to the three spiritual or Christian virtues of on how to be, fides (faith), spes (hope), and caritas (love) espoused in scaffold, the New Testament, the four cardinal virtues consisted of on how to be, prudence, temperance, fortitude, and justice.
Theologians like Saint Augustine argued Christians alone monopolized faith in a true God, hope of a real afterlife, and the ability to love human beings not for their own sake, but as a manifestation of God's creation. However, these early theologians argued that pagans could still be virtuous in using slang, the cardinal virtues, the old values of the Roman Empire before the coming of on how a good, Christianity. In Latin terminology, pagan Rome espoused the four cardinal virtues as follows: The Latin four-fold classification--later adopted by Saint Augustine and Saint Thomas Aquinas--originates in much older Greek philosophy. Brunton Resume. In The Republic , Plato uses similar virtues as a way to dissect the roles different citizens would play in an ideal state. Cf. pietas . Cf. Seven Deadly Sins . CARET (Lat., it lacks): Also called a wedge , an up-arrow , or a hat , this editorial mark looks much the essay friend, Greek letter lambda or an arrowhead pointing upwards. Here is an using in college example: ^ . An editor will write a caret underneath a line of text to on how to be a good friend, indicate that a word, letter, or punctuation mark needs insertion at the spot where the two lines converge.
CARMEN : (Lat. song or poem): The generic Latin term for a song or poem--especially a love-song or love-poem. After Ovid was banished to Tomis by the Emperor in the year 8 AD, he wrote that his crime was carmen et error (a song and a mistake). This has led some scholars to environmental issues essay, wonder if his scandalous poem The Ars Amatoria (The Art of Love) may have invoked the wrath of Emperor Augustus whose Julian Marian laws sought to curb adultery and illicit sexuality. CARPE DIEM : Literally, the phrase is Latin for essay a good friend, seize the day, from carpere (to pluck, harvest, or grab) and the accusative form of master thesis e-learning, die (day). The term refers to a common moral or theme in classical literature that the reader should make the most out of essay on how to be, life and should enjoy it before it ends. Poetry or literature that illustrates this moral is environmental essay often called poetry or literature of the carpe diem tradition. Essay A Good Friend. Examples include Marvell's To His Coy Mistress, and Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time. Cf.
Anacreontics , Roman Stoicism , Epicureanism , transitus mundi , and the ubi sunt motif. CASE : The inflectional form of master thesis, a noun, pronoun, or (in some languages) adjective that shows how the word relates to the verb or to other nouns of the same clause. For instance, them is the essay to be friend, objective case of they , and scaffold scenes essay their is the possessive case of they . Common cases include the on how friend, nominative, the essay, accusative, the genitive, the to be, dative, the article search, ablative, the vocative, and on how to be the instrumental forms. Patterns of particular endings added to words to indicate their case are called declensions . Click here for expanded information. CASTE DIALECT : A dialect spoken by specific hereditary classes in a society. Often the use of caste dialect marks the speaker as part of that particular class. Master E-learning. For instance, a dalit or untouchable is the lowest caste in the Indian Hindu caste system while a brahmin is the highest caste. Although the two groups may frequently share a common language, they each also have specialized vocabulary and essay to be friend speech mannerisms that to a native speaker may quickly advertise their social background.
CATACHRESIS (Grk. misuse): A completely impossible figure of speech or an brunton resume implied metaphor that results from essay to be a good friend combining other extreme figures of speech such as anthimeria , hyperbole , synaesthesia , and metonymy . The results in each case are so unique that it is hard to state a general figure of resume, speech that embodies all of the possible results. It is far easier to give examples. For instance, Hamlet says of Gertrude, I will speak daggers to her. A man can speak words, but no one can literally speak daggers. In spite of on how to be a good, that impossibility, readers know Shakespeare means Hamlet will address Gertrude in a painful, contemptuous way. In pop music from the in college, 1980s, the performer Meatloaf tells a disappointed lover, There ain't no Coup de Ville hiding the bottom of a crackerjack box.
The image of a luxury car hidden as a prize in essay on how, the bottom of a tiny cardboard candybox emphasizes how unlikely or impossible it is thesis his hopeful lover will find such a fantastic treasure in someone as cheap, common, and unworthy as the speaker in these lyrics. Essay On How To Be A Good. Sometimes the catachresis results from stacking one impossibility on top of another. Consider these examples: There existed a void inside that void within his mind. Joe will have kittens when he hears this! I will sing victories for you. Master Thesis E-learning. A man that studies revenge keeps his own wounds green.--Bacon I do not ask much: / I beg cold comfort. --Shakespeare, ( King John 5.7.41) His complexion is perfect gallows--Shakespeare, ( Tempest 1.1.33) And that White Sustenance--Despair--Dickinson The Oriel Common Room stank of logic --Cardinal Newman O, I could lose all Father now--Ben Jonson, on the death of his seven-year old son. On How To Be. The voice of your eyes is essay deeper than all roses --e.e. cummings.
For a more recent example, consider the disturbingly cheerful pop song by Foster the People, Pumped Up Kicks, which deals with a school shooting. Here, the essay friend, shooter/narrator thinks, I've waited for a long time. Yeah, the sleight of my hand is now a quick-pull trigger. / I reason with my cigarette. One can reason with induction or deduction, but how does one reason with a cigarette? Here, the catachresis might evoke the idea of the cool kid using personal style instead of a persuasive argument, or it might evoke the how do a research paper, imagery of torture--burning victims with a cigarette-butt to make one's point. On How To Be. This sort of evocative, almost nonsensical language is the heart of good catachresis. Other examples, in The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien uses catachresis to describe Legolas's disgusted outburst at encountering an Orc by asserting, 'Yrch!' siad Legolas, falling into environmental issues his own tongue.' One call fall into a pool of water or fall into a bed, but how does one fall into a language? As Milton so elegantly phrased it, catachresis is all about blind mouths. Such catachresis often results from essay to be a good friend hyperbole and synaesthesia . A special subtype of environmental issues, catachresis is abusio , a mixed metaphor that results when two metaphors collide. For instance, one U. S. senator learned of an unlikely political alliance. He is said to have exclaimed, Now that is a horse of a different feather.
This abusio is the result of on how to be friend, two metaphors. The first is the cliché metaphor comparing anything unusual to scaffold scenes essay, a horse of a different color. The second is the essay to be a good friend, proverbial metaphor about how birds of a feather flock together. However, by taking the two dead metaphors and combining them, the resulting image of a horse of a different feather truly emphasizes how bizarre and unlikely the resulting political alliance was. Intentionally or not, the senator created an ungainly, unnatural animal that reflects the i begin to write a research paper, ungainly, unnatural coalition he condemned.
Purists of to be a good, languages often scrowl at abusio with good reason. Too commonly abusio is the result of sloppy writing, such as the history student who wrote the dreadful hand of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and growls at its enemies. (It would have been better to stick with a single metaphor and using essay state the eye of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and on how to be a good glares at its enemies. Brunton Resume. We should leave out the a good friend, mixed imagery of watchful hands growling at people; it's just stupid and inconsistent.) However, when used intentionally for a subtle effect, abusio and catachresis can be powerful tools for originality. CATALECTIC : In poetry, a catalectic line is a truncated line in which one or more unstressed syllables have been dropped, especially in the final metrical foot. For instance, acephalous or headless lines are catalectic, containing one fewer syllable than would be normal for the line. For instance, Babette Deutsche notes the second line in this couplet from A. E. Housman is catalectic: And if my ways are not as theirs,
Let them mind their own affairs. On the other hand, in trochaic verse, the final syllable tends to be the truncated one, as Deutsche notes about the environmental issues, first two lines of essay to be, Shelley's stanza: Music, when soft voices die, Vibrates in the memory-- Odours, when sweet violets sicken, Live within the senses they quicken. The term catalectic contrasts with an article search acatalectic line, which refers to a normal line of poetry containing the essay to be, expected number of syllables in each line, or a hypercatalectic line, which has one or more extra syllables than would normally be expected. CATALEXIS : Truncation of a poetic line--i.e., in poetry, a catalectic line is shortened or truncated so that unstressed syllables drop from a line.
The act of such truncation is using slang in college called catalexis. If catalexis occurs at the start of a line, that line is said to be acephalous or headless. Essay To Be A Good Friend. See catalectic . CATALOGING : Creating long lists for poetic or rhetorical effect. The technique is common in slang, epic literature, where conventionally the poet would devise long lists of a good friend, famous princes, aristocrats, warriors, and mythic heroes to environmental essay, be lined up in battle and slaughtered. The technique is also common in the practice of giving illustrious genealogies (and so-and-so begat so-and-so, or x, son of y, son of z etc.) for famous individuals. An example in American literature is essay on how a good Whitman's multi-page catalog of American types in to write paper, section 15 of Song of Myself.
An excerpt appears below: The pure contralto sings in the organ loft, The carpenter dresses his plank, the tongue of his foreplane whistles its wild ascending lisp, The married and essay on how to be unmarried children ride home to their Thanksgiving dinner, The pilot seizes the king-pin, he heaves down with a strong arm, The mate stands braced in the whale-boat, lance and harpoon are ready, The duck-shooter walks by silent and cautious stretches, The deacons are ordained with crossed hands at the altar, The spinning-girl retreats and advances to the hum of the big wheel, The farmer stops by the bars as he walks on a First-day loaf and looks at the oats and rye, The lunatic is e-learning carried at last to the asylum a confirmed case. [etc.]
One of the more humorous examples of cataloging appears in the Welsh Mabinogion . In one tale, Culhwch and Olwen, the protagonist invokes in an oath all the names of King Arthur's companion-warriors, giving lists of on how friend, their unusual attributes or abilities running to six pages. CATASTROPHE : The turning downward of the plot in a classical tragedy. By tradition, the catastrophe occurs in the fourth act of the article search, play after the climax. (See tragedy .) Freytag's pyramid illustrates visually the normal charting of the catastrophe in a plotline. CATCH : A lyric poem or song meant to be sung as a round, with the words arranged in each line so that the audience will hear a hidden (often humorous or ribald) message as the groups of singers sing their separate lyrics and space out the wording of the poem. Essay A Good. For example, one might write a song in scaffold essay, which the first line contained the words up, the essay to be a good friend, word look appears in alan brunton resume, the middle of the third line, the essay on how to be friend, word dress appears in the second line, and the word her appears in the middle of the fourth line. When the song or poem is brunton sung as a round by four groups of singers, the word order and timing is arranged so that the singers create the hidden phrase look up her dress as they sing, to essay on how to be, the amusement of the audience as they listen to an otherwise innocent set of master thesis e-learning, lyrics. Robert Herrick's To the essay to be a good friend, Virgins, to Make Much of Time is an environmental issues example of to be friend, a catch, and article search when William Lawes adapted the poem to music for Milton's masque Comus , it became one of the essay on how to be a good, most popular drinking songs of the 1600s (Damrosche 844-45).
CATCHWORD : This phrase comes from scenes printing; it refers to a trick printers would use to keep pages in their proper order. The printer would print a specific word below the text at the bottom of a page. This word would match the essay a good friend, first word on the next page. A printer could thus check the order by brunton resume flipping quickly from one page to on how to be, the next and making sure the scaffold, catchword matched appropriately. This trick has been valuable to modern codicologists because it allows us to note missing pages that have been lost, misplaced, or censored. CATHARSIS : An emotional discharge that brings about a moral or spiritual renewal or welcome relief from tension and anxiety. According to Aristotle, catharsis is the marking feature and ultimate end of any tragic artistic work. He writes in his Poetics (c. 350 BCE): Tragedy is an imitation of an a good action that is serious, complete, and scaffold scenes of a certain magnitude; . . On How To Be. . through pity [ eleos ] and fear [ phobos ] effecting the proper purgation [ catharsis ] of these emotions (Book 6.2). (See tragedy .) Click here to download a pdf handout concerning this material. CAVALIER : A follower of Charles I of England (ruled c. 1625-49) in resume, his struggles with the Puritan-dominated parliament.
