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bush resume Please also visit our own Store to find lots of interesting, unusual, and funny politically-themed products. References Paper? - VoteVets - Support the troops by sending them to Congress. New Cosmetologist Letter? - ProgressivePunch.org - Find out how your Senator or Congressman voted. And Research? - Cost of War - Watch it climb in real time and for your community. - Choose the essay nuclear Blue - Support the references paper companies that support Progressives. - ProgressiveDailyBeacon - Progressive news and commentary and argumentative nuclear power, our partner in truth. - Andy Worthington - Get the latest updates on torture cases being heard or discussed. References? THIS GEORGE BUSH resume was originally written and prepared by Kelley Kramer for Buzzflash and appears on their website as a BUZZFLASH READER COMMENTARY. When we found this we thought is was a brilliant concept and wondered why all candidates for President in 2004 wouldn't just run against Bush based on his resume alone? If this can't convince voters he isn't fit or qualified or suited to hold any public office, what will? But we also felt, why stop here? Why not let everyone with good information add to this resume and help us continue to expand it even further? Surely, there must be lots more we could add to sociology thesis proposals, this resume if we put our collective minds to and research, the task. So, if you have something you would like to add or even something to append with more detail, send it along for us to post. Please try to read the original resume. Then, if you have time, read what has already been added to this resume.
Next, fill out our online form to submit your resume additions to us . If you want your name to appear beside your comments, you can add your name, city, and state. You can also add your email address in case you would like us to respond back or others to respond back to your input. Compare And Contrase? All of these fields of course are optional. It is the policy of this site not to share this information with anyone , however, this does not guarantee that someone reading our site wouldn't capture your email address if you choose to leave one online. Also, please read our disclaimers at the bottom before sending us material to use. Feel free to email this resume to all of your friends. This project can really succeed if everyone pitches in to help! George W. Bush Resume Original (Note: We have made and will continue to make minor edits to the original resume to add. Ran for congress and references and research paper, lost. Research Thesis Proposals? Produced a Hollywood slasher B movie. Bought an oil company, but couldn't find any oil in paper Texas, company went bankrupt shortly after I sold all my stock.
Bought the Texas Rangers baseball team in research thesis a sweetheart deal that took private land using tax-payer money. Biggest move: Traded Sammy Sosa to the Chicago White Sox. With father's help (and his name) was elected Governor of Texas. Accomplishments: Changed pollution laws for power and oil companies and made Texas the references paper most polluted state in the Union. For two years in a row, Houston had the most days of high ground-level ozone [ correction from viewer JP ]. New Cosmetologist Cover? Cut taxes and bankrupted the Texas government to the tune of billions in borrowed money. Set record for most executions by any Governor in American history. Became president after losing the popular vote by over 500,000 votes, with the help of my fathers appointments to and research paper, the Supreme Court and voter fraud committed by brother Jeb and Katherine Harris in Florida. Apa Citation? Attacked and took over two countries. Spent the surplus and bankrupted the treasury. Shattered record for biggest annual deficit in history. Set economic record for most private bankruptcies filed in any 12 month period.
Set all-time record for biggest drop in and research paper the history of the stock market. Argumentative Essay Power? First president in decades to execute a federal prisoner. First president in US history to enter office with a criminal record. First year in office set the all-time record for most days on vacation by any president in US history. After taking the entire month of August off for vacation, presided over the worst security failure in US history. Set the record for most campaign fund-raising trips than any other president in US history. In my first two years in office over 2.7 million Americans lost their job.
No Bush president has ever created one net new job yet. Cut unemployment benefits for more out of paper work Americans than any president in essay much nothing shakespeare US history. Set the paper all-time record for most foreclosures in a 12 month period. Appointed more convicted criminals to argumentative nuclear power, administration positions than any president in US history. Set the record for the least amount of press conferences than any president since the advent of television.
Signed more laws and executive orders amending the Constitution than any president in US history. Presided over the biggest energy crises in US history and refused to intervene when corruption was revealed. Presided over the highest gasoline prices in US history and refused to use the paper national reserves as past presidents have. Cut healthcare benefits for war veterans. Nuclear Power? Set the and research paper all-time record for most people worldwide to new cosmetologist cover letter, simultaneously take to the streets to protest me (15 million people), shattering the and research record for protest against any person in the history of mankind. (http://www.hyperreal.org/ dana/marches/) Dissolved more international treaties than any president in essay much US history. Most secretive and un-accountable presidency of any in US history. Members of cabinet are the richest of any administration in US history. (the 'poorest' multi-millionaire, Condoleeza Rice has an Chevron oil tanker named after her). First president in US history to have all 50 states of the Union simultaneously go bankrupt.
Presided over references and research, the biggest corporate stock market fraud of new cosmetologist any market in any country in the history of the world. First president in US history to order a US attack and references, military occupation of a sovereign nation. Created the largest government department bureaucracy in the history of the United States. Set the all-time record for biggest annual budget spending increases, more than any president in US history. First president in US history to and contrase essay, have the United Nations remove the US from the Human Rights Commission. First president in US history to have the references paper United Nations remove the US from the elections monitoring board. Removed more checks and sociology research proposals, balances, and have the least amount of congressional oversight than any presidential administration in US history.
Rendered the entire United Nations irrelevant. Withdrew from the World Court of Law. -- corrected by a viewer who commented that Bush withdrew our signature from the ICC, the International Criminal Court, which is a different body than the paper World Court or ICJ. Refused to allow inspectors access to US prisoners of war and by default no longer abide by the Geneva Conventions. First president in US history to refuse United Nations election inspectors (during the much nothing shakespeare 2002 US elections). All-time US (and world) record holder for most corporate campaign donations.
My biggest life-time campaign contributor presided over one of the largest corporate bankruptcy frauds in world history (Kenneth Lay, former CEO of Enron Corporation). Spent more money on references and research polls and focus groups than any president in US history. First president in US history to unilaterally attack a sovereign nation against the will of the for linggo United Nations and the world community. First president to run and hide when the US came under attack (and then lied saying the and research enemy had the code to Air Force 1) First US president to establish a secret shadow government. Took the biggest world sympathy for the US after 911, and in less than a year made the US the most resented country in the world (possibly the research thesis biggest diplomatic failure in US and world history).
With a policy of 'dis-engagement' created the paper most hostile Israeli-Palestine relations in at essay ado about shakespeare, least 30 years. First US president in history to have a majority of the people of Europe (71%) view my presidency as the biggest threat to world peace and stability. Many people consider me a bigger threat to world peace than Saddam. First US president in history to have the people of and research South Korea more threatened by the US than their immediate neighbor, North Korea. Changed US policy to allow convicted criminals to be awarded government contracts. Set all-time record for number of administration appointees who violated US law by essay for linggo ng wika 2013, not selling huge investments in corporations bidding for government contracts. Failed to fulfill my pledge to get Osama Bin Laden 'dead or alive'. Failed to capture the anthrax killer who tried to references paper, murder the leaders of our country at essay much, the United States Capitol building. After 18 months I have no leads and references, zero suspects. In the 18 months following the compare and contrase essay 911 attacks, successfully prevented any public investigation into the biggest security failure in the history of the United States. Removed more freedoms and references paper, civil liberties for Americans than any other president in US history.
In a little over two years created the most divided country in decades, possibly the argumentative most divided the US has ever been since the civil war. Entered office with the strongest economy in US history and in less than two years turned every single economic category heading straight down. Records and References: At least one conviction for drunk driving in Maine (Texas driving record has been erased and is not available). I was arrested in references and research Kennebunkport, Maine, in 1976 for driving under the influence of alcohol. I pled guilty, paid a fine, and had my driver's license suspended for 30 days. My Texas driving record has been lost and is not available.--updated by Dave from IN AWOL from essay for linggo 2013 National Guard and Deserted the military during a time of war. I joined the Texas Air National Guard and went AWOL. Refused to take drug test or even answer any questions about drug use. All records of my tenure as governor of Texas have been spirited away to and research paper, my father's library, sealed in secrecy and un-available for public view. All records of any SEC investigations into my insider trading or bankrupt companies are sealed in secrecy and new cosmetologist cover letter, un-available for public view.
All minutes of meetings for any public corporation I served on the board are sealed in secrecy and un-available for public view. Any records or minutes from meetings I (or my VP) attended regarding public energy policy are sealed in secrecy and un-available for public review. For personal references please speak to and research, my daddy or uncler James Baker (They can be reached at their offices of the Carlyle Group for war-profiteering.)
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Medical Receptionist -Marina Village (St. Petersburg, FL) ST PETERSBURG , FL 33747. Medical Receptionist -Marina Village (St. Petersburg, FL) Description Overview: The Medical Receptionist is responsible to the Center Administrator and references and research, provides appointment scheduling, patient registration, cashiering, answers incoming calls and performs other related clerical functions.
Essential Functions: + Consistently exhibits behavior and communication skills that demonstrate commitment to superior customer service, including quality and care and nuclear power, concern with each and every internal and external customer. Represents the Company in a professional manner, following all Company policies and procedures. Uses, protects, and discloses DaVita Medical Group patients protected health information (PHI) only in accordance with Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) standards. Responsible for accurately and professionally handling all front desk operations including answering phones, greeting patients, scheduling of all appointments, balancing daily collections, addressing routine inquiries, and forwarding non-routine requests to appropriate personnel. Receives incoming telephone calls in a prompt and courteous manner. Performs clerical duties as directed. Assists with the inventory and maintenance of business office supplies and the completion of business office reports.
Works daily reports, incomplete encounters, No Show reports, and other designated administrative reports according to references and research paper, office procedures. Performs other duties as assigned. Must have consistent, punctual and reliable attendance. Ability to travel may be required. Qualifications Education: + High school graduate, GED or equivalent.
Experience: + Medical office experience preferred. Argumentative Power? Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities. Must be computer literate. Knowledge of medical coding preferred. Ability to interact and verbally communicate effectively with patients and references, all levels of personnel in a professional, courteous and compare and contrase essay, effective manner with excellent customer service skills. Must be able to display excellent telephone/switchboard etiquette. Ability to multi- task in a high paced environment with good organizational skills. Ability to follow written and oral instructions and to work with general guidance.
Demonstrated clerical skills (typing, filing, telephone courtesy). Knowledge of business office operations and references, basic bookkeeping principles. Knowledge of HIPAA regulations. Ability to sociology thesis proposals, read, speak, write, and understand the English language fluently. DaVita Medical Group manages and references, operates medical groups and affiliated physician networks in California, Colorado, Florida, Nevada, New Mexico, Pennsylvania and Washington. A leading medical group in America, DaVita Medical Group has over two decades of new cosmetologist experience providing coordinated, outcomes-based medical care in references and research, a cost-effective manner.
As of December 31, 2016, DaVita Medical Groups 2,000 employed clinicians, 12,000 teammates, and network of 13,000 affiliated clinicians provided care for approximately 1.7 million patients. Compare And Contrase? DaVita Medical Groups leadership development initiatives and social responsibility efforts have been recognized by references and research, Fortune, Modern Healthcare, Newsweek and WorldBlu. DaVita Medical Group is an equal opportunity/affirmative action employer. Argumentative Essay Power? As such, DaVita Medical Group makes hiring decisions solely on the basis of references and research paper qualifications and experience, and without regard to age, race, color, religion, sex, gender identity, sexual orientation, national origin, disability or protected veteran status. We maintain a drug-free workplace and perform pre-employment substance abuse testing and new cosmetologist letter, background verification checks. DaVita Medical Group will consider qualified applicants who have criminal histories in a manner consistent with the law. Primary Location FL-ST PETERSBURG - 33711. Create a job alert for paper, Medical Receptionist -Marina Village (St. Petersburg, FL) at ST PETERSBURG, FL. Great! You'll now receive job alerts for Medical Receptionist -Marina Village (St.
Petersburg, FL) at ST PETERSBURG, FL. Create a job alert for Medical Receptionist -Marina Village (St. Petersburg, FL) at ST PETERSBURG, FL. Branch Manager 1 Downtown St Petersburg St Petersb. Posted 1 days ago. VIEW JOBS 10/3/2017 12:00:00 AM 2018-01-01T00:00 Branch Manager 1 Downtown St Petersburg - St. Petersburg, FL-W443750 *Description* The Branch Manager has responsibility for managing all aspects of assigned branch.
These responsibilities include, but are not limited to: The Branch Manager has responsibility for management of the entire branch. And Contrase? Management responsibilities include but are not limited to: • Managing two or more FTEs • Conducting performance reviews • Interviewing and selection of candidates to fill branch positions • Performance counseling, including making and recommending disciplinary action decisions • Ensuring compliance with internal controls, operational procedures and risk management policies • Cash handling transactions, as necessary Ultimately responsible for driving branch performance results through: • Strong individual and team sales/referral performance in deposits, loans, investment and other product lines • Directing, leading and coaching of superior sales and service behaviors and activities by references and research paper, the entire team • Developing and executing plans in order to meet/exceed of branch sales goals while maintaining an operationally efficient and essay, compliant branch • Conducting sales efforts, as required, to references, bring relationships while also ntaining and expanding existing personal and much nothing, business banking relationships • Accountability for maximizing sales, customer satisfaction, and references and research paper, minimizing operating losses by nuclear, executing the plays and strategies outlined for the branch. • Reviewing performance results via Edge$ell, QlikView and other sources to assess performance and make necessary adjustments in team capabilities, teammate coaching, etc. • Successfully executing the references, Client Execution Model (CEM) plays, coaches teammates, and essay ado about nothing shakespeare, utilizes branch performance metrics in order to references paper, manage and measure branch success. Cover Letter? • Conducting new client prospecting efforts to bring in new client relationships, while also maintaining and expanding existing personal and references, business banking relationships. • Maintains and develops relationships with existing small business customers to essay nothing shakespeare, continually deepen those relationships and achieve small business goals. • Ensuring branch compliance with bank procedures, internal controls, risk management and the SunTrust Code of Conduct. Paper? • Ensuring that all required training is nuclear, successfully completed by and research, the entire team. May also be required to complete other tasks or responsibilities that are not part of routine core operations, such as representing the bank in local community organizations, educating teammates on new products, and/or acting as champion for specialized business or campaign initiatives, etc., *Qualifications* Minimum Requirements: • High school diploma or equivalent. Letter? • Three years retail sales experience serving consumer and/or small business clients with 18 months leadership and coaching experience or three years financial sales and references and research, service experience with at least 18 months previous experience in a leadership and coaching role. Satisfies regulatory requirements for holding the position, including determined by SunTrust to meet the qualification standards imposed by apa citation for master's thesis, the Loan Originator Compensation rule of the Truth in Lending Act. *Preferred Requirements:* • Two years of paper college with focus on business, finance or accounting. Three or more years financial sales and service experience in a retail branch environment with two years direct supervisory experience. • Previous experience as an style In-store Assistant Branch Manager or Personal Banker at SunTrust Bank or comparable roles at other financial institutions. References? • Completion of essay much nothing shakespeare Core STU Curriculum Training as well as corresponding Branch Manager coursework. • Knowledge of retail bank branch operations, policies and references, procedures. Research Proposals? • Must have cash handling or payment transaction experience.
External Candidates: Prior experience managing a small or in-store branch (similar to a SunTrust Banking Center 1 or In Store Center 1) with a consistent track record of meeting or exceeding sales and operational goals strongly preferred. *Job:*Retail *Primary Location:* FL-Pinellas County *Work Locations*: Plaza Parkway Branch/Off aka Downtwn St. References And Research Paper? Petersbg 300 1st Avenue South St. Petersburg 33701 *Schedule:*Full-time Equal Opportunity Employer: SunTrust supports a diverse workforce and is a Drug Testing and Equal Opportunity Employer. SunTrust does not discriminate against individuals on apa citation style for master's, the basis of race, creed, color, gender, religion, national origin, age, disability, veteran status, pregnancy, marital status, citizenship status, sexual orientation, gender identity, genetic information, or any other classification protected by references, applicable laws. Compare? To review the references and research, EEO Poster, copy and essay ado about, paste the following link into and research paper your browser: http://www1.eeoc.gov/employers/upload/eeoc_self_print_poster.pdf http://www.dol.gov/ofccp/regs/compliance/posters/pdf/OFCCP_EEO_Supplement_Final_JRF_QA_508c.pdf © 2017 SunTrust Banks, Inc. Research Thesis Proposals? All rights reserved.
SunTrust is federally registered service marks of SunTrust Banks, Inc. Suntrust Banks St Petersburg FL. Anticipated Private Client Banker St Petersburg Maderia. Posted 1 days ago. VIEW JOBS 10/3/2017 12:00:00 AM 2018-01-01T00:00 You have a proven record for delivering outstanding service to clients. You’ve successfully collaborated with colleagues and worked as part of paper a team to achieve business results. Essay Shakespeare? You have established relationships within a company to deliver for clients. Apply these talents as a Private Client Banker and help drive the client banking experience at Chase through our Private Client Services offerings. As a Private Client Banker, you are the and research, main point of contact for a select group of essay shakespeare Chase’s affluent clients, as well as other customers in the Branch.
You’ll manage their complete banking relationship across the company, utilizing a proactive and disciplined approach to generate growth in their balances. You’ll help acquire new clients by actively soliciting referrals and references and research paper, developing internal and external sources. And you’ll be the clients' personal advocate at Chase, adding value to the relationship by: + Sharing the value of Chase Private Client with clients that may be eligible + Actively managing their banking relationship through an advice-based approach and ensuring each client receives the best products, services for his or her needs + Partnering with Specialists (Private Client Advisors, Mortgage Bankers and Business Relationship Managers), to connect customers to experts who can help them with specialized financial needs + Making lives of clients more convenient by sharing and setting up self-service options to access their accounts 24 hours a day/7 days a week + Adhering to policies, procedures and regulatory banking requirements This position is subject to the Dodd Frank/Truth in Lending Act qualification requirements for Loan Originators. As such, an employment offer for this position is contingent on JPMC's review of your criminal conviction history, credit report, information available through NMLS, and any other information relevant to a determination by essay nuclear power, JPMC that you demonstrate financial responsibility, good character, and and research, general fitness for the position. Note that any felony conviction within the last seven years will disqualify you from consideration for this position.
Your continued employment in this position would be contingent upon compliance with Truth in Lending Act/Dodd Frank Loan Originator requirements. New Cosmetologist Letter? In addition, this position requires National Mortgage Licensing System and Registry (NMLS) registration under the SAFE Act of 2008. As such, upon active employment with JPMorgan Chase, you will be required to references and research, either register on NMLS, or to update your existing registration as necessary to grant access to compare essay, and reflect your employment with JPMorgan Chase. Your continued employment in this position with JPMorgan Chase is contingent upon paper compliance with the SAFE Act, including successful registration immediately after your start date, and timely completion of annual renewal and required updates thereafter. Any information obtained during the registration, update, and sociology thesis, renewal processes or through NMLS notifications may impact your employment with the firm. Any of the completed information you provide during the Chase on-line application process may be transferred, on your behalf, to NMLS by references and research paper, JPMorgan Chase. Style For Master's Thesis? Please carefully review the information you provide to Chase for accuracy and references and research, consistency and with any current NMLS record, if applicable, before submitting. Nothing Shakespeare? Further information about NMLS and registration requirements of registration can be found at: http://mortgage.nationwidelicensingsystem.org/SAFE/Pages/default.aspx . References? LI/POST + Minimum of one year Branch Banking Banker, or equivalent experience in financial services, with verifiable success in new client acquisition, cultivating and style for master's thesis, maintaining customer relationship, and revenue generation + College degree or military equivalent strongly preferred; High school degree, GED or foreign equivalent required + FINRA Series 6/7, state registration (including 63 or 66 if required), and references paper, Life licenses are required - or must be successfully completed within 120 days of starting in and contrase, role + Compliance with Dodd Frank/Truth in Lending Act* Preferred Skills: + Experience cultivating relationships with affluent clients is references and research, strongly preferred + Excellent communication skills + Demonstrated success using a value-added, relationship-oriented approach to acquire and proposals, deepening clients relationships + Strong team orientation with a commitment of and research paper long-term career with the firm + Adherence to policies, procedures, and regulatory banking requirements + Ability to work branch hours, including weekends and some evenings JPMorgan Chase is an equal opportunity and letter, affirmative action employer Disability/Veteran. Jpmorgan Chase Saint Petersburg FL. Pinellas South Market Relationship Manager Downtown St P.
Bank Of America. Posted 1 days ago. VIEW JOBS 10/3/2017 12:00:00 AM 2018-01-01T00:00 **Job Description:** Relationship managers are the face of Bank of America in our financial centers, bringing our products and services to life for all of references and research our clients. They focus the majority of their time deepening relationships by connecting customers to sales specialists and offering appropriate financial solutions and services to new cosmetologist, both individual and references paper, small business clients. As part of our team, you will have access to industry leading solutions and a team of dedicated product specialists – all designed to essay, meet the unique life priorities of your clients – things like managing expenses, building wealth, managing debt, buying a home, saving for college or planning for unexpected life events. As part of the and research, Financial Center Academy at Bank of and contrase America, you will benefit from personal coaching, clearly defined career paths, robust training programs and references and research, ongoing development opportunities – including a 10-week new hire program.
Required skills: - Ability to learn and understand technology to assist customers with self-service needs - Proven results exceeding goals in research thesis, a customer-centric, results-driven environment - Strong interpersonal skills, including the ability to easily engage others in dialogue, convey sincere interest in references paper, building/deepening relationships and research thesis, demonstrate a commitment to providing personalized service - Demonstrated ability to and research paper, influence and new cosmetologist cover, collaborate with others outside of reporting authority to achieve shared goals - Proven customer service skills and the ability to references paper, resolve problems independently or escalate as needed to promote customer satisfaction - Ability to essay for linggo ng wika, build solid relationships with teammates, business partners and specialists by and research paper, fostering teamwork, partnership and sociology research thesis proposals, collaboration - Displays passion, commitment and references, drive to deliver an compare and contrase essay experience that improves our customers’ financial lives - Demonstrates initiative, a commitment to continuous learning, and the ability to adapt to changing demands and requirements - Applies strong critical thinking and references and research paper, problem-solving skills to meet customers’ needs - Strong organizational skills including the ability to manage multiple responsibilities, prioritize and delegate while delivering results - Strong communication skills (including verbal, non-verbal, written and compare and contrase, presentation) and active listening skills - Availability to work weekends and/or extended hours as required to operate the business Desired skills: - Experience in financial services and references and research paper, prior knowledge of financial services industry, products and solutions - Knowledge of banking (credit and deposit) products and services - Prior sales experience in apa citation style for master's thesis, a salary plus incentive environment with individual sales goals where goals were met or exceeded routinely - Prior experience servicing and delighting customers **Posting Date** : 08/25/2017 **Location** : St Petersburg, FL, DOWNTOWN ST. PETERSBURG BC, 220 3RD ST S, - United States **Travel** : Yes, 5% of the time **Full / Part-time** : Full time **Hours Per Week** : 40 **Shift** : 1st shift **Weekly Schedule** : M - TH 8 - 5:30, F 8 - 6:30, SAT 8:30 - 1:30 **Assistance for references paper, Applicants with Disabilities** Bank of America is committed to and contrase essay, ensuring that our online application process provides an paper equal employment opportunity to style thesis, all job seekers, including individuals with disabilities. If you believe you need a reasonable accommodation in order to search for a job opening or to submit an application, please visit the references paper, Applicants with Disabilities page at http://careers.bankofamerica.com/us/applicants-with-disabilities . **Diversity Inclusion** At Bank of America, our commitment to diversity and inclusion is helping us to style for master's, create not only a great place to work, but also an environment where our employees, our customers and our communities around the world can reach their goals and and research paper, connect with each other. All qualified applicants will receive consideration for compare essay, employment without regard to race, color, religion, gender, gender identity or expression, sexual orientation, national origin, genetics, disability, age, or veteran status. **Frequently Asked Questions** Need to know how to apply online, view a list of your submitted job applications or reset your password? Visit our FAQ at http://careers.bankofamerica.com/us/faq section for answers to these questions and more. Paper? Bank Of America St Petersburg FL. Medical Receptionist -Marina Village (St. Petersburg, FL)
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500 Word Essays On The Origin Of Life Essays and references and research paper, Research Papers. The 500 - word Essay : Some Thoughts Gordon Thompson The 500 - word length is consistent . with many other kinds of professional writing, from blogs to book reviews. Moreover, if you want to ado about nothing, capture and hold your audience's attention, the three-section statement maximizes your opportunity. The statements below provide ideas on how you might successfully write. The short essays for this seminar have several goals. 1. And Research Paper! They provide you with an opportunity to explore a topic we have covered in our discussions. English passive voice , Essay , Grammar 1108 Words | 3 Pages. ?Cloud Computing Is cloud computing a new rage, just a fad, a nebulous idea or a far-reaching trend? Cloud computing has become a buzz word in . working and learning environments around the globe. Argumentative Nuclear Power! Newsstands and and research, Internet pages everywhere are inundated with articles, whitepapers and websites dedicated to defining the many facets of cloud computing such as hosting a website on the cloud, building a cloud infrastructure, cloud security, vulnerabilities, capabilities, pros and ado about nothing shakespeare, cons and and research, cost. IEEE.org.
Cloud computing , Google , Joni Mitchell 871 Words | 5 Pages. ?Life’s Puzzling Origins The prebiotic soup theory has dominated the thinking about and contrase essay, how life has emerged over the past century. . And Research! However, the discovery of extraterrestrial amino acids in the Muchison meteorite in 1970 has widened the scope of this debate. Adding further complexity to the origin of life , there is new cosmetologist letter a schism over whether proteins of living cells or the genetic information was a precursor to the other. These debates have raised key questions over references and research which conditions most favored the emergence. Abiogenesis , Amino acid , Bacteria 1103 Words | 4 Pages. 1000 Word Essay On The Importance Of Accountability In The Army. 1000 word essay on the importance of accountability in essay for linggo ng wika the army Free Essays on 5000 Word . Essay On Accountability Responsibility for students. Accountability in the army is important because soldiers as well as equipment, ammunition, food, water and other various 1000 Words on Accountability. Free Essays on Military Gear Accountability for students. 310 Words / 1 Pages.
Gear Accountability. GEAR ACCOUNTABILITY There are many important reasons to be checking your gear constantly to keep proper issued. References Paper! Accountability , Army , Essay 1140 Words | 4 Pages. regarding the mystery that is life . What is life , and how did it get started? Their responses to these questions has varied over . the years as advances in technology have led to new evidence being brought in essay nothing from a ranging variety of fields. In the summer of 1993, J. William Schopf, a paleobiologist reportedly found fossilized imprints of microbial communities between layers of references, rock that were 3.5 billion years old. This, along with other evidence indicated that life was well established only a billion.
