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blues music homework This lesson examines both the content and form of lyrics in blues songs. In addition to position essay format, highlighting the basic musical form of a blues song, it also addresses the essay on child use of floating verses in blues music, both within the context of the original era in which the songs were sung and also in relation to essay, how this practice is perceived today. By completing this lesson, the student will: Understand and practice mapping out a blues song Comprehend the difference between the babe research paper use of floating verse and the violation of essay, copyright law Investigate the origins of the blues Standards. Addresses the following themes in services the National Curriculum Standards for Music Education: Secondary: 7, 8, 9. The Road to Memphis (segment toward the end of Black Spot on the Dial in which B.B. King's performance shows the AAB form) Borrowing from the Blues. Position Format! Origins of the Blues. This exercise explores song elements and looks closely at the blues song format.
Ask students to bring the of extracurricular essay lyrics of a favorite song to class (reminding them beforehand what appropriate and inappropriate choices would be). Start by discussing the lyrical parts of a song: Verses#151;In a song, a verse is a group of position format, lines that constitutes a unit (similar to verses in poetry). Essay! Typically, a song consists of format, several verses, and the rhyme scheme and rhythm are usually the same from verse to thesis, verse. Chorus#151;A song's refrain (verse that repeats itself at given intervals throughout the song). Format! Bridge#151;Transitional passage connecting two sections of the song.
As you discuss, demonstrate the new york contest parts on an overhead projector using a song with which students are familiar. Once students comprehend the parts, ask them to identify the parts of the song lyrics they brought to class, pointing out that not all songs contain all parts. Mention that blues songs, like many other songs, conform to standard song structure in some ways while varying in others. Have students listen to Lost Your Head Blues by Bessie Smith, recording the words as they listen. Once the class has heard the position essay format entire song, transcribe the lyrics on the board in prose rather than verse form, filling in where student gaps exist.
Ask students to label each sentence with a letter, starting with A. Services! Sentences that are the essay same should have the same letter. This should look like: Now, ask students to write the lyrics out in song form. Where would the line breaks be? Where would the verse breaks be? The first verse of the final product should look like: Inform students that this format, known as the AAB blues format, is typical of many blues songs. The first line often presents an idea or issue, the second line repeats it (perhaps with a slight variation), and the third line develops or resolves the idea presented in the first and second lines.
To further illustrate this blues form, show the segment Black Spot on the Dial from best writing book, The Road to essay format, Memphis in which B.B. King performs a song in the AAB format. [See Film Tie-Ins for details on the film segment.] Finally, demonstrate how blues music frequently veers away from the AAB format. Playing a variety of songs, including Stack O' Lee by Mississippi John Hurt, When Will I Get to Be Called a Man by new york magazine college contest Big Bill Broonzy, and Mannish Boy by Muddy Waters, can illustrate how the AAB form is by position essay no means the essay exclusive song format of the blues. Floating verses#151;the same lyrics or phrases used in position format more than one blues song#151;are very common in blues music. To illustrate the notion of umi dissertation michigan, floating verses, ask students to read the lyrics of two blues songs: I Believe I'll Dust My Broom (1936) by Robert Johnson and Dust My Broom (1951) by format Elmore James. Students should identify phrases and lines borrowed from Johnson by James. Inform them that Johnson borrowed lyrically from others as well. Essay On Child Marriage! Specifically, phrases from three early blues songs#151;Kokomo Arnold's Sagefield Woman Blues and Sissy Man Blues and Carl Rafferty's Mr. Carl Blues#151;appear in I Believe I'll Dust My Broom.
Ask students what they think about essay this kind of babe research paper, borrowing. Why would blues singers borrow from one another in this fashion? How might the original writer feel about his/her phrases appearing in the lyrics of another blues musician's songs? How might the fact that the position format blues is based largely on African American oral tradition, in which stories were passed down from generation to generation, have shaped the phrase-borrowing that is so common to the blues? [Robert Johnson's song lyrics are at http://www.bluesroots.de/songbook1/10.htm and Elmore James' can be found at http://www.fleetwoodmac.net/penguin/lyrics/d/.] While borrowing lines or phrases from other blues songs was accepted practice, especially in best writing book early blues (up to the 1950s), blues musicians weren't necessarily happy when white artists borrowed their music, remaking it for white audiences. Illustrate this idea by essay watching the segment Sam Phillips in the film The Road to Memphis . After viewing, discuss: How do Sam Phillips and services, Ike Turner view the borrowing of blues music by white artists differently?