The term is friend used in contrast with Roundheads , his Puritan opponents. Environmental Issues Essay. Cavaliers were primarily wealthy aristocrats and essay to be a good friend courtiers. They were famous for their long hair, fancy clothing, licentious or hedonistic behavior, and their support of the arts. See Cavalier drama and Cavalier poets , below. Ultimately, Cromwell led the master thesis, Roundheads in a coup d'état and established a Puritan dictatorship in England, leading to the end of the English Renaissance and its artistic, scientific, and cultural achievements. To see where Charles' reign fits in English history, you can download this PDF handout listing the reigns of essay to be friend, English monarchs chronologically. CAVALIER DRAMA : A form of English drama comprising court plays that the Queen gave patronage to in the 1630s. Most critics have been underimpressed with these plays, given that they are mostly unoriginal and written in a ponderous style.
The Puritan coup d'état and the later execution of King Charles mercifully terminated the dramatic period, but unfortunately also ended their poetry, which was quite good in comparison. CAVALIER POETS : A group of Cavalier English lyric poets who supported King Charles I and wrote during his reign and who opposed the environmental issues, Puritans, his political enemies. The major Cavalier poets included Carew, Waller, Lovelace, Sir John Suckling, and essay a good Herrick. They largely abandoned the sonnet form favored for a century earlier, but they still focused on master thesis e-learning the themes of love and sensuality and their work illustrates technical virtuosity as J. A. Essay On How Friend. Cuddon put it (125). They show strong signs of Ben Jonson's influence. CAVE, THE : Not to be confused with Plato's allegorical cave , this term is a nickname for a gathering of Tolkien and fellow Oxford English scholars in using slang in college essay, the 1930s before the Inklings formed. As Drout's J.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia summarizes the details, the name comes from I Samuel 22:1-2, where the Cave of Adullam became the place for David's conpiracies against essay a good, King Saul, possibly implying that the alan brunton resume, members of the Cave at Oxford saw themselves as righteously subversive of the on how, academic establishment. Members of the resume, Cave included C.S. Lewis, J.R.R.
Tolkien, Neville Coghill, Hugh Dyson, and on how to be Cleanth Brooks. They were distinguished scholars of using slang essay, various fields. Eventually, in 1933, C.S. Lewis's brother Warnie retired to Oxford after a bout with alcoholism and could not regularly make meetings at the Cave. Essay A Good. C.S. Lewis took it upon himself to raid the Cave for similarly-minded scholars to become a part of the new Inklings group (Lobdell cited in Drout 88).
Cf. Using Slang In College. Inklings and Cave, Plato's below. CAVE, PLATO'S : In Plato's Republic , Socrates, Plato, and several of their fellows debate the on how, nature of ideal government. In the section on education in this ideal Republic, they argue about the alan brunton, purpose of essay to be a good friend, education. Using. As part of essay on how to be, Socrates' argument, the discussion veers into an allegory in which human existence is being trapped in a cave of ignorance, chained in place and article search unable to view anything except shadows cast on the wall. Some of those shadows are vague outlines of actual unseen truths beyond the perception of the essay, senses; others are false images deliberately designed to environmental essay, mislead the cave-dwellers, keeping them content and unquestioning. The purpose of education becomes freeing the imprisoned human and forcing him to leave the cave, to look at the actual objects that make the shadows. Cf. Platonic Forms . While reading Plato's cave as an allegory of essay to be friend, education is essay a common interpretation, some philosophers (especially medieval readers) often took a more mystical approach to essay a good, the Greek text, interpreting the cave as the material or physical world, while the shadows were mere outline of a greater spiritual truths--hidden and eternal beyond the physical world. C. S. Lewis coopts this idea in master, The Last Battle , in which the characters discover after death that Narnia has merely been a crude approximation of heaven, and the further they travel in the onion ring, the essay on how, larger and more beautiful and more true the inner rings become. CELLERAGE : The hollow area beneath a Renaissance stage--known in Renaissance slang as hell and entered through a trapdoor called a hellmouth . The voice of the ghost comes from this area in Hamlet , which has led to master thesis, scholarly discussion concerning whether or not the ghost is really Hamlet's father or a demon in disguise.
CELTIC : A branch of the Indo-European family of languages. Celtic includes Welsh and Breton. Celtic languages are geographically linked to on how a good friend, western Europe, and they come in two general flavors, goidelic (or Q-celtic) and brythonic (or P-celtic). CELTIC REVIVAL : A literary movement involving increased interest in Welsh, Scottish, and Irish culture, myths, legends, and literature. It began in the late 1700s and continues to this day. Thomas Gray's Pindaric ode The Bard (1757) and Ieuan Brydydd's publication of Some Specimens of the Poetry of the Ancient Welsh Bards (1764) mark its emergence, and Charlotte Guest's translation of to write a research paper, The Mabinogion in 1839 marks its continued rise.
Matthew Arnold's lectures on Celtic literature at Oxford helped promote the foundation of a Chair of essay on how to be, Celtic at that school in 1877. The Celtic Revival influenced Thomas Love Peacock, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, and W. B. Yeats, and slang essay probably led to the creation of the Abbey Theatre . A continuing part of the Celtic Revival is the Irish Literary Renaissance , a surge of extraordinary Irish talent in the late nineteenth and twentieth century including Bram Stoker, James Joyce, William Butler Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, and Seamus Heaney. CENOTAPH : A carving on essay on how to be a good friend a tombstone or monument, often in the form of a verse poem, biblical passage, or literary allusion appearing after the environmental issues essay, deceased individual's name and date of birth/death. Often used synonymously with epitaph . CENSORSHIP : The act of hiding, removing, altering or destroying copies of art or writing so that general public access to it is partially or completely limited. Contrast with bowdlerization. Click here to download a PDF handout discussing censorship in great detail. The term originates in an occupational position in the Roman government. After the fifth century BCE, Rome commissioned censors. These censors at first were limited to essay on how to be a good friend, conducting the environmental, census for tax estimations, but in latter times, their job was to impose moral standards for a good friend, citizenship, including the removal of unsavory literature. See also the Censorship Ordinance of 1559 and i begin a research paper the Profanity Act of on how to be a good, 1606 . CENSORSHIP ORDINANCE OF 1559 : This law under Queen Elizabeth required the political censorship of public plays and all printed materials in matters of religion and the government. The Master of Revels was appointed to monitor and control such material.
All of Shakespeare's early works were written under this act. We can see signs of alteration in his early works to conform to essay, the requirements of the censors. Contrast with the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENTAUR MYTH : In mythology and literary use, a common motif is the centaur (a hybrid of horse-body with a human torso where the horse's head would be). Essay To Be A Good. This mythic creature has gone through a number of allegorical transformations in different literary periods. In classical Greek artwork and literature, centaurs were associated with sex and violence.
Their lineage traces them to Centaurus, the twin brother of King Lapithes. Both Centaurus and Lapithes were the offspring of Apollo and a river nymph named Stilbe. Stilbe gave birth to master thesis e-learning, twins, with the elder Lapithes being strong, brave and handsome, but the younger twin Centaurus was ugly, brutish, and essay friend deformed. Thesis E-learning. Unable to find a woman willing to marry him, Centaurus engaged in bestiality with mares, who in turn gave birth to essay, half-human, half-horse hybrids that terrorized the article search, land, becoming the to be a good friend, first centaurs. Many Greek temples such as the Parthenon included a prominent carved scene called a centauromachia , which depicted the alan brunton, battle between Pirithous, a later king of the Lapith tribe, as he battled with centaurs who party-crashed his wedding and attempted to abduct the bride and bridesmaids. The scene was also popular in Greek pottery and wall-painting, and essay on how to be a good it helped cement the Greek idea that centaurs were generally loutish creatures symbolizing bestial natures--especially the lower passions of gluttony, rapine, and sexuality. Only a few exceptions (such as Chiron) were exceptions to this rule, and Greek heroes like Hercules spent a great deal of time beating up centaurs who sought to kidnap their wives and lovers.
Later, medieval bestiaries revisited and Christianized the i begin a research paper, centaur myth. Essay A Good. One medieval bestiary/commentary used centaurs as symbols of hypocrisy. After pews gradually become common in late medieval churches near the turn of the Renaissance, such bestiaries depicted the centaur as standing in master thesis e-learning, a pew so that only the human-looking upper half of the body was visible while the lower animal half was unseen. The commentators stated that even thus wicked people in churches would look virtuous in on how to be a good, their public appearance, but their truly monstrous nature would remain concealed. By the to write a research paper, Enlightenment, pastoral artwork and paintings tended to depict centaurs more as frolicking, playful creatures--erasing earlier overtones of rape and evil, and by the late 19th-century, fantasy writers at the time of George MacDonald rehabilitated them, making them deuteragonists and essay a good tritagonists that heroes would encounter on their quests. Among the how do i begin a research, Inklings of the 1940s, C.S. Lewis in particular become fascinated with idealizing centaurs as noble creatures and developed them into a private symbol for spiritual and bodily perfection. To Be. Lewis saw the upward human half of article search, a centaur as being an emblem of essay to be a good friend, reason and article search nobility, and the lower half being an emblem of natural biological or animal passions. Essay On How A Good. Thus, the centaur became his emblem for the healthy union of the material body and the intellectual/spiritual domains--an organism as God intended humans to be before the fall, or the perfect amalgamation of the chariot-driver, chariot, and horses in the allegory of the charioteer that Plato retells in Phaedrus . CENTUM LANGUAGE : One of the two main branches of Indo-European languages. These centum languages are generally associated with western Indo-European languages and they often have a hard palatal /k/ sound rather than the sibilant sound found in equivalent satem words.
See discussion under Indo-European . CHAIN OF BEING : An elaborate cosmological model of the universe common in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. The Great Chain of Being was a permanently fixed hierarchy with the Judeo-Christian God at the top of the chain and inanimate objects like stones and mud at the bottom. Intermediate beings and objects, such as angels, humans, animals, and plants, were arrayed in descending order of intelligence, authority, and capability between these two extremes. The Chain of Being was seen as designed by God. The idea of the Chain of Being resonates in art, politics, literature, cosmology, theology, and philosophy throughout the Middle Ages and Renaissance. Scaffold Scenes. It takes on particular complexity because different parts of the Chain were thought to correspond to each other. (See correspondences .) Click here for to be friend, more information. CHANSON (French song): A love-song or French love-poem, especially one the Provençal troubadour poets created or performed. Conventionally, the chanson has five or six stanzas, all of identical structure, and an envoi or a tornada at the end. They were usually dedicated or devoted to a lady or a mistress in the courtly love tradition. CHANSON DE GESTE (French, song of in college essay, deeds): These chansons are lengthy Old French poems written between the eleventh and fourteenth centuries glorifying Carolingian noblemen and their feudal lords.
The chansons de geste combine history and to be legend . They focus on religious aspects of chivalry rather than courtly love or the knightly quests so common in the chivalric romance . Typical subject-matter involves (1) internal wars and intrigue among noble factions (2) external conflict with Saracens, and (3) rebellious vassals who rise up against their lords in acts of betrayal. Essay. Typical poetic structure involves ten-syllable lines marked by assonance and stanzas of varying length. The chansons de geste are in many ways comparable to epics . Over eighty texts survive, but The Song of essay a good, Roland is by far the most popular today. CHANSON À PERSONNAGES (French, song to people): Old French songs or poems in dialogue form. Common subjects include quarrels between husbands and wives, meetings between a lone knight and a comely shepherdess, or romantic exchanges between lovers leaving each other in the morning. See aubade . CHARACTER : Any representation of an individual being presented in a dramatic or narrative work through extended dramatic or verbal representation. How Do A Research. The reader can interpret characters as endowed with moral and dispositional qualities expressed in what they say ( dialogue ) and what they do ( action ). E. M. Forster describes characters as flat (i.e., built around a single idea or quality and unchanging over the course of the narrative) or round (complex in temperament and essay friend motivation; drawn with subtlety; capable of environmental essay, growth and change during the course of the narrative). On How To Be A Good Friend. The main character of essay, a work of a fiction is typically called the on how a good friend, protagonist ; the character against whom the protagonist struggles or contends (if there is essay one), is the antagonist . If a single secondary character aids the protagonist throughout the essay on how a good, narrative, that character is the deuteragonist (the hero's side-kick). A character of to write a research, tertiary importance is a tritagonist . These terms originate in essay, classical Greek drama, in which a tenor would be assigned the role of protagonist, a baritone the role of deuteragonist, and environmental essay a bass would play the to be friend, tritagonist. Compare flat characters with stock characters . CHARACTERIZATION : An author or poet's use of description, dialogue, dialect, and master action to create in the reader an essay to be a good friend emotional or intellectual reaction to a character or to make the character more vivid and realistic.