Chemistry , Earth , Evolution 1403 Words | 4 Pages. Evolution Fact and the Origins of Life. Over the past few centuries scientists have been trying to ng wika, answer the references and research question: what was the origin of life ? There have been a . number of essay power, scientists who have produces a number of plausible theories. The currently most excepted theory is Oparin's theory, which states that the origin of and research paper, life on apa citation Earth was in and research nonliving chemical substances which spontaneously formed in new cosmetologist cover letter Earth's early atmosphere and combined to make more complex chemicals until living cells were formed. And Research Paper! This maybe a possibility because. Nuclear Power! Abiogenesis , Earth , Evolution 1345 Words | 4 Pages. process one needs to understand the origin of words . Etymology, according to Yule(2006) is “the study of the origin . and references and research paper, history of a word ” (p.35). This process is used in the evolution of words today, the internet is the building block of this process.
The internet is a catalyst for a number of new words that have become normal in everyday language. This has raised some fundamental questions about the style for master's nature of such words being included in the dictionary. Paper! This essay will argue that although change is. English language , Etymology , French language 1231 Words | 4 Pages. ? Essay Instructions You will write 4 essays (double spaced, 12-point Times New Roman font). The first essay must . be 1,000–1,200 words , and the following essays must be 750–1,000 words each. And Contrase! Essay one corresponds to the essay one prompt as listed below.
Essay two corresponds with the essay two prompt, etc. through all four essays . Paper! Each essay is a separate assignment. In completing each essay , research must be conducted through 2–4 peer-reviewed, scholarly sources in essay addition to references, the Bible and the. Bible , Religious text 990 Words | 3 Pages. What a thing of beauty is the well-written 500 - word essay . In some ways, it is the perfect length to express a . For Linggo! certain level of knowledge about and research paper, a particular subject. It is long enough to allow the writer to show familiarity, and possibly expertise, regarding her chosen topic. But it is not a length that requires copious amounts of research. Essay Much Ado About Nothing Shakespeare! When sufficiently motivated, one can manage to research, write, and and research, revise such an ng wika essay in paper an hour or two, given enough practice. Given the fact that students. Thesis! Bibliography , Creative writing , Essay 527 Words | 2 Pages. References! ? Ambiguous Words Essay Question: “Southerners maintained that secession was the ultimate expression of democracy, while . Lincoln claimed it was rejection of democracy. How did they explain and justify their principles.” On December 20, 1860, the compare Confederacy was born when South Carolina seceded from the federal Union. The Union and references and research, the Confederacy severely clashed in their views on the Constitution; the South felt that individual states should have the right to essay nothing, nullify.
American Civil War , Confederate States of America , North Carolina 979 Words | 8 Pages. And Research Paper! What a thing of beauty is the well-written 500 - word essay . In some ways, it is the perfect length to express a . certain level of compare essay, knowledge about a particular subject. It is references paper long enough to allow the writer to show familiarity, and possibly expertise, regarding her chosen topic. But it is not a length that requires copious amounts of research. When sufficiently motivated, one can manage to research, write, and revise such an essay in an hour or two, given enough practice. Given the for master's fact that students.
Bibliography , Creative writing , Essay 520 Words | 2 Pages. calling each other a fuckboy which come from the references word fuck. From the Dutch word for for linggo 2013 mocking, to scratching an itch, to sex and . screwing up. In the 21th century, the word fuck can be used for paper a lot of different reasons, like fuckboy, it is a new hip word to express yourself when you are upset and its so catchy that is 2013 going to be use a lot in the future. Paper! Even though people love to style for master's thesis, say the word fuck and say it on a daily basis, many don’t know where the word comes from. There have been many theories. References! Dictionary , Euphemism , Fuck 765 Words | 3 Pages. 300 Word Essay On Freedom Of Religio 300 Word Essay I chose freedom of religion because it is the . one bill of letter, rights that I believe has the broadest expansion in the constitution.
I believe that. Paper! Premium Use At Least Five Adverbs And Five Adjectives To Write a 150- To 300- Word Review Of a Movie, Sporting Event. 6 Assignment Use at least five adverbs and style, five adjectives to write a 150- to 300- word review of references and research, a movie, sporting event, musical performance, or television show. Premium Describe. Apa Citation! 300 , Adjective , Battle of Thermopylae 752 Words | 3 Pages. Paper! ?This 500 words essay illustrates that a comparison of two theories.
Firstly this essay is through . brief definition of Michael Porter’s five forces model and SWOT analysis, it is proposals widely acknowledged that there are some features about and research, two theories. Essay Nothing Shakespeare! Secondly this essay is through analysis there two theories. The finally pare is said that the comparison of that two theories. And Research! The Michael Porter’s five forces model is something that five competitive forces model about each countries, particularly to. Complementors , Management , Porter five forces analysis 558 Words | 2 Pages. believe that my thesis statement is very effective. * 3.Have I included enough details so the reader can visualize my experience? * The details . Apa Citation For Master's! included in my essay should give the reader a clear view on my experience. * 4.Are the events presented in a logical sequence? * The events included in references and research paper my essay are presented in a logical sequence. * 5.Have I used transitions to help the sequence of events flow smoothly? * I have used transitions to help t sequence of. Armed forces , English-language films , Essay 834 Words | 3 Pages. opinion (450- 500 words ) whether the essay government should impose tax on the birth of paper, every newborn baby in order to argumentative essay power, control . And Research! population. Essay Ng Wika! Support you opinion with reasons and arguments.” 2. And Research! Write a biographical essay (450- 500 words ) about any person. A biographical essay tells about the life , achievements and major events of a person’s life . It may be too difficult to tell the story of someone’s entire life . So you may focus on just a few important and interesting events of a person’s life . You may talk. Education , Experience , Knowledge 910 Words | 3 Pages. ?Have you ever been curious about the relationship between critical thinking and ethics? In this essay you will explore what critical thinking . is and the steps to it.
What the Ethical Lens Inventory is and how ethics influences our decision-making and how it’s applied in our daily life . In General Psychology one of the for linggo definitions of paper, critical thinking is Critical thinking examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions.” Critical thinking is essay for linggo 2013 used several. Critical thinking , Decision making , Ethics 461 Words | 2 Pages. read, I make sure that I always use a dictionary as a reference and that makes it easier to proceed to and research paper, the next sentence. In addition to that, I write down . the new cosmetologist letter important events and references and research paper, highlight the words and cover letter, characters. Paper! I also proofread my paper to ensure it is nuclear error free. In order to and research, write a good essay or paper, it is necessary to be in a peaceful environment to avoid distractions. Next, I just scribble down whatever comes to compare and contrase essay, my mind that is paper related to the topic. After a while, I would read what. Power! English-language films , Essay , Linguistics 1140 Words | 3 Pages.
A Move to a Better Life I always ask the question to myself, what would come of me if I would have stayed and lived in my “hometown”, the city . of references and research, Long Beach for the entirety of essay ng wika, my juvenile life . The populated city is north of San Diego and about twenty miles south of the city of Los Angeles. Common in most towns or cities anywhere in the world, there is what’s known as a friendly side of town and a bad, sketchy, or ghetto side of town. In Long Beach it is no different with it having a well-known. Family , Father , High school 1351 Words | 3 Pages. Mark G. Period 6 01.24.12 AP Literature Othello Words Essay The word “heaven” is one of the most frequently . used words in the play Othello. Throughout the play, the and research word is compare and contrase essay used in various forms with numerous connotations, often including multiple ones in a single incident. “Heaven” is references and research paper used in for master's thesis the first few acts mostly as a “power or majesty of heaven, or as God”(“Heaven” Def. 7a). The people refer to the heavens as a God or a divine being, such as when Cassio says “Oh, let the heavens Give him.
Connotation , Dictionary , English language 887 Words | 3 Pages. in a more accurate way. WELL, that is how I feel about what I write. Since coming home for the summer, I’ve revisited old papers and essays . for further refinement and fine tweaking just because I think it’s fun (and because I’m a perfectionist, whoops). So some of the paper essays I post are more loved and letter, tended to than others, but today I am posting the first essay I wrote for references and research the Nonfiction Writing class I took this past spring at sociology research thesis KU. It’s come a long way since then, and I’m certain I will pay it. Microsoft Word , Political correctness , Word 2077 Words | 6 Pages. Attempt to Say Nothing in 750 Words An English class has rarely been a subject that majority of students be apt to love. There are always . References And Research! quite a few assignments to write and as the years of education increases, the assignments are needed to be in more standardized and complicated requirements. Essays are no longer written in single sentences, paragraphs, or short summaries about yourself, or something interesting, in my point of view. Essay Much Ado About Shakespeare! It will always be about an article or something to be researched.
Article , Essay , Essays 891 Words | 3 Pages. specimens exhibit an apparent lack of certain volatiles. References And Research Paper! One origin theory suggests that the Moon is the product of a huge collision between a . Mars-sized object and the primordial Earth. The resulting debris from this impact later accreted and formed the Moon. This theory mainly draws its support from computer impact simulations and a great many assumptions, but it lacks the physical evidence necessary to support it. Finding a common theory of origin for the Earth and Moon has proven to be quite difficult. Dwarf planet , Earth , Mars 987 Words | 3 Pages. ?The purpose of this essay is to reflect upon any article of my choice I have come across. For this reason,I have chosen an online article from argumentative nuclear . the daily mail under the health section dated March 23, 2014. For the purpose of this reflective essay , I shall be writing in the first person . Also in accordance to the NMC(2002) code of professional conduct and practice,confidentiality will be maintained and references and research paper, all names changed to protect identity.
To help structure my essay , I will be using the Gibb’s (2008. Proposals! Blood , Drugs , Error 489 Words | 2 Pages. lives meaning, helps us make good choices, and allows us to keep going despite setbacks and and research paper, problems. Most successful people have dreams…a vision of want . they want in life . As a college student, you are in the process of compare and contrase essay, dreaming about references and research, a new future, a new career, and new world of ideas and knowledge. You are looking for your purpose in life . You might be undecided (which is normal for new college students), but go with your “gut feelings”. So let’s begin with the end in compare mind…what are your dreams, or. Education , Essay , Five paragraph essay 745 Words | 4 Pages. Chukanova Ms. Pannunzio ENG3UI 03/03/2014 The Power of Words . Patrie Rothfuss once . said - “ Words are pale shadows of references and research paper, forgotten names.
As the names have power, words have power. Words can light fires in the mind of men. Much! Words can bring tears from the references and research paper hardest hearts.” Life of Pi directed by Ang Lee, highly inspired and affectionate movie. Life of ng wika 2013, Pi is a three part story of Piscine Patel, a sixteen- year- old South Indian boy who survives out at references and research paper sea. Change , Existentialism , Fiction 1580 Words | 4 Pages. The thesis in the article ?The origins of the World War', by Sidney B. Fay, can clearly be stated as the explanation for World War I. Fay . states that no one country is responsible for the creation of the war. Furthermore, he goes on to explain that each of the European country's leaders did, or failed to do ?certain' things to provoke the other countries into a war. Fay states, One must abandon the dictum of the Versailles Treaty that Germany and her allies were solely responsible.
It was a dictum. Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria , Austria , Germany 1558 Words | 4 Pages. Origin and Definition of the Word Miasma. Miasma The word miasma is apa citation thesis derived from references and research Post-Classical Latin, derived from the Greek word miainein which means to . pollute. The word Miasma has two main meanings that are similar but are different is distinct ways. Research Proposals! The original meaning, the first i will be discussing, at its most basic means bad air. A little more in depth it refers to paper, an atmosphere, fog, or vapor that is foul smelling, unpleasant, noxious, and or poisonous. This word accurately describes things like foul. Dictionary , English language , Germ theory of disease 588 Words | 4 Pages. Nothing! _____________________________________ Date ________________________________ Period ___ My Dream Life Essay Due Date: Typed . final drafts are due on _______________________ at the beginning of the period.
Your graded final draft will be placed in your portfolio. Organization of references and research, Paper: Title: Come up with a creative title Paragraph #1: Introduction. Use one of the “hooks” from the six choices on essay nuclear power side 2. And Research! Don’t forget to let your reader know what your essay will be about (career, family, friends, relationships, house, and. Automobile , Dream , Henry David Thoreau 647 Words | 2 Pages. Ex. 3 Analyzing short writing assignments. * Underline the key words . What do the following short assignments require? * How would you . complete them? Example In what (ways) do porpoises (differ from) dolphins? ways: enumeration; differ from: contrast I would enumerate the differences between dolphins and porpoises 1. Explain how a caterpillar becomes a butterfly.
2. For Linggo Ng Wika 2013! Discuss three major reasons that people who leave the and research paper security of their home cultures. Computer , Computer program , Database management system 1132 Words | 4 Pages. ?Hu Shek Teng SCM-025922 24/11/2014 Appeal to common belief, technology advance has made life easier and plays a significant role in . almost all fields of and contrase essay, human life . The tremendous benefits of technology are very inspiring indeed. References! However, the dark sides of technology should be also concerned. Apa Citation Style For Master's Thesis! One of the most critical consequences was the health of human being critically devastated. People around the world had become increasingly glued to electronic gadgets. Moreover, reporting of health issues. Carpal tunnel , Carpal tunnel syndrome , Human 550 Words | 2 Pages. Topic: Food In The Cafeteria Should Be Healthy Type of references and research paper, essay : Persuasion Introduction: Introduction Sentence: Parents spend a . lot of time keeping their children healthy but at a young age, they start school and essay nothing, many schools n lot of time keeping their children healthy but at paper a young age, they start school and many schools now a days have cafeterias. Cafeteria , Greek loanwords , Rhetoric 861 Words | 5 Pages. ?The word baroque is derived from the Portuguese word `barocco', meaning irregular pearl. Until nineteenth century the . Compare And Contrase Essay! word baroque was used mostly as a fancy synonym for references and research `absurd' and `grotesque'.
The characteristic feature of this style is energy, lack of harmony, attraction for the ornate and an explosive elaboration, which almost conceals the underlining order or pattern. M. H Abrams in, `Glossary of Literary Terms' defines baroque as a ...term applied by the art historians to a style of architecture. Essay Ado About Nothing! Baroque , Thomas de Quincey 496 Words | 2 Pages. Words - The Poet’s Tools to references paper, Life Words are powerful tools that inspire and connect people. Words . challenge and inspire a poet’s audience by allowing the essay for linggo ng wika author to convey different messages to references paper, the reader. Utilizing these tools, the poet can take readers to faraway places, lend understanding, and evoke strong emotions.
Writers string them together in the hope of communicating new ideas that expose their deepest fears, desires, and truths. In “The Chimney Sweeper,” William Blake utilizes literary. Chimney , Chimney sweep , Chimneys 1529 Words | 4 Pages. : try — es·say·er noun Examples of ESSAY There is no hint as to which of the proposals approaches essayed in this book will prove most useful. References! . First Known Use of sociology thesis, ESSAY 14th century Related to ESSAY Synonyms assay, endeavor, attempt, seek, strive, try Related Words fight, strain, struggle, toil, trouble, work; aim, aspire, hope; assume, take up, undertake Near Antonyms drop, give up, quit more See Synonym Discussion at attempt Rhymes with ESSAY abbe, affray, agley, airplay, airway. Article , Essay , Essays 437 Words | 3 Pages. 1. References Paper! Paul Roberts draws us in to essay much ado about nothing, his essay , How to Say Nothing in 500 Words , by presenting us with a relatable . situation. This is an effective technique for maintaining the attention of the audience because it shows the writer knows where we are coming from.
Once this connection has been established we may find it easier to and research, believe the material that the writer presents us with. 2. Because the student doesn't hold a strong a opinion on the essay's subject matter he begins by leaning towards his. Essay , Linguistics , Microsoft Word 726 Words | 2 Pages. Origins of a Memoir/ Autobiography I’ve read a lot of ado about shakespeare, memoirs, autobiographies, personal essays , collected letters, and . autobiographical novels in my life , but this is the first time I’ve studied the memoir/ autobiographical form as a genre. An interesting fact I learned right away was that the word “memoir” comes down to us from the Latin “memoria,” meaning memory or reminiscence, through the references and research Anglo-French memorie in the mid-1500s, meaning “a note, memorandum, something written to be kept in. Autobiographical novel , Autobiography , Biography 1438 Words | 4 Pages. AP/IB 11 Biology Origins of Life on Earth There are multiple theories as to how life began on earth, beginning . Essay! with the findings of various revolutionary scientists. This paper will discuss various scientists' theories and experiments as they strove to discover how life began, and paper, the processes that might have occurred in order to develop and create the world we are now familiar with today. Recent discovered functions of RNA have suggested that RNA provides a crucial framework in the evolution. Ado About! Bacteria , Cell , DNA 1187 Words | 4 Pages.
In my opinion being a responsible soldier is a man or woman who attempts to live and apply the references army values to everyday life . By placing the . mission first soldiers automatically put themselves second to everything they do; meaning selfless service. Regardless of rank they know how to act in situations where they must present a professional and style, military image. They also take pride in references and research what they do every day for their country. Responsible soldiers take full responsibility for new cosmetologist cover all actions preformed by. American Revolutionary War , Army , Continental Army 536 Words | 2 Pages. Norma McCorvey, pro- life activists continue to thrive for new laws banning, or at least tightly restricting induced abortion. Due to that . References And Research Paper! decision, abortion has become a safety net—preventing unwanted pregnancies, controlling whether or not parents have a handicapped child, etc. In Sallie Tisdale’s “We Do Abortions Here: A Nurse’s Story”, readers get an new cosmetologist inside look on the actual procedure itself, giving them an idea of what goes on and research paper in the world of medicine. Although this essay may highlight the apa citation style thesis beneficial.
Abortion , Abortion debate , Fertility 1081 Words | 3 Pages. limit, and applicants and references, counselors frequently debated whether a tight 450- word essay was a wiser approach than a detailed . 900- word piece. In 2011, that decision was taken away as the Common Application moved to a relatively short 500 - word limit. With the August 2013 release of CA4 (the newest version of the nothing shakespeare Common Application), the guidelines have changed once again. And Research! CA4 sets the limit at 650 words (and a minimum of 250 words ). And unlike earlier versions of the Common Application, the length limit. Cash flow , College admissions in the United States , College application 736 Words | 4 Pages. ? Meghan McEwan The film 500 Days of Summer we see a developing relationship between the two main characters Tom and cover letter, Summer. Some . And Research! might deny that this is a love story because it doesn’t have your typical happy ending, but none the less it is a love story with a lot to say about relationships and new cosmetologist cover, the types of love that are evolved during it. References And Research Paper! This relationship starts out illustrating how both of the characters view life and essay ng wika, love.
Tom is described as a hopeless romantic in the beginning of. Agape , Greek words for love , Interpersonal relationship 1186 Words | 4 Pages. monograph; More 2. formal an attempt or effort. a misjudged essay synonyms: attempt, effort, endeavor, try, venture, trial, experiment, . undertaking his first essay in telecommunications a trial design of a postage stamp yet to be accepted. verbformal verb: essay ; 3rd person present: essays ; past tense: essayed; past participle: essayed; gerund or present participle: essaying e?sa/ 1. attempt or try. References And Research! essay a smile Origin late 15th century (as a verb in the sense ‘test the quality. Definition , Essay , Gerund 608 Words | 4 Pages. ?Assignment The student should complete a brief essay analysing the compare and contrase essay use of paper, technologies to enhance your own learning and teaching. This should . also include the benefits and limitations of using technology in learning and teaching. Ng Wika! (400 words minimum) Technology has moved on in leaps and references and research paper, bounds within the last thirty years and can be a great benefit but may also be frustrating for some that do not understand how to new cosmetologist cover, use it. From my own perspective the internet (computers, tablets and phones) has helped. Learning 916 Words | 2 Pages. make a move. Whether the references and research paper outcome is good or bad, I have to take responsibility for essay my actions. I hope that this tactic will ignite my future next year as a . college freshmen as well as something that will positively aid me throughout the duration of my life . Over the course of high school, I have slowly felt myself grow and mature into a young woman. I believe it is important to feel a change in your character through the course of references paper, high school. This change can either be good or bad, it is up to that. 2004 albums , 2005 albums , 2008 singles 514 Words | 2 Pages.
3/1/10 6th period Word count: 862 Life of compare, Pi Essay Many people that are religious look to God for guidance and . References! comfort. Especially in research proposals disastrous situations. In Yann Martel’s novel, Life of Pi, the theme of will to survive is presented and demonstrated as having faith, letting animal instincts take over, and determination. Pi keeping his faith shows how strong his faith in references paper God is. He discusses some Hindu symbolism to describe how insignificant he feels, then mumbled words of Muslim prayer and. Atheism , God , Instinct 891 Words | 3 Pages. A Definition Essay on the Word Romance. The Attraction of argumentative nuclear, Romance Romance: the word the puts the art in heart, the word describes the actions that take place to imprint . your name in a girls head, the word that everyone thinks about when two people are madly in love with one another. The Oxford English Dictionary tells the word came from 1497 from a time when chivalry was the key to love. In this time, the word meant to be chivalrous, but in modern times to and research paper, romance someone is to “put your moves on them” to dazzle someone with your personality.
English language , French language , Kid Rock 925 Words | 3 Pages. ? Social media plays a significant role in ensuring that advertising is successful. Argumentative Essay Nuclear Power! Social media is made up of websites that enable users to references and research paper, create and . share content with other users across the internet. In today’s world almost everything that takes place revolves around social media and as a result any new product, business or service being advertised is associated with social media in some way. According to some analysts, social media is “a group of Internet-based applications that build. Advertising , Brand , Facebook 844 Words | 3 Pages. these energy there is renewable energy. Ng Wika 2013! It is very important nowadays as it brings a positive environmental impact, development in the economy, energy . security for a bright future. These are some types of sustainable energy already mentioned.This essay is going to focusing on and research paper solar panel and will also discuss the cost, the use of argumentative power, facilities, energy storage and also the negative effects of references and research paper, using solar panel such as weather problem, it controlled by geography, need more space, sunlight is weak energy. Alternative energy , Energy development , Fossil fuel 596 Words | 2 Pages. was different from the apa citation government in Sparta. Athens had 10 tribes, known as phylae, and these tribes were split into thirds, known as trittyes. Each trittye . was broken up into 140 demes (municipalities).
The Boule was a council that was made up of references paper, 500 men, with 50 from cover each of the 10 tribes. The members of the council were chosen by their demes. The Assembly was open to all male citizens in and research paper Athens. New Cosmetologist Cover! The Assembly met 40 times a year (4 times each month, for 10 months), and would discuss foreign policy. Ancient Greece , Athens , Classical Athens 997 Words | 3 Pages. comparison essay of two different life. ?Nur Liyana binti Aznan Debbie Lynch ESL 004 Comparison Essay : revision paper 21th November 2014 The Two Different World High school as well . as university have been major parts of references paper, my life and I went through a transition between these two diverse and different worlds.
My high school, which was International Education Centre (Intec) was a preparatory center for students who want to further their education abroad. After I graduated, I started my tertiary education at Pennsylvania State University at. Big Ten Conference , Education , Penn State Harrisburg 2387 Words | 11 Pages. Sociology Research Proposals! Words are powerless when looked at individually but they have the potential for good or evil, when someone who can properly use them to his . References And Research Paper! or her advantage. Compare And Contrase Essay! That is what Nathaniel Hawthorne quote means, and I fully agree with him. References And Research! An example of words being used for evil could be a dictator trying to convince his people that he is best for the country. Argumentative! An example of words being used for good could be a civil rights activist trying to persuade people to and research, get along and to treat everyone with respect. Core issues in ethics , Evil , God 1292 Words | 4 Pages. drinking and posing funny styles.
She fears that if such photos are seen by ng wika her working mates who are younger and others older than her, they will not be . Paper! taking her seriously. She contributes that she does not have any problem exposing her personal life to her fellow teens. It is a normal phenomenon for her to essay ado about nothing, post her newest fashion on her facebook profile for and research other teenagers to have a look at. And Contrase Essay! Ms. Liu is not only concerned about her looks and references and research paper, reputation but also her sisters, she had asked her sister.
20th century , 2nd millennium , Change 1749 Words | 5 Pages. Communication: Meaning of Life and Words. CRIMINOLOGY/DLM MODULE: COMMUNICATION TASK 1: EXPLAIN HOW WORDS CAN DICTATE PREJUDICE AND PERCEPTION NAME: DENNIS OKODOI OJUMA ADMISSION . NUMBER: 8034 TRAINERS NAME: JACINTA WARINGA DATE SUBMITTED:1/02/2014 TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction………………………………………. 2 How words dictate prejudice and new cosmetologist cover letter, perception…….. And Research Paper! 3,4,5,6 Conclusion…………………………………………. 7 References…………………………………………..8 INTRODUCTION The words we use and the order in we use them give particular meaning. Communication , Connotation , Existentialism 1558 Words | 5 Pages. 800 Word Essay Food, health and medical technologies have a large impact on individuals and communities today and in the . future.
Throughout this paper, discussion will involve the issues that society faces regarding food and health and how we can create a healthier and apa citation style, safer world for our future. The food industry has a large impact on individuals and will affect wider communities in the future. The rush of today’s society has pushed food production to become more commercialized with prepackaged/premade. And Research! Fast food , Food , Health 826 Words | 3 Pages. the Usage of the “N” Word When discussing the definition, effects, and essay for linggo ng wika, the history behind the “N” word , it is interesting how . this word has managed to change over time from references and research paper having a descriptive meaning, to a negative connotation, and to a positive controversial meaning. That is why there are those who believe that the apa citation style for master's thesis “N” word should and should not be used, and there are those that believe that only some (or the accepted ones) should use it in order to avoid conflicts. This essay will go over and research some. Apa Citation Style! Black people , Hip hop , Hip hop music 918 Words | 3 Pages. References And Research! The Odyssey Translations Essay WORD. New Cosmetologist Cover Letter! ?The Odyssey Translations Essay The Odyssey is an epic poem, written in references and research classical Greek, describing Odysseus's adventures in his ten year . attempt to return to Ithaca after the Trojan War. Since this 2,500 year old book was written, there have been several English translations that are believed to be the closest interpretations to the original version of The Odyssey.
Alexander Pope, Emile V. Rieu, Robert Fitzgerald, and Robert Fagles each wrote a translation of his own. These translations are read. Aeneid , Cyclops , Homer 865 Words | 3 Pages. PHYS1160 Essays Essays should be between 1500 and 2000 words . The word limit should include the . text, figure captions, footnotes, but not the reference list (we are happy to apa citation for master's thesis, see lots of references). And Research! You will lose marks for going over or under the word limit. You are welcome to include pictures. However try to cover letter, ensure that they help to and research paper, illustrate the argument presented in the essay and compare and contrase essay, are not mere adornment. References And Research Paper! Your essay should be written for a well informed but non-specialist audience.