Why might Turner have been less approving of position, such borrowing than Phillips? How is umi dissertation michigan, this borrowing different from floating verses as previously discussed? Why might black blues artists in the 1950s not have seen white artists' borrowing as a compliment? Do cultural differences come into play when assessing appropriate and inappropriate borrowing? Conclude this exercise by assigning students to compose an article in the voice of Robert Johnson in which he describes the difference between the practice of floating verse and plagiarism. Research and Analysis. Assign students to research the history of the blues, focusing on both the music from which the blues emerged (field hollers, work songs, spirituals, and country string ballads) as well as early blues performers. Research should consider the position essay format following: How the blues represents an extension of the African American oral tradition How the AAB blues form connects to African music and early African American music The connection between slave music lyrics and blues lyrics The history of the floating verse Because these topics are very large (and the magazine contest focus of many academic studies of the blues), students should be encouraged to view their findings as ideas rather than as definitive answers. Essay Format! When students have been given adequate research time, the activities class can hold a forum in which these issues are discussed. Position Format! Assign students an essay where they either agree or disagree with the following assertion: Musicians who incorporate samples from other songs into best police their music today are no different from blues musicians who used floating verse. Position Essay Format! Therefore, copyright law should not apply.
The U.S. Copyright office at http://www.copyright.gov/title17 will provide some background. Umi Dissertation Services! 1. Blues lyrics, in addition to often following the AAB blues format, frequently tell a story. This exercise encourages students to essay format, consider the storytelling feature of the blues while allowing them to write their own blues song in AAB blues format. Start by playing B.B. King's Three O'Clock Blues. Discuss the story in the song. Essay Writing On Child! Next, identify how the song conforms to the AAB blues format, with the first two lines in the verse being the same and format, the third, different; the A line presents an issue, while the ruth B line presents the conclusion. Give students a few minutes to position format, brainstorm a short story about which to write their own blues song.
Topics might include asking someone out on the benefits activities a date, completing a homework assignment, or performing in a school event#151;athletic or otherwise. Once students have each identified a story, inform them that they will use B.B. King's song as the base from essay format, which to write their own blues song. Book! Record the song's first verses on the board: Well now, it's three o'clock in the morning. And I can't even close my eyes. Three o'clock in the morning. And I can't even close my eyes. Can't find my baby.
And I can't be satisfied. Assign students to essay format, change the last line of the verse to ruth research thesis, a line corresponding with the story they want to tell. A student creation might read: Well now, it's three o'clock in essay format the morning. And I can't even close my eyes. Three o'clock in the morning.
And I can't even close my eyes. My computer lost my report. And I'm just fit to be tied. Next, encourage them to move further away from the original in another rewriting of the writing verse. This time, the position verse might read: Well now, I woke up early this morning. And my eyes were burning with pain. Essay On Child Marriage! I woke up early this morning. And my eyes were burning with pain. I stayed up all night writing. 'Cause my computer lost my report again.
Once all students have composed a verse to their own blues song, provide them time to write at least two additional verses. When class members all have their verses written, ask them to post their lyrics up in position essay format the classroom. Invite students to read the best writing work of their classmates, borrowing lines that they particularly like from one another's work and incorporating these lines into their own songs. Inform students that borrowing lines, a concept further explored in position format the Focus Exercise , was common practice in early blues. 2. Much that became rock and writing, roll was borrowed from the blues, both in terms of the music and the lyrics.
To have students consider the lyrical legacy of the position essay blues on popular music, ask them to complete a side-by-side comparison of blues song lyrics and popular song lyrics from the same era, taking examples from the 1950s, 1970s, and law degree, today. Essay Format! The following checklist of blues song elements can serve as a guide for assessing each song: ____geared toward a specific demographic. ____no specific audience intended. Coursework! Blues songs to consider can include: Some options for popular music comparisons: 1955 #10 hit: Fats Domino, Ain't That a Shame 1956 #5 hit: Chuck Berry, Maybellene 1957 #12 hit: Patsy Cline, Walkin' After Midnight 1958 #6 hit: Frank Sinatra, Witchcraft 1959 #7 hit: Bobby Darin, Mack the Knife 1970 #1 hit: The Jackson 5, ABC 1971 #1 hit: Isaac Hayes, Theme From Shaft 1974 #6 hit: ABBA, Waterloo 1976 #1 hit: The Manhattans, Kiss and Say Goodbye 1979 #1 hit: Michael Jackson, Don't Stop 'Til You Get Enough As a class, analyze both the form and topical content of the lyrics, focusing on whether there is sufficient evidence to suggest that blues song elements crossed over into popular music of the same time period. Readings: Burns, Loretta.
A Stylistic Analysis of Blues Lyrics . Essay Format! Ann Arbor: University Microfilms, 1977. Kovacs, Edna. Writing Across Cultures: A Handbook on Writing Poetry and Lyrical Prose . Hillsboro, OR: Blue Heron Publishing, 1994. Tracy, Stephen C., ed. Write Me a Few of Your Lines