Careful readers note each character's attitude and thoughts, actions and reaction, as well as any language that reveals geographic, social, or cultural background. CHARACTONYM : An evocative or symbolic name given to slang in college, a character that conveys his or her inner psychology or allegorical nature. For instance, Shakespeare has a prostitute named Doll Tearsheet and a moody young man named Mercutio . Steinbeck has the sweet-natured Candy in Of Mice and Men . Spenser has a lawless knight named Sansloy (French, without law) and an arrogant giant named Orgoglio (Italian, pride). On a more physical level, Rabelais might name a giant Gargantua or C.S. Lewis might call his talking lion Aslan (Turkish for lion). These names are all simple charactonyms. Cf. eponym . CHASTUSHKA (plur. chastushki ): In 19th-century Russian literature, a short song, usually of four lines--usually epigrammatic and humorous and nature, commonly focusing on topics such as love and commonly associated with young artists. Chastushki on essay on how a good friend political topics became more common in the 20th century. Most modern examples rhyme and use regular trochaic meter, though in the oldest examples, these features are less regular, with cadences that are feminine or dactylic (Harkins 121). CHAUCERISM : In the in college, Renaissance, experimental revivals and essay a good friend new word formations that were consciously designed to imitate the essay, sounds, the feel, and verbal patterns from an older century--a verbal or grammatical anachronism . On How A Good. Spenser uses many Chaucerisms in The Fairie Queene . CHEKE SYSTEM : As summarized by Baugh, a proposed method for indicating long vowels and standardizing spelling first suggested by Sir John Cheke in article search, Renaissance orthography. Cheke would double vowels to indicate a long sound.
For instance, mate would be spelled maat , lake would be spelled laak , and so on. Silent e 's would be removed, and the letter y would be abolished and to be an i used in its place (Baugh 209). It did not catch on. CHIASMUS (from Greek, cross or x): A literary scheme in which the author introduces words or concepts in how do a research, a particular order, then later repeats those terms or similar ones in reversed or backwards order. It involves taking parallelism and deliberately turning it inside out, creating a crisscross pattern. For example, consider the essay on how to be a good friend, chiasmus that follows: By day the essay, frolic, and essay friend the dance by night . If we draw the words as a chart, the words form an x (hence the word's Greek etymology, from chi meaning x): The sequence is typically a b b a or a b c c b a . I lead the life I love ; I love the life I lead . Naked I rose from the earth ; to how do a research paper, the grave I fall clothed . Biblical examples in the Greek can be found in Philippians 1:15-17 and Colossians 3:11, though the artistry is often lost in essay on how a good, English translation. How Do To Write A Research. Chiasmus often overlaps with antimetabole . CHICANO / CHICANA LITERATURE : Twentieth- and twenty-first-century writings and a good poetry by Mexican-American immigrants or their children--usually in English with short sections or phrases in issues essay, Spanish. An example would be Sandra Cisneros' writings, such as The House on Mango Street or My Wicked Wicked Ways . Essay On How. Following the grammatical conventions for gender in Spanish, the adjective Chicano takes an -o suffix in reference to male authors and environmental issues essay an -a suffix in reference to female authors. Cf.
Latino Writing . CHIVALRY : An idealized code of military and social behavior for the aristocracy in the late medieval period. The word chivalry comes from Old French cheval (horse), and chivalry literally means horsemanship. Normally, only rich nobility could afford the on how a good friend, expensive armor, weaponry, and warhorses necessary for mounted combat, so the act of becoming a knight was symbolically indicated by giving the knight silver spurs. The right to article search, knighthood in the late medieval period was inherited through the father, but it could also be granted by the king or a lord as a reward for services. The tenets of chivalry attempted to civilize the brutal activity of warfare. The chivalric ideals involve sparing non-combatants such as women, children, and helpless prisoners; the protection of the church; honesty in word and essay a good bravery in deeds; loyalty to how do i begin a research paper, one's liege; dignified behavior; and single-combat between noble opponents who had a quarrel. Other matters associated with chivalry include gentlemanly contests in arms supervised by witnesses and heralds, behaving according to the manners of polite society, courtly love , brotherhood in arm s , and essay on how to be feudalism . See knight for using in college, additional information. This code became of great popular interest to British readers in the 1800s, leading to a surge of historical novels, poems, and paintings dealing with medieval matters. Examples of this nineteenth-century fascination include the Pre-Raphaelite Movement , William Morris's revival of medieval handcrafts, Scott's novels such as Ivanhoe , and the earnestly sympathetic (though unrealistic) depiction of knighthood in Tennyson's Idylls of the essay on how friend, King . In Tennyson's poem Guinevere , King Arthur describes the ideals of knighthood thus:
I made them lay their hands in mine and swear. To reverence the King, as if he were. Their conscience, and their conscience as their King. To break the heathen and uphold the Christ, To ride abroad redressing human wrongs, To speak no slander, no, nor listen to it,
To honor his own word as if his God's, To lead sweet lives in purest chastity, To love one maiden only, cleave to article search, her, And worship her by years of noble deeds, Until they won her. For the on how to be a good, best modern scholarly discussion of chivalry as a historic reality in i begin paper, the Middle Ages, read Maurice H. Keen's Chivalry (Yale University Press, 1984). CHORAGOS (often Latinized as choragus ): A sponsor or patron of a play in classical Greece.
Often this sponsor was honored by essay to be serving as the leader of the chorus (see below). CHORIC FIGURE : Any character in any type of narrative literature that serves the same purpose as a chorus in drama by remaining detached from the main action and commenting upon essay, or explaining this action to the audience. See chorus , below. CHORUS : (1) A group of singers who stand alongside or off stage from the principal performers in a dramatic or musical performance. (2) The song or refrain that this group of singers sings. In ancient Greece, the on how to be a good, chorus was originally a group of male singers and dancers ( choreuti ) who participated in religious festivals and dramatic performances by article search singing commenting on on how to be a good the deeds of the characters and interpreting the significance of the events within the play. This group contrasts with the actors (Greek hypocrites ). Shakespeare alters the traditional chorus by replacing the singers with a single figure--often allegorical in nature. For instance, Time comes on stage in The Winter's Tale to explain the passing years. Likewise, Rumor appears in Henry IV, Part Two to summarize the alan resume, gossip about Prince Hal. Essay. See also choragos and choric figure , above. CHRISTIAN NOVEL : A novel that focuses on Christianity, evangelism, or conversion stories.
Sometimes the plots are overtly focused on in college this theme, but others are primarily allegorical or symbolic. Traditionally, most literary critics have rated these works as being of lower literary quality than the canon of great novels in Western civilization. Examples include Bodie Thoen's In My Father's House , Catherine Marshall's Christy , Par Lagerkvist's Barabbas , Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis , and Lloyd C. On How To Be. Douglas's The Robe . CHRISTOLOGICAL FIGURE : In theology, Christology is the study of Jesus' nature, i.e., whether Christ had both a human and divine nature, whether he had one sentient will alone or one human will and one divine will, whether he was theoretically capable of sin like humanity or perfectly righteous like the other persons in article search, the trinity, whether he shared in the Father's omniscience or suffered from to be a good friend human afflictions like doubt or ignorance, whether he existed or not before his biological birth, whether he was equal in authority and power to the other persons in article search, the trinity, and whether he actually had a physical body (the orthodox view) or was composed entirely of spirit (the Arian view). In literary studies, the term christological has been commandeered to refer to on how, (1) an object, person, or figure that represents Christ allegorically or symbolically, or (2) any similar object, person, or figure with qualities generally reminiscent of Christ. Examples of christological figures include the Old Man in Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea , who after his struggle with the fish ends up bleeding from his palms and lying on the floor in scaffold essay, a cruciform pattern; the lion Aslan in C. S. Lewis's The Chronicles of Narnia , who allows himself like the lion of the tribe of Judah to be slain in order to redeem a traitorous child; and the unicorn in medieval bestiaries, which would lie down and essay place its phallic , ivory-horned meekly in a maiden's lap so that hunters might kill it--which medieval monks interpreted as an allegory of Christ allowing himself to enter the womb of the issues essay, virgin Mary so that he might later be sacrificed.
Zora Neale Hurston creates a christ-figure in friend, Delia Jones, who in the short story Sweat suffers to support her ungrateful husband and crawled over the earth in Gethsemane and to write a research paper up the essay to be a good friend, rocks of Calvary many, many times . Using. . . and to be a good so on. CHRONICLE : A history or a record of events. It refers to any systematic account or narration of events that makes minimal attempt to interpret, question, or analyze that history. Because of this, chronicles often contain large amounts of folklore or other word-of-mouth legends the writer has heard. In biblical literature, the book of Chronicles is one example of a chronicle. Medieval chronicles include Joinville's account of the Crusades and Geoffrey of using slang essay, Monmouth's History of the essay to be a good, Kings of Britain , a source for essay, much Arthurian legend. In the Renaissance , Raphael Holinshed, Edward Hall, and other chroniclers influenced Shakespeare. Chronicles were popular in essay on how friend, England after the British defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588.
The accompanying patriotic fervor increased the public's demand for plays about English history. If Chronicles are written in the form of annual entries, they are also called annals . See also lepotis . CHRONOLOGICAL SNOBBERY : C. S. Lewis's term for what he describes as the uncritical acceptance of article search, . . . the assumption that whatever has gone out of date is on that account discredited, i.e., the unthinking belief that past ideas or literature are obsolete and that current or present ideas are superior to them, the essay on how to be, myth that all change is beneficial progress. Slang In College. Lewis initially felt torn between his love of medieval literature and the sense that it made him a dinosaur out of touch with the 20th century, and he felt depressed to think the fictions of the past as beautiful lies. In a fierce philosophical debate ( The Great War ) with Owen Barfield, Barfield convinced him that such a view was wrong, and Lewis states Barfield made short work of my chronological snobbery (qtd. in Duriez 45). CHRONOLOGY (Greek: logic of essay, time): The order in which events happen, especially when emphasizing a cause-effect relationship in history or in a narrative. CHTHONIC : Related to the dead, the slang, grave, the underworld, or the fertility of the earth.
In Greek mythology, the Greeks venerated three categories of spirits: (1) the Olympian gods, who were worshipped in public ceremonies--often outdoors on the east side of large columned temples in the agora , (2) ancestral heroes like Theseus and Hercules, who were often worshipped only in local shrines or at specific burial mounds, (3) chthonic spirits, which included (a) earth-gods and death-gods like Hades, Hecate, and on how to be friend Persephone; (b) lesser-known (and often nameless) spirits of the departed; (c) dark and bloody spirits of vengeance like the Furies and Nemesis, and (d) (especially in Minoan tradition) serpents, which were revered as intermediaries between the surface world of the living and the subterranean realm of the dead. This is why snakes were so prominent in the healing cults of in college, Aesclepius. It became common in Greek to speak of the Olympian in contrast to the cthonioi (those belonging to the earth). See Burkert 199-203 for detailed discussion. CHURCH SUMMONER : Medieval law courts were divided into civil courts that tried public offenses and essay ecclesiastical courts that tried offenses against article search, the church. Summoners were minor church officials whose duties included summoning offenders to appear before the church and to be receive sentence. By the fourteenth century, the job became synonymous with extortion and corruption because many summoners would take bribes from the individuals summoned to i begin to write a research paper, court. Chaucer satirized a summoner in essay a good, The Canterbury Tales . CINQUAIN : A five-line stanza with varied meter and rhyme scheme, possibly of medieval origin but definitely influenced after 1909 by thesis Japanese poetic forms such as the tanka . Most modern cinquains are now based on the form standardized by an American poet, Adelaide Crapsey (1878-1918), in which each unrhymed line has a fixed number of syllables--respectively two, four, six, eight, and two syllables in each line--for a rigid total of 22 syllables. Essay To Be A Good. Here is probably the most famous example of a cinquain from scenes essay Crapsey's The Complete Poems ; Three silent things: The falling snow. the hour. Before the dawn. the mouth of one.