The style used. Colonization of research, Mars , Jupiter , Mars 1356 Words | 5 Pages. Montessori Method. And Research Paper! This is argumentative essay power because the child gets pleasure through work and the practical life exercise, provides the child with a meaningful . tasks. Children are naturally interested in paper activities they have witnessed. Therefore, Dr. Montessori began to using what she called “Practical Life Exercise” to allow the child to do activities of daily life and adapt himself in thesis proposals his society. The purpose and aim of practical life is to help the paper child gain control in the coordination of his movement, and help the.
Consciousness , Digestion , Maria Montessori 1948 Words | 6 Pages.
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cleopatra vii essay This is an online version of an article first published in Sir Robert Cotton as Collector: Essays on an Early Stuart Courtier and His Legacy , edited by C. References And Research. J. And Contrase Essay. Wright. London: British Library Publications, 1997: 391-454. 'Their Present Miserable State of Cremation': the Restoration of the Cotton Library. The aged overseer paused. 'Well, I doubt if you'd even understand it. I don't.
He seems to have found a method for restoring missing words and phrases to some of the old fragments of original text in the Memorabilia. Perhaps the left-hand side of a half-burned book is legible, but the right-hand page is burned, with a few words missing at the end of each line. He's worked out a mathematical method for finding the missing words. It's not foolproof, but it works to references paper some degree'. W.M.
Miller, Jr., A Canticle for Leibowitz. The October 1731 number of the newly-established Gentleman's Magazine included the following notice in its reports of 'Casualties' for the month: 23 [Oct.]. A Fire broke out in the House of Mr Bently , adjoining to the King's School near Westminster Abbey , which burnt down that part of the House that contained the essay power King's and Cottonian Libraries. And Research Paper. Almost all the printed Books were consumed and part of the Manuscripts. Amongst the latter, those which Dr Bentley had been collecting for his Greek Testament for these last ten years, valued at 2000 l.(2) This short note, tucked away between reports of the discovery of a disfigured corpse near Bath and an accidental shooting at essay 2013 Hackney, records what was perhaps the greatest bibliographical disaster of modern times in Britain. It is and research difficult to quantify the scale of the losses to the Cotton library as a result of the fire at Bentley's residence, Ashburnham House.
A number of letters preserve colourful anecdotes about the fire, such as the famous story of Dr Bentley escaping from the flames in nightgown and proposals, wig with Codex Alexandrinus under his arms,(3) but the most detailed source of information about the fire and paper, the damage inflicted by it is a report by thesis proposals a parliamentary committee established to investigate the incident, which was published in 1732.(4) This contained two valuable appendices. The first was 'A Narrative of the Fire. and references paper, of the Methods used for preserving and recovering the cover Manuscripts of the Royal and Cottonian libraries',(5) compiled by and research the Reverend William Whiston the younger, the clerk in charge of the records kept in argumentative essay nuclear power, the Chapter House at paper Westminster, another notorious firetrap.(6) The second was a list of lost and damaged manuscripts, prepared by David Casley, the deputy librarian of research thesis both the Royal and Cotton libraries, with the assistance of Whiston. (7) Casley's list was afterwards reprinted in summary form, with a few amendments, in his 1734 catalogue of the Royal Library.(8) Whiston stated that the Cotton library contained before the and research fire 958 manuscript volumes, of which 114 were 'lost, burnt or intirely spoiled' and another 98 so damaged as to be defective.(9) These figures have invariably been cited in accounts of the Cotton fire. They are, however, misleading. In one sense, they overstate the amount of damage.
Many of the manuscripts reported as lost by Whiston and Casley were in fact preserved as fragments or 'burnt lumps' which were beyond the reach of eighteenth-century conservation technology but were successfully restored during the nineteenth century.(10) Consequently, the majority of manuscripts reported as lost in 1732 are available for consultation today. And Contrase Essay. In fact, only references and research, thirteen manuscripts were utterly destroyed in thesis, the Cotton fire, mostly from the Otho press.(11) Although relatively few complete volumes were destroyed, many manuscripts lost important articles or survive only as charred fragments. In this sense, the details given by Whiston and Casley underestimate the damage. References And Research Paper. In particular, many of the manuscripts said by Casley to have survived the fire intact actually suffered serious damage. One of the style most famous victims of the fire was the manuscript containing the unique exemplar of Beowulf , Vitellius A. XV.(12) The edges of paper this manuscript were badly scorched and for master's, the vellum left very brittle. Its subsequent handling caused serious textual loss.
This manuscript is not, however, included in Casley's list of those damaged in the fire. Tiberius A. III is a composite volume containing various eleventh-century items mostly of Canterbury origin, including St Æthelwold's translation of the Rule of paper St Benedict, works by nuclear Ælfric and one of the two surviving copies of the Regularis Concordia , prefaced by a famous drawing of King Edgar with St Dunstan and and research paper, St Æthelwold.(13) This volume was also said by Casley to have survived the fire unharmed, but again there was damage to the edges of the folios and thesis proposals, the water used to references paper put out the for linggo ng wika 2013 fire caused staining. The drawing of King Edgar had become warped and buckled. In the references absence of any meaningful statistics, the best way of new cosmetologist conveying the catastrophic nature of the paper losses in the Ashburnham House fire is by a random roll call of some of the victims.(14) Cotton's pride and joy, the fifth-century Greek Genesis (Otho B. VI), one of the earliest illustrated Christian manuscripts in existence, was reduced to a pile of argumentative essay nuclear cinder-like fragments.(15) Cotton possessed two of the four surviving letters patent of King John recording the grant of Magna Carta. One of these, now Cotton Charter XIII.
31a, was the only one with the Great Seal still attached. References Paper. In the heat, not only cover, was the text damaged but the seal was left as a shapeless blob.(16) The bull confirming the title 'Defender of the Faith' on Henry VIII (now Vitellius B. IV*) was reduced to half a dozen greatly shrunken and distorted fragments. Otho A. XII contained unique exemplars of two key texts for the Anglo-Saxon period, Asser's Life of Alfred and The Battle of Maldon , together with other Old English material.(17) Although 40 folios of the original 155 were eventually recovered, both Asser and Maldon perished completely. References And Research Paper. Among the thesis chronicle texts which were lost or very badly damaged were the earliest manuscript of references Gildas (Vitellius A. Essay. VI),(18) the 'G' manuscript of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in Otho B. XI,(19) and references, the only extant manuscript of thesis Æthelweard's chronicle (Otho A. X).(20) Cartularies from such houses as Lenton (Otho B. XIV),(21) St Albans (Otho D. III) and St Augustine, Canterbury (Otho B. XV), were also lost or very badly damaged, as well as such historical texts as the earliest copy of the Burghal Hidage, part of Otho B. XI.(22) Among the and research illuminated manuscripts ruined in the fire might be singled out a portion of an early eighth-century gospel book from Northumbria, Otho C. And Contrase. V, if only because another fragment of this manuscript survives intact in Cambridge, Corpus Christi College, MS 197B, and shows that it was an insular gospel-book from the greatest period of and research paper Northumbrian illumination.(23) These are mostly medieval examples. The devastation caused to Cotton's early modern historical collections was probably as great, but has been less thoroughly documented. It is a measure of the richness of Cotton's library that, despite such losses, it still remains an new cosmetologist letter incomparable source for the history, literature and art of medieval and and research, Tudor England. On the morning after the fire, Little Dean's Yard in Westminster must have been a sad sight. Ashburnham House was a smouldering ruin. The ground was littered with fragments of ado about burnt manuscripts, which the boys of Westminster School picked up and kept as souvenirs.(24) As the manuscripts had been rescued from the flames, they had been taken to references paper various rooms in Westminster School. When the fire had finally been put out, they were assembled in the great boarding house of the school, opposite Ashburnham House. Two days later, they were transferred to a recently completed building intended as a new dormitory for research the school.(25) These operations were supervised by the Speaker, Arthur Onslow, a Cotton trustee, who on hearing of the fire had rushed from references and research paper his house nearby to help save the manuscripts.
Onslow summoned together a group of experts, including not only Bentley and Casley, but also keepers of essay nothing such other record repositories as the Chapter House at Westminster, the paper Tower of London and the Exchequer, to consider how the sociology proposals damaged manuscripts could be conserved.(26) The deliberations of this group and references, the work subsequently undertaken were recorded by William Whiston in his appendix to the 1732 parliamentary report.(27) Although Whiston's report is well known, little notice has been taken in descriptions of individual Cotton Manuscripts of the impact of the emergency conservation work undertaken immediately after the fire, when a number of manuscripts were broken up and ng wika, rebound. It seems likely that, in the process, leaves were not reassembled in the correct order and the collation of some volumes permanently disrupted. This important stage in the codicological history of and research paper many Cotton Manuscripts has been generally overlooked. It is therefore worth describing in some detail the procedures adopted by nothing Whiston and his colleagues. It is difficult nowadays, looking at the collection after more than two hundred years of conservation work, to imagine the scale of the problem confronting Speaker Onslow's panel of experts. The picture which comes to mind is of a huge collection of loose charred fragments, but the pattern of damage caused by the fire and 'engine-water' was more complex.(28) The vellum manuscripts had frequently stayed together as a single unit, but had warped and references and research, shrunk in the heat, each codex rolling up into a misshappen ball. Animal fat had been drawn out from the vellum by the heat and then congealed, turning the manuscript into a glutinous mass, blackened around the edges. As it cooled, the manuscript became very brittle.
One Royal manuscript burnt in the fire, deliberately left unconserved, preserves some idea of the appearance of these extraordinary objects.(29) It looks like an argumentative power irradiated armadillo. Moreover, as is references paper still the sociology thesis proposals case with library fires, the water used to extinguish the references and research blaze had caused as much damage as the flames.(30) The paper manuscripts in particular were sodden and and contrase essay, urgently needed drying, as there was a risk of mould.(31) Initial conservation work began on 1 November 1731, just over a week after the fire.(32) The stained and damp paper manuscripts, mostly sixteenth-century State Papers, were disbound, and a bookbinder employed to clean the leaves and wash them in an alum solution. References. A number of research thesis presumably unskilled assistants were hired to turn over the leaves to references and research prevent the formation of essay mould. References And Research. The leaves were hung on lines to dry and afterwards bound up again. It was found that the wet vellum manuscripts could be satisfactorily dried by leaving them open on the floor and regularly turning the leaves.
The worst affected were dried in front of a fire. Sociology Proposals. A few vellum manuscripts were disbound and the folios hung up on lines in groups of two or three to dry. Unfortunately, Whiston does not specify which manuscripts were treated in this way. The rescue team next tackled those manuscripts which had suffered more from fire and heat than water. Where possible, the burnt vellum manuscripts were opened up leaf by leaf and and research, 'the glutinous Matter, that had been forced out upon the Edges of the Vellum and argumentative nuclear power, Parchment by the Heat of the Fire, was carefully taken off by the Fingers. '.(33) Despite Whiston's claim that, except for a few of minor value, all the damaged vellum manuscripts had been treated in this way, it seems that little progress was made.
Later descriptions of the references collection all confirm that the burnt vellum manuscripts were in a particularly bad condition.(34) In any case, the treatment described by Whiston would hardly have left these manuscripts in a fit condition for use. The burnt paper manuscripts were an easier proposition. Power. The individual leaves were washed, cleaned and hung up to dry. Afterwards, the leaves were 'several Times looked over; and the Pieces, that were Parts of the same Book, were laid together, as much as could be found.'(35) Whiston stated that, from the surviving paper fragments, 'several large Portions of references and research Books, and some entire Books have been made up out of them'.(36) Whiston does not identify these eighteenth-century reconstructions of Cotton Manuscripts. He urged that, when a volume had been recovered in this way, 'each Book or Portion of Book, so collected together, should be carefully collated, and compare, the Leaves placed, as near as possible, in the same Order, that they were in before the references and research Fire'.(37) Despite these efforts, a large number of essay much ado about shakespeare 'single Leaves, or Pieces of Leaves' remained unidentified, and were put into drawers. And Research Paper. These included many fragments of burnt vellum manuscripts and indeed the sociology more intractable 'burnt lumps' of vellum. Whiston proposed that these fragments be arranged 'into Covers or Drawers, according to the respective Subjects they treat of, that so the least Fragment may not be lost'.(38) It does not seem that this far-sighted proposal was implemented. The initial rescue work was conducted at enormous speed. It had been largely completed by the time Whiston submitted his report on 20 January 1732, within three months of the and research fire.
Inevitably there must be doubts about the accuracy of work undertaken with great haste, partly by essay for linggo ng wika unskilled assistants, in primitive conditions and without the aid of modern bibliographical tools. Later workers on the collection commented that it had suffered 'by the carelessness of references those that have been the first employed in preserving them'.(39) Whiston does not specify how individual manuscripts were treated, but the general figures he provides indicate that about a third of the volumes in the collection were subjected to this rough and much nothing, ready conservation work.(40) The labours of Whiston and his colleagues already place a very great gulf between the modern user of the references paper Cotton library and the library as it existed before the fire. In discussing the collation of any Cotton manuscript which shows signs of severe damage from damp, it is worth remembering that in 1731 the manuscript may have been taken apart and the leaves hung up on compare washing lines by an illiterate artisan. Whiston and his fellow workers stand as the first of a series of intermediaries between the modern scholar and the original Cotton library. They inaugurated a process of conservation work on the collection which has continued intermittently to paper the present day. Just as the story of the Cotton collection to 1731 was one of and contrase growth and development, so its history since then has been one of references paper successive attempts to restore the collection to its pre-fire state.
Historical and literary scholars have throughout this time given manuscript evidence an increasingly elevated status. For many, the original manuscript has served as a touchstone, a firm fixed point to which scholars can return when they are buffeted by thesis proposals the cross-currents of intellectual debate. And Research Paper. In the case of the Cotton collection, however, the manuscripts themselves have undergone a process of evolution and change as successive curators have sought to restore them to their original state. In a number of cases, a particular manuscript is little more than an intelligent reconstruction of the original, comparable to, and just as open to doubt and challenge as, say, an nuclear archaeological reconstruction.(41) Whiston's concern that each manuscript fragment from the Cotton library should be carefully preserved was echoed in more elevated language by the Reverend Thomas Fitzgerald, the Usher of Westminster School, in references and research, his lines Upon the Burning of the Cottonian Manuscripts at Ashburnham House .(42) Fitzgerald reflects on how these 'learned Spoils of twice a thousand years' had survived Goths, Vandals and, even more dangerous in Fitzgerald's view, 'reforming Zeal', only to apa citation for master's thesis perish in and research paper, a fire. In the essay climax of the poem, Fitzgerald called for each fragment to be treated as if it was a holy relic: Whate'er the Fury of the Flames has spar'd. With zealous Care, with awful Rev'rence guard . Each Code, each Volume, ev'ry Fragment Prize: As Rome her Relicks sav'd from Times of Old: With Gems profusely decks, and shrines in Gold; Tho' none like these, with all her Pomp and Cost, Or Rome, or all her Vatican can boast. Despite these poetic injunctions, nothing was done for the further preservation of the Cotton library following the publication of the parliamentary report in 1732. The manuscripts languished in references and research, their temporary accommodation in essay nuclear, Westminster School for another twenty years.
During this time, the building where the library was stored became known as the 'Old Dormitory' and Casley, the Library's custodian, became senile. The only immediate effect of the catastrophe at Ashburnham House appears to have been to encourage the first moves in 1751 for the publication of Domesday Book, then kept in the Westminster Chapter House and also at great risk from fire.(43) In 1743, Major Arthur Edwards, a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries and enthusiastic amateur archaeologist,(44) left seven thousand pounds 'to erect a house in which to preserve the Cotton Library, or should such a house have meantime been provided, to purchase manuscripts, books of references paper antiquities, ancient coins, medals and other curiosities to come to the Library'.(45) Edwards's bequest was, however, subject to a life interest and did not become available until 1769.(46) Edwards also left his books and pictures as additions to the library.(47) It was through the intervention of another Edwards, Vigerus Edwards, that the collections of the record scholar and historian of the Exchequer Thomas Madox were deposited with the Cotton library.(48) The Edwards and Madox deposits represent perhaps the last vestiges of the idea that the Cotton library might form the nucleus of a national historical archive.(49) The future of the Cotton library was finally secured in 1753 by the establishment of the British Museum as a result of Sir Hans Sloane's bequest. With other manuscript collections in national ownership it was transferred to the custody of the Trustees of the new Museum.(50) One of their first actions was to inspect the collections placed in their charge. On 2 February 1754 a committee of the Trustees visited the Old Dormitory to examine the Cotton Library.(51) They found that Casley was by now 'disabled by for linggo ng wika 2013 age and infirmity from executing the references and research duty of his post in new cosmetologist cover, his own person' and his responsibilities were discharged by his wife, who showed the library to visitors.
It was presumably at about this time that Mrs Casley gave a visitor to the library a handful of burnt fragments as a souvenir.(52) Casley was also assisted by Richard Widmore, the Keeper of the library of Westminster Abbey, who undertook detailed work on the charters, probably the most confused part of the collection. Despite the decrepit condition of the librarian, the committee seemed satisfied with what it found. References And Research Paper. They declared that the Old Dormitory 'though it has not the letter advantage of so much light, as would be proper for a library. is dry and secured from the weather. The MSS. as well as the books [presumably Major Edwards's legacy together with the remnants of Cotton's own printed books] appear to have sustained no injury from damp since the depositing them there, but they are in general so dusty that a speedy care of them is necessary in that respect'. Indeed, the committee felt that the references Old Dormitory would provide suitable temporary accommodation for the Harley Manuscripts, 'if a proper person were appointed for the custody and care of that collection'. The transfer of the argumentative essay power Harley Manuscripts to references paper the Old Dormitory proved unnecessary since the Trustees shortly afterwards purchased Montagu House in Great Russell Street to accommodate the new Museum. The work necessary to prepare Montagu House to argumentative essay nuclear power receive the Museum's collections proved protracted, and it was not until 1756, immediately before the removal of the Cotton collection to paper Great Russell Street, that a more systematic examination was made of the Cotton library. In July 1756, two Museum officers, Matthew Maty, the first Keeper of Printed Books and from 1772 to 1776 Principal Librarian, and Henry Rimius, submitted two reports on the Cotton collection to the Trustees. The first was printed in an abridged form in Samuel Hooper's 1777 catalogue of the collection,(53) but the essay second has never been printed.(54) Maty and Rimius checked the references and research collection against Smith's 1696 catalogue and Casley's list of manuscripts damaged in the fire, counting the volumes and comparing the contents of a sample from new cosmetologist letter each press against the catalogue entries.
They declared that the manuscripts in ten of the presses (Julius, Augustus, Claudius, Nero, Vespasian, Titus, Domitian, Cleopatra, Faustina and references and research, the Appendix) 'have suffered nothing by new cosmetologist letter the fire, and references paper, have been found to agree with Mr Smith's catalogue. Yet several of these being placed in presses much exposed to dampness in a cold and shady place, could hardly notwithstanding Mr Widmore's endeavours (which he has assured us have been very assiduous) be preserved from must and essay ado about nothing shakespeare, mouldiness and will want to be aired and carefully dried up before they are placed in the Museum'. The condition of the manuscripts in the presses more badly affected by the fire (Tiberius, Caligula, Galba, Otho and Vitellius) caused Maty and Rimius more concern. They declared that they 'could not find some of the articles specified by and research Mr Casley'. Some manuscripts which Casley reported as not badly damaged had indeed disappeared into the general stock of loose fragments, and did not resurface until the mid-nineteenth century. For example, Maty and Rimius were unable to find Tiberius D. Essay Ng Wika 2013. VI, a cartulary of Christchurch Priory, Hampshire, described in 1732 as a 'bundle of loose shrivell'd leaves' but otherwise largely intact. This was not rediscovered until 1837, when Sir Frederic Madden found it among unsorted loose fragments from the collection.(55) On the and research paper other hand, they identified some manuscripts which Casley had been unable to trace, stating that 'several of sociology thesis proposals those which he [Casley] declares to be entirely destroyed, may still be of some use in careful hands'.
These discrepancies were worrying enough, but an even greater cause for references and research concern were the environmental conditions of some of the presses, particularly the Vitellius press. 'Besides the damage done by the fire to the manuscripts in this press', Maty and Rimius reported, 'it has suffered no less by the carelessness of argumentative those that have been the first employed in preserving them, as well as by paper the extraordinary moistness of the place. The great humidity, together with the extension of that hue, which the fire extracted from the volumes wrote on style for master's vellum, having rolled the edges of most of them, defaced the references and research paper marks [presumably the pressmarks] and afforded both lodging and food to numberless shoals of worms and other insects.' The second report dealt with the and contrase essay surviving 'charters, curiosities co.' in the last press of the Cottonian cabinet. Maty and Rimius complained that 'The charters, warrants, deeds and other records contained in the last press of the Cottonian cabinet might have been examined with more ease and in less time had we found them disposed in references, any order, properly endorsed, or at least regularly numbered and nuclear power, sufficiently described'. And Research. This necessitated an compare and contrase examination of each item and a preliminary numeration of every one 'by which they could more easily be found out'. They were assisted in this by paper a draft catalogue prepared by Widmore.(56) The unnamed press containing the charters was divided into two parts. Compare And Contrase. Sixteen drawers in the top section and seven in the lower were stuffed with paper and references and research paper, parchment including several 'entirely relative to the Cotton family' which Maty and compare and contrase essay, Rimius felt were 'of little use to the public'. References And Research Paper. There were, nevertheless, several 'capital pieces', including the burnt Magna Carta.
This, they reported, was 'still very legible, and would be much more so had anything been done to repair the damages done by this dreadful accident'. It was placed by itself 'in a separate drawer, viz. no. 16 at the bottom'. For Master's. This press also contained a further three or four drawers filled with antiquities and references paper, 'other trinkets neither remarkable for their rareness or workmanship'. The most interesting part of this second report is, however, the statement that some charters had been lost 'amidst the rubbish of for linggo bits of parchment or of paper, scorched by the fire, or consumed by paper old age, which Mr Widmore thought too much destroyed to be either used or described'.
These were the fragments which Whiston and his colleagues had been unable to place in 1731, and had put to one side. They had been preserved as Whiston proposed, but not in the systematic way he envisaged. Indeed, as has been noted, some of the manuscripts successfully identified in 1731, such as the Christchurch Cartulary, had been stuffed away with the fragments. Widmore apparently thought the fragments should be disposed of, but Maty and Rimius wisely urged 'a more particular examination' before any further action, 'as it is not impossible but some things may still be retrieved'. The Cotton Manuscripts were removed to the Museum in essay nuclear power, the first half of references 1757.(57) Unlike the Sloane or Harley Manuscripts which were shelved according to subject classifications, they were arranged on shelves there by the existing 'emperor' pressmark system.(58) The Museum officers were unhappy about this arrangement, which they regarded as inelegant and unscientific. Compare. On 12 July 1757 it was reported to references and research paper the Trustees that 'The Cottonian Library has been removed into the new wired presses, in the same order in which the manuscripts stood in the old; without regard to the intermixture of tall and short books, which necessarily is thus made upon the same shelf'. It was suggested it would be better to 'range them all anew'.
The Trustees nevertheless resolved that the manuscripts should 'for the present continue in the order they now stand'.(59) As for the burnt manuscripts, it was reported that those 'which have been ascertained by the Catalogue, stand likewise in their order', suggesting that most of the items noted as usable by Casley were put in their appropriate places in the emperor sequence.(60) The 'other crusts and loose leaves' were however kept in the old presses, presumably the drawers formerly containing the charters which had been brought to the Museum. It was recommended that the Standing Committee should be empowered 'to imploy fit persons, if any such can be found, to restore those that are least damaged, as far as they are capable of it; and to and contrase remove those that shall be judged totally irrecoverable, into close presses to be kept by themselves'. Approving this proposal, the Trustees ordered that any material found to be beyond repair 'be for the present placed in the closet of the and research paper room where the Harleian Carts. now stand'.(61) The loose Cotton fragments remained associated with the Harley Charters and in essay nothing shakespeare, 1775 the paper Trustees ordered that these latter 'be removed in their presses as they now stand into one of the front garrets'. The fragments remained with these charters in Garret no. 8, which became known as the charter garret.(62) In July 1757, a Mr Mores, perhaps the typographical historian Edward Rowe Mores, wrote to the Principal Librarian claiming to have developed a method of restoring the leaves of vellum books damaged by fire. Mores was authorized to examine the damaged Cotton Manuscripts, but nothing came of his overtures.(63) In February 1758, Maty showed the Standing Committee a specimen of some loose sheets of fire damaged parchment restored by Mr Padeloup, a French bookbinder.(64) Impressed, the committee ordered the Keeper of Manuscripts, Charles Morton, to argumentative essay nuclear give Padeloup one of the burnt Cotton Manuscripts. A month later Padeloup returned the manuscript duly repaired. His work was judged satisfactory, but the price he proposed, three shillings for every dozen sheets, was considered prohibitive and and research, the project suspended.(65) Thus matters were left for another forty years. Essay For Linggo. The fragments lingered with the Harleian charters in Room I on references paper the Upper Floor of for linggo ng wika Montagu House.
It might be imagined that, now the burnt fragments were safely in references and research paper, the Museum, they were at least secure, but this was not the research case, as can be seen from the and research sorry tale of the Cotton Genesis.(66) Casley reported that, after the and contrase fire, 'Of this valuable Monument of Antiquity, about references and research 60 pieces of Leaves remain'. In 1743, George Vertue had borrowed some to make watercolour drawings of them to be shown at the Society of Antiquaries. Engravings of these drawings were published in Vetusta Monumenta in 1747. These fragments then disappeared from sight. In 1778 Henry Owen, who had collated the manuscript before the fire, stated that the fragments of the Genesis preserved from the fire had been lost.(67) At the end of the eighteenth century, Joseph Planta could only apa citation for master's thesis, find eighteen, none of and research which were among those copied by Vertue.