Perhaps under the influence of diamante poems, many modern elementary school teachers have begun adding an additional set of conventions to the cinquain in which each line has a specific structural requirement: Line 1 - Consists of the two-syllable title or subject for the poem. Line 2 - Consists of two adjectives totaling four syllables describing the subject or title. Line 3 - Consists of three verbs totaling six syllables describing the subject's actions. Line 4 - Consists of four words totaling eight syllables giving the writer's opinion of the subject. Line 5 - Consists of one two-syllable word, often a synonym for the subject. These secondary conventions, however, are usually limited to children's poetic exercises, and essay to be a good friend professional poets do not generally follow these conventions. CIRCULAR STRUCTURE : A type of artistic structure in in college, which a sense of completeness or closure does not originate in on how a good friend, coming to a conclusion that breaks with the brunton resume, earlier story; instead, the on how a good friend, sense of closure originates in the way the end of a piece returns to subject-matter, wording, or phrasing found at the beginning of the scenes, narrative, play, or poem.
An example of circular structure might be The Secret Life of Walter Mitty, which ends with an ellipsis identical to the opening sequence, indicating that the essay to be, middle-aged protagonist is engaging in yet another escapist fantasy. Leigh Hunt's poem Jenny Kissed Me is an example of a circularly-structured poem, since it ends with the scenes, same words that open the speaker's ecstatic, gossipy report. Langdon Smith's poem Evolution is circular in its concluding repetition of the opening phrase, When you were a tadpole, and I was a fish, but it is also thematically circular, in that it implies the essay on how to be a good friend, cycle of reincarnated love will continue again and again in alan brunton resume, spite of death. In many ways, the smaller tales within a larger frame narrative act as part of on how friend, a circular structure, because each small tale begins by essay breaking the reader away from the larger, encompassing narrative and concludes by essay on how to be friend returning the reader to that larger frame-narrative. CITY DIONYSIA : See discussion under dionysia . CIVIC CRITICS : A school of 19th-century Russian literary scholars who judged the value of writing primarily by its political context and progressive ideas. They commonly wrote in oposition to the aesthetic theories of the Parnassian Poets (Harkins 55). Example critics include Belinski (active in the 1840s), Dobrolyubov, and Chernyshevski. CLANG ASSOCIATION : A semantic change caused because one word sounds similar to article search, another.
For instance, the word fruition in Middle English meant enjoyment. In Modern English, its meaning has changed to completion because it sounds like the word fruit --hence the essay on how to be a good, idea of ripeness, of using slang in college essay, growing to full size, as Algeo notes (314). CLASSICAL : The term in Western culture is usually used in reference to the art, architecture, drama, philosophy, literature, and history surrounding the Greeks and Romans between 1000 BCE and 410 BCE. Works created during the Greco-Roman period are often called classics . The Golden Age of Classical Greek culture is commonly held to essay to be, be the fifth century BCE (especially 450-410 BCE). The term can be applied more generally to thesis e-learning, any ancient and revered writing or artwork from a specific culture; thus we refer to Classical Chinese, Classical Hebrew, and Classical Arabic works. For extended discussion, click here.
To download a PDF handout placing the periods of essay friend, literary history in scaffold essay, order, click here. CLASSICAL HAIKU : Another term for the hokku , the predecessor of the to be, modern haiku . See hokku and haiku . CLAUSE : In grammatical terminology, a clause is any word-construction containing a nominative and a predicate, i.e., a subject doing a verb. The term clause contrasts with the term phrase . A phrase might contain nouns as appositives or objects, and it might contain verb-like words in the form of participles or gerunds, but it crucially lacks a subject doing a verb. For example, consider this sentence: Joe left the building after seeing his romantic rival. Clause : Joe left the building. Phrase : after seeing his romantic rival. If the clause could stand by itself as a complete sentence, it is known as an independent clause . Scaffold Essay. If the clause cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence (typically because it begins with a subordinating conjunction), it is said to be a dependent clause . For expanded discussion and examples, click here. For a discusion of essay on how a good, clauses according to functional type, click here ( TBA). CLERIHEW : In light verse, a funny poem of closed-form with four lines rhyming ABAB in irregular meter, usually about a famous person from resume history or literature.
Typically the historical person's name forms one of the rhymes. The name comes from Edmund Clerihew Bentley (1875-1956), the purported inventor. He supposedly had a habit of scribbling down such rhymes during dull lectures at school, including this one from his chemistry class: Sir Humphrey Davy. He lived in the odium. Of having discovered sodium. CLICHÉ : A hackneyed or trite phrase that has become overused. Essay To Be Friend. Clichés are considered bad writing and bad literature. Click here to download a PDF handout for more information.
Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Cliché rhymes in poetry include love and dove , moon and June , trees and article search breeze . To Be A Good. Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in master, Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICHÉ RHYME : Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. They include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICK : A sound common in some non-Indo-European languages in Polynesia made by clucking the tongue or drawing in air with the tongue rather than expelling it from the lungs--such as the essay on how a good friend, sound represented by the letter combination tsk-tsk . Brunton. Some linguists indicate this sound in transcribing Polynesian languages by inserting an on how to be exclamation mark to indicate the palatal click. For instance, the !chung tribe has a palatal click as part of its name. CLIFFHANGER : A melodramatic narrative (especially in films, magazines, or serially published novels) in which each section ends at a suspenseful or dramatic moment, ensuring that the audience will watch the brunton, next film or read the essay on how, next installment to find out what happens. The term comes from the common 1930's film-endings in which the main characters are literally left hanging on the edge of a cliff until the story resumes. The term cliffhanger has more loosely been applied to master, any situation, event, or contest in which the essay friend, outcome remains uncertain until the last moment possible. CLIMAX, LITERARY (From Greek word for ladder): The moment in a play, novel, short story, or narrative poem at which the crisis reaches its point of greatest intensity and is thereafter resolved.
It is also the peak of emotional response from a reader or spectator and usually the turning point in the action. The climax usually follows or overlaps with the crisis of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. (Contrast with anticlimax , crisis , and denouement ; do not confuse with rhetorical climax , below.) CLIMAX, RHETORICAL : Also known as auxesis and article search crescendo , this refers to an artistic arrangement of a list of essay, items so that they appear in a sequence of increasing importance. In College Essay. See rhetorical schemes for more information. The opposite essay to be a good, of climax is bathos . CLIP : To form a word by abbreviating a longer expression, or a word formed by article search the same process. For instance, the word auto (as in auto shop) is a clipped form of automobile . CLOSE READING : Reading a piece of literature carefully, bit by bit, in order to analyze the significance of every individual word, image, and artistic ornament. Click here for more information. The term is sometimes used synonymously with critical reading , though I arbitrarily prefer to reserve close reading as a reference for analyzing literature and critical reading as a reference for breaking down an essay's argument logically. Cf. Essay A Good. critical reading . CLOSED POETIC FORM : Poetry written in a a specific or traditional pattern according to the required rhyme, meter, line length, line groupings, and number of lines within a genre of brunton resume, poetry.
Examples of a closed-form poetry include haiku , limericks , and sonnets , which have set numbers of syllables, lines, and traditional subject-matter. Contrast with open poetic form . CLOSURE (Latin clausura , a closing): Closure has two common meanings. First, it means a sense of completion or finality at the conclusion of play or narrative work--especially a feeling in the audience that all the problems have been resolved satisfactorily. Frequently, this sort of closure may involve stock phrases (and they lived happily ever after or finis ) or certain conventional ceremonial actions (dropping a curtain or having the actors in a play take a bow). The narrative may reveal the on how, solution of the primary problem(s) driving the article search, plot, the death of a major character (especially the antagonist, the on how to be friend, protagonist's romantic interest or even the protagonist herself), or careful denouement . Alan Resume. An example of extended denouement as closure occurs in George Eliot's Middlemarch , in which the author carefully explains what happened in later years to each character in the novel. Closure can also come about by a radical alteration or change in the imaginary world created by an author. To Be A Good. For instance, in J. Article Search. R. Essay Friend. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings , much of the closure to master e-learning, the saga comes from the departure of the elves and wizards, who sail across the sea, leaving the world of human men and women forever, an on how to be friend act which apparently causes magic to fade. Shakespearean comedies often achieve closure by having major characters find love-interests and declare their marital intentions. Other more experimental forms of literature and poetry may achieve closure by article search circular structure , in which the poem or story ends by on how to be a good coming back to the narrative's original starting spot, or by returning a similar situation to article search, what was found at on how to be a good, the beginning of the tale. See discussion under denouement . Do note that some narratives intentionally seek to frustrate the audience's sense of closure.
Examples of literature that reject conventions of closure include cliffhanger serials (see above), which reject normal closure in an attempt to gain returning audiences. Many postmodern narratives influenced by existential philosophy, on the other hand, reject closure as too simplistic and artificial in comparison with the scaffold scenes essay, complexities of human living. Secondly, some critics use the term closure as a derogatory term to imply the reduction of essay a good, a work's meanings to a single and complete sense that excludes the claims of other interpretations. For extended discussion of closure, see Frank Kermode's The Sense of article search, An Ending: Studies in the Theory of on how to be a good, Fiction , as reprinted in 2001. CLOWN : (1) A fool or rural bumpkin in scaffold, Shakespearean vocabulary. Examples of this type of clown include Lance, Bottom, Dogberry, and other Shakespearean characters. (2) A professional jester who performs pranks, sleight-of-hand and juggling routines, and who sings songs or tells riddles and jokes at court. By convention, such jesters were given considerable leeway to speak on nearly any topic (even criticizing court policy) as long as the on how a good friend, criticism was veiled in riddles and wordplay. Examples of this type in Shakespeare's work include Touchstone, Feste, and Lear's Fool.
Cf. fool . COCKNEY : Originally, in Middle English times, the term cockney was a derogatory term for article search, a dumb city-dweller. It comes from cock's egg, the idea that an uneducated urbanite would be so ignorant he or she would not realize that a male rooster (a cock) would be the wrong gender to lay an egg. Essay. By Renaissance times, the word was applied to those living in the Bow Bells area of London in article search, Cheapside, a working class district. Today, the term implies most strongly the essay to be a good, spoken dialect of article search, that area. Cockney dialect tends to be non-rhotic, with final -er pronounced as a schwa, and it often shows signs of t -glottalization. Essay On How A Good Friend. It frequently substitutes /r/ with /w/, and environmental merges lexical sets like north/force and thought/start . The imprecise term Estuary English refers to spoken English in the southeast of Britain that merges linguistic traits of on how, RP and Cockney, and recent dialect shift that appears to be spreading across the island.
See also Cockney Rhyming Slang , below. COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG : A form of slang in using slang in college essay, which the speaker substitutes one word in a sentence with another word or phrase that rhymes with the implied word--but which leaves out the actual, final rhyming part. Essay On How Friend. This wordplay is associated with the dialect appearing in the Cheapside district of London's East End. The resulting sentence is environmental issues baffling for outsiders unfamiliar with the tradition but provides a pleasing word puzzle to Cockney speakers. For examples, instead of stating that The woman had exquisite legs, a Cockney speaker might say, The woman had exquisite bacons. Here, the phrase bacon- and-eggs rhymes with legs , so the speaker substitutes it for legs in the sentence, but deletes the final rhyming part of the phrase. CODE-SWITCHING : In bilingual or multilingual speech, rapidly changing from the vocabulary, grammar, and patterns of one language to another--often in mid-sentence. An example sentence to illustrate this process using Latin, Spanish, German, and to be friend French might read as follows: Imprimus, el commander qui runs his troops y sus attendants to death in a blitzkrieg isn't tres sapiens, n'est-pas? [In the first place, the commander who runs his troops and his attendants to death in a sudden attack isn't very wise, right?] Although the term code-switching is one used in linguistics, code-switching as a phenomenon does appear in literature.
The character of Salvatori the monk in using slang in college essay, Umberto Eco's The Name of the Rose engages continuously in code-switching among Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, and German tongues, for instance. Code-switching is a common feature in Hispanic American English and in the fiction writings of Chicano authors. Essay On How To Be. Cf. dog-latin and macaronic texts . CODICOLOGY (from Latin codex , book): The study of books as physical artifacts. COGNATE : Cognates are words that (1) match each other to some degree in sound and brunton meaning, (2) come from a good a common root in an older language, but (3) did not actually serve as a root for how do to write, each other. For instance, in European Romance languages, many words trace their roots back to Latin. Essay Friend. The Latin word unus (one) later became the root for a number of words meaning one such as une (French) and uno (Spanish). Article Search. Une and uno are cognates --cousins or siblings on the family tree of languages--but unus is the root or ancestor for these relatives. On How A Good. The Hebrew shalom , Arabic salaam , and environmental issues essay the Aramaic shelam are similar cognates all meaning peace. Cognates play an important part in a good, reconstructing dead languages such as proto-Indo-European , and they can be enormously helpful in learning new languages. The amateur philologist should be cautious of essay, false cognates, folk etymology , and faux amis , however.
False cognates are words that happen to have a similar sound and meaning, but which are actually unrelated semantically and historically. Folk etymologies are erroneous accounts of how a word came into on how a good friend existence. To Write. Typically, the originator of the error hears or reads an unfamiliar word. The orginator then fabricates a spurious source by linking the strange word to a more familiar expression or then fashions a pun based upon essay, sound similarities. Faux amis are technically cognates in terms of their morphology, but in terms of their meaning, the words have drifted apart from each other across time, such as the English verb embarass (to humiliate) and the Spanish embarazar (to impregnate). COLLECTIVE NOUN, COLLECTIVE PRONOUN : A noun such as team or pair that technically refers to a collective group of article search, individuals or individual items. What makes them tricky in grammar? They can be singular or plural (e.g., one team , two teams , or one pair, two pairs .) Many students forget that and mistakenly treat the grammatically singular word as if it were always plural. Friend. Likewise, collective pronouns like some use the modifier rather than the headword for brunton, singular versus plural structure. For instance, Some of the the workers are gone uses a plural verb, but Some of the essay on how to be, work is done uses a singular verb.
COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS : In twentieth-century Jungian Psychology , this term refers to a shared group of archetypes (atavistic and universal images, cultural symbols, and recurring situations dealing with the fundamental facts of human life) passed along to each generation to the next in folklore and stories or generated anew by the way must face similar problems to those our ancestors faced. Using Slang Essay. Within a culture, the a good friend, collective unconscious forms a treasury of powerful shared images and symbols found in environmental, our dreams, art stories, myths, and religious icons. To Be A Good Friend. See more detailed discussion under archetypal criticism . COLLOCATION : The frequency or tendency some words have to combine with each other. Alan Brunton Resume. For instance, Algeo notes that the phrases tall person and high mountain seem to fit together readily without sounding strange. A non-native speaker might talk about a high person or tall mountain, and this construction might sound slightly odd to a native English speaker.
The difference is in to be, collocation. COLLOQUIALISM : A word or phrase used everyday in scaffold essay, plain and relaxed speech, but rarely found in essay on how to be a good, formal writing. (Compare with cliché , jargon and slang .) COLONIAL PERIOD : American and to write a research British historians use this term somewhat differently. Essay On How To Be. American scholars usually use the term colonial period to refer to the years in the American colonies before the American Revolution against the British Monarchy--usually dating it from 1607 (when Jamestown was founded) to 1787 (when Congress ratified the Federal Constitution). This period coincides roughly with the Reformation in England and continues up through the end of the article search, Enlightenment or Neoclassical Period. American writers from the colonial period include Ben Franklin, Thomas Paine, and Anne Bradstreet.
See also Neoclassic . Click here to download a PDF handout placing this period in on how a good friend, historical context with other literary movments. When British historians use the term, they sometimes tend to apply the brunton resume, word colonial in more general reference to the British expansions into the Americas, the Indies, India, Africa, and the Middle-East over the course of several centuries, even up to the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. See colonialism , below. COLONIALISM : The term refers broadly and generally to the habit of powerful civilizations to colonize less powerful ones. Friend. On the obvious level, this process can take the form of a literal geographic occupation, outright enslavement, religious conversion at gun-point, or forced assimilation of native peoples. On a more subtle level, this process can take the form of bureucratic policy that incidentally or indirectly leads to the extinction of a minority's language or culture, economic exploitation of cheap labor, and globalistic erasure of cultural differences. The term is environmental often applied in academic discussion of literature from the to be a good, colonial period. Scenes Essay. We can see the concerns of colonialism and imperial ambition in the works of George Orwell's Shooting an Elephant, in Rudyard Kipling's fictional tales about India, and in Josef Conrad's novella, Heart of Darkness . See Colonial Period , above.
COMEDY (from Greek: komos , songs of merrimakers): In the original meaning of the essay on how to be a good friend, word, comedy referred to to write a research, a genre of drama during the Dionysia festivals of ancient Athens. The first comedies were loud and boisterous drunken affairs, as the word's etymology suggests. Later, in medieval and Renaissance use, the word comedy came to mean any play or narrative poem in which the essay to be, main characters manage to avert an impending disaster and have a happy ending. The comedy did not necessarily have to be funny, and indeed, many comedies are serious in tone. It is only in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that comedy's exclusive connotations of humor arose. See also Low Comedy, High Comedy, Comedy of the Absurd , Comedy of Humors , and Comedy of Manners . COMEDY OF THE ABSURD : A modern form of comedy dramatizing the master thesis e-learning, meaninglessness, uncertainty, and pointless absurdity of human existence.
A famous example is Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot . Cf. existentialism . COMEDY OF HUMORS : A Renaissance drama in which numerous characters appear as the embodiment of stereotypical types of people, each character having the physiological and behavioral traits associated with a specific humor in the human body. The majority of the cast consists of such stock characters. (See humors, bodily for more information.) Some of essay friend, Shakespeare's characters, including Pistol, Bardulph, and article search others, show signs of having been adapted from the on how to be a good friend, stereotypical humor characters. In literature, a humor character was a type of flat character in whom a single passion predominated; this interpretation was especially popular in Elizabethan and other Renaissance literature. See also stock character . COMEDY OF INNOCENCE : We have two definitions here. (1) In anthropological terms, a comedy of innocence is a ritualized symbolic behavior (or set of such behaviors) designed to alleviate individual or communal guilt about an execution or sacrifice or to hide the blame for environmental issues, such an essay to be friend action. Article Search. In ancient Greece, the ax or dagger used in a sacrifice might be put on trial (instead of the priest wielding it). The sacrificial animal might be required to volunteer by shaking its head or by walking up to essay a good, the altar to eat the grain sitting on it. The sacrificial victim might be condemned to execution after being released where it could set foot in a forbidden holy grove or taboo sacred mountain (cf. Issues. Exodus 19:12-13 and essay on how Judges 11:30-40). In America, we see remnants of the comedy of innocence in to write a research, customs such as the 19th-century's hangman's black mask (to erase the essay on how a good, executioner's identity) or the custom of granting the condemned prisoner's last request or final meal (to alleviate any sense of cruelty on the jailer's part). (2) A specific myth told by later generations to erase or hide ancient evidence of using in college, what looks like the practice of human sacrifice in earlier times. For instance, a number of local Greek myths describe characters like Leucothea, Palaemon, and Glaucus; they fall or are thrown into the sea where they are magically transformed into sea-gods.
Given the on how friend, relative insignificance of these gods in the Greek pantheon , it is likely this sort of tale either (a) developed out of local hero cults or (b) the tale alludes to an ancient or prehistoric belief that drowned sacrificial victims would live on alan resume as animistic spirits. Another common version of the comedy of innocence is the motif of a human sacrificial victim (usually a child) who is miraculously saved ( deus ex machina ) and an animal substituted in his or her place. For example, in some Greek myths, Iphigenia is replaced by a white hind before her father can sacrifice her to gain good winds for the Trojan voyage. Phrixus gets whisked to safety by a Golden Ram, which is essay on how a good then sacrificed in the young boy's place. In the Hebrew Bible, Yahweh stops Abraham from killing Isaac, and he directs Abraham's attention to a ram with its horns caught in issues, a thicket (Genesis 22:9-13). Scholars of mythology often see the dozens of such tales appearing cross-culturally and interpret them as having their origins in the comedy of innocence. COMEDY OF MANNERS : A comic drama consisting of five or three acts in which the attitudes and customs of a society are critiqued and satirized according to high standards of intellect and essay morality. E-learning. The dialogue is usually clever and sophisticated, but often risqué . Characters are valued according to their linguistic and intellectual prowess. It is the opposite of the on how to be a good, slapstick humor found in article search, a farce or in a fabliau . COMIC OPERA : An outgrowth of the eighteenth-century ballad operas, in which new or original music is composed specially for the lyrics. (This contrasts with the ballad opera , in which the lyrics were set to pre-existing popular music.)
COMIC RELIEF : A humorous scene , incident, character , or bit of dialogue occurring after some serious, tragic, or frightening moment. Comic relief is deliberately designed to relieve emotional intensity and simultaneously heighten and highlight the seriousness or tragedy of the action. Macbeth contains Shakespeare's most famous example of comic relief in the form of a drunken porter. To Be. Another is just after the climactic scene in Dante's Inferno , in article search, which Dante encounters Satan himself frozen in ice. The demon initially terrified Dante, but the narrator's fear falls way to the reader's laughter in a comic reversal in which Dante and Virgil climb down Satan's body and essay friend move through the center of the earth's gravity, at alan brunton, which point Dante is confused by the way gravity reverses, looks upward, and finds himself directly staring at Satan's nether regions, writing, . Essay To Be Friend. . . I beheld him upward hold his legs. Issues. // And if I then become disguieted, / Let stolid people think who do not see / What the point is on how to be beyond which I had passed (34.90-93). COMING-OF-AGE STORY : A novel in which an adolescent protagonist comes to adulthood by a process of experience and disillusionment. This character loses his or her innocence, discovers that previous preconceptions are false, or has the security of slang, childhood torn away, but usually matures and strengthens by this process. Examples include Wieland's Agathon , Herman Raucher's Summer of '42 , Ray Bradbury's Dandelion Wine , Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man , and to be friend Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey . The most famous examples are in German.
In German, a tale in the genre is called a Bildungsroman or a Erziehungsroman . Scaffold Essay. Examples include Goethe's Die Leiden des jungen Werthers and Thomas Mann's Königliche Hoheit . COMITATUS : (Latin: companionship or band): The term describes the tribal structure of the Anglo-Saxons and other Germanic tribes in which groups of essay to be a good, men would swear fealty to a hlaford (lord) in exchange for using essay, food, mead, and essay a good heriot , the loan of fine armor and weaponry. The men who swore such an how do i begin to write a research paper oath were called thegns (roughly akin to modern Scottish thane), and they vowed to fight for essay on how to be a good friend, their lord in battle. It was considered a shameful disaster to outlive one's own lord. The comitatus was the functional military and government unit of early Anglo-Saxon society. The term was first coined by the classical historian Tacitus when he described the Germanic tribes north of Rome. COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE : A genre of Italian farce from the scenes essay, sixteenth-century characterized by stock characters , stock situations, and spontaneous dialogue. Typically, the plot is an intrigue plot and to be a good friend it involves a soubrette who aids two young lovers in foiling the how do i begin a research, rigid constraints of their parents. In many such plays, a character named Sganarelle is a primary figure in the work. Often there is a zani , or foolish-servant, who provides physical comedy in contrast to the anguish of the young lovers. On How To Be A Good Friend. In the end, the brunton resume, couple achieves a happy marriage.
Commedia dell'arte may have influenced Shakespeare's comedies, such as The Merry Wives of Windsor , and Moliere's plays, such as L'amour Medecin , commonly translated into English as Love is the Doctor . COMMON MEASURE : Also called common meter , common measure consists of closed poetic quatrains rhyming ABAB or ABCB , in which the lines of iambic tetrameter (eight syllables) alternate with lines of iambic trimeter (six syllables). This pattern is most often associated with ballads (see above), and it is occasionally referred to as ballad measure. Many of Emily Dickinson's poems are in essay on how to be friend, loose common measure using slant rhyme , for instance: Much Madness is divinest Sense-- To a discerning Eye--
Much Sense--the starkest Madness-- 'Tis the Majority. A fun and simple test to recognize common measure in poetry is to take a stanza and try singing it aloud to a well-known tune written in how do to write, common meter, such as Gilligan's Isle, Amazing Grace, or House of the Rising Sun. If the syllabification fits these familiar ditties, you are looking at a case of common measure. COMMONIZATION : The linguistic term for an eponym--a common word that is essay friend derived from the proper name of a person or place. For instance, the sandwich gained its name from article search its inventor, the fourth Earl of Sandwich. The word lynch comes from Captain William Lynch, who led bands of vigilantes to hang hoboes and bums residing near Pittsylvania County. The verb shanghai , meaning to kidnap or press into forced labor, comes from the practices of conscription common in the oriental city of Shanghai.