In fact, the loss was due (at least in part) to a Museum officer, Andrew Gifford, the first Assistant Keeper of the Department of Manuscripts.(68) On his death in 1784, Gifford, a Baptist minister, left his collections to the Bristol Baptist College. It seems that, before he died, Gifford had been using four of the fragments from the cover Cotton Genesis copied by Vertue. When his manuscripts and books were collected from the Museum, these fragments were inadvertently taken with them to Bristol. There they remained, unidentified and forgotten. In a 1795 catalogue of the Bristol library they were described as 'some pieces of an old copy of the Septuagint said to have been found in the ruins of the city of Herculaneum'. They were only finally reidentified in 1834 by Frederic Gotch, who wrote to references and research paper Hartwell Horne, an Under-Librarian at nothing the Museum, pointing out and research their survival. Cover Letter. Horne amended a footnote in one of his publications referring to the Cotton Genesis, but the references paper Museum authorities took no further action.(69) Gotch's discoveries remained virtually unknown until 1881 when he published a transcription of the argumentative Bristol fragments as a supplement to Tischendorf's edition of the text of the fragments left in the Museum.(70) Five other fragments used by Vertue have never been traced.(71) In his diary for 13 March 1856,(72) the redoubtable Keeper of Manuscripts Sir Frederic Madden speculated that the lost fragments might also have been taken to Bristol with Gifford's books. However, they have never been identified there.
More likely they were just thrown away when Gifford's belongings were disposed of. In 1928, the Bristol fragments were deposited on loan at the Museum, which finally reacquired them in 1962, nearly two hundred years after they had originally left the building.(73) In 1792, Thomas Astle, Keeper of Records at the Tower of London, urged the Trustees to paper authorize the compilation of a new catalogue of the Cotton library.(74) Users of the Cotton collection were at this time still chiefly reliant on Smith's 1696 catalogue. To establish if a manuscript had survived the compare fire, they had to cross-refer to Casley's 1732 list. References And Research. In 1777 Samuel Hooper had produced a subject catalogue of the Cotton collection,(75) but, although he published the argumentative power corrections of Maty and Rimius to Casley's schedule of damaged manuscripts,(76) his work was of references and research paper limited assistance to for master's thesis readers grappling with Smith and Casley. Accordingly, the Standing Committee of the Trustees ordered the Keeper of Manuscripts, Joseph Planta, to references paper investigate the sociology matter. In his report, dated 14 December 1793,(77) Planta declared that most of the volumes contained a great number of articles 'bound up with very little attention to any arrangement either as to references and research authors, matter or date'. Apa Citation. This was particularly a problem with the State Papers which, according to Planta, were collected according to countries but otherwise not arranged in any order.(78) He considered Smith's catalogue wholly deficient, both in its arrangement and in the lack of detailed descriptions of individual State Papers.
In Planta's view, a new catalogue was certainly required, preferably one following a subject classification. This would also provide an opportunity of rearranging the collection 'in a classical order, which no doubt ought always to have the preference'. References And Research. Alternatively, the new catalogue should have a detailed index. Luckily, the Trustees were unwilling to see the collection rearranged. Nevertheless, they accepted the need for a replacement for Smith, and instructed Planta to restore all those manuscripts capable of repair and prepare a new catalogue.(79) The descriptive section of the catalogue was completed by November 1796.(80) The index was compiled between 1796 and 1802,(81) and the whole catalogue finally published by the Record Commission in 1802.(82) The section of the sociology thesis published preface describing the procedures adopted by and research paper Planta in conserving and cataloguing the manuscripts is copied almost word for word from a report submitted to the Trustees by him on 4 November 1796.(83) In this report, Planta gives a detailed account of the second phase of major restoration work on the Cotton collection. Planta states that 861 volumes had been brought to the Museum, of which 105 were damaged bundles in much ado about shakespeare, cases.(84) This indicates that he concentrated on those burnt manuscripts whose identity was readily ascertainable and references and research, which had been placed on their arrival in the Museum in sociology thesis proposals, the main emperor sequence. He did not attempt to tackle the mass of paper burnt fragments stored with the Harley Charters. The first problem which confronted him was that the and contrase damaged manuscripts in cases frequently consisted of loose unnumbered sheets or quires. The order of these sheets -- already disrupted as a result of the fire and the hasty rescue work in and research paper, 1731 -- had been further confused by their use in the Reading Room. Planta complained that readers had thrown the manuscripts 'into great, and in many instances, irretrievable confusion'. Consequently, his 'first care on entering on my task, was to cause all the volumes to be regularly paged, or at least the old paging to be regularly ascertained'.
This ink foliation can still be seen on new cosmetologist letter many of the manuscripts.(85) The foliations are in a variety of different hands, and were probably made for Planta by various attendants in references paper, the Department.(86) Damage to the manuscript margins made it difficult to position the numbers and occasionally the apa citation style foliators were forced to write them in the middle of the references and research paper page.(87) Ink foliation notes are given at essay much ado about nothing the end of the volumes, using the characteristic early Museum formula 'Constat fol.' Planta then 'proceeded to examine the bundles in cases, and found means, after many repeated and not a few unsuccessful attempts, to paper arrange several volumes and parts of volumes of State Papers. Some of the shrivelled MSS. on vellum I likewise found capable of being restored, though not without great care and dexterity on the part of the bookbinder'. In his original report he identifies the binder as C. Elliot, the new cosmetologist cover letter Museum binder from 1773 to paper 1815. By these means, fifty-one of the essay manuscripts kept in cases were restored and bound up as forty-four volumes. The remaining sixty-one bundles Planta considered 'irretrievable', but dismissed most of them as 'obscure tracts and fragments of little importance'. Planta's report gives an unduly rosy picture of the condition of the Cotton collection at the conclusion of references and research his work. Little progress had been made with the damaged vellum manuscripts.(88) A number of important manuscripts were left as loose sheets in cases, including, for example, one of the earliest manuscripts of Bede (Tiberius A. XIV). These loose fragments may perhaps have been sheets which Planta and Elliot had managed to 'restore' by separating and to some extent flattening them. Many other manuscripts were left simply as 'crusts' in cases.
Far from essay ng wika 2013 being 'obscure tracts and fragments of little importance', they included cartularies of St Albans (Tiberius E. VI, Otho D. And Research. III), St James, Northampton (Tiberius E. V), the essay Annals of Dunstable (Tiberius A. X), and the eleventh-century Vitellius Psalter (Vitellius E. And Research. XVIII). Planta's caution arose from a concern that repairing and new cosmetologist letter, binding these damaged manuscripts might make matters worse. References. This is thesis borne out by references and research comments by two later Keepers of nuclear Manuscripts. In 1825 Sir Henry Ellis noted that fragments of references and research paper Cotton Manuscripts had been 'placed in pasteboard cases because it was impossible to sociology research thesis bind them without losing more than they had already lost of their respective texts'.(89) Similarly, in 1835 Josiah Forshall reminded a parliamentary Select Committee investigating the Museum that 'In many cases there is a great risk of doing more injury by any attempt to repair a manuscript that has been damaged by the fire than if it is references left in its damaged state'.(90) Like his predecessors in 1731, Planta concentrated on the paper manuscripts.
Even here restoration was not as comprehensive as his report might suggest. Such important paper manuscripts as the autograph manuscript of Buck's History of Richard III (Tiberius E. X), a volume of Joscelin's collections (Vitellius D. VII) and a valuable sixteenth-century copy of the Russian Primary Chronicle (Vitellius F. X)(91) were left as loose sheets in compare and contrase essay, cases, as were some volumes of the early State Papers such as Caligula D. IV, V, X and XI.(92) Planta's success in identifying and reconstituting the paper manuscripts is difficult to establish. In some cases, he found fewer leaves from the manuscript than were reported as surviving in 1732. In others, he states that the number of folios in the manuscript was greater than that reported not only in 1732, but even in Smith's 1696 catalogue.(93) These discrepancies may be partly due to the rearrangement of papers, but may also suggest that Planta's methods for identifying loose papers and reuniting them with their parent volumes were less rigorous than might be hoped. The major defect of Planta's restoration work, however, was his failure to tackle any of the burnt fragments stored separately with the Harley Charters. Large portions of many of the numerous manuscripts marked 'deest' or 'desideratur' by him were in fact sitting in a room not far from his study. Nowhere in the catalogue is the existence of this material even hinted at. Planta's complacent account of the state of the collection at the completion of his catalogue is therefore seriously misleading. It could even be argued that in references paper, some ways Planta's work made matters worse. The false impression his catalogue gave of the condition of the manuscripts probably encouraged neglect of the loose unsorted fragments. In addition, the style provision of references a catalogue encouraged the use of brittle manuscripts, both bound and unbound, which were not in a fit state for public handling.
The vulnerable edges of the manuscripts were completely unprotected, and ado about nothing shakespeare, pieces of text broke off as they were used by readers. Every time one of these damaged manuscripts was issued in the Reading Room, fragments of text were probably left all over the Museum. The effects of the continued handling of these fragile manuscripts have been most strikingly documented in the case of the Beowulf text in Vitellius A. XV. It seems reasonable to assume that this was one of the 105 bundles in cases which Planta found at the beginning of his work. The state of the manuscript in and research, the 1780s is recorded in the two transcripts associated with the thesis Danish antiquary Grmur Jnsson Thorkelin,(94) which record over 1900 letters which afterwards disappeared as a result of the crumbling of the edges of the manuscript.(95) Apparently, fragments of and research paper text were being lost even as the transcripts were being prepared. The manuscript was probably bound by Elliot under Planta's supervision. Planta's catalogue entries usually indicated if a particular volume was kept in a case, and there is no such reference in his description of Vitellius A. XV.(96) Given the 2013 testimony of Ellis, Forshall and Planta himself as to the hazards of binding brittle vellum manuscripts, it seems likely that further damage to the Beowulf text occurred in the process of binding the references and research paper manuscript in essay ado about nothing shakespeare, the 1790s. In 1817, John Conybeare made a detailed comparison between Thorkelin's 1815 edition of the poem and the original manuscript, marking the letters he could no longer see. According to Conybeare, over 900 letters had vanished by 1817.(97) A more accurate collation made by Sir Frederic Madden in 1824 shows even greater loss than that noted by Conybeare.(98) Much of the damage to references the manuscript in the early nineteenth century was due to unrestricted handling of it by readers.
Ironically, both Conybeare and Madden, by handling the manuscript when making their collations, accelerated the decay. New Cosmetologist Cover. The erosion of the Beowulf text continued until 1845, when the manuscript was inlaid, at last providing the fragile edges of the manuscript with some protection and preventing further loss. Presumably a number of other damaged Cotton Manuscripts suffered similar, if unrecorded, textual losses at this time.(99) Planta's successors as Keepers of Manuscripts, Robert Nares and Francis Douce, did not undertake any further work on the Cotton Manuscripts. The main sequence of Cotton Manuscripts remained with the Royal manuscripts in and research, the seventh room of the apa citation for master's upper floor of Montagu House, the references and research last of the new cosmetologist cover rooms containing manuscripts. References Paper. Both collections remained in their original order, the apa citation style 1808 synopsis of the Museum noting apologetically that 'These two libraries are not classed in a strict scientific order'.(100) At this time, the Cotton Manuscripts occupied twenty-one presses, six more than those allowed for by the Emperor system (including the Appendix as a separate case).
The use of boxes to house some burnt manuscripts presumably made it difficult to follow the and research paper system of for linggo one press per emperor.(101) This perhaps prompted the decision to and research write numerical pressmarks, consisting of a roman numeral for the press and a letter for the shelf, in pencil on the flyleaf of the compare essay manuscripts. References. Many of these old Montagu House pressmarks can still be seen on flyleaves of Cotton Manuscripts.(102) As long as manuscripts continued to be stored as loose vellum sheets in flimsy boxes, there were endless possibilities for loss and confusion. In June 1825, Sir Henry Ellis, who succeeded Douce as Keeper of Manuscripts in 1812, reported to the Trustees a misfortune with the and contrase essay autograph manuscript of Sir George Buck's History of Richard III (Tiberius E. X).(103) A reader called Yarnold had collated the Cotton manuscript with another in references paper, his possession. Argumentative Nuclear Power. 'Having but one eye, and paper, very indifferent sight in the other', Yarnold had accidentally taken away half a leaf of the Cotton manuscript with his own papers. On discovering his mistake, he had returned the sociology thesis proposals fragment. Sometime later, Yarnold's books were sold.
One lot was described as a manuscript of Buck. When Ellis went to inspect this as a possible acquisition, he was horrified to discover that the lot consisted of fourteen leaves of the Cotton manuscript. He immediately claimed the leaves as Museum property, and returned them to their proper place. Although the loose fragments and crusts stored with the Harley Charters had not been included in and research paper, Planta's restoration efforts, they had not been forgotten by the Museum authorities. On 14 May 1825, the Standing Committee of the Trustees agreed that a small bundle of cinders and other fragments of Cotton Manuscripts should be sent to William Hyde Wollaston so that he could undertake experiments on them.(104) Wollaston was distinguished as a physiologist, chemist and physicist, who even anticipated some of Faraday's discoveries about electricity. Indeed, it was said that each of Wollaston's fifty-six papers in ado about shakespeare, many different fields marked 'a distinct advance in the particular science concerned'.(105) The reasons for Wollaston's interest in the Cotton fragments are unclear. His covering letters returning the fragments survive, but do not state what he did to them or how successful his experiments were.(106) In fact, whatever his experiments, the paper results were disastrous. The state of the leaves treated by Wollaston was described in his diary by Sir Frederic Madden thirty years later: 'these leaves are almost like biscuit , and contracted to one third of letter their original size! Simply soaking them in water would have been much more effectual. References Paper. Of these leaves sent to Dr.
W. sixteen prove to be part of Grosthead's Works in Otho D. X, and complete the volume ; while eleven others belong to essay for linggo ng wika 2013 the Higden, Otho D. I, and one to Vitellius E. IX'.(107) Madden later reported that he was able to counteract the and research paper effects of Wollaston's process by soaking the leaves in water, so that they expanded again to 'one half of apa citation style for master's their original size'.(108) Despite the unpromising results of Wollaston's first experiments, Ellis proposed in June 1825 that he be sent some fragments from the Cotton Genesis.(109) Ellis felt that these leaves would be particularly suitable for experiment, since this manuscript had not been as badly shrunken by and research paper the fire as others. He was confident that 'Dr Wollaston's experiments in this instance may produce some new or important readings for sociology proposals the commentators'. This suggests that Wollaston was not attempting to flatten the fragments but trying to make them more legible by using some form of chemical agent. The results of his experiments on the Cotton Genesis are not known. Perhaps the most revealing aspect of the affair is Ellis's statement to the Trustees that the Cotton fragments 'do not form a Part of the Collection of Manuscripts at the present time but are kept in a garret at the top of the House, perfectly useless to the Museum in every sense of the word'.(110) Ellis was shortly to paper be proved quite wrong. In January 1826, a few months after Wollaston had finished his further shrivelling of Cotton fragments, Henry Petrie, Keeper of Records at the Tower, wrote to the Standing Committee of the Trustees, 'expressing a hope that some mode might be devised by which certain masses of the essay for linggo Fragments of the Cotton Library. which are at present preserved in cases, may be rendered readable without the risk of losing portions of their leaves from their adhesion and brittleness whenever an attempt is made to references and research paper ascertain their contents'.(111) The Committee asked Sir Humphry Davy, a Trustee, to talk to Petrie about the problem.(112) A month later the Standing Committee 'Resolved that the plan proposed by Sir Humphry Davy of submerging the new cosmetologist cover burnt manuscripts on vellum belonging to the Cottonian collection which were injured in the fire of 1731 be adopted, from references and research time to time, upon such MSS. as it may be desirable to examine: also that the style for master's thesis edges of such manuscripts may be cut, where there is no writing, for references and research paper the sake of separating the leaves'.(113) On 12 May 1826, the Assistant Keeper of Manuscripts, Josiah Forshall, informed the Trustees that 'The means recommended by the President of the Royal Society for the restoration of these MSS. have been employed with more complete success than could in the first instance have been reasonably anticipated.'(114) Tiberius D. III, a collection of nuclear power saints' lives in which Petrie had expressed a particular interest, 'was first carefully divided into convenient portions, and these were severally immersed for a longer or shorter time as they appeared more or less scorched.
This immersion and a very partial application of hot water made it practicable to and research separate the apa citation thesis leaves, without any material injury. References And Research. By making incisions between the columns and lines of writing, thus making room for an expansion of the parts most shrivelled and contracted by the fire, and by subsequently applying a gentle pressure until the moisture was evaporated, the leaves have been rendered sufficiently flat and smooth to essay admit of the contents being read for the most part with great facility'.(115) The process recommended by references paper Davy was therefore to soak the manuscript to make it more pliable and then cut it open. The exact nature of the essay nuclear power solution used to soften the manuscript is and research paper not known; Madden reported that it consisted of a solution of spirits of zinc and water.(116) Encouraged by their success with Tiberius D. III, Ellis and Forshall were keen to try and restore some of the fragments stored in the charter garret. Forshall immediately tried the technique on what 'appeared at first sight mere lumps of wax and cinder'.
After treatment, they proved to be twelfth and thirteenth century charters.(117) During June 1826, Ellis and Forshall sorted through the material in the garret to establish which fragments were worth treating. Ellis described to the Trustees how they had managed to trace nearly a hundred fragments from the Cotton Genesis, which had been placed in a separate box. Essay For Linggo Ng Wika 2013. Likewise, they 'sorted all the Fragments which are written in the Saxon language. ; they amount to references and research paper some hundreds; these he [Ellis] has placed in another Box; many of them single, and many adhering to new cosmetologist cover letter each other in thin close masses'.(118) Forshall bore the references paper brunt of this difficult work,(119) which continued after he became Keeper in sociology research thesis proposals, 1827.(120) About forty manuscripts were treated in this way.(121) The leaves were separated, partially flattened and stored loose in solander cases. References Paper. Even after treatment the leaves still remained brittle, and new cosmetologist cover letter, were clearly still at great risk from careless handling in and research paper, the Reading Room. Essay Shakespeare. Madden afterwards described Forshall's efforts as a only 'very partial' attempt at restoration,(122) and this seems to have been a justified criticism.
Nevertheless, substantial progress was made.(123) Forshall's work led to references the recovery of a number of important Anglo-Saxon manuscripts which were described by Planta as being either lost or unusable. Argumentative Nuclear. Among the most spectacular rediscoveries were: the unique manuscript of King Alfred's prosimetrical translation of Boethius (Otho A. VI);(124) 131 leaves from the Old English translation of the Pastoral Care (Tiberius B. References. XI), one of only two extant contemporary manuscripts of the Old English translations associated with King Alfred; an eleventh-century copy of Werferth's Old English translation of the Dialogues of essay ado about nothing Gregory the Great (Otho C. I, vol. 2); the references Vitellius Psalter (Vitellius E. XVIII), complete except for eleven leaves, ten of which were afterwards found by Madden; fragments of the insular gospels in Otho C. V; two eleventh-century manuscripts of much ado about shakespeare Ælfric's Homilies (Vitellius C. V and Vitellius D. XVII); and a large part of Tiberius A. XV, a composite manuscript including an early eleventh-century copy of Alcuin's letters from Christ Church, Canterbury, and an eighth-century copy of Junilius. Among the later manuscripts made available for scholars for the first time since the fire were a number of cartularies and an important manuscript of and research paper Layamon (Otho C. XIII).(125) Forshall also located extra leaves of manuscripts probably partly restored by ado about shakespeare Planta, such as the early Bede (Tiberius A. XIV) to which he added five leaves, and the Worcester cartulary (Tiberius A. XIII). Most notable of all was the work on the Cotton Genesis.
Although the 1732 report stated that sixty fragments of this manuscript had been identified after the fire, Planta could only trace eighteen. In July 1826, Forshall reported that 110 fragments of the volume, previously among the loose fragments in the charter garret, had been identified, unrolled and references and research, cleaned, '88 of argumentative power which it had been found possible to appropriate to their respective places.' These fragments were now 'ready to be numbered and deposited in cases secure from future injury'.(126) Madden was afterwards to increase the references and research paper number of fragments preserved to 147.(127) Madden's work in style for master's, identifying and preserving this manuscript has long been recognized, but Forshall's major role has not been noted. As Forshall proceeded, he also added material recovered from the and research paper fragments to the Appendix manuscripts.(128) Above all, however, he also prepared detailed descriptions of the restored volumes, and proposed printing these in a supplement to Planta's catalogue.(129) A few of these survive, still unpublished, in copies made for Sir Frederic Madden and much nothing shakespeare, inserted in an annotated copy of Planta, preserved in the reference library of the Manuscripts Department.(130) Forshall is a forgotten pioneer in the restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts. However, the conservation work undertaken during his Keepership used new techniques, and the results were not always completely satisfactory.
Not only references and research paper, was the restoration incomplete, resulting in a pile of loose brittle leaves in a box, but some unnecessary damage was caused. In particular, vellum leaves were cut at compare the edge both to references paper allow the fat-covered crusts to be opened and individual leaves to essay much nothing be flattened. In subsequent restoration work these incisions were found to be unnecessary and indeed to be a considerable hindrance to further repair of the leaves.(131) The incisions that Forshall had made account for the serrated appearance of the leaves in many burnt Cotton Manuscripts, and are particularly visible in, for example, Otho B. II, a copy of Alfred's translation of the Pastoral Care,(132) Otho C. XIII, an early copy of Layamon, and Otho C. I, volume one, an Anglo-Saxon translation of the Gospels. The greatest blot on Forshall's record in the conservation of the references and research paper Cotton Manuscripts is the work on the burnt Magna Carta, Cotton Charter xiii. Essay For Linggo Ng Wika. 31a. In May 1834, he drew the Trustees' attention to the condition of 'Magna Carta and references and research, the ancient and otherwise valuable charters in the Cottonian MS. Augustus A.II', pointing out that 'all these documents were suffering much injury, owing to the very imperfect manner in which they had originally been secured'.(133) Augustus II contained one of the greatest single concentrations of Anglo-Saxon charters. It is clear from a later report that Forshall was referring in this minute to the burnt Magna Carta rather than the cover letter other exemplar (Augustus II.
106).(134) This minute implies that the 136 varied documents with this pressmark were still bound as a single volume, which would inevitably have caused damage to them. Forshall recommended that Hogarth, the restorer who had been used in unrolling and fixing the Egyptian papyri (then kept in references and research, the Manuscripts Department), should repair and secure the charters.(135) A month later, he reported that this work had been satisfactorily accomplished.(136) In fact, the results as far as the Magna Carta were concerned seem to have been far from satisfactory. This document at present is largely unreadable, even under ultra-violet light. However, Casley's transcription of it made immediately after the fire, now Cotton Charter xiii. 31b, gives a virtually complete text.(137) Similarly, in 1733 John Pine published an engraving of the burnt Magna Carta which showed the damage caused by the fire as limited chiefly to the melting of the seal.(138) Moreover, Maty and Rimius reported in 1756 that the document was still 'very legible'.(139) This certainly could not be said of its present condition. Most of the damage to this document was, therefore, probably due to the repair work of 1834 rather than the fire, a conclusion supported by Madden's comment that this copy of Magna Carta was 'Injured in the fire of 1731 (and still more by the injudicious treatment it received from Mr Hogarth).'(140) Forshall's restoration work received some public attention during the proceedings of a parliamentary Select Committee into the administration of the Museum in 1835-6. The committee had been disturbed by Forshall's statement that 'There were in apa citation style for master's thesis, the year 1824 a great quantity of crusts or fragments of manuscripts remaining unopened'.(141) Pressed by the committee, Forshall explained that he referred only to 'the fragments and references and research, relics left by the fire, namely, the remnants of about 130 volumes, which were damaged to essay nuclear a considerable extent, and perhaps much more than one half of them, being those manuscripts that were very much damaged, remained in the same condition until the year 1824. I thought them, when I came to the Museum, of so much value, that I spent a great deal of pains in washing and references paper, opening them. Argumentative Essay Power. The operation took up much time, and occasioned some expense'.(142) Questioned as to how he knew that there were not other Cotton Manuscripts worth unrolling, Forshall emphasized that such a judgement depended on the description in and research, Smith's catalogue, claiming that the value of a burnt crust could be 'ascertained in most cases from bare inspection', and that the crusts left unconserved were not worth the expense of unrolling.(143) By this time, Forshall felt, like Planta before him, that he had completed the apa citation restoration of the Cotton library and that everything worth saving was available for scholars to consult.
He repeatedly told the Assistant Keeper of paper Manuscripts, Frederic Madden, that no further Cotton fragments of new cosmetologist cover letter any value were preserved in the Museum.(144) During the Easter week of references and research 1827, the Manuscript collections of the cover Museum were transferred from Montagu House to the accommodation in the new Museum building which (until the opening of the St Pancras building) they still occupy.(145) It was at this point that use of the emperor pressmarks for shelving the Cotton Manuscripts finally ceased. The motley mixture of placing systems used in references and research paper, Montagu House was abandoned and replaced by the system still used today.(146) The manuscripts were ranked on the shelf according to size, regardless of apa citation for master's previous numeration or subject content. References Paper. They were then given a separate pressmark. At first, this consisted of a roman numeral for the press and apa citation style for master's thesis, a letter for the shelf; from the mid-nineteenth century, arabic numerals were used for references and research paper the press. In order to find a particular manuscript on the shelf, it was necessary to refer to a concordance now known as a handlist.(147) These pressmarks were pencilled on the flyleaf. They were also put on the spine, as part of the new cosmetologist cover spine title, preceded by the word `Plut.' for references and research Pluteus or shelf.(148) Later in the nineteenth century, the modern procedure of using printed labels on the spine for the pressmark was introduced.(149) One of the cover letter 1835-6 Select Committee's principal recommendations was that the office of Secretary of the Museum should no longer be combined with one of the Keeperships, and, by references and research April 1837, Forshall had confided to his assistant, Sir Frederic Madden, his intention to retain the office of Secretary and resign as Keeper of Manuscripts.(150) On 17 April, Madden asked Forshall if they could inspect the old charter garret. Madden's diary records what they found:(151) Mr Forshall. went, at my request, up with me to the garret called the Charter-Room (because the charters were formerly kept here), and where I had always been told there were only a few fragments not worth the bother of dusting or sorting.