The word stentorian comes from the essay friend, loud-mouthed Stentor in Greek legend, and herculean comes from the muscle-bound Hercules, and so on. COMPERT (plural: comperta ): Specifically, birth-tales in using slang essay, Old Irish literature that detail the conception and birth of a hero. Essay A Good Friend. Examples include the Compert Con Culainn ( Birth of Cú Chulainn ). Usually supernatural or extraordinary events involve themselves in the conception, such as the Druid Cathbad's seduction of scaffold essay, Nessa after prophesying what the hour would be lucky for (begetting a king upon a queen!) or the visitation of a god like Lug to a woman who then becomes pregnant after the divine visitation. The birth-tale in general is not limited to Old Irish Literature, but is essay on how to be friend found worldwide (Duffy 102-03). Examples outside of Irish literature include the birth of Jesus, or the Buddha, or Leda and Hercules in Greek myth, Pryderi's conception in the First Branch of The Mabinogion , or King Arthur's conception in Arthurian legends. COMPLETENESS : The second aspect of Aristotle's requirements for a tragedy. By completeness, Aristotle emphasizes the logic, wholeness, and closure necessary to satisfy the audience. COMPOSITE MONSTER (in architecture, often called a chimera after the Greek monster): The term is how do one mythologists use to on how to be a good, describe the fantastical creatures in Assyrian, Babylonian, Greek, and medieval European legends in which the beast is composed of the body-parts of various animals. For instance, in Greek mythology, the chimera has the body of a lion, tale of a serpent, wings of a bat, and a goat-head, a lion-head, and a serpent's head. Likewise, the brunton, sphinx has a lion's body and a woman's head and breasts; the centaur has a horse's body and human torso and to be a good friend a human head where the how do i begin a research, horse-head should be; the a good friend, minotaur has a bull's head and scaffold essay a man's body; and the harpy has an avian body and a woman's head, breasts, and arms. Earlier examples in essay on how to be friend, Mesopotamian mythology include the ekimmu (a bloodsucking albino ghost with a bull's head) and the lamassu (a winged horse with a human head).
In the medieval period, composite monsters include the formecolion, with an ant's body and alan a lion's head; the a good, mermaid, with a human top and article search a fish bottom; and the cockatrice, which mingles parts of a rooster and a serpent. Essay On How Friend. Contrast with additive monster , above. Composite monsters were common in the legends of classical and slang ancient cultures, but diminished in essay friend, favor after the Renaissance. Many theories propose to article search, explain the common tendency to create composite monsters. Theories include mistranslation in traveler's tales, in which an animal is on how to be a good describing as having a head like such-and-such a creature, but the environmental issues, simile is lost in translation; the encounter of fossil remnants of essay on how a good, extinct animals, or bones found jumbled together and e-learning misassembled; and the heraldic practice of dimidiation , in essay on how to be, which a nobleman's son might take two animals found on his father's and mother's coats of master, arms combine them into a composite creature to illustrate his genealogy. An example in 20th century films includes The Fly . In this 1950s horror classic, a fly and a human trade bodies and heads. Cf. therianthropic and theriomorphic . COMPOSITOR : A typesetter in a Renaissance print shop. To speed the friend, printing process, most of Shakespeare's plays appear to have been set by multiple compositors. As Greenblatt notes, Compositors frequently followed their own standards in spelling and punctuation. They inevitably introduced some errors into the text, often by master selecting the wrong piece from the type case or by setting the correct letter upside-down (1141).
COMPOUNDING : A term from linguistics used to describe the creation of essay on how a good friend, a new word ( neologism ) that comes about by master taking two existing words and sticking them together to create a brand new concept (Horobin 192). Essay On How To Be Friend. All languages do this to some extent. How Do To Write Paper. For instance, the word hydrogen comes from two Greek words meaning water and stuff. However, Germanic languages and Germanic poetry (including derivatives like English) are particularly prone to essay on how, creating new words this way. Thousands of English words result from two older words being compounded together, such as bathtub (bath + tub), eyesore (eye + sore); window (from two Old Norse words meaning wind and master thesis eye), and so on. However, poets regular invent neologisms by compounding to create artificial words of their own. Even Chaucer engaged in this trick, coining the on how, word newfangled from the slang in college essay, English new and the Middle French fanglere , meaning to on how a good friend, make or to fashion. Article Search. See neologism , blending , and kenning . COMPURGATION : In addition to to be a good friend, trial by ordeal , compurgation was the medieval law practice among Christianized Anglo-Saxon tribes to scaffold essay, determine innocence. A man accused of a crime would publicly swear to his innocence. The judge then gave the defendant thirty days to to collect a number of oath-helpers who would also swear to his innocence (or at least his good character).
If he was unable to find the required number, he was either found guilty or he could appeal to trial by ordeal. If the defendant had been caught in the act, or was considered untrustworthy, the a good, procedure could be reversed, and the plaintiff would bring forth oath-helpers to prove his charge through similar compurgation. CONCEIT (also called a metaphysical conceit) : An elaborate or unusual comparison--especially one using unlikely metaphors, simile, hyperbole, and article search contradiction. Before the beginning of the seventeenth century, the term conceit was a synonym for thought and roughly equivalent to idea or concept. Friend. It gradually came to denote a fanciful idea or a particularly clever remark. Master. In literary terms, the word denotes a fairly elaborate figure of on how, speech, especially an extended comparison involving unlikely metaphors , similes , imagery , hyperbole , and oxymora . One of the most famous conceits is John Donne's A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, a poem in which Donne compares two souls in love to the points on a geometer's compass. Shakespeare also uses conceits regularly in resume, his poetry. In Richard II , Shakespeare compares two kings competing for power to two buckets in a well, for instance. A conceit is usually classified as a subtype of metaphor . Contrast with epic simile and dyfalu . CONCRETE DICTION / CONCRETE IMAGERY : Language that describes qualities that can be perceived with the five senses as opposed to using abstract or generalized language. On How To Be Friend. For instance, calling a fruit pleasant or good is abstract , while calling a fruit cool or sweet is concrete . The preference for thesis, abstract or concrete imagery varies from to be a good century to century. How Do I Begin To Write A Research. Philip Sidney praised concrete imagery in poetry in his 1595 treatise, Apologie for Poetrie . A century later, Neoclassical thought tended to essay, value the generality of abstract thought.
In the early 1800s, the scaffold essay, Romantic poets like Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Shelley once again preferred concreteness. In the 20th century, the distinction between concrete and abstract has been a subject of some debate. Ezra Pound and T. E. Hulme attempted to create a theory of concrete poetry. T. S. Eliot added to this school of thought with his theory of the objective correlative. Essay On How. Contrast with abstract diction / abstract imagery . CONCRETE POETRY : Poetry that draws much of its power from the way the text appears situated on the page. The actual shape of the lines of text may create a swan's neck, an altar, a geometric pattern, or a set of wings, which in some direct way connects to the meaning of the words. Master. Also called shaped poetry and visual poetry, concrete poetry should not be confused with concrete diction or concrete imagery (see above). The object here is to present each poem as a different shape. Essay On How Friend. It may appear on slang in college essay the page, on glass, stone, wood, or other materials. The technique seems simple, but can allow great subtlety.
Famous concrete poets include Apollinaire, Max Bill, Eugen Gomringer and essay a good the Brazilian Noigandres Group, which exhibited a collection of concrete art at Sào Paulo in 1956. Article Search. In Germany, this school of poetry is a good called konkretisten by critics. To Write. It includes Ernst Jandl, Achleitner, Heissenbüttel, Mon, and Rühm. Since World War II, further experimentation in on how to be a good, concrete poetry has taken place by scenes essay British poets, including Simon Cutts, Stuart Mills, and Ian Hamilton Finlay. See also diamante . CONFLATION : In its more restricted literary sense, a conflation is essay on how a good a version of a play or narrative that later editors create by alan resume combining the text from on how a good more than one substantive edition. For example, Greenblatt notes that most versions of King Lear published since the to write paper, 1700s are conflations of the Quarto and to be a good First Folio editions of the original Renaissance texts. CONFLICT : The opposition between two characters (such as a protagonist and an antagonist), between two large groups of people, or between the protagonist and a larger problem such as forces of nature, ideas, public mores, and so on.
Conflict may also be completely internal, such as the protagonist struggling with his psychological tendencies (drug addiction, self-destructive behavior, and i begin a research paper so on); William Faulkner famously claimed that the friend, most important literature deals with the subject of the i begin to write a research paper, human heart in conflict with itself. Conflict is the engine that drives a plot. Examples of narratives driven mainly by conflicts between the protagonist and nature include Jack London's To Build a Fire (in which the Californian struggles to save himself from freezing to death in Alaska) and Stephen Crane's The Open Boat (in which shipwrecked men in a lifeboat struggle to friend, stay alive and get to shore). Scenes Essay. Examples of narratives driven by conflicts between a protagonist and an antagonist include Mallory's Le Morte D'arthur , in which King Arthur faces off against his evil son Mordred, each representing civilization and barbarism respectively. Examples of narratives driven by internal struggles include Daniel Scott Keyes' Flowers for Algernon, in which the essay on how to be a good, hero struggles with the alan brunton, loss of his own intelligence to congenital mental retardation, and Edgar Allan Poe's The Tell-Tale Heart, in which the essay on how friend, protagonist ends up struggling with his own guilt after committing a murder. In complex works of literature, multiple conflicts may occur at once. For instance, in Shakespeare's Othello , one level of conflict is the unseen struggle between Othello and the machinations of environmental issues essay, Iago, who seeks to to be a good, destroy him. Another level of conflict is Othello's struggle with his own jealous insecurities and his suspicions that Desdemona is cheating on him. CONFUCIAN CLASSICS : Five ancient Chinese writings commonly attributed to Confucius, though it is article search likely they are actually compilations of traditional material predating him. The five classics include the I Ching ( The Book of Changes ), the essay a good, Shu Ching ( The Book of History ), the Shih Ching , ( The Book of Odes ), the alan resume, Record of Rites ( Li Chi ), and the Spring and Autumn Annals . To see where this material fits in an outline of Chinese history, click here.
CONJUGATION : The inflection of a verb to show its person, number, mood, or tense. Here is a sample conjugation of the present tense indicative forms of to sing in English and cantar in Spanish: CONNOTATION : The extra tinge or taint of meaning each word carries beyond the minimal, strict definition found in a dictionary. For instance, the terms civil war , revolution and rebellion have the same denotation; they all refer to to be friend, an attempt at social or political change. However, civil war carries historical connotations for article search, Americans beyond that of revolution or rebellion . Likewise, revolution is often applied more generally to scientific or theoretical changes, and essay to be it does not necessarily connote violence. Rebellion , for many English speakers connotes an alan resume improper uprising against a legitimate authority (thus we speak about rebellious teenagers rather than revolutionary teenagers).
In the same way, the words house and home both refer to a domicile, but home connotes certain singular emotional qualities and personal possession in a way that house doesn't. I might own four houses I rent to others, but I might call none of these my home , for example. Much of poetry involves the poet using connotative diction that suggests meanings beyond what the words simply say. Contrast with denotation . CONSONANCE : A special type of alliteration in which the repeated pattern of consonants is marked by changes in on how to be, the intervening vowels--i.e., the final consonants of the stressed syllables match each other but the essay, vowels differ. On How To Be A Good. As M. H. Abrams illustrates in article search, The Norton Anthology of English Literature , examples include linger , longer , and languor or rider , reader , raider , and ruder . Do not confuse consonance with a consonant (see below). See also assonance and on how friend sound symbolism . CONSONANT : A speech sound that is not a vowel. Article Search. To download a PDF file listing consonants and their symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet, click here. CONSUETUDINAL BE : Uninflected use of the verb be to indicate habitual or frequent action. This grammatical structure is characteristic of Black Vernacular . An example would be as follows: What you be doing on Thursdays?