To my great surprise however, I found a large collection of Bagford's Title-pages. covered with the accumulated dust of nearly 80 years, also a large quantity of fragments and and contrase, crusts of the burnt Cotton MSS. many of references and research which appeared to me well worth the process of apa citation style thesis restoration. Mr F. References Paper. had always assured me he had selected from them every thing worth preserving, but I saw enough before me to doubt the accuracy of his statement, and going on with my searches, I discovered in an old cupboard the compare and contrase essay identical Cartulary of and research paper Christ Church Twinham in Hampshire [Tiberius D. VI], which I have so often and so fruitlessly inquired after, and very little the worse for the fire, except being wrinkled up! Is not this very disgraceful of the Keepers of MSS. from the essay ado about middle of the last century to and research paper the present day. I saw enough to essay make me resolve in and research, my own mind, to have the compare and contrase entire room cleared out, whenever it should be my lot to be Keeper of the MSS. and I resolved at once to bring down into my own room the two large bundles which formed the Christ Church Cartulary, and a third bundle which apparently contains an English Chronicle. I left up in the garret fragments of references crusts of vellum enough to fill several bushel baskets, likewise a box full of sociology receipts of references paper Sir Robert Cotton's, and three boxes said to contain the refuse of the Hargrave collection. It is very much to the discredit of Mr F that affairs should have remained thus, and style for master's, so I believe he felt, when I produced to him the long lost Christ Church Cartulary, which he had declared to me over references paper and over again could not by any possibility exist! Madden took the Christchurch Cartulary fragments back to compare his room, and began washing and and research, flattening them, using the methods pioneered by Davy and Forshall.
His personal diary for 26 April 1837 notes: Continued the washing pressing of the burnt Cartulary of Ch. Ch. Twinham, Hants., which I am happy to find, will be perfectly legible, after it has undergone the process. The Calendar of Contents prefixed is complete, so that I shall be able by research that means to easily arrange the leaves which have lost their numbering. The account given of this Priory in the New Editn. of the references and research paper Monasticon is very trifling, and, Ellis declares, without any reason, that the Cartulary was lost in for linggo ng wika, the Cotton fire!(152) In July 1837, Madden was appointed Keeper of Manuscripts. On 16 August, he began to 'make a list of references all the Cotton MSS. that were injured by the fire of 1731 and their present state -- with a view of identifying, as far as possible, the mass of fragments still remaining in the old Charter Room'.(153) On his return from holiday in October 1837, Madden badgered Forshall into handing over the keys of the charter room,(154) and immediately made a further examination of its contents. He gave a detailed account of the material stored there in his work diary for research 31 October 1837 (afterwards adding notes on further investigations undertaken during November):
Went up in the old Charter Room looked out Bagford's long neglected loose collections -- also the remainder of the Cartulary of Ch[rist] Ch[urch] Twinham, Hants and many other valuable fragments which I propose to have restored. The contents of this room are at present as follows. 1. A very large box filled with fragments of burnt vellum Cotton MSS. the greater part broken and single leaves. In a dreadful state of and research dirt and compare, confusion. (lock) 2. A large box, recently made, containing the more entire portions of the burnt vellum Cotton MSS. (lock) 3. A large box recently made, containing portions of the references paper burnt paper Cotton MSS. and also bundles of Cotton bills Accounts c. Argumentative Nuclear. (lock) 4. References Paper. A box, locked, but found to be empty, when forced open on 23d Nov. 5. A larger box, containing Hargrave law papers (opened 23 Nov.) 6. A box containing the refuse of the Lansdowne Collection, placed here by Sir H. Sociology Research Thesis. Ellis (Nailed down)(155)
7. A small box containing papers relating to the British Fishery Company (chiefly powers of attorney) and references and research, some miscellaneous papers of no value, the latter placed there by myself.(156) As Madden's annotations indicate, these precious boxes of Cotton fragments were locked up again after he had examined them, but he removed some of the essay power larger vellum fragments and on 2 November again spent most of the day personally washing and flattening the further fragments of the cartulary of Christchurch Priory he had found.(157) Madden was a native of Hampshire and planned to write a history of the county.(158) The rediscovery of the Christchurch Cartulary was an achievement of which he was particularly proud.(159) The fact that Madden himself made the first attempts at references and research restoring the Christchurch Cartulary indicates the limited resources for for master's thesis major conservation work at his disposal. He doubted whether the Museum's binder, Charles Tuckett, was equal to the intricate task of dealing with the brittle vellum fragments. Forshall had preferred to use Hogarth on more delicate work, such as unrolling the Egyptian papyri, and even he had caused great damage when working on the burnt Magna Carta. On 11 January 1838, Madden reported to the Trustees: that he has received from Dr [Bulkeley] Bandinel, chief librarian of the Bodleian Library, and Dr [Philip] Bliss, Registrar, very strong testimonials in references paper, favour of a person named [Henry] Gough, who has been extensively employed to repair, inlay, and restore damaged manuscripts in power, the Bodleian and and research paper, several of the College Libraries at Oxford. [He] recommends most seriously, that he should be permitted to have a trial, in the restoration of the cover letter burnt Cotton charters (now from the references paper state in which they are in, impossible to be used), and also on argumentative nuclear power a few of the most valuable MSS. such as the Greek psalter on papyrus, purchased of Dr Hogg;(160) the fragments of the burnt Cotton Genesis; the remains of the Saxon Boethius, and other Saxon fragments, which cannot at present [be] consulted without injury to them, and references, which require a very practiced hand to restore them. Dr Bandinel assures Sir F.M. that the essay 2013 terms of Gough are very moderate. He is at present still employed at Oxford, but will shortly come up to and research paper London.(161)
It is much ado about evident that Madden did not at this stage envisage using Gough for a full-scale restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts. He perhaps thought the Trustees would be nervous of the cost of such a project. Instead, he seems to references and research paper have intended using Gough to protect those manuscripts of which large sections had been recovered by Forshall and which were in essay ng wika 2013, danger of references damage as a result of the handling of loose unprotected leaves in the Reading Room. It is noticeable that Madden does not mention here his discoveries in the garret. Much. His concern that the Trustees would shrink from the cost of references and research such elaborate conservation work was justified. On 26 May, they refused Gough's services.(162) Madden noted in his diary: 'I am of opinion they neglect the interests of nuclear this Department by such a step'.(163) He continued working himself on some of the newly recovered fragments. In his personal diary for 17 July 1838, he wrote: 'Went up in the Old Charter Room and finished looking over the larger box containing the burnt Cotton fragments, and selecting the best portion. Flattened a few leaves of the valuable Cotton Genesis, which had been overlooked by Mr Forshall.'(164) On the and research following day, he 'Flattened some fragments of Saxon MSS. and discovered two leaves of the essay much ado about nothing curious Proverbs ascribed to Alfred [Galba A. Paper. XIX], supposed to have been totally destroyed in argumentative, the fire'.(165)
The impetus for the full restoration of the Cotton collection came not from Madden, but from that ubiquitous figure in nineteenth-century manuscript studies, Sir Thomas Phillipps. And Research. On 10 October 1838 Phillipps wrote to William Richard Hamilton, a Museum Trustee, expressing his concern about the condition of the damaged Cotton Manuscripts and for linggo 2013, suggesting that the most valuable should be transcribed before they were sent for binding.(166) The Trustees were at last persuaded of the need for action and instructed Madden to references and research paper repair a report on the damaged Cotton Manuscripts, indicating which were sufficiently important to be worth the expense of transcription. Madden replied on 13 December with a masterly survey of the condition of the Cotton Manuscripts.(167) This was more comprehensive than any previous survey of the condition of the argumentative essay power manuscripts, since he described all the references paper volumes damaged in new cosmetologist, the fire, not just the most badly affected manuscripts. He divided the damaged manuscripts (as distinct from the references and research fragments) into three classes. The first comprised 'Those MSS. which by the agency of essay much ado about shakespeare heat have been compressed and corrugated, with the edges burnt, and in many cases, broken, torn, and dirtied. These are in references and research paper, number 35, all of which, if skilfully flattened, inlaid and repaired, might be protected from further injury, and new cosmetologist, rendered in a comparatively good condition for general use'.(168) Madden pointed out that 'Many of these MSS. are among the most valuable of those possessed by the Museum, such for instance, as the unique Saxon poem of Beowulf [Vitellius A. XV], the Saxon Grammar of Ælfric [Julius A. II], a copy of the paper Saxon Chronicle [Tiberius B. IV], two copies of Bede's Ecclesiastical History, probably nearly contemporary with the author [Tiberius C. II, and presumably Tiberius A. Cover Letter. XIV, although this was in fact stored as loose leaves at and research paper this time, and was elsewhere correctly assigned by Madden to the third class]; two exceedingly curious copies of Aratus c., with illuminations, of the tenth and essay for linggo 2013, eleventh centuries [Tiberius B. V and C. I], a Psalter with a Saxon Gloss [Tiberius C. VI]; the Cartulary of Worcester with the paper Saxon Charters c. For Linggo 2013. [Tiberius A. XIII]'. He observed that 'None of these MSS. are at present in a state fit for general use and they are constantly receiving fresh injuries'. There was in Madden's view no alternative to the full restoration of these manuscripts: 'The expenses of transcription would be enormous, and to copy the illuminations of some impossible. Sir F.M. References And Research. thinks that the whole of this class ought to be repaired with as little delay as possible'. He stressed to the Trustees his view that the Museum's own binder, Charles Tuckett, was not sufficiently skilled for this delicate work. He did not restrict himself to the Cotton Manuscripts, and pointed out that some of the Royal Manuscripts, also affected by the fire at Ashburnham House, needed treatment.
He drew the Trustees' attention in particular to Royal MS. 15 C. Research Proposals. XI, 'containing a very valuable copy of references and research paper Plautus of the 11th century', which had been badly damaged by damp and thesis, also required careful inlaying and repair. Madden's second class of damaged manuscripts consisted of 'those MSS. (chiefly on paper) which have been burnt on the edges and part of the writing injured or are otherwise out of references and research repair.' These manuscripts were no less valuable than those in the first class, since they 'comprehend a very large portion of the original State Correspondence between England and other countries from the reign of Henry the essay for linggo Eighth to the reign of James the First'. This was by far the largest category of manuscripts requiring repair, 134 in all.(169) Unlike the manuscripts of the first class, Madden felt that all were 'capable of being inlaid or bound by Tuckett'. However, there was a high risk of further loss or damage in this operation. Madden stressed that 'in numerous instances the written edges must sustain further injury in being handled'. It was consequently 'highly desirable that many of the letters should be transcribed before they are placed in the binder's hands'. The third class of damaged manuscripts consisted of those loose leaves in paper, solander cases, chiefly the manuscripts reclaimed by Forshall but also including a number which Planta had been reluctant to have bound up. Madden assigned 67 manuscripts to this class, including some portions of paper manuscripts kept as loose leaves in cases, presumably since Planta's time.(170) He recommended that these manuscripts should also be inlaid and bound, and the most vulnerable parts transcribed. He suggested that it was to one of these manuscripts, a cartulary of St Albans, that Sir Thomas Phillipps had referred in his letter.(171) Madden pointed out that the edges of this manuscript had been ' greatly injured and compare and contrase essay, broken by readers'.
This was certainly a manuscript worthy of full transcription. This, Madden emphasized, was merely the tip of the iceberg, namely those manuscripts available in the Reading Room and kept with the references and research main manuscript collections. There were also the 'burnt fragments or crusts of the Cotton library, which fill three large boxes, among which are various Saxon portions and other valuable remains (all deserving of transcription)', as well as 'the injured Cotton Charters, which fill two drawers, all of which might be flattened and preserved by a skilful person'. He concluded by stressing once again the compare essay need for outside help in contemplating such a project. He sought to 'press on the attention of the Trustees. the necessity of employing some competent person, who shall put the references and research paper Cotton Library into a complete state of repair'. He also returned to compare and contrase an old hobbyhorse, the need of references paper attaching a transcriber to the department 'whose sole business should be to transcribe and copy. The utility of such a measure must soon become apparent, for many of the Royal and other autographs are wearing out from constant use, and the same is the case in regard to the Indexes to the Heraldic Visitations and power, collections of pedigrees'. Madden's report provided a blueprint for the restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts.
His classification and listing of the different types of damaged manuscripts provided the basis on which the work was organized over the next forty years. His analysis of the references and research paper treatment required was acute and essay nuclear power, needed little modification as the references and research work proceeded. He backed up his case by laying before the Trustees some of the most damaged manuscripts in the first class, but, not surprisingly, they were alarmed at the scale of the project Madden had unfolded before them. In particular, they were worried about the cost of restoring the vellum manuscripts, and were reluctant to make use of Gough. The Trustees therefore decided to concentrate on the manuscripts in Madden's second class, which could be managed by Tuckett.
They ordered that the damaged paper manuscripts should be repaired, and on apa citation style for master's thesis 10 January 1839, Madden presented them with a detailed list of these manuscripts.(172) Twenty-five of these were marked by him as at risk of serious textual loss in the course of binding. Paper. He described these as consisting largely 'of Original State Correspondence and Papers between England and France, 1577-1620, between England and Belgium, 1516-1586, and essay for linggo ng wika, between England and Rome, 1509-1529'. He proposed that a transcript should be bound up leaf by leaf with the original. The remaining manuscripts in paper, this list only required careful repairing and rebinding, so that the new cosmetologist cover labour of transcribing their contents before binding was not justifiable. These included not only damaged paper manuscripts, but also a few of the less badly injured vellum manuscripts. In order to references reduce the cost of the proposed transcriptions, Madden suggested 'the plan not of copying these papers in intire , but only the marginal words, which run the risk of being broken off in the hands of the reader or binder (indeed(173) several of this class of argumentative nuclear scorched MSS. have already materially so suffered), and after the transcript is and research paper made, to bind it up leaf by leaf with the original.'(174) Madden describes the Trustees' reactions to his proposals: 'although they saw with their own eyes confessed the apa citation thesis necessity, yet the expense (about 300£) seemed such a bugbear in their eyes, that they would only authorise me to and research paper have one volume done in the manner I proposed'.(175) It was agreed to prepare a transcript of Caligula E. VII as a trial.(176) The experiment proved unsuccessful. On 29 June Madden had regretfully to recommend that the preparation of transcripts of damaged volumes be discontinued, as the transcripts would have almost doubled the size of the collection and essay, there was not enough room in the presses to accommodate them.(177) It was therefore agreed that 'all of this class should be inlaid and rebound forthwith by Tuckett'.(178) On 11 July 1839, work finally began in earnest. Madden gave Tuckett the binder Caligula E. VII, as well as one of the injured Saxon charters.(179) Once started, the restoration of the paper manuscripts proceeded quickly. By the end of references and research 1841 the bulk of the manuscripts in this category had been successfully repaired.(180) Madden had not forgotten the damaged vellum manuscripts.
His reaction to for linggo ng wika 2013 the Trustees' decision to concentrate on the paper manuscripts was to urge on and research paper them 'the propriety of placing certain restrictions on the use of the damaged Cotton MSS. until they shall have been secured against further injury'.(181) He gave a characteristically vivid description of the thesis danger facing these manuscripts: 'At present every person who receives a ticket to the Reading Room, has thereby a sanction to send for every MS. in the collection, without regard to references and research its condition or value, and it may be adviseable, without placing any check to the researches of power persons properly qualified to examine MSS. to put these arrangements on a somewhat different footing.' Manuscripts were at this time read in the general Reading Room.(182) Asked to outline what changes he would make, he proposed issuing 'a distinct ticket for readers wishing to use MSS.'(183) This proposal did not find favour and Madden's later attempts to ensure that the more valuable manuscripts did not leave his department caused great antagonism.(184) During 1840, although much preoccupied with the repair of the paper manuscripts, Madden nevertheless found time to make some preliminary notes on the contents of the boxes of burnt fragments and to prepare a further detailed schedule of the current condition of the damaged manuscripts.(185) He had also given to Tuckett for inlaying a few of the damaged vellum manuscripts of the first class which he felt Tuckett could be trusted with.(186) The continued threat to the vellum manuscripts that resulted from allowing them to remain as loose leaves is illustrated by references an incident involving Forshall. Already on 27 May 1841, Forshall had located among his belongings 'some fragments of one of the injured Cotton MSS. and transcripts of a few of the Norreys papers in the handwriting of Mr Stevenson'.(187) On 3 April 1843, Madden was checking a transcription of Tiberius A. X and found ff. 141-172 missing.(188) He ordered an immediate search.
Two days later 'To my great surprise Mr Forshall brought me the missing portion of Tib. A X, ff. Essay. 141-172 together with some other fragments of vellum Cotton MSS. which had been laying, unnoticed, in a wicker basket, covered by his private papers, since the year 1825! How he can explain this, is wonderful to me; for and research my own part I think him greatly to blame in this matter. Among the fragments in this basket I found portions of the 2d text of Layamon, which I am vexed at, as I have been prevented from including the lines in ado about nothing, my edition'.(189) In 1841, Madden returned to the offensive on behalf of the vellum manuscripts, and on 5 May he again drew the Trustees' attention to 'the deplorable condition of the and research paper valuable Cottonian MSS. on vellum ' and 'the injuries to which they are now daily subject.
He therefore urgently(190) recommends(191) that Mr Gough, the person employed formerly to letter repair MSS. in references and research paper, the Bodleian Library, should be allowed a trial, to repair one of the proposals injured Cotton MSS. and if successful, that he should be allowed to proceed until the whole are in a fit state of references and research paper repair.'(192) The timing of this report was perfect. Three days later the Trustees made a visitation of the Manuscripts Department. Madden describes how 'They sent for argumentative me to confer respecting the reparation of the injured vellum Cotton MSS. and after much discussion, authorised a trial to be made on two or three detached leaves'.(193) With an evident sense of relief, Madden noted that 'The address of H. Gough, the person to be employed, is 26 Lower Islington Terrace, Cloudesley Square, Islington'.(194) Gough called on references and research paper Madden and Sir Frederic 'placed in his hands three vellum leaves much injured, to flatten and inlay'.(195) On 29 May, Gough returned to much shakespeare Madden the three trial leaves. As a further test, Madden gave him three more 'of a better description'.(196) On 3 June, Madden wrote in his personal diary 'In the evening received from Gough the additional fragments of injured Cotton MSS. that I placed in his hands. On the whole, he has certainly succeeded as I anticipated, and it is very clear that many of the injured MSS. may be carefully inlaid rendered fit for use.'(197) On 9 June, Madden submitted the fragments flattened and inlaid by paper Gough to nothing shakespeare the Trustees and reported:(198) 'Mr Gough would be willing to employ his time in this description of work at the rate of 12s. per diem, from 9 in the morning till 4 in the afternoon.
He estimates the time and and research paper, labor expended on the six fragments placed in his hands to be about a day's work, but he states that if regularly employed, a much greater number of leaves, say from 10 to essay power 16 might be taken in hand at the same time, consequently greater progress made.(199) Sir F.M. And Research. recommends that Gough should be allowed to proceed with the flattening and inlaying of such of the valuable Cottonian MSS. as are at present in loose leaves , such as the Saxon Boethius, Otho A. Style For Master's. VI, the interlineary Saxon Psalter, Vitell. E. XVIII, the Saxon Gospels and Gregory's Dialogues, Otho C. Paper. I, Alcuin's Letters, Tib. A. XV, the Cartulary of Christchurch Twinham, Tib. D. VI. etc. These volumes might then be bound and allowed to be used, without fear of further injury.' Thus Madden's first priority was to inlay the sociology research thesis manuscripts separated by Forshall and and research, preserved as loose leaves, with the addition of the Christchurch Cartulary, treated by Madden himself in the same way. Thesis. Madden doubtless hoped that this strategy would help reduce the initial costs of the exercise. The Trustees once again took fright at the cost, asking the Principal Librarian, Ellis, to seek further information.
Madden was furious. 'The Trustees act most shamefully and disgracefully in this business', he grumbled.(200) His exasperation is evident in his reply of July 1 to Ellis.(201) 'In reply to your note of 16 June on the subject of the injured Cotton MSS. on vellum the necessity of references paper having them repaired', he wrote, `I beg leave to refer you to research thesis my reports of 11 Jany 1838, 13 Dec. References And Research Paper. 1838, 3 Jan. 1839, 7 March 1839, 5 May 1841 and 9 June 1841 which contain, I conceive, every information that the Trustees or yourself could require'. However, he went on argumentative essay nuclear to give a detailed breakdown of the and research paper amount of work required. The number of cases containing loose leaves was, Madden reckoned, altogether 71, amounting altogether to about 7300 leaves. Essay. With the exception of one case, containing about and research 200 leaves, all this material was 'of great value '. In the drawers in his own room, there were a further 450 leaves, and additionally about a thousand leaves had recently been extracted from the boxes in the garret as suitable for treatment. This gave a total of 8750 leaves requiring work, which Madden rounded up to thesis 9000 leaves. Madden guessed that, of these, about 2900 leaves were from Anglo-Saxon manuscripts. Another 5700 leaves were from historical manuscripts, including monastic cartularies. The final 400 consisted of theological works from and research paper before the compare essay twelfth century.
Madden felt that it was 'decidedly expedient' to have all this material treated by Gough. He pointed out references and research paper that 'The greater part by far of these consists of inedited matter , of a very valuable description.' The size of the leaves varied 'from folio to 12mo of course the expense would vary with the size'. Despite these detailed figures, it was still difficult to produce an argumentative power accurate costing of the work, and Madden urged that, to establish this, Gough should be allowed 'to flatten and inlay three of these MSS. simultaneously '. He also took the opportunity of a visitation of the Trustees on 19 June 1841 to press the case further. In his personal diary, he noted that 'Mr Speaker then inquired relative to the success of Gough's experiment on the injured MSS. and came into my private room, accompanied by the Archbishop, Lord Ashburton, and others, and I shewed them and urged the necessity of and research repairing the new cosmetologist Cotton vellum MSS. seriatim. They all appeared to approve of what I said, particularly the and research Archbishop, who said that Gough had been working for him in the Lambeth Library and that his charges were very moderate.'(202) Eventually, on 15 July, the Trustees authorized Madden to essay for linggo 2013 employ Gough to flatten and inlay three of the references and research damaged vellum manuscripts stored as loose leaves, namely the Vitellius Psalter (Vitellius E. XVIII), the Christchurch Cartulary (Tiberius D. VI) and the volume containing a copy of Alcuin's letters (Tiberius A. XV). It was afterwards decided to leave the apa citation thesis Alcuin volume for the time being, and use the Old English Gospels, Otho C. I, volume one, for the trial instead.(203) It was some time before Gough was able to start work.
The manuscripts were not allowed to references and research paper leave Museum premises and, as always, space was a problem. In his work diary for research thesis 19 November 1841, Madden noted showing Gough the rooms beneath the Manuscripts Department and elsewhere, and references and research paper, discussing the subject with Ellis. 'The only room he can possibly use (before Hogarth finishes his work) is the argumentative essay power small room underneath my own, which is very badly lighted and very damp. I ordered the room to be thoroughly cleaned a fire to be kept constantly, to references and research paper see the effect.'(204) Gough eventually started work, beginning with the Vitellius Psalter. By May 1842 he had inlaid the leaves of the manuscript in paper mounts, which were then bound by Tuckett. By November 1842, he had also inlaid Otho C. I and Tiberius D. VI, which were similarly bound up by Tuckett.(205) On 10 November 1842, Madden laid the results of Gough's work before the Trustees: For nearly a century none of these MSS. were accessible for literary purposes, and thesis, even within these last few years when a partial restoration was attempted it was impossible to handle them, particularly the Saxon volumes, without causing further damage.
They are now completely secured for the future, and can be consulted without fear of any additional injury. In regard to the expense, the great value of the MSS. of and research this class, in Sir F. M.'s opinion, sufficiently authorise it and he begs leave to remark, that in the payments made to Gough, no charge is made by him for the tracing paper at 12s. per quire or isinglass at 14s per lb.; things not generally used, but essential to preserve the flexibility of the essay power leaves. Mr Gough also remarks with justice, that the time labor required to inlay MSS. that have previously been flattened by incisions (as is the references and research paper case with those now completed) is far greater than if the leaves had remained intact . The great proportion however of the for master's MSS. proposed to be restored and references and research paper, inlaid, are of the latter class . Sir F.M. trusts that the volumes will meet with the approbation of the essay nothing Trustees, and that Mr Gough will be authorised to proceed with the work so well commenced.(206) Despite Madden's reassurances, the Trustees, worried at the expense, would agree to Gough's working only on 'four or five of the more valuable MSS. which Sir F.M. is to select'.(207) Madden chose Tiberius B. And Research Paper. V, Tiberius C. VI, Otho A. Essay Power. VI and and research, 'one without a number', a household book of for linggo 2013 Edward I. And Research Paper. Gough completed these by April 1843, then delivered what must have been a body-blow to Madden, by writing on and contrase 19 April to say that 'having made his mind to reside at Oxford, he should resign his employment at the Museum'.(208) Madden's comment in his work diary, 'This really is vexatious', sounds an understatement.(209) Two days later, when Gough brought up to Madden the inlaid leaves of Tiberius C. VI and Otho A. VI, Madden tried to persuade him to change his mind. Madden recorded that 'He will discontinue his work here for the present, but I am in hopes that he will be able to paper give 3 months of his time yearly to ng wika the Museum, after he is settled in Oxford'.(210) Gough's departure put paid to further work on the vellum manuscripts in 1843, and Madden had to report to the Trustees that 'no person could be found to supply Gough's place, and until he resumes and proceeds with the work undertaken by him, Sir F. M. feels himself under the references paper necessity of witholding from the readers several valuable MSS. too much injured to be handled'.(211) In January 1844, Gough was able to resume the work for three months,(212) but it was not until January 1845 that Madden was able finally to settle this problem. On 17 January, Madden reported to the Trustees: 'Mr Gough now proposes, to give up the whole of his time to the Museum, until the injured Cotton vellum MSS. Argumentative Essay Nuclear Power. are entirely restored; and to facilitate this, he begs to references and research paper be allowed an assistant at the rate of 5d per diem.'(213) The assistant Gough had in mind was his son Philip, who started work at the Museum in March 1845, and continued until November 1849.(214) The Trustees' minute of 18 March 1845 approving this also gave Madden permission to 'proceed with the reparation of the burnt vellum MSS. until all which deserve the expenditure [in Madden's view, every single one] are completed'.(215)
For nearly seven years Madden had been seeking authorization from the Trustees for a full programme for the restoration of the damaged Cotton Manuscripts. At last he had secured it. He interpreted the Trustees' instructions as widely as possible. Not only were the damaged manuscripts repaired but the condition of the whole collection was checked, and all necessary repairs undertaken. Having been given the carte blanche he wanted, Madden ensured that work proceeded as quickly as possible. 1845 proved to be the annus mirabilis of conservation work on the Cotton collection. Gough inlaid twelve manuscripts, including the Beowulf manuscript (Vitellius A. Letter. XV), the early Bede (Tiberius A. References Paper. XIV), and the Old English translation of the essay ng wika 2013 Pastoral Care, reuniting the fragments numbered Appendix 43 with those under the original number of the manuscript, Otho B. III, as well as cartularies from Chertsey and Winchcombe.(216) In 1846, Gough dealt with a further eleven manuscripts, including the autograph manuscript of Knighton's Chronicle, Tiberius C. VII, and references paper, Otho B. Sociology. XI, a tenth-century compilation of Old English historical works, including a translation of Bede and a version of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle.(217) In the meantime, Tuckett had continued with the paper manuscripts and some of the less badly damaged vellum material.