I be working every afternoon. Users of standard edited English typically frown on this grammatical formation. CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE : Literature written at the present moment. Although the writers in every century would consider themselves contemporary or modern, when speakers use this term, they almost always mean either modernist or postmodernist literature. COTERIE WRITING : Writing intended originally for the amusement or edification of a small circle of friends or family rather than for publication or public perusal. Often, however, such writings later become adopted or modified for publication. Sometimes, the author does this; in other cases, later editors do this posthumously. Famous examples include Mary Shelley originally created Frankenstein as part of a ghost-story contest amongst her friends and essay literary comrades. Aphra Behn originally wrote many of her poems as part of scaffold scenes essay, coterie writing, though most of her plays, her philosophical treatises, and Oronooko appear to have penned with a deliberate eye toward publication or financial gain. CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL : A unique or original symbol an author creates within the context of an individual work or an author's collected works.
Examples include the Snopes family in Faulkner's collected works, who together function as a symbol of the South's moral decay, or the town of Castle Rock, Maine, which in essay, Stephen King's works functions as a microcosmic symbol of human society. Contrast with cultural symbol , below. CONTRACTION : The squeezing together of article search, sounds or words--especially when one word blurs into a good another--during fast or informal speech. Contractions such as I'm (I am), he's (he is), and they're (they are) are common in verbal communication, but they are often considered too loose for more formal writing. CONTRAPASSIO (counter-suffering): A thematic principle involving situational irony in which a punishment's nature corresponds exactly to brunton resume, the nature of essay to be a good friend, a crime. Much of Dante's Inferno revolves around elaborate contrapassio . CONTROL TEXT : A specific text upon which a modern edition is based. For instance, there are at least three dominant manuscript traditions of Langland's Piers Plowman poem: the article search, A-text, the B-text, and on how a good the C-text (and possibly a Z-text, as recent scholarship has tentatively suggested). These versions contain different dialogue, different wording, and different spelling; they do not all contain the same passages and do not include identical storylines.
A modern editor must either choose one to use as the basis of a modern edition, or she must create a conflation . Several Shakespeare plays vary wildly between the quarto and folio versions--including Hamlet and King Lear . In other cases, such as Le Morte D'Arthur , a modern editor must choose between using a manuscript source for his control text (such as the Winchester Manuscript) or a printed source (such as Caxton's printed Renaissance edition). CONVENTION : A common feature that has become traditional or expected within a specific genre (category) of literature or film. Resume. In Harlequin romances, it is conventional to focus on a male and female character who struggle through misunderstandings and difficulties until they fall in love. Essay On How A Good. In western films of the early twentieth-century, for instance, it has been conventional for protagonists to wear white hats and alan resume antagonists to wear black hats. Essay To Be A Good Friend. The wandering knight-errant who travels from place to place, seeking adventure while suffering from the effects of scaffold, hunger and the elements, is essay on how to be a convention in medieval romances. Slang Essay. It is a convention for an English sonnet to have fourteen lines with a specific rhyme scheme, abab , cdcd , efef , gg , and so on. On How A Good Friend. The use of a chorus and scaffold scenes the unities are dramatic conventions of Greek tragedy, while, the aside , and the soliloquy are conventions in Elizabethan tragedy. Conventions are often referred to essay on how friend, as poetic, literary, or dramatic, depending upon slang in college essay, whether the essay on how to be friend, convention appears in a poem, short story or novel, or a play. CONVENTIONAL : A conventional linguistic trait is an arbitrary one learned from others, not one determined by some natural law or genetic inheritance. Today, most linguists think most vocabulary and grammar are conventional, but some linguists in previous centuries believed ethnicity affected language development and acquisition. CORPUS CHRISTI PLAY : A religious play performed outdoors in the medieval period that enacts an using slang in college event from the Bible, such as the essay a good friend, story of Adam and Eve, Noah's flood, the crucifixion, and so on.
The word is derived from the religious festival of Corpus Christi (Latin: The Body of Christ). See also cycle and mystery play . CORRESPONDENCES : An integral part of the medieval and Renaissance model of the brunton, universe known as the Chain of Being. The idea was that different links on the Chain of Being were interconnected and had a sort of sympathetic correspondence to each other. Each type of being or object (men, beasts, celestial objects, fish, plants, and rocks) had a place within a hierarchy designed by God. Each type of object had a primate , which was by nature the most noble, rare, valuable, and superb example of its type. On How To Be Friend. For instance, the article search, king was primate among men, the on how to be, lion among beasts, the sun among celestial objects, the in college essay, whale among fish, the essay on how, oak among trees, and the diamond among rocks. Often, there was a symbolic link between primates of different orders--such as the lion being a symbol of royalty, or the king sleeping in a bed of oak. This symbolic link was a correspondence.
However, correspondences were thought to article search, exist in the material world as well as in the world of ideas. Disturbances in nature would correspond to on how a good, disturbances in the political realm (the body politic ), in the human body (the microcosm ), and in the natural world as a whole (the macrocosm ). For instance, if the how do to write a research, king were to become ill, Elizabethans might expect lions and beasts to a good, fall sick, rebellions to break out in the kingdom, individuals to develop headaches or fevers, and stars to fall from the brunton, sky. All of these events could correspond to each other on a good friend the chain of being, and each would coincide with the article search, others. For more information about correspondences and the Chain of Being, click here. COSMIC IRONY : Another term for on how to be, situational irony--especially situational irony connected to a fatalistic or pessimistic view of thesis, life. See discussion under irony , below. COTHURNI : The Greek word for the elevator-shoes worn by important actors on stage. See discussion under buskins . COTTON LIBRARY, THE : One of the most important collections of Old and Middle English texts. Click here for details.
COTTON NERO A.X : The Middle English manuscript that includes Pearl , Cleanness , Patience , Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , and the Legend of Saint Erkenwald . Click here for details. COTTON VITELLIUS A.XV : The Old English manuscript that includes The Passion of Saint Christopher , The Wonders of the East , and The Letter of Alexander to Aristotle , Beowulf , and the Old English translation of essay friend, Judith . Click here for details. COUNTING : A technique of determining stylistic qualities of a piece of environmental issues, writing by essay a good friend counting the numbers of how do paper, words in paragraphs or sentences, and determining the average number of essay, modifiers, average word lengths, and so on. COUPLET : Two lines--the second line immediately following the first--of the same metrical length that end in a rhyme to alan, form a complete unit. Geoffrey Chaucer and other writers helped popularize the form in English poetry in the fourteenth century. An especially popular form in later years was the heroic couplet , which was rhymed iambic pentameter. It was popular from the on how to be a good, 1600s through the late 1700s.
Much Romantic poetry in the early 1800s used the couplet as well. A couplet that occurs after the volta in an English sonnet is a research called a gemel (see sonnet, volta, gemel ). COURT OF LOV E : In medieval convention, a court of love is an to be assemblage of women presided over by a queen or noblewoman. At this mock-court, various young knights or courtiers are summoned to court and put on environmental trial by the ladies for essay on how friend, their crimes against love. These crimes might be neglecting their sweethearts, failing to alan resume, wear their ladies' tokens at jousts, and so on.
Chaucer himself may have been summoned to a court of love for his libelous depiction of Criseyde in Troilus and Criseyde , and essay friend Queen Anne may have required him to write The Legend of Good Women as a penance for his literary crimes. In The Wife of Bath's Tale, we find an inversion of the normal play-acting in which King Arthur gives Gwenevere and her ladies the e-learning, right to try a rapist-knight for his crimes. Here, the women literally have power of life or death over the subject. Andreas Capellanus discusses the courts of love in his medieval writings, and more recent scholars such as C. S. To Be A Good. Lewis ( The Allegory of Love ) and Amy Kelly ( Eleanor of Aquitaine ) discuss the convention at length. Cf. Scenes Essay. demand d'amour . COURTLY LOVE (Medieval French: fin amour or amour courtois ): Possibly a cultural trope in essay on how to be a good, the late twelfth-century, or possibly a literary convention that captured popular imagination, courtly love refers to a code of article search, behavior that gave rise to modern ideas of essay on how a good, chivalrous romance. The term itself was popularized by C. Article Search. S. Lewis' and Gaston Paris' scholarly studies, but its historical existence remains contested in critical circles. Essay On How A Good Friend. The conventions of courtly love are that a knight of noble blood would adore and scaffold essay worship a young noble-woman from afar, seeking to protect her honor and win her favor by essay to be a good valorous deeds. He typically falls ill with love-sickness, while the woman chastely or scornfully rejects or refuses his advances in public but privately encourages him.
Courtly love was associated with (A) nobility, since no peasants can engage in fine love; (B) secrecy; (C) adultery, since often the one or both participants were married to another noble who was unloved; and (D) paradoxically with chastity, since the passion should never be consummated due to social circumstances, thus it was a higher love unsullied by selfish carnal desires or political concerns of arranged marriages. In spite of this ideal of environmental issues essay, chastity, the to be a good, knightly characters in literature usually end up giving in to their passions with tragic results--such as Lancelot and Guenevere's fate, or that of Tristan and Iseult. We associate courtly love with French literature primarily, but the concept permeated German and Italian literature as well. The German equivalent of fin amour is master Minne (hence Minnesänger ), and the Italian poets of the dolce stil nuovo cultivated similar subject matter. The convention of courtly love eventually becomes a source of parody. Andreas Capellanus' Rules of Courtly Love provides a satirical guide to the endeavor, and Chretien de Troyes satirizes the conventions in his courtly literature as well. Similar conventions influence Petrarch's poetry and Shakespeare's sonnets. These sonnets often emphasize in on how to be friend, particular the idea of love from afar and i begin unrequited love, and make use of imagery and wording common to the earlier French tradition. In terms of whether or not practices of courtly love were a historical reality, scholars are loosely divided into schools of thought, as William Kibler notes.
The first group, the so-called realists, argue that such institutions truly did exist in the Middle Ages and the literature of the on how friend, time reproduces this realistically. The opposing school, the so-called idealists, argue that (at best) courtly love was a court game taken ironically as a joke, or (at worst) post-Romantic/Victorian readers have superimposed their own ideals and slang essay wishes on medieval culture by essay on how to be exaggerating these components. CRADLE TRICK : A sub-category of the bed-trick , this is issues essay a folk motif in which the essay to be, position of a cradle in a dark room leads one character to climb into bed with the wrong sexual partner. It appears prominently in Chaucer's The Reeve's Tale. In the Aarne-Thompson folk-index, this motif is usually numbered as motif no. 1363.
CREEPYPASTA : A short story posted online designed to shock, frighten, or disconcert the reader. Scaffold. For more discussion, see ghost story . CREOLE : A native language combining the traits of multiple languages, i.e., an advanced and fully developed pidgin. In the American South, black slaves were often brought in from a variety of African tribes sharing no common language. On the plantation, they developed first a pidgin (limited and simplified) version of on how, English with heavy Portuguese and African influences. This pidgin allowed slaves some rudimentary communication with each other and with their slave masters. In time, they lost their original African languages and master the mixed speech became the native tongue of their children--a creole. Essay On How To Be A Good Friend. Contrast with pidgin . CRESCENDO : Another term for rhetorical climax . See climax, rhetorical , above. CRISIS (plural: crises ): The turning point of uncertainty and tension resulting from earlier conflict in a plot. At the moment of crisis in thesis e-learning, a story, it is unclear if the on how friend, protagonist will succeed or fail in his struggle. The crisis usually leads to or overlaps with the climax of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously.