Indeed, Madden's confidence in Tuckett's ability to deal with damaged vellum manuscripts increased, and references and research, from 1847 Tuckett was allowed to inlay the leaves of some of the and contrase essay older vellum manuscripts.(218) Eventually, his work in this respect began to equal if not surpass that of Gough. On 24 March 1852, Madden noted that 'Tuckett's workman has been able to open the MS. of Capgrave [Otho D. IX] which Gough injured so much. I shall put the worst in and research, his hands. Gough's work could draw to a close in another twelvemonth or so'.(219) By 1852, the Trustees were growing anxious about the length of time the restoration was taking, and essay power, asked Madden to references and research indicate 'which of these MSS. still unrestored he would specify as deserving the earliest attention, and essay 2013, how many in and research, the whole, he would regard as requiring restoration'.(220) This was a difficult question to answer. At the beginning of essay nothing his work on the Cotton Manuscripts, Madden had been able to find manuscripts from the loose fragments which were still largely intact and could be readily identified. As the work progressed, however, more and more shapeless 'black lumps' and 'crusts' were being sent down for treatment. These could not be identified until they were opened up and and research paper, flattened. Thus, in his personal diary for 7 June 1851, Madden recorded that 'Mr Gough brought me up inlaid, the argumentative essay burnt Cotton MS. References. lump I lately placed in his hands, and on examining it, I found it to be Vitellius F.III, which is stated to be totally lost both by Casley and Planta. Argumentative Essay. It contains the Lives of several saints c. by Ailred of Rievaux, and and research paper, is a fine copy of the cover letter 12th century, and nearly perfect.'(221)
Madden therefore laid before the Trustees a selection of the burnt lumps and crusts to show them the impossibility of ascertaining their contents 'in their present miserable state of cremation, dirt and neglect'.(222) However, he also proposed an important change in references and research, procedure to thesis speed up the work.(223) He suggested 'that instead of taking each single lump, and references and research, fragment, and after flattening it, proceeding to inlay it, as at present, that for power the present Mr Gough should be directed to confine his operations wholly to the task of cleaning, separating and flattening, until the whole have been done. By this means, very great progress could be made, and Sir F. References And Research Paper. M. would be enabled, as the mass was rendered capable of examination, to class the leaves portions together, so as to form volumes. When this was done, the more valuable volumes might then be inlaid, according to the instructions of the Trustees.' In his book of reports Madden noted sourly that ' No notice was taken of this Report '.(224) He nevertheless took this as assent to his proposal for compare essay a preliminary flattening of the burnt crusts, and from July 1852 Gough concentrated on separating and flattening loose leaves.(225) During 1852, not only were Tiberius B. VI, Otho A. VII, Otho C. XI, part of Otho D. X, Otho E. XII and XIII, and Vitellius F. Paper. VII -- all supposed to have been lost in the fire -- identified, flattened, inlaid, collated and bound, but also 4939 loose leaves had been flattened, 2894 identified and 1375 inlaid.(226) By 1854, Madden was able to report that 'the entire mass of the burnt vellum fragments of the Cottonian Collection (which originally in bulk would have filled a small cart) have now been flattened not a scrap remains unexamined '.(227) Two years later, the inlaying of these fragments had been completed and on 30 October 1856, Madden was finally able to report that Gough would within a few days complete his 'long and arduous work' in inlaying the fragments.(228) Madden lost no opportunity to publicize these achievements. In 1850, a Royal Commission investigated the essay nothing Museum. Madden proudly laid before them some examples of restored Cotton Manuscripts, including the Christchurch Cartulary, and described how two hundred of the damaged manuscripts had been inlaid and of the vellum alone about 7,000 leaves, of which 2,000 had been inlaid in 1849.(229) The centrepiece of the references and research paper first public exhibition of essay ado about manuscripts at references paper the Museum in 1851, arranged on the occasion of the Great Exhibition, was a drawing commissioned by Gough from the miniaturist and apa citation style for master's thesis, accomplished imitator of medieval manuscripts, Caleb W. Wing, showing an early manuscript of references and research paper Roger of Wendover's chronicle, Otho B. Compare Essay. V, before and references, after its restoration by Gough.(230) This remarkable drawing dramatically illustrates the extent and skill of Gough's restoration. Essay. Indeed, this was more like resurrection than restoration.(231) To emphasize the point, the exhibition also included an example of a burnt manuscript from the Royal Library, Royal MS. 9 C. X, which was deliberately left unconserved to illustrate the references paper condition of the manuscripts before treatment.(232) The departure of Gough did not mark the end of the work on the Cotton Manuscripts.
He left behind a huge quantity of loose leaves, each one carefully inlaid, which required identification and sorting, perhaps the for linggo 2013 most arduous task of all. References And Research Paper. In the early 1860s, Madden enlisted the help of a number of his brightest assistants, including the young Edward Maunde Thompson, in apa citation, a final assault on the fragments.(233) It was largely as a result of this concentration on and research the Cotton material that the cataloguing backlog for which Madden was afterwards criticized built up.(234) By 1864, this last work on the fragments was well advanced. Madden could afford to feel, if not complacent, then at least pleased with himself for argumentative power having pushed to paper the verge of completion one of the largest programmes of new cosmetologist cover letter manuscript conservation ever undertaken, even if the Trustees failed to recognize its importance. And Research. On 10 March 1864, Madden recorded in essay, his personal diary: Gave into the hands of Mr Thompson, one of my assistants, the whole of the remaining vellum fragments of the Cottonian Collection, not yet bound, or not identified, with instructions for references him and Mr Scott [Edward Scott, afterwards Keeper of Manuscripts], to go carefully over them, and arrange such as are identified, and letter, then identify, as far as possible, the rest. References. I have long had this work at heart, as, when it is done, I shall be able finally to much ado about nothing shakespeare bind up in boards the whole of what now remains of the loose 'refuse' of the references and research paper Cotton MSS. left after the fire of 1731 and which by my own labor and perseverance were rescued from dust and oblivion , when thrown together in heaps in one of the garrets of the old Museum building. I shall be truly glad to get this completed before I quit the Museum. I may then give a brief list of the Volumes or portions of this noble collection, which have been rescued from destruction, and made available to scholars. I have received no thanks from the Trustees, nor indeed from the style for master's thesis Public, for the pains I have taken since 1844 to references and research restore these missing portions of the Cottonian Collection, but I have the satisfaction of my own conscience in having undertaken and carried out a task so onerous and difficult, that I do not believe any other man living would have attempted it.(235)
When he wrote these words, Madden was unaware that the work on the restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts was about to receive its greatest setback. On the evening of 10 July 1865, Madden was writing letters in and contrase, his residence when at about 9 o'clock 'we were alarmed by a report that Mr Panizzi's house was on references and research paper fire! It was the work of sociology research thesis proposals a few moments to and research fly downstairs, put on my boots and overcoat, get out the Museum keys, and rush into the Court. Apa Citation Style For Master's. The first thing I saw was an immense column of black smoke, followed by flames, rising apparently out of the references and research paper corridor leading to Mr. P's house, but on approaching closer, I perceived that the fire was not in new cosmetologist letter, the corridor but in Tuckett's the binder's work shops! The sight was terrible, for I knew that many MSS. of references and research paper value had lately been sent down to and contrase him!'(236) The Museum's fire drill did not prove very effective. Policemen with vital keys could not be found; the fireman was on leave, and and research paper, no trained replacements could be found, so that on the first attempt to use the fire hydrants, the new cosmetologist cover letter hose burst; Panizzi was (as usual, comments Madden) dining out, and did not return until midnight; when the fire brigade, summoned by telegram, arrived after half an hour with two fire engines, only one could be used. 'Such a want of organization (after all the fair printed rules and instructions)', declared Madden, 'I never beheld in my life'.
The fire raged for over an hour. By 10.15 pm it had been put out, and Madden sent one of his attendants, George Gatfield, to try and find out references and research paper which manuscripts had been damaged. Fortunately most of the and contrase essay manuscripts had been placed in an iron safe in the stone-vaulted room where the Duke of Bedford's muniments were formerly deposited and had escaped injury. References Paper. This left the sociology research proposals manuscripts actually in references and research, the hands of the workmen to for linggo ng wika 2013 be accounted for. At eleven, Gatfield brought Madden a parcel of vellum manuscripts recovered from the workshop.
It was burnt on the outside and references, saturated with water. 'I could not tell what they were, but put them away to dry. I was very weary and vexed beyond measure at so unfortunate an occurance, although I had always feared it !' On the following day, Madden visited the devastated bindery to survey the argumentative essay nuclear power damage. And Research Paper. It appeared that the cause of the fire was a charcoal brazier in the finishing room, and and contrase, the manuscripts left overnight in references and research, this room had been destroyed and damaged. Madden ordered one of the 2013 assistants, Richard Sims, to make a complete list of manuscripts sent down to the binder, and check it by those returned so as to ascertain the extent of the loss. 'The MSS. And Research Paper. brought to my house last night by Gatfield prove to be the research remains of several Cottonian MSS. References Paper. which after having had so much labor time expended on them, in for linggo, flattening, inlaying, identifying, collating arranging, had been finally described and sent down to references be bound. It is most unfortunate that these remains, saved almost by miracle from the fire of 1731 should now again, after the lapse of above 130 years be again partially burnt. The water has done almost as much damage as the fire, and the whole are in a very sad plight.' Madden gave his deputy, Edward Augustus Bond, instructions as to the salvage work to be undertaken on the manuscripts, and essay for linggo, went to acquaint some of the Trustees with the bad news. He returned to the scene of the disaster in the afternoon. 'Some Persian MSS have been recovered (partly in paper, the sewing room up stairs) but I am distressed to learn that the Anglo-Saxon copy of Gregory's Pastoral Care, in proposals, Tib. B. XI (which Mr Hamilton and paper, myself had in our hands so recently, to shakespeare ascertain the places of a few loose leaves) has been entirely destroyed as has also a vellum MS. of the Arundel Collection, No.
243.' The techniques used by Madden and paper, his staff in trying to rescue the damaged manuscripts were much the same as those employed in 1731: 'All my Assistants, aided by Mr Bond and myself, were at new cosmetologist work to separate the burnt soaked leaves of vellum and paper, and then, with the help of one of C. Tuckett's men, to wash them, and hang them on lines to dry.' The scene understandably saddened Madden: 'It is references and research a truly melancholy sight, and unlucky to the last degree, for essay nothing the binder's man had no occasion to keep the Anglo-Saxon MS. out all night. It ought to have been restored to the iron safe. I met Mr. P[anizzi] and accompanied him and his sneaking shadow Jones to Tuckett's rooms, where Mr. P. And Research. behaved like a brute!' The 1865 Bindery fire was arguably the greatest single disaster to the collections since the establishment of the Museum in 1753. In terms of the power quality and importance of material destroyed, the loss was greater than the destruction of a large number of printed books by enemy action during World War II. There was initially some difficulty in establishing which manuscripts had been in the bindery.(237) One at least (Arundel MS. 152) had been taken down as a pattern without Madden's knowledge. References And Research. Others, at style first thought lost, were afterwards found,(238) whereas other volumes thought only to have been damaged had been completely destroyed. The process of paper separating, drying and identifying the surviving fragments took at least two months.(239)
The most notable loss was Tiberius B. Essay Nothing. XI, a late ninth-century copy of King Alfred's Old English translation of Gregory the Great's Pastoral Care. References Paper. Madden described the circumstances of essay much ado about shakespeare its destruction: 'it lay on a board immediately above the bin of charcoal, and a slate slab was placed above it. The slate flew into fragments from the heat, and the MS. (a good thick folio written on paper vellum, bound in russia) must have fallen into the midst of the burning charcoal.'(240) Eight tiny fragments from for linggo 2013 Tiberius B. XI were eventually identified (at what date is not clear -- probably within a month or two of the fire) and are all that remains of the manuscript today.(241) In the event, three Cotton Manuscripts were completely destroyed in the fire: Galba A. I, II and III. Galba A. References And Research Paper. I was a fifteenth-century historical collection containing a copy of Murimoth's Chronicle, proceedings of the Council of Florence and other texts.
Thought to be totally destroyed in 1731, Madden had managed to recover 52 leaves of it before they all perished in essay, the bindery fire. Galba A. II and III were a collection of Old English sermons, also recorded as lost in 1731, of references and research which Madden had found a large part. Essay Ado About Shakespeare. In addition to Tiberius B. References And Research Paper. XI, another twelve manuscripts, already burnt in 1731, suffered further severe damage in 1865: Galba A. XIX, Otho A. I, IX-XII, XIV, Otho B. III-IV, IX, XII and Tiberius E. XI. Of these, Madden singled out as particularly regrettable the damage to proposals Otho A. X, containing the unique text of Æthelweard's chronicle, and Otho A. References. XII, the essay manuscript which formerly contained The Battle of Maldon and references and research, Asser. At the time of the fire, Madden believed that seven leaves of Asser had been found and restored to Otho A. XII. New Cosmetologist Letter. In fact, these leaves were from the text of Æthelweard in Otho A. X.(242) Apart from the Cotton Manuscripts, which bore the brunt of the effects of the fire, Arundel MS. 343 and Egerton MSS. 1961 and 1962 were completely destroyed.
Arundel MS. 152 and Additional MSS. References And Research. 25686 and 25805 were severely damaged. A final blow was the for master's loss of the complete impression of the third volume of Madden's long-standing bugbear, the Catalogue of Maps and and research, Topographical Drawings , on which Madden's former Assistant Keeper, John Holmes, had, to Madden's great annoyance, laboured for many years, which Madden himself had spent a great amount of time finally preparing for nothing shakespeare the press after Holmes' death, and for which Madden had prepared an important appendix of corrections and additions, only to references and research see it suppressed by Panizzi and the Trustees. As a result of the fire, this volume of the catalogue was not finally published until 1962.(243) The undoing of so much of his recent work on the Cotton Manuscripts devastated Madden. At loggerheads with Panizzi and the prevailing Museum ethos, he felt that all his achievements had been wilfully overlooked by the Trustees and sank into despondency. The last straw came in the following year, 1866, when, despite Madden's great seniority, the Keeper of Printed Books, John Winter Jones, was appointed over his head as Principal Librarian. He decided to retire.
On 12 July 1866, he submitted a last memorial to the Trustees reminding them how, in the twenty-nine years since he had been appointed Keeper, the collections had doubled in size, accurate registers and essay, inventories of the manuscripts been prepared, and many catalogues produced.(244) He then went on references and research paper to describe his work on the Cotton Manuscripts: 'it is not too much for me to say, that, after the lapse of more than twenty years, I may claim, without egotism, the title of the apa citation style thesis Restorer of the Cottonian Library, for out of the number of volumes supposed to be lost or destroyed, above one hundred under my direction and superintendence have been in great measure recovered, and references and research, the whole of the for linggo ng wika damaged volumes have been repaired, and rendered accessible'. He retired on 29 September 1866. His official diary for the previous Saturday, 22 September, describes how he took his leave of the Cotton Manuscripts: Completed notes of Cotton MSS. and placed in Mr Thompson's hands the whole of the remaining fragments on vellum paper of the Cotton MSS. to be prepared for the binder. I now say Finis to my long and arduous labors on this Collection during so many years, by means of and research which upwards of 100 volumes have been restored for use supposed to sociology research thesis proposals be lost or totally useless! The schedule of injured MSS. made by my direction, compared with Planta's Catalogue of the Cottonian MSS. in 1802 will prove the paper extent of essay ado about nothing shakespeare what I have done, but for which I have neither received recompense nor thanks!! (245) The story of Madden's forty-year struggle to references restore fully the Cotton Manuscripts is a heroic one, with, perhaps, a whiff of sociology research tragedy in its conclusion. The scale of the achievement of Madden and his colleagues is even more apparent when the techniques used in recovering these burnt manuscripts are considered. An appreciation of this process is essential to a full understanding of the references present structure of much nothing many of the Cotton Manuscripts.
The records of Madden's work on the Cotton Manuscripts are voluminous. Madden's massive personal diaries, forty-three large foolscap volumes covering the period 1819 to 1872, contain much information about the Cotton library. However, as Madden himself makes clear,(246) his personal diary was not the main record of his day-to-day work in the Manuscripts Department. He kept a more detailed record of his work as Keeper in his official diaries, preserved in the British Library.(247) In these 'memoranda of business' every action of Madden as Keeper -- whether letter, conversation, meeting, cataloguing, binding order or recommendation for purchase -- is carefully recorded. The official diaries provide the key for tracing Madden's activities as Restorer of the Cotton library. They are supplemented by the volumes containing Madden's draft reports to the Trustees.(248) These contain not only such major reports as Madden's memorandum of 13 December 1838 giving his plan for the restoration of the Cotton collection, but also his monthly reports to the Trustees giving precise details of the gradual progress of the work. Some assistance in tracing the main reports relating to the Cotton collection is provided by three notebooks compiled by Madden containing digests of key information from his reports and elsewhere arranged alphabetically by subject.(249) These notebooks were intended to assist Madden in giving evidence to the Royal Commission into the Museum in 1848 and references paper, 1849.
The constant anxiety of the Trustees about the cost of the work on the Cotton Manuscripts has been noted. Compare And Contrase Essay. In July 1849, Madden 'Began to make a complete list of the Cotton MSS. in reference to the binding, inlaying and repairs since the year 1839 collected from the vouchers and binders books'.(250) This notebook was kept up until 1866 and references, provides perhaps the best overview of the work on individual manuscripts.(251) Details are given in manuscript order of the exact treatment each volume received, the power date when it was done, the number of folios in the volume, and the binder responsible for the work (either 'T', Tuckett, or 'G', Gough).(252) In 1845, Madden purchased a copy of the 1732 report on the fire which he had interleaved and which he also used to help keep track of the restoration work.(253) These records presumably provided the and research paper basis for the detailed description of the current condition of the Cotton Manuscripts prepared for Madden in much ado about shakespeare, 1866. This exists in three versions, namely a draft corrected by Madden,(254) and two fair copies, which are in the form of interleaved copies of the 1732 report.(255) A number of Madden's working lists and references, notes on damaged Cotton Manuscripts also survive, but are difficult to use because they have been bound up in the wrong order.(256) The most important was probably that prepared by Madden in 1837, which he described as 'a list of the style for master's thesis whole of the MSS. And Research. then damaged or destroyed, with an account of the contents of each, how far injured, and what repairs they have subsequently received, collected from the printed notes of Smith, Wanley, Casley, Maty, Hooper, Planta c. and research, the MS. notes of Mr Forshall and himself'. Madden, unlike Forshall, did not make any concerted attempt to describe the paper manuscripts restored by him. Apa Citation Style For Master's. The only references paper, exceptions were some of the State Papers, for new cosmetologist cover letter which Madden and his Assistant Keeper, Bond, prepared detailed lists of the articles not noted in Planta. These have never been published, and indeed were not made publicly available until 1983.(257) Of great value are the numerous annotations by Madden in references paper, the copy of Planta kept in the Keeper of Manuscripts' Room and preserved in style thesis, the Departmental Reference library. This volume summarizes much of the information about the structure of the Cotton library accrued in the process of restoration. Nevertheless, it is a bewildering and patchy compilation. References And Research Paper. The rearrangement, reidentification and recovery of masses of material is recorded in a very piecemeal fashion, through a mass of scribbled notes, many of them by Madden and new cosmetologist cover, sometimes vitriolic in their denunciation of earlier workers on the collection.
Another valuable source for the history of the and research restoration under Madden is the new cosmetologist cover letter printed annual returns of progress in the British Museum, which list each of the Cotton Manuscripts restored year by year.(258) Finally, Madden's own annotations on the manuscripts themselves often contain valuable information. References Paper. His notes on the flyleaf of the essay much nothing shakespeare Cotton Genesis, for example, provide a particularly lucid summary of the misfortunes of this manuscript. Much of this material lay hidden from public view until recently. Madden left a box containing his personal diaries and references paper, other material to the Bodleian Library but these were reserved from new cosmetologist cover public use until 1 January 1920. When the box was opened, it was found that the contents consisted of not only the personal diaries but also Madden's official diaries, report books and lists of acquisitions. Recognising that these belonged more properly to the Museum's Archives, the Curators of the Bodleian Library offered them to the Trustees.(259) The then Keeper of manuscripts, Julius Gilson, reported that these volumes 'are almost wholly concerned with the business of the Department of MSS. and would naturally have remained as part of its archives, but for the evidence they contain of the references and research paper difficult relations between Sir Frederic Madden and the then Principal Librarian, Sir A. Panizzi'. Gilson therefore recommended that this material should be accepted as a gift to apa citation style the Museum, but proposed that 'they remain part of the archives of the department instead of being placed with collections open to the public, to whom they would be of little use'.(260) These vital records of the restoration process consequently remained in the Departmental Archives, virtually unknown, until they were incorporated as Additional Manuscripts in 1981. Similarly, Madden's notes on references his restoration work, including the ledger recording the essay nuclear power work on each manuscript, were kept in the Departmental Archives until 1983, when they were also made Additional Manuscripts. Perhaps partly as a result of this, printed references to Madden's work on the Cotton Manuscripts are few and far between. In 1854, Gustav Waagen, in references paper, his guide to Treasures of Art in Great Britain , described how in 1835, on his first visit to the British Museum, the essay leaves of the Cotton Genesis were 'still quite crumpled up with the effects of the fire'.
By 1854, 'they had been successfully smoothed out, and mounted on and research separate sheets of paper, so as to admit a due estimate being formed of their style of art'.(261) Julius Zupitza in his 1882 facsimile of Beowulf noted how further textual losses to the manuscript had been stopped by a new binding. He observed, however, that 'admirably as this was done, the binder could not help covering some letters or portions of letters in every back page with the edge of the paper which now surrounds every parchment leaf'.(262) Zupitza does not mention Madden's name, neither does he indicate that the work on Vitellius A. XV was part of a general restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts. A few other editions of texts rescued by Madden also mentioned his work.(263) More detailed accounts of the restoration process were given in two nineteenth-century guides to essay ng wika 2013 the Museum Library. In 1854, Madden's trusty transcriber, Richard Sims, in his unofficial Handbook to paper the Library of the British Museum , gave a lucid short account of the new cosmetologist letter restoration.(264) The work of Madden and Forshall was also briefly noted by Edward Edwards in his 1859 Memoirs of Libraries .(265) Of recent histories of the Museum, Esdaile gives Madden's work the briefest passing mention,(266) while Miller refers only to the discovery of references paper material in the garret in 1837.(267) It was not until 1981 that the procedures adopted by Madden and his binders in argumentative nuclear power, restoring the Cotton Manuscripts were first described in detail, by Professor Kevin S. Kiernan in his groundbreaking book Beowulf and the Beowulf Manuscript . Kiernan describes the and research procedure adopted in inlaying the individual leaves of the Beowulf manuscript in the following terms: The binder first made pencil tracings of the separate folio leaves on sheets of heavy construction paper. These tracings are usually quite visible in the MS. the binder then cut out the center of the paper, following the outline, but leaving from 1 to essay much ado about shakespeare 2 mm. of paper within the traced line, so that the frame would be slightly smaller than the and research paper vellum leaf it was designed to hold. Paste was then applied to this marginal retaining space, and the folio was pressed into place. Finally, transparent paper strips were pasted on like Scotch tape along the research thesis edge of the vellum on and research paper the recto, thus to secure the mounted leaf from both sides.(268) Kiernan points out the advantages of this procedure. Apa Citation. It saves having to references and research handle the vellum while consulting the manuscript. Research Thesis. Moreover, it avoids the risk of confusing leaves inherent in handling the loose vellum.
The drawback is that the edges of the paper frames cover letters and and research paper, parts of letters on the verso of each leaf, which are thus effectively lost. However, as Kiernan points out, at least 'there is something left to try and decipher; without the paper frames many of these uncertain letters would now be gone'.(269) In 1983, Kiernan triumphantly vindicated this conservation strategy. Apa Citation. He showed that by references lighting the obscured vellum from behind with a cold fibre-optic light source, many of the covered letters could be read.(270) Recently, Kiernan has used a digital camera to record images of the obscured letters and demonstrated the and contrase use of computer imaging to restore the hidden letters to their place in the manuscript.(271) Thus, by stabilizing the condition of the and research paper vellum, Madden and much ado about nothing shakespeare, Gough had allowed future scholars, using technological aids undreamt of in the mid-nineteenth century, to read letters which would otherwise have disappeared in the British Museum Reading Room in the nineteenth century. Kiernan's work on the Beowulf manuscript has implications for the study of references all Cotton Manuscripts inlaid in sociology research proposals, this way. And Research. Wherever the text on the verso of an inlaid leaf runs up to the edge of the paper frame, there is likely to be text concealed beneath the edge of the mount, which may be read with the aid of fibre-optic backlighting. This applies to both vellum and paper manuscripts, since many of the burnt paper volumes were inlaid in a similar fashion, although usually using much lighter paper than in the case of the vellum manuscripts. Moreover, the inlaying of the paper manuscripts, undertaken by Tuckett, was often much more clumsily done than with the vellum manuscripts, so larger portions of text are concealed beneath the mounts. The first of the Cotton Manuscripts to nuclear be inlaid in references and research paper, this way was a paper manuscript, Vitellius F. V, the sixteenth-century diary of Henry Machyn, a merchant tailor of London, which contains, along with much other heraldic information, the first description of a Lord Mayor's Show. The restoration of this manuscript was supervised by Madden in 1829, while he was still Forshall's assistant.(272) Madden noted that 'The fragments forming the present Volume were formerly kept in a case, without any regard to order, and are thus decribed by Dr Smith(273) in compare and contrase, his Catalogue. Cod. chartac. in fol. References. constans foliis solutis circiter 150 in pixide asservatis, quae rite disponere frustra tentavimus .'(274) The paper leaves were badly singed around the edges by the fire, but none were lost.(275) The pages were inlaid by essay much Tuckett using exactly the same technique as the references and research paper later restorations.(276) Much lighter paper was used for the frames of Vitellius F. V than in subsequent restorations and the inlay was less skilfully done. Nevertheless, the result is an impressive first attempt.
Just as in the Beowulf manuscript, the paper mounts conceal odd letters and words around the edges of the leaves on the verso which can now be read by the use of fibre-optic light.(277) Madden took the inlaid leaves of Vitellius F. V and compared them with Strype, who, in Madden's words, 'made use of the MS. when perfect, and who quotes largely from essay for linggo 2013 it'; Madden was thus able to restore the manuscript to its original order. He carefully noted the month and year of each entry in ink at and research paper the top of each page, and, wherever an entry is mentioned by Strype, gives the reference in for linggo 2013, pencil on the manuscript itself. His comment on the work might serve as a motto for the whole restoration process: 'The curiosity and value of these fragments seemed a sufficient warrant for the labor and references and research, time consumed in arranging them in their present form'.(278) As a result of Madden's work, John Gough Nichols was able to produce the new cosmetologist cover first full edition of Machyn's diary in 1848.(279) Madden was sufficiently pleased with the results of this first experiment to have two further burnt paper manuscripts in the Vitellius press, Vitellius F. IV and VIII (which afterwards turned out to in fact be folios 1-95 of Otho D. IV) inlaid and and research, rebound in essay much shakespeare, September 1834, three years before he became Keeper.(280) These early prototypes show that the credit for devising the techniques used in restoring the Cotton Manuscripts belongs to Madden, though he may have been inspired by examples of Gough's work he had seen in Oxford.
This is confirmed by Madden's stress on the fact that the volumes were restored 'under my superintendence' and the way in which he gave both Gough and Tuckett very detailed instructions on references the procedures they were to use. The physical labour involved in the work undertaken by Gough and Tuckett was enormous. They had to open up, clean, flatten, make frames for research and mount thousands of and research leaves. Each stage of the work required manual dexterity and skill of the highest order. Just as arduous, however, was the intellectual labour involved in identifying and arranging the inlaid leaves.
As these were returned to Madden, he checked their order, making amendments as necessary, and then passed them over to Tuckett for binding. It should be noted that, in this respect, the notes made by Madden in ado about shakespeare, the binding ledger, Additional MS. 62577, as to the binder responsible for particular pieces of work are misleading. Even where the paper letter G appears beside a note that a volume was inlaid and research thesis, rebound, Gough was responsible only for the inlaying of the references leaves. The inlaid folios arranged by essay ng wika 2013 Madden were actually bound up by Tuckett. And Research. Gough's time was too valuable to be spent on such routine tasks.(281) Madden provides little information in his diaries and compare essay, elsewhere as to the exact procedures adopted by him in sorting and arranging the inlaid leaves.(282) References to references work on individual manuscripts are usually frustratingly vague, but it is clear that, in essay, establishing the order of the leaves, he relied heavily on early catalogues such as Smith and references and research paper, Wanley. In his personal diary for 26 May 1854, he notes that he 'Collated the Cottonian MS.
Otho D. X (now inlaid) with Smith's list of contents. Originally it consisted of 291 leaves, but previous to Smith's Catalogue (1696), thirty six leaves had been cut out, leaving only 255 and at present I find only 239 much injured by fire'.(283) By 1865, Madden had traced the remaining leaves and placed them in the appropriate places in the volume.(284) In other cases, the process of arrangement was more complex. On 29 March 1845, Madden 'Began to arrange for the binder the new cosmetologist vellum fragments of MS. Cotton Otho B. II containing Alfred's Saxon version of Gregory de Cura Pastorale. This volume was much injured in the fire of and research paper 1731, and only 49 leaves remain of it, which have been inlaid by Gough. Cover. I am enabled to place them in order by comparing each leaf with the and research paper printed Latin text of Gregory's work, a tedious and rather difficult task.'(285) Madden was still engaged on this work four months later.(286) The reconstructed Otho B. Sociology Research Proposals. II was then used as an aid in arranging another copy of the same text, Tiberius B. XI.(287) The complexity of the task confronting by Madden and the care with which he carried it out is evident, to take a random example, from a collection of and research paper twelfth-century historical works, Otho D. VII. Sociology Thesis Proposals. The surviving manuscript includes works by Diceto, Robert de Torigni, Ailred of Rievaulx and Henry of Huntingdon.
These represent a very partial survival of the references and research original volume, comprising parts of articles 3, 5-8 and 11 of the manuscript as described by Smith. In the first of the surviving articles, Diceto's Abbreviatio Chronicorum , the order of the leaves has been determined by reference to power two different manuscripts (Royal MS. 13 E. VI and Cotton MS. Claudius E. III) together with Twysden's printed edition. Detailed references to these various works are supplied in pencil on the paper frames of the leaves. On f. Paper. 10 a reference to the Royal MS. For Linggo Ng Wika. has been replaced with one from paper Claudius E. Letter. III and the folio number altered from 6 to 9 and then 10, apparently reflecting a rearrangement. Between ff. 15 and 25 there are a number of erased pencil numerations which show leaves being fed in to the sequence and rearranged while still loose. After f. 14, where two leaves are noted as missing, blank paper leaves, already ruled with ink borders, have been provided to receive the blank leaves if found.
On ff. 26 and paper, 27 inlaid leaves have been pasted into previously prepared blank leaves of this type. Confusingly, these extra leaves were not foliated when they were added to the volume and much ado about nothing, the foliation of the subsequent leaves was not altered. Madden also attempted at various points to and research indicate the original pre-fire foliation of particular leaves (e.g. ff. 62-65). This was useful to him in sorting, but, as it was not consistently done or clearly labelled, it was likely afterwards to cause great confusion.
To provide guidance for the binder, Madden put an extra foliation on the top right hand corner, which is argumentative nuclear still just visible, though heavily cropped and and research, largely erased. The foliation sequences provide important clues as to the stages in new cosmetologist cover letter, the restoration process, as can be seen also from the insular gospel fragment, Otho C. V.(288) Casley reported that 'some pieces of leaves' of this manuscript had survived the and research paper fire and indeed illustrates one of them.(289) Nevertheless, the manuscript is described as wanting by Planta. The fragments were eventually retrieved from the refuse in the garret by Forshall, cut open and flattened. The manuscript consisted in 1841 of sixty loose leaves.(290) However, six of the fragments thought by Forshall to belong to Otho C. V were in fact from Otho A. I.(291) Moreover, some of the fragments now joined together to form a single folio were probably separate in Forshall's time.(292) Nevertheless, it is clear that the bulk of the manuscript was recovered by Forshall, and that the additions made by Madden from the loose material in the garret were relatively few. The leaves treated by Forshall can be identified from the argumentative essay nuclear 'notching' left when the references paper manuscript was cut open, a practice abandoned under Madden.(293) The volume, including the six leaves from Otho A. I, was inlaid by Gough and arranged by Madden during the latter part of 1848.(294) A much heavier grade paper than usual was used for the inlay, perhaps in order more effectively to ado about nothing shakespeare protect the fragments, which are particularly brittle.
In arranging the leaves, Madden painstakingly wrote the biblical references for each leaf on the top of the paper mount. Some of the points at references and research paper which identification proved particularly difficult are evident from the occasional erasure and correction of these references.(295) During the course of the arrangement, Madden established that some fragments belonged to essay much nothing the same folio and and research paper, could be joined together, so he returned them to Gough to be inlaid again.(296) The old foliation in the top right hand corner of the ink border framing the inlaid leaf was made by Madden shortly before he sent the leaves to Tuckett to be bound. Four leaves were added to the sequence after Madden had completed this foliation(297) and were given starred folio numbers. In 1855, seven years after the manuscript was bound, six of the leaves which Madden's assistant Hamilton(298) realised in fact came from Otho A. I(299) were removed.(300) There is no disruption in the sequence of Madden's foliation and his binding ledger does not show that the manuscript was rebound after 1848. The most reasonable inference from this is that the ng wika 2013 leaves from Otho A. I had been placed at and research the end of the volume and could be removed without disrupting the foliation. At the same time as the leaves from Otho A. I were removed, Hamilton is also reported to cover letter have 'inserted some fragments' in references paper, Otho C. V.(301) Since the only indication of any disruption in the foliation are the four starred folios, the thesis proposals most likely explanation is that these are the and research paper fragments identified by Hamilton, which were presumably tipped in to the old binding. Unfortunately, all other evidence of this rearrangement was destroyed when the inlaid leaves of Otho C. V were mounted on guards and research, rebound in 1963.(302)
Although the various foliations are vital evidence of the restoration process, one of the weaknesses of Madden's work was the confusion he left in the referencing system of particular manuscripts. References And Research Paper. New leaves were inserted and essay, their order altered but the foliation was not amended. Occasionally, asterisks were used to indicate additional folios, but this was not consistently done. Thus, in references and research, Vitellius C. VIII, Madden inserted new material after Planta's f. 139. He continued Planta's foliation sequence from this point in sociology research, pencil up to f. 153, then used starred foliation for paper some further added leaves. Compare And Contrase Essay. However, he did not alter the references and research numeration of the remaining leaves with a Planta foliation.
As a result, before 1875, the manuscript contained two sets of ff. 148-153. Such a situation was clearly unsatisfactory, and was one of the reasons for the refoliation of all the Cotton Manuscripts in essay nothing, the 1870s and 1880s, when Madden's successors, Bond and Thompson, introduced the system of references and research foliation still used in argumentative essay nuclear power, the Department of and research Manuscripts.(303) The work performed by Madden and his team on the arrangement of the restored leaves was a bibliographical and palaeographical tour de force . Their tools were limited in scope: Smith, Wanley and a handful of very old editions. Many of the fragments were scorched and shrunk beyond recognition. Modern aids such as ultra-violet light and even a table-lamp were unavailable. The task of sorting and arrangement of the leaves became even more formidable after 1852 when the essay nuclear power fragments started to be flattened and inlaid without preliminary sorting.
By 1856, thousands of inlaid and unsorted loose leaves had accumulated in folders, each of which had to be individually identified. In the meantime, Madden was growing older and his sight began to deteriorate. He therefore started to involve his most competent assistants in references, the sorting and arrangement of the apa citation style for master's fragments. The first to references and research be recruited in this way was his Assistant Keeper, Edward Augustus Bond, who was to succeed Madden as Keeper and afterwards rose to be Principal Librarian. In 1850, Madden noted that he 'Gave Tiberius A. XV into Mr Bond's hands to arrange.'(304) Bond was also extensively involved in work on the State Papers. Thesis. Some of Madden's assistants were unequal to the task. In 1853, Madden complained that he had been 'Employed in collating the Cotton MS. Paper. Otho D. I (which was done in a very slovenly way previously by Mr Lerieu, one of my assistants) and inserted 17 additional leaves'.
Three years later, 'Mr Lerieu brought me the research remains of MS. Cott. Calig. D. X, XI, E. I and E. II which have been in his hands ever since 1852'.(305) More enthusiastic about the work was N.E.S.A. Hamilton, who in references and research, 1876 published the Inquisitio Comitatus Cantabrigiensis ,(306) a text which came to his attention as a result of his work with the Cotton Manuscripts. This document records an early stage in essay much nothing, the Domesday survey of Cambridgeshire and was (erroneously) hailed by no less a figure than John Horace Round as 'the true key to the Domesday Survey'.(307) In Galbraith's view, Round's misinterpretation of the function of this document, compounded by Maitland's acceptance of Round's position, fundamentally distorted Domesday studies until very recently.(308) Hamilton's edition of the Inquisitio was dedicated to the memory of Madden, 'the greatest palaeographer of the age', and in and research paper, his introduction Hamilton described how he had been asked by Madden 'to arrange and where possible to restore to their proper places a considerable number of separate and style, damaged leaves, which were known to belong to manuscripts in references, the Cotton collection; and thesis, it was while thus employed that he made the discovery of the important nature of the Domesday portion of the manuscript [Tiberius A. VI].'(309) Madden urged Hamilton to publish the text, which had been omitted from Henry Ellis's edition of Domesday-related material even though it was in the same manuscript as another text, the Inquisitio Eliensis , which had been included.(310) Hamilton did a great deal of work on the Cotton fragments, but was not wholly reliable.
On 31 January 1854, Madden recorded how 'Mr Hamilton identified the Cotton MS. References And Research Paper. Append. XXXI to be Vitellius F.VI said by Planta to be lost ';(311) on closer examination three months later Madden felt some doubts about the identification, observing that 'It does not correspond satisfactorily with Smith, but it maybe'.(312) In the 1860s, Hamilton was assigned the arrangement of the remaining Old English fragments, most of cover letter which are now in Otho A. VIII, Otho B. X and Otho B. XI.(313) These three volumes are among those where recent work has revealed serious deficiencies in the arrangement, with leaves inserted upside down and assigned to the wrong manuscripts.(314) It seems that these volumes were in an even worse state when they left Hamilton's hands and were sent to Madden for checking. On 12 May 1863, Madden, while examining these volumes, 'Identified 5 leaves of the Anglo-Saxon Boethius, Otho A. VI, and directed them to be inserted in their places which I ascertained by collation with Rawlinson's edition. Mr Hamilton (to whom I have previously given the Anglo-Saxon fragments) made sad work of them. Five leaves of Boethius he notes as Colloquy. Description of Britain!!'.(315) Even so, when Madden sent the checked volumes to the binder, very obvious errors in the reconstruction remained, evidence perhaps of his own failing powers.(316) Madden's most important associate in the task of identifying and arranging the fragments was the paper young Edward Maunde Thompson. Shakespeare. Thompson had been a clerk in Panizzi's office, and was transferred, at Panizzi's insistence, to and research Manuscripts in 1862.(317) Despite this unpromising start, he soon distinguished himself. In May 1863, Thompson identified article 3 of Vitellius A. III(318), located a number of fragments from Otho A. III and rearranged Vitellius A. VII.(319) On 1 June, he found the last eleven leaves of the chronicle of thesis Roger of Wendover, Otho B. V.(320) 'This is important', Madden declared.(321) On the following day, 'Mr Thompson identified the leaves of the commencement of Tib.
A. References Paper. IX which were missing before 1734 when the Report on the Library was printed, also the nine last leaves of Vitell. A. VIII.'(322) Madden was delighted: 'Mr Thompson is ng wika 2013 a most useful assistant his services more valuable than several of the older ones'.(323) However, even Thompson was not above making mistakes. He seems to have been responsible for identifying seven leaves from Æthelweard's chronicle, Otho A. X, as part of the unique manuscript of Asser, the first article of Otho A. XII,(324) a mistake which seriously misled Henry Bradshaw in his account of the placenames in Asser(325) and was only rectified by Sir George Warner some years later.(326) These leaves, further damaged in paper, the bindery fire, still form the first seven folios of Otho A. XII. It is perhaps only when mistakes like this come to light that the modern reader becomes conscious that many of the sociology Cotton Manuscripts are in a way replicas or reconstitutions, made from the original materials by Madden and his colleagues. The words of Susan Sontag describing the 1845 restoration of the smashed Portland Vase come to mind: 'neither replica or original.
A perfect job of reconstruction, for the time'.(327) Madden's great enterprise has been exhaustively described here, but there are still many other aspects of the work which would be worth further investigation. The Cotton Charters, which, as Madden noted, were in a particularly bad condition in 1838, were also repaired. The charters had perhaps the most complex history of any part of the and research paper Cotton collection. They were the only part of the collection which was renumbered when it came to sociology research thesis the Museum, being assigned a roman number representing the drawer in which the charter was stored and references and research paper, an arabic number recording the new cosmetologist piece number of the charter within the and research paper drawer. The original Cotton Charters only essay for linggo ng wika 2013, extend as far as XVI.3.
The numbers from this point onwards were assigned by references and research Samuel Ayscough to various unnumbered charters and seal impressions while he was compiling his catalogue of thesis proposals charters in the 1790s.(328) These included a number of references paper Harleian charters.(329) Madden was afterwards to lament the 'sad confusion' that Ayscough had caused in the charter numeration.(330) In Madden's time, these later additions to the charters were distinguished, following Ayscough's usage, as 'Cartae Miscellaneae Addendae' or 'Various Collections'. During the Bond's Keepership (1866-78), the compare essay use of a separate designation for these charters ceased, and they have since always been referred to as Cotton Charters and Rolls. And Research Paper. This has led to the confusing situation where the item known nowadays as Cotton Charter XXIV.17 was in fact presented to style thesis the Museum by Mr Leake of Middlewich in 1788.(331) Madden not only restored damaged charters but also recovered many charters from the damaged fragments in the garret.(332) The numeration assigned to these charters presumably reflects Madden's view of references their likely provenance. Hand in hand with the restoration of the research Cotton Manuscripts went a closer investigation of the history of the collection, leading to the rediscovery of much lost and references paper, stray material. Apa Citation Style Thesis. Madden compiled a detailed list of lost or strayed Cotton Manuscripts.(333) He persuaded Sir Thomas Phillipps to sell a stray Cotton manuscript in his possession, Vitellius D. IX, to the Museum at a special price.(334) Perhaps the references and research paper most exciting rediscovery was that of the research proposals Utrecht Psalter. On 1 December 1856, Madden 'Received a letter from paper Mr D. Laing giving me a description of a MS. in the University Library Utrecht [the famous Utrecht Psalter], which proves to be one of the lost Cotton MSS. Claudius C.VII which is marked Deest in Smith's Catalogue of 1696. Mr Laing recommends that the Trustees should negotiate for its acquisition. I think so too .'(335)
The second half of the nineteenth century saw a great leap forward in critical and argumentative essay, editorial standards. And Research Paper. Madden's work with the Cotton Manuscripts was of new cosmetologist cover fundamental importance in this movement. Paper. The connection between Hamilton's influential edition of the Inquisitio Comitatus Cantabrigiensis and the restoration work has already been mentioned. Madden rescued important manuscripts of many of the key English historical sources edited in the Rolls Series and elsewhere, such as (to take two random examples) one of only two extant manuscripts of Roger of Wendover's Flores Historiarum (Otho B. V) and a presentation copy of apa citation thesis Capgrave's De Illustribus Henricis (Tiberius A. VIII). Moreover, the work on the restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts, by establishing the exact extent of the survival of particular manuscripts, helped clear the ground for new editions of texts whose chief witnesses had been destroyed or reduced to a few fragments, such as Gildas and Asser. Madden's achievements as 'Restorer of the Cotton library' may not have achieved much public recognition, but they can be seen as underpinning the emergence of modern historical technique in references paper, Britain. This is reflected in the prominence of those most closely associated with the work on the Cotton Manuscripts -- Thompson, Hamilton, Bond and Madden himself -- in the editing of the Rolls Series. The two main published catalogues of the Cotton Library, those of Thomas Smith, published in 1696, and essay nuclear, Joseph Planta, published in 1802, had both, within fifty years of their publication, ceased to be accurate guides to the collection they describe. The 1731 fire reduced Smith's catalogue overnight to the status of a historical document: an indispensable guide to the contents of the collection before the fire but no longer an up-to-date working catalogue. The process by which Planta's catalogue became equally outmoded was more complex but equally devastating.
Criticisms of it had begun to be widely voiced as early as the 1830s. Most telling were those made by Sir Nicholas Harris Nicolas in his Observations on the State of Historical Literature , published in 1830. This attacked the work of the Record Commission which, rather than the Museum Trustees, had published the catalogues of the paper Harley, Lansdowne and Cotton Manuscripts. That these three catalogues were 'often erroneous and generally unsatisfactory', Sir Nicholas declared, 'is well known to all who have consulted them'.(336) He complained that the Cotton catalogue, like the third volume of the Harley catalogue, was full of short and vague descriptions of complex manuscripts.(337) He also attacked the accuracy of the catalogue: 'The descriptions of the manuscripts are not unfrequently erroneous, and what is equally material, the proposals general index at the end of the volume is extremely incomplete. For example, the references Cottonian collection contains the highly valuable chronicle of for linggo ng wika Lanercost, but no special reference is to be found to and research paper it in the general index; and other omissions of and contrase equal consequence might easily be cited.'(338)
In giving evidence to the 1836 Select Committee on the Museum, Nicolas not only repeated the criticisms in his earlier pamphlet, but also also drew attention to the problem of the burnt manuscripts. He noted that Planta did not give any indication as to the contents of manuscripts thought to references be completely lost, and offered no hint that any further fragments might still be surviving in the Museum.(339) Forshall's initial restoration work had, of course, already rendered Planta seriously out of date in this respect and it was no longer an accurate statement of those Cotton Manuscripts which were available for consultation in the Reading Room. Cover. Forshall conceded to the Select Committee that a supplement to Planta's catalogue was needed. References Paper. The basis for new cosmetologist cover letter this would be the 'considerable materials' which he had already begun to gather.(340) Planta's inadequate treatment of the burnt and missing manuscripts was a glaring deficiency in and research paper, his catalogue. An even more serious fault, however, was his failure to distinguish between manuscripts lost in the fire and compare, those already noted as wanting in Smith's 1696 catalogue.
Some of these were lost to the Library as a result of loans and references and research, survive elsewhere. Others may simply have been phantoms which never existed.(341) As Madden's restoration work proceeded, the refrain of 'deest' and 'desideratur' which echoes through Planta's catalogue became more and more misleading. Increasingly, manuscripts dismissed by Planta as lost or useless were being made available for public consultation. Moreover, as Madden's facelift of the collection continued, manuscripts described by Planta were rearranged, so that the ng wika 2013 description itself became out of date. This was communicated to readers, if at references paper all, by brief written notes, often very inadequate or confusing, in the margins of copies of Planta's catalogue in the Reading Room. Not surprisingly, towards the essay nuclear end of Madden's time as Keeper, readers became very frustrated with this situation. Madden's personal diary for 6 December 1861 contains the following entry: Saw Mr Panizzi in references and research paper, his room, who shewed me a printed sheet sent to for linggo 2013 him by the post, anonymously, in and research, which some person bearing no good will to the Dept. of MSS. has taken the argumentative trouble to collect from my Annual Reports to the House of Commons the references to the injured Cottonian MSS. which have been restored by my direction and under my superintendence, and paper, then by way of a grievance, asking why a copy of Smith's Catalogue of compare and contrase 1696 has not been placed in the Reading Room, with an paper account of those MSS. which had been restored. My answer is thus, to this anonymous piece of much ado about shakespeare spite.
1. There is a copy of Smith's Catalogue in the Reading Room always has been. 2. At the references and research end of Casley's Catalogue of the Royal Library there is a short list of those MSS. damaged or lost by fire in 1731. 3. A great part of the MSS. so restored have been bound placed on the shelves, are accessible to every reader. 4. Practically the whole are easily accessible, for every reader who wishes to know of any remains of essay a MS. References And Research. (said by Planta to be lost ), exist, has only to ask, and for linggo ng wika, he is references and research immediately informed. 5. For a long time past I have [purposed] an interleaved copy of Planta's Catalogue for the Reading Room, in which are to argumentative essay power be entered descriptions of the references and research MSS. wholly or in part recovered or restored; but up to the present time, it has been found impossible to execute this, since it would require the services of an thesis proposals extra assistant devoted especially to the task.(342)
Despite his dusty reply to this anonymous criticism, Madden was conscious of the need to provide better information about the availability of particular Cotton Manuscripts. In June 1861, he had pointed out to the Trustees that all the restored manuscripts needed to be described, and references, that Planta's catalogue 'requires careful revision, and additions to be made; to apa citation style do which would require a good palaeographer one well versed in and research paper, English History and Middle Age literature'.(343) As Madden approached the end of his work on the manuscripts, he had prepared a detailed account of the essay for linggo 2013 current condition of and research those reported as lost or injured by the parliamentary committee of 1732.(344) This information was inserted in two interleaved copies of the committee's report. One was retained for essay ado about nothing shakespeare internal Departmental use. The other was placed at the catalogue desk in the Reading Room shortly before Madden submitted his resignation.(345) This provided an authoritative account of the references paper restoration work, but unfortunately it did not stay in the Reading Room for very long.
It was withdrawn from the catalogue desk, perhaps when a separate Manuscripts Students' Room was opened in 1885. It was at first placed in the general printed book collections with the pressmark 362.b.14, but was afterwards returned to the Manuscripts Department, where it rejoined its companion in the Departmental Reference Library.(346) The two volumes remained there until 1983, when the ng wika copy originally intended for references the Reading Room was incorporated in the Manuscript collections as Additional MS. 62573. In 1984 this information was finally made available in print, when one of the sociology thesis proposals volumes was published in references and research paper, facsimile in Colin Tite's indispensable edition of cover Thomas Smith's catalogue.(347) The interleaved copy of the parliamentary report is the only convenient statement available of the work done by Madden on the Cotton Manuscripts but is nevertheless unsatisfactory in paper, a number of ways.
It was not kept up to date and argumentative essay, does not record the further work on the collection done after Madden left the Museum.(348) Moreover, Madden's notes are restricted to the manuscripts listed by Casley as lost or effectively destroyed but his work was far more wide-ranging than this. Many leaves were added to manuscripts described by Casley as damaged but usable, and there are only indirect references to the extensive work undertaken in rearranging and sorting the manuscripts in the Appendix. Had it been made more widely available, the interleaved copy of the parliamentary report would have provided a useful stop-gap, but it was never a replacement for and research a new catalogue. The preparation of a new catalogue was a constant aspiration of successive Keepers of Manuscripts, rather as the restoration of the fragments had been up to Madden's time. In the 1870s, while George Warner was arranging the loose inlaid fragments left by Madden into argumentative a separate series, he compiled detailed descriptions of references them.
Shortly before the First World War, Eric Millar described the bulk of the appendix and the remaining loose fragments. These descriptions may perhaps have been intended to be the first stage in the preparation of a new catalogue. With the for linggo outbreak of the First World War, however, this project was abandoned, and Millar and Warner's descriptions filed away. They were not finally typed up until 1973, and only made available in the Students' Room in 1981.(349) In 1931, the tercentenary of Cotton's death, a special exhibition of his finest manuscripts was held in the King's Library. The then Keeper, Sir Harold Idris Bell, expressed a hope in the preface to the exhibition catalogue that it would be soon be possible to start work on a new catalogue, similar to that recently produced for the Royal and King's Manuscripts.(350) Shortly afterwards, the Trustees gave permission for this work to begin.(351) Manuscripts in the Julius, Tiberius and Caligula groups were assigned for description to various officers including Bell himself, Robin Flower, Francis Wormald, Eric Millar, and Theodore Skeat. The rules drawn up for the new catalogue still survive. They stressed that 'The new catalogue was sanctioned by the Trustees on the understanding that the work for it would be done concurrently with that on the General Catalogue. It is important that it should not interfere too much with the references and research latter, the arrears in which, though reduced, are as yet by new cosmetologist no means overtaken. It has therefore been decided that Officers should devote no more than two days a week to the Cotton catalogue'. It was proposed to issue the and research catalogue in a series of fascicules, with the first volume containing descriptions of the earlier manuscripts, arranged in Emperor order.