See climax, literary , above. CRITICAL READING : Careful analysis of an essay's structure and logic in order to determine the validity of an argument. Often this term is used synonymously with close reading (see above), but I prefer to reserve close reading for the artistic analysis of literature. Click here for more information about critical reading. Cf. Essay. close reading . CRITICUS APPARATUS : The scholarly notations in a critical edition (especially a variorum edition) in which the editor indicates all the known variations of a particular text. The apparatus often appears running along the bottom of each page or sometimes in the back of the book, and often incorporates editorial footnotes and glosses. The apparatus can appear quite cryptic to students unfamiliar with the formulaic abbreviations in scholarly use. For instance, below is an essay on how a good illustrative notation from A. V. Environmental Issues Essay. C. Schmidt's criticus apparatus for to be friend, Passus I, line 1, of the Everyman edition of William Langland's Piers Plowman , page 14:
Collation WHmCrGYOC2CLMHRF. RUBRIC Passus primus de visione Wr (pr] Secundus F; de v.] de petri le ploughman BR; om O); om GC2. This notation indicates subsequent lines are collated together in thirteen of the i begin to write a research paper, surviving manuscripts, each manuscript being indicated by a special abbreviation. Furthermore, the opening line in manuscripts W and r has a Latin title written in red ink (rubricated) as indicated, but another manuscript F has labeled it as secundus rather than primus, while the B and R manuscripts label it in a combination of French and Latin, and essay on how to be so on. A good criticus apparatus helps document all this diversity by gathering it together, line-by-line, for convenient comparison at a glance, but the editor presumes the reader knows the dense, standardized abbreviations involved in to write a research paper, this notation. For a clearer, hypothetical example, let us imagine Edgar Allan Poe has a poem surviving in three slightly different forms. Essay On How To Be Friend. The most widespread version Poe had published by Smith Publishing early in his career. Issues. Ten years later, Poe revised the poem for on how, a new publisher, Baker Books, and they printed this revision a few years after Poe's death.
Last of all, a third unpolished version survives in Poe's own handwritten notes. Scholars discover this last manuscript version squirreled away in the Morgan Library in 2012. Modern editors would compile these three sources and select what they consider the best text. Article Search. However, they must not ignore the alternative versions by to be a good leaving them unnoted and unannotated; that would effectively erase them from history. Accordingly, the editors might add a criticus apparatus . Here, they would note the relevant line number and indicate alternatives.
The first version by Smith Books (abbreviated S) has the phrase Conqueror Worme appear in line six. The version by Baker Books (abbreviated B) has a slightly different archaic spelling Conqueror Wyrm in the same spot. Article Search. Finally, Poe's own original handwritten rough draft of the poem survives among his papers in essay to be a good friend, the Morgan Library (abbreviated Ml). This manuscript uses the abbreviation Conqu. Wm. scrawled in that line.
Now, a modern scholar wants to publish an authoritative version of Poe's poem a century later. This modern editor chooses to emend the line to a standardized spelling of how do a research, Conqueror Worm. The criticus apparatus at to be friend, the bottom of the page might consist of a footnote such as this: 6 Conqeror Worm ] S: Conqueror Worme ; B: Conqueror Wyrm , Ml: Conqu. Essay. Wm . The 6 indicates line six as the section with variant readings. The words before the bracket ] show readers that the editor considers the preceding version the best text for a modern reader--or at least the version the to be friend, editor has chosen for his edition. The material after the bracket lists each variant source and indicates how the differing material appeared in that source as exactly as possible. A criticus apparatus documents the known variations that might plausibly be accurate and reminds modern readers of the multiple possible versions an earlier audience might have experienced.
This process is especially pertinent in classical and using medieval studies, since in the pre-print era, handwritten texts often exhibited striking and even contradictory variant readings. For instance, in the case of on how a good, The Aeneid , about 3,000 texts survive with each manuscript containing significant variations. In the case of Chaucer, about 82 versions of the Canterbury Tales survive, all with variant readings. In the case of Shakespeare, striking differences appear in the F (folio) and scenes essay Q1, Q2, Q3 (first, second, and third quarto) versions of his plays, and so on. CROSSED RHYME : In long couplets, especially hexameter lines, sufficient room in the line allows a poet to essay on how to be, use rhymes in the middle of the line as well as at the end of essay, each line. Swinburne's Hymn to Proserpine illustrates its use: Thou hast conquered, O pale Galilean ; the world has grown grey from Thy breath ; We have drunken of things Lethean , and fed on the fullness of death . Laurel is green for essay friend, a season , and love is sweet for a day ; But love grows bitter with treason , and laurel outlives not May . In the excerpt above, the words in red are part of crossed rhyme, and the words in green are regular rhyme. Crossed rhyme is also called interlaced rhyme . Contrast with internal rhyme and e-learning leonine rhyme . CROWN OF SONNETS : According to Shipley (142), an interlinked poem or cycle of seven sonnets in which the last line of each of the essay friend, first six serves as the last line of the next, and the last line of the seventh sonnet serves as the first line of the first sonnet. All other rhymes are used once only in the collection of the brunton, entire seven sonnets.
An English example would be Donne's La Corona, though the essay on how to be a good friend, structure is article search much more common in Italian poetry. A more complicated alternative structure is the so-called heroic crown of sonnets (alias the sonnet redoublé ), which is similar in structure but consists of 15 rather than 7 sonnets in total, but which follows the same rules for a good, rhyme repetitions (Shipley 530). CTHULHU MYTHOS (also spelled Cthulu and scaffold scenes essay Kutulu , pronounced various ways): Strongly influential in pulp science fiction and early twentieth-century horror stories , the Cthulhu mythos revolves around a pantheon of malign alien beings worshipped as gods by half-breed cultists. These aliens were invented and popularized by pulp fiction horror writer H. P. Lovecraft. The name Cthulhu comes from Lovecraft's 1928 short story, The Call of Cthulhu, which introduces the creature Cthulhu as a gigantic, bat-winged, tentacled, green monstrosity who once ruled planet earth in prehistoric times. Currently in a death-like state of hibernation, it now awaits an opportunity to rise from the underwater city of on how to be, R'lyeh and how do i begin to write a research paper plunge the earth once more into darkness and terror. August Derleth later coined the term Cthulhu mythos to describe collectively the settings, themes, and to be alien beings first imagined by Lovecraft but later adapted by pulp fiction authors like Clark Ashton Smith, Robert E. Howard, Robert Bloch, Henry Kuttner, and Brian Lumley.
Some common elements, motifs, and characters of the mythos include the following: CULTURAL SYMBOL: A symbol widely or generally accepted as meaning something specific within an entire culture or social group, as opposed to a contextual symbol created by a single author that has meaning only environmental issues within a single work or group of works. Essay On How To Be A Good Friend. Examples of cultural symbols in Western culture include the alan brunton, cross as a symbol of Christianity, the American flag as a symbol of America's colonial history of thirteen colonies growing into fifty states, the gold ring as a symbol of marital commitment, the Caduceus as a symbol of medicine, and essay on how to be the color black as a symbol of alan resume, mourning. Examples of cultural symbols in other cultures include white as a symbol of mourning in Japan, the Yin-Yang sphere as an oriental symbol of oppositional forces in balance, the on how a good, white crane as a symbol of brunton resume, longevity in essay on how, Mandarin China, and so forth. Any writer in a specific culture could use one of scaffold scenes, these symbols and be relatively confident that the reader would understand what each symbol represented.
Thus, if a writer depicted a pedophilic priest as trampling a crucifix into the mud, it is likely the reader would understand this action represents the way the priest tramples Christian ideals, and so forth. Contrast with contextual symbol and archetype . CYBERPUNK MOVEMENT : (1) A loose school of science fiction authors including William Gibson, Bruce Stirling, Rudy Rucker, and Neal Stephenson who rose in popularity in the 1980s and 1990s. (2) A science fiction subgenre that shares the concerns and features of those works produced by on how to be a good friend the cyberpunk school. Features of their novels and short stories in this period include the following motifs: Common themes include the i begin a research paper, dehumanization, commodification, and to be a good mechanization of the how do i begin to write a research paper, individual; the negative effects of commercialization upon society; and implicit philosophical questions regarding consciousness and sensory reality. These cyberpunk authors have been profoundly influential in essay on how to be friend, late twentieth-century science fiction films (such as Strange Days , Robocop , etc.) and Japanese anime , where cyberpunk elements have become so common as to be almost cliché . I Begin To Write A Research. The metaverse or the Net imagined by these early authors in to be, the 1980s have been seen as prophetic of the later real-world rise of the internet after 1993. Examples of scaffold scenes essay, novels, anthologies, short stories, and other literary works from the essay on how to be a good, cyberpunk movement include Neuromancer , Mona Lisa Overdrive , Islands in the Net , and Johnny Mnemonic. (The last of these has been adapted into an awful film that bears little similarity to the original short story.) More recently, Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash has put a more satirical spin on the genre . CYCLE : In general use, a literary cycle is any group of closely related works.
We speak of the article search, Scandinavian, Arthurian , and Charlemagne cycles, for instance. These refer collectively to many poems and stories written by various artists over several centuries. These cycles all deal with Scandinavian heros, King Arthur and his knights, or the on how a good friend, legends of King Charlemagne respectively. Article Search. More specifically, a mystery cycle refers to essay to be a good, the complete set of mystery plays performed during the scaffold, Corpus Christi festival in medieval religious drama (typically 45 or so plays, each of which depicted a specific event in essay on how to be a good friend, biblical history from the issues essay, creation of the on how a good friend, world to the last judgment). The major English cycles of mystery plays include the York, Coventry, Wakefield or Towneley, and Chester cycles. See Corpus Christi play , above. Scaffold Scenes Essay. See also sonnet cycle . CYHYDEDD HIR : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry. The octave stanza consists two quatrains of four lines with five, five, five, and four syllables respectively.
The rhyme scheme is AAAx AAAx , with X's indicating unrhymed lines. See octave and rhyme . CYHYDEDD NAW BAN : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry in which some lines are composed of nine syllables. The rhyming couplets, when they appear, must rhyme with another line of identical length. CYNGHANEDD (pronounced kun HAN neth , lit. Welsh for symphony or harmony): A Welsh term that loosely denotes sound similarities peculiar to on how to be, Welsh poetry, especially alliteration and internal rhyme . Typically, the consonants in one word or line repeat in the same pattern at the beginning and end of the next word or line--but the brunton, vowel sounds between the a good friend, consonants change slightly. In the English tradition of poetry, Gerard Manley Hopkins charmingly refers to such devices as chimes , and he makes much use of them in using slang essay, his works such as Spring and Fall.
See also awdl and a good friend englyn . For an example of cynghanedd in English, click here. CYNING : A king, another term for an Anglo-Saxon hlaford . Not to be confused with kenning , an Anglo-Saxon poetic device. CYRCH A CHWTA : A Welsh verse form consisting of an scaffold scenes octave stanza of to be a good, six rhyming or alliterating seven-syllable lines plus a couplet. The second line of the couplet rhymes with the scaffold scenes, first six lines. A Good Friend. The first line of the couplet cross-rhymes in the third, fourth, or fifth syllable of the environmental issues, eighth line. CYRILLIC : Also called, azbuka , the alphabet used to write Russian, Serbian, and essay to be friend Bulgarian. The name comes from the 9th-century Greek missionary Saint Cyril, who traveled from Byzantium to convert Slavic races of Moravia to issues, Christianity. Folklore credits Cyril at the inventor of this script, though it is more likely he invented the Glaglotic , what Harkins refers to as an abtruse alphabet of obscure origin, which soon lost favor (5).
Cyrillic, modeled largely on the Greek alphabet, rose to replace Glaglotic, though Cyril retained credit. The alphabet came to Russia later after its Christianization in 988 or 989. Modern Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Bulgarian, and Serbian alphabets were later offshoots of essay a good friend, Cyrillic. Peter the Great simplified the alphabet in 1708, so the in college essay, lettering required less ornate design, and later modifiers removed four characters as redundant in 1918. The present alphabet consists of essay to be a good friend, thirty letters, mostly phonetic, though it does not show the stress of syllables (5). CYWYDD (plural, cywyddau) : A fourteenth-century metrical form of article search, Welsh lyric poetry consisting of rhyming couplets with each line having seven syllables. Traditionally, in each couplet, the essay friend, lines end with alternately stressed and thesis unstressed meter. In terms of content, cywyddau traditionally include examples of dyfalu --strings of unusual comparisons similar to metaphysical conceits. The genre is associated with the poet Dafydd ap Gwilym. CYWDD DEUAIR HIRION : In Welsh prosody, the term refers to a form of light verse consisting of a single couplet with seventeen syllables.
The first line has a masculine ending and the last line a feminine ending. CYWYDD LLOSGYRNOG : A type of essay on how a good, Welsh verse consisting of a sestet stanza in which the syllable count is eight, eight, seven, eight, eight, and seven respectively. The first two lines rhyme and article search cross-rhyme with the middle syllable of the sixth line and the third and sixth lines rhyme with each other. On How To Be A Good. Rime coueé or tail-rhyme has a similar scheme.