It was hoped to draw on the expertise of readers and an appeal for information on the manuscripts was to be circulated among readers. F. M. Powicke and V. H. Sociology. Galbraith were to be consulted on the treatment of chronicles and F. M. Stenton was to act as advisor on the cartularies. This ambitious scheme, which would undoubtedly have produced a first-rate catalogue, was again cut short by the outbreak of war. The dispersal of references staff and collections during the war, as well as such vicissitudes as the destruction during the ng wika Blitz of the printers stock of the paper descriptions of the Catalogue of Additions to the Manuscripts for 1921-1925 and part of 1926-1930, meant that an arrear of publication built up which is only just being eradicated.(352) The retirement of Madden did not mark the conclusion of work on the restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts. He had passed over to Maunde Thompson a large pile of inlaid fragments not yet identified and a little loose material.
The annual reports of the Museum for 1867 and 1868 indicate that work continued on these fragments,(353) but it was soon abandoned as Madden's successor, Bond, began to concentrate on his pet project, the creation of the classed catalogue. When Maunde Thompson himself became Keeper in 1878, the decision seems to have been taken to bind up the remaining inlaid fragments in separate volumes. Rather than attempting to essay shakespeare reunite these with their parent volumes, detailed descriptions were prepared which indicated as far as possible the provenance of particular fragments. This was the paper origin of the present series of Cotton fragments, which represent the remnant of the material found by Madden in the garret in for linggo ng wika 2013, 1837. The loose material which had not been inlaid by references and research paper Madden was kept respectively in a 'case', a 'portfolio' and 'box'. For Linggo Ng Wika. Detailed work on the identification of this material was undertaken by Millar, but does not seem to have led to any extensive rearrangement. The loose material was not generally available for public consultation. Eventually in and research paper, 1990 the decision was taken to sociology proposals sew the loose material into inert transparent plastic sleeves to facilitate its use in the Students' Room. This work was undertaken by Cyril Titus of the Manuscripts Conservation Studio under the supervision of references and research Rachel Stockdale, relying on the work of Millar and Warner. The material from the former 'case' is argumentative essay nuclear power now available as Fragments XXX. It is intended that the contents of the 'box' and 'case' will also be bound up in and research, this fashion.
The story of the restoration is not yet ended. Indeed, it may be beginning afresh. Apart from the possibilities opened up by the use of computer imaging as demonstrated by Kevin Kiernan, Madden's restoration work is beginning to show signs of age. Argumentative Power. Vellum behaves in a different way to paper. And Research Paper. As the vellum moves in one direction, the paper moves in essay much shakespeare, another. References Paper. Gough's paper frames are buckling and in one or two places the vellum is becoming detached from the 2013 paper frames. Even more seriously, in the later stages of the restoration process, acid paper was used for references and research paper the mounts of some of the fragments. Essay For Linggo Ng Wika. This accounts for references and research paper the yellowing of some frames in a manuscript like Otho B. X.(354) In order to stabilise the situation, some of the burnt Cotton Manuscripts have been recently encapsulated in plastic(355) but, as David Dumville has observed,(356) this makes study of the essay 2013 manuscripts difficult. References And Research. A conservation technique which balances the need to preserve the manuscripts against the requirements of public access needs to be developed. In some respects, we are back in new cosmetologist cover, the time of references Ellis and Forshall. Again the words of Susan Sontag in respect of the Portland Vase seem apposite. 'A perfect job of reconstruction, for its time.
Until time wears it out. Transparent glue yellows and bulges, making seamless joints visible. Can something shattered, then expertly repaired, be the same, the same as it was? Yes, to the eye, yes, if one doesn't look too closely. No, to the mind'.(357)
Reports of Matthew Maty and Henry Rimius on the condition. of the Cotton Library, July 1756. These reports are printed from the compare and contrase essay copies in and research, the minutes of the Standing Committee of the Museum Trustees, vol. 1, 1754-1757 (British Museum Archives CE 3/1), 102-106, 110-114. [ The initial report ] The report of Dr Maty and Mr Rimius concerning the state in which they have found the manuscripts and medals in research thesis, the Cottonian collection. According to the order given us by the Honourable Committee of the Trustees of the British Museum, Friday July 16th, 1756, we waited upon Mr Widmore at references paper the Cottonian Repository, and examined the apa citation style for master's manuscripts, by comparing them both with the catalogue, composed by Mr Smith and printed in 1695, and and research paper, with the account which was given by Mr Casley in 1732 of the state of the manuscripts after the style for master's fire. For this purpose we opened the references paper several presses distinguished by the names of the style twelve Caesars, those of Cleopatra and and research, Faustina, and the Appendix; and having counted the number of volumes under every division, we took one or two of compare and contrase each and compared them with the catalogues, to be satisfied they answered to the accounts given of them.
And though, for want of references time, we could not be as particular as we could have wished in our examination, we hope the following account will be found agreeable to the actual state of this valuable, though hitherto much neglected, collection. The manuscripts contained in the presses called Julius, Augustus, Claudius, Nero, Vespasianus, Titus, Domitianus, Cleopatra, Faustina, and essay much ado about shakespeare, those of the Appendix, have suffered nothing by the fire, and have been found to agree with Mr Smith's catalogue. Yet several of these being placed in presses much exposed to dampness in a cold and shady place, could hardly notwithstanding Mr Widmore's endeavours (which he has assured us to have been very assiduous) be preserved from must and mouldiness and will want to be aired and carefully dried up before they are placed in the Museum. The condition of the manuscripts contained in the presses called Tiberius, Caligula, Galba, Otho and Vitellius, obliges us to be a little more particular, as we could not find some of the articles specified by Mr Casley, and as several of those which he declares to references and research paper be entirely destroyed, may still be of some use in careful hands. Beginning therefore with Tiberius we find the division. A. Answering to sociology research thesis proposals the two catalogues; 12 and 15 entirely destroyed; all the books damaged besides 1, 5 and and research, 6. Yet the most damaged still capable of being read, either in part or entire.
B. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 8 still subsisting; 9, though said to be burnt to a crust, very legible in essay for linggo, the inside. C. Though nothing is said of them in the account, have most of them greatly suffered by the fire. D. 6 is wanting; 9, marked with a star in the account as entirely destroyed, has been found by us. E. Answers to the catalogue compared with the report. A, B, C. Suffered nothing, or very little by the fire, and references and research, have been collated with Mr Smith's catalogue. D E. Answers to Mr Casley's account of the for linggo effect of the fire upon them. A. 6 is not found; 15 exists, though damaged; and 18 which was referred to in Mr Smith's catalogue as being transferred to Caligula A.14 was reported to be lost by Mr Casley. B, C, D, E. References. Answer to the catalogues compared one with the other. A. According to argumentative essay power the report consists of 18 numbers all destroyed; yet we discovered the first part of number XII being the Life of Alfred by Asser Menevensis. C. 1, 4 and 13, said to and research paper be destroyed, are in part legible.
The other numbers answer to the catalogue as well as. D E. Several bundles and loose papers not taken notice of by Mr Casley may, in part, be recovered and read. Besides the damage done by the fire to the manuscripts in power, this press, it has suffered no less by the carelessness of those that have been the first employed in preserving them, as well as by the extraordinary moistness of the and research paper place. Style For Master's Thesis. The great humidity, together with the extension of that hue, which the fire extracted from the references and research paper volumes wrote on vellum, having rolled the edges of most of them, defaced the marks and afforded both lodging and food to numberless shoals of worms and other insects. In this state we cannot answer whether number 15, under the division C, all those that were under D, number 13 under E, and 15 and 17 under F, which were the argumentative power only ones under the several divisions we could not find, besides those that have been marked in Mr Casley's report as entirely destroyed, may not still be recovered, at least in part, among the sad remains of and research this precious part of the collection. The medals or coins, of which Mr Pegge and the late worthy Mr Folkes gave some manuscript account in 1747 and 1748 have been found by us in a most confused state. The Reverend Mr Widmore has never examined them according to these accounts, and answers only to the number, which we found to be as follows:
Pope's Heads, Seals co. Medals or English coins. The account of the charters, curiosities co. and of Major Edwards's books, we beg leave to refer to the meeting of the committee, as we have not had time hitherto to examine them. London. July 22 1756. [ The further report ] The charters, warrants, deeds and other records contained in the last press of the Cottonian cabinet might have been examined with more ease and in less time had we found them disposed in any order, properly endorsed, or at least regularly numbered and sufficiently described. But as nothing of cover letter all this has to our knowledge hitherto been done, and as no other assistance could be procured but the rough draft of references a catalogue, which the Reverend Mr Widmore has made of them for his own use, we were obliged to look them over one by one, to new cosmetologist letter pick up the late learned Keeper's loose sheets, and to affix to every one of them a number by which they could more easily be found out. We cannot and indeed we ought not to be very particular in our account of references paper these precious relicts, as such an account would not only be dry and cover, tedious, but also in a manner useless, since Mr Widmore has promised to lend his notes. These, though he himself modestly owns them imperfect, will still be of great use in references and research, the future arrangement of this part of the collection.
We declare that of above five hundred pieces mentioned by him in letter, his rough draft, no more than four or five have escaped our researches. These few appeared to and research us to be of essay much nothing little consequence, to paper lose more time than we could spare in looking for proposals them amidst the rubbish of paper bits of for linggo ng wika parchment or of paper, scorched by the fire, or consumed by old age, which Mr Widmore thought too much destroyed to be either used or described. We think however a more particular examination will be necessary, as it is not impossible but some things may still be retrieved. As this Honourable Board required from us not an accurate description but simply a general survey of the whole, we flatter ourselves that what we have said hitherto and are now going to add will in some measure answer their intention though not our desire of and research fulfilling our duty. The upper part of this last press contains sixteen, and the under one seven, drawers filled with papers or parchments. Several of them being entirely relative to the Cotton family seem to essay be of little use to the public, and the same may be said of many more, which only serve to swell but in our opinion by no means to enrich this collection. Some capital pieces are already sufficiently known, and their importance seems to and research paper require the greatest care of them. Among them deserves the first rank, King John's famous grant of privileges, which though one of the sufferers by the fire, is argumentative nuclear still very legible, and would be much more so had anything been done to repair the damages done by this dreadful accident. We have put this piece by itself in a separate drawer, viz. no. 16 at bottom.
The explanations of Magna Carta and of that of the references and research Forests by Edward the First are likewise subsisting, and ought we think to nuclear power be brought nearer than they now are to the preceding piece. Amongst the paper public records preserved in sociology research, our collection, we beg leave to mention Pope Innocent's Bull containing the cession of the weak king, Robert de Bruce's claim to the crown of Scotland as laid before Edward I in French in 1297, the Scotch Barons' submission to the English King's determination, the declaration of John, King of France, about the references and research quarrel between the Dukes of Lancaster and Brunswick in for linggo ng wika 2013, 1352, the Archbishop of Canterbury and references and research, of York's letter to Henry VIII containing their synod's compliance with his desires in apa citation style, the affair of the and research paper divorce with Ann of Cleves, an instrument of the Dutch commissioners in 1585 confirming the power cautionary cession of some of their towns. Some original, though not very remarkable, letters of paper Queen Elizabeth, Prince Maurice and co. are likewise found there. The antiquity of many of the pieces contained in this press is alone sufficient to render them venerable. Several of them are of the apa citation style ancient Saxon and references, Danish kings, viz. Ethelbert, Edred, Kinewolf, Canut, Alfred and co. and must be very near a thousand years old. Historical, chronological and genealogical rolls, drawn up by sociology research monks, in the ages of ignorance and darkness, may still afford some satisfaction. Inventories of the books and effects of the and research paper several monasteries, expenses for the table of their abbots, and orders for the table of some princes, will probably likewise be examined and compared.
But what constitutes by much the greatest part of these records relates to the church, viz. Essay For Linggo. Pope's Bulls, indulgences, grants and and research paper, dispensations, ordinations of bishops, but especially pious gifts and grants to monasteries. Some of them have appeared in print, others have not, though deserving of that honour, and proper to ascertain the titles of several churches to style for master's thesis their estates. The antiquities contained in three or four of the drawers of and research this press do not appear to us of very great value. Some ancient little brass statues of compare and contrase essay Egyptian or other heathen gods or heroes, a few scales, instruments, and and research, other trinkets neither remarkable for their rareness or workmanship do not deserve, at least at and contrase present, a more particular description, and we already too much fear to have abused the patience of this learned assembly by references and research our hasty and very imperfect account. London. Sociology. July 30th 1756. Description in chronological order of the lists, etc., of damaged Cotton Manuscripts in Add. MS. 62576. (1) Labels from boxes containing loose fragments of Caligula D. V (f.
11) and references, Vitellius E. Sociology Research Proposals. IX (f. References Paper. 15). (2) Notes of much ado about shakespeare lost Cotton and Royal MSS., early 19th cent.(?). ff. 59-60. (3) List by Forshall of 'Saxon MSS. wanting', circa 1827. ff. 52-52v.
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Essay, Research Paper: Solar System Planets. satellites, asteroids, meteors and comets that revolve around the sun. This. system is referred to as the paper, solar system. A planet is defined as a “celestial. body that revolves around a central star and and contrase essay, does not shine by its own light. (Grolier,1992).
The only planetary system known to our civilization is. our solar system. It is paper made up of nine planets that differ greatly size and. physical characteristics. The nine major planets in our solar system are. Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto. Much Ado About. There. are also many other minor planets which are also in our solar system, but they.
are unimportant compared to the nine major planets. Following are descriptions. of the paper, differences that each of the essay much ado about nothing, nine planets have. The first planet to be. discussed is Mercury. Mercury is the planet that is closest to the sun at an. average distance of references paper about 58 million km, or about 36 million miles.
It takes. 58.7 days for Mercury to rotate. The planet rotates one and one half times. during each revolution. Mercury has a density and composition close to that of. Earth and, like Earth has a magnetic field.
This magnetic field is produced from. the planet’s outer core, which is 2013 said to be liquid iron. This liquid iron. generates a magnetic field with its movement. The atmosphere is extremely thin. and contains sodium and potassium. The photographs that have been taken of. Mercury's surface show the planet having craters and paper, steep cliffs. The. temperatures on Mercury reach amazingly high levels of about 430° C, which is.
about 810° F on the side facing the essay, sun and paper, about -180° C, or about 290° F on. the side facing away from the sun. It is speculated that these high. temperatures, resulting from the planet’s proximity to the sun made it. impossible for the gases present to become part of the planetary formation or. for Mercury to essay have any type of atmosphere. Venus is the second closest planet. to the sun and is said to most closely resemble Earth in size, density, and. distance from the sun.
Venus is known as the sister planet to the Earth. References And Research. One. differences is that Venus is shrouded in thick clouds that completely hide the. surface of the planet. Cover. The surface temperature is also much warmer than that of. Earth.
Venus completes one revolution around the sun in 224.7 days. This makes. the a day on Venus equal to 117 earth days. It is thought that this slow. rotation may be the reason why Venus has no magnetic field. Paper. The atmosphere of. Venus made up of argumentative nuclear 98% carbon dioxide and 2% Nitrogen.
This atmosphere also has. the presence of helium, neon, and argon. The surface of Venus is quite a bit. like that of the Earth. Cloud particles on and research paper Venus are mostly concentrated. sulfuric acid. Water and water vapor are very uncommon on Venus. Many scientists. hold the opinion that Venus, being close to the sun, was subjected to a kind of. extreme greenhouse effect.
This effect caused any oceans to evaporate into the. atmosphere. Another viewpoint that is held is that Venus had very little water. to begin with. The surface has volcanoes and smooth plains. Much of the volcanic. activity on Venus takes the form of Basaltic eruptions that inundate large. areas, much as the new cosmetologist cover, mare volcanism flooded the impacted basins on the near side. of the moon. References Paper. Because of the essay nuclear power, distances of the orbits of Venus and Earth from the. sun, Venus can never be seen for than three hours before sunrise or three hours.
after sunset. When Venus is viewed through a telescope, it shows phases like the. moon. Venus rotates very slowly on its axis, in a direction that is opposite to. that of Earth. Cloud particles on Venus are mostly concentrated sulfuric acid. Water and references and research, water vapor are very uncommon on Venus. Many scientists hold the. opinion that Venus, being close to the sun, was subjected to a kind of extreme. greenhouse effect. This effect caused any oceans to evaporate into the.
atmosphere. Research Proposals. Another viewpoint that is held is that Venus had very little water. to begin with. Higher-level winds circle the entire planet at 360 km/hr., or 225. mph.
However, even with these high velocity winds, near the planet’s surface. more than half of Venus's tremendously dense atmosphere is practically still. From the paper, surface up to 10 km, or 6 mi. altitude, wind speeds are only about 3 to. 18 km/hr, or about 2 to 11 mph. Much Nothing. In the upper atmosphere, the night side of Venus. is extremely cold. Day-side temperatures are 40° C, or 104° F but night-side. temperatures are -170° C, or 274° F. References Paper. Scientists theorize that strong winds. blow from the day side toward the near vacuum that is caused by the low. temperatures on the night-side.
Venus has huge active volcanoes, large. solidified lava flows, and a vast number of meteorite craters. The composition. of Venus's dense atmosphere apparently prevents smaller meteorites from crashing. into the surface of the planet. A great deal of tectonic activity has taken. place on Venus, at least in the past. Venus is the second closest planet to the. sun and is said to 2013 . And Research. . . most closely resemble Earth in argumentative essay, size, density,
and distance from the and research, sun . Research. Venus is references often referred to by scientists as. the sister planet to the Earth. Essay. It is and research paper called this because it closely resembles. the Earth's mass, density and diameter. The only thing different is that Venus. is shrouded in thick clouds that completely hide the surface of the.
planet (Grolier, 1992). The surface temperature is also much warmer than. that of Earth. Venus completes one revolution around the sun in 224.7 days. This. makes the Venusian day equal to 117 earth days. It is essay for linggo thought that this slow. rotation may be the reason why Venus has no magnetic field.
Mars is the fourth. furthest away from the sun and is recognized by its reddish color. Mars is also. very much like the Earth. More than any other planet in the solar system, Mars has characteristics that make it an Earth-like world (Grolier, 1992).
One similarity that Mars shares with Earth is the rotation period. Mars’ rotation period is only thirty-seven minutes longer than Earth's. This explains. the seasonal change similarity that Mars shares with Earth. It is said that the. differences between winter and summer on Mars is references more extreme than that on. Earth. Mars is extremely hard to analyze and study due blurred effect that is a. direct result of the essay for linggo ng wika 2013, two atmospheres of Mars.
Scientists have been able to. discover that Mars is fairly small and that changes take place in the surface. features upon seasonal changes. The red haze that covers Mars is a result of. dust storms. The thin atmosphere of Mars is composed of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, argon, water vapor and references, oxygen. Mars is only one of the planets that. does not have a magnetic field.
Because the atmosphere of mars is so. thin, wind velocities up to several hundred Km per apa citation style for master's, hour are required to raise. the dust particles during a dust storm, and these fast-moving particles erode. structures with a sand-blasting effect (Grolier, 1992). Therefore, the. surface is basically plain-like and references paper, covered with large craters.
The poles of. Mars are iced over and the temperature is style thesis about 160 - 170 degrees. Mars shares. the volcano characteristic with Venus. The surface is covered with winding. channels that resemble river channels that have dried up over time. Scientists. believe that water once existed and caused the formation of these channels. It. is said that, Mars remains the best candidate for life in references, the solar. system outside of the Earth, and that is what makes Mars so interesting to.
scientists, and what compels them to gain access to its surface as they once did. the moon. For Linggo Ng Wika 2013. Jupiter is the fifth planet and is the most massive of references all the planets. in this solar system. Its mass represents more than two-thirds of the. total mass of all the planets, or 318 times the mass of the Earth. Jupiter's. magnetic field is 14 times stronger than Earth's. This magnetic field is.
responsible for the huge belts of trapped charged particles that circle the. planet out to a distance of 10 million km. The atmosphere of Jupiter is made up. of water, ammonia, methane and carbon. Scientists feel that there are three. different layers of clouds. The wind activity on Jupiter is volatile, and moves. in jet streams parallel to the equator. The weather on Jupiter is still very. hard for scientists to understand. There has not been nearly enough information.
compiled about conditions on Jupiter to truly understand, or describe the nature. of the weather is on this planet. Its weather conditions remain something of a. mystery, or puzzle, to scientists. One feature of Jupiter that is recognizable. by most individuals is its rings.
These rings are very diffused and unclear. Essay For Linggo Ng Wika 2013. The. ring particles are extremely small, approximately a few microns. The size of the. particles explains why the rings are not more clearly visible. Sixteen. satellites of Jupiter have been seen so far. References And Research Paper. Io and Europa, which are close to.
Jupiter, are dense and rocky. Ganymede and Callisto, at research thesis proposals, greater distances, are. mostly water ice at low densities. Callisto is almost as big as Mercury, and. Ganymede is bigger than Mercury. References And Research Paper. The surface of essay Europa is references and research covered by a layer of. water ice, and a layer of liquid water may lie beneath the ice. And Contrase. Europa also has.
a thin oxygen atmosphere. Io has volcanoes, powered by tides created in this. satellite's interior by Jupiter's gravitational force, that release hydrogen. sulfide and other sulfur compounds, giving it a mottled yellow, brown, and white. surface. The remaining moons are very much smaller. Between Jupiter and Io are.
the moons Metis, Adrastea, Amalthea, and Thebe. Outside Callisto are Leda, Himalia, Lysithea, Elara, Ananke, Carma, Pasiphae, and Sinope. Saturn is the. second largest planet and is sixth in its distance from the sun. Saturn is. famous for and research paper, its rings, which first seen in 1610 by sociology thesis Italian scientist Galileo and. identified as rings by Dutch astronomer Christiaan Huygens in 1655.
These. “famous” rings contain more than 100,000 individual ringlets. The visible. rings stretch out to a distance of 136,200 km from references and research paper Saturn's center, but in many. areas they may be only 5 m thick. They are thought to contain rocks, frozen.
gases, and water ice in lumps of compare various sizes from extremely small to large. One of Saturn’s rings is dense enough to block sunlight. The atmosphere of. Saturn is predominantly made up of a clear hydrogen-helium atmosphere. Methane, phosphine, ethane, and acetylene are also identifiable in smaller amounts.
Saturn orbits the and research paper, sun with a period of sociology research 29.4577 tropical years. References And Research Paper. It is 1.427. billion Km away from the sun and is therefore an extremely cold planet. However, the gravitational situation of Saturn causes it to emit three times as much heat.
as it receives from the sun. Uranus is the seventh planet from the sun, and and contrase, is. located between Saturn and Neptune. References. Uranus was discovered in 1781 by the British. astronomer Sir William Herschel and was originally named Georgium Sidus, or the. Star of George, in honor of King George III of Great Britain.
The name Uranus, proposed by German astronomer Johann Elert Bode, was in use by style thesis the late 19th. century. Uranus has a diameter of references and research paper 51,120 km, and its average distance from the. sun is 2.87 billion km. It has a mass greater than Earth's. Uranus orbits the.
sun once every 84 years and argumentative nuclear power, rotates on its axis in 17 hours 15 minutes. References And Research. Its. atmosphere is mostly hydrogen and helium, with a trace of methane. Through a. telescope it appears as a blue-green disk with a faint green rim.
Nine rings. orbit Uranus, which also has 15 satellites revolving around its equator. The. largest moons are named Oberon, Titania, Umbriel, Ariel, and Miranda. Even. though there have been estimates made, the main problem scientists have with. Uranus is that this planet does not have visible surface features, which means. that it is difficult to measure the essay, rotation period of Uranus because they are. not sure which part of the planet they are viewing.
Uranus has an equatorial. diameter of 51,000 Km which is almost four times as much as Earth. The. atmosphere is paper mostly methane gas and therefore the nuclear, planet has a red tint or a. blueish green color. Uranus also has rings but unlike Saturn these rings have. almost no small particles.
Scientists are not as concerned with this planet, and. have not determined that there are any significant scientific findings to be. made on its surface. Neptune is the last of the gaseous planets in our solar. system. Neptune is the fourth largest planet in the solar system, and eighth in. its distance from the sun.
Its atmosphere is much like Uranus's because it. contains predominantly helium and hydrogen. It also contains methane which gives. it its blue color. Neptune has a diameter of 49,500 Km and a mass 17 times. greater than that of the references and research paper, Earth. Apa Citation Thesis. Neptune is about 4.5 billion km from the sun. It. is about 49,400 km in diameter, almost 4 times as wide as Earth.
Neptune’s. deep atmosphere surrounds a liquid surface and a solid core. Neptune rotates on. its axis every 16 hours and orbits the sun in 164.79 Earth years. References Paper. Because of the.
lack of essay for linggo light on references the planet It cannot be seen with the new cosmetologist letter, naked eye, but rather. requires the usage of a telescope. Paper. Neptune has five thin rings and eight known. satellites. The largest is of the satellites is Triton, with a diameter of 2705. km, which is only slightly smaller than Earth's moon. Triton has a nitrogen. atmosphere, with some methane, and an active planetary surface with geysers. The. satellite Nereid has a diameter of about 320km. Neptune also has rings like its.
other gaseous partners, but they are very faint. Not a great deal is known about. Neptune. It is widely studied by scientists and that makes it an important. planet. Pluto, the last planet to essay power be discussed, is the smallest of the and research paper, planets. and the farthest from the son. This planet, like Neptune, is not extremely. visibly, and cannot be studied extensively.
Pluto is made of much rockier. material than are the other planets of the outer solar system. Many astronomers. think Pluto may be a former satellite of Neptune, which was possibly knocked. into a separate orbit during the early days of the solar system. is style thesis very hard to. see therefore not a lot is known about its physical characteristics. Scientists. do know that it has a thin methane atmosphere. Little is references known about sociology research thesis this planet. because it is so far away from the Earth and the sun.
Scientists are always. learning new things and more data will arise in the future. As one can see the. planets of most importance are the references paper, ones closest to the sun and Earth. Little is. known about the far off planets therefore it is argumentative essay nuclear power hard to give them full. recognition. And Research. Much is known about Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter and. Saturn. The other three planets are not as well known as these six are. Compare. Whether.
more planetary systems exist doesn't really matter. There are still plenty of. things we don't understand about our own solar system. Scientists will have. their work cut out for them in the future. Each and references and research, every planet has distinct. differences and that helps show us how truly great God is. Letter. The planets will. never fully be understood and will always be a great topic of discussion.
Cattermole, P. (1995). Earth and Other Planets. New York: Oxford University. Press. Grolier Electronic Publishing, Inc. (1992). Help other users to and research find the essay much ado about, good and worthy free term papers and trash the bad ones.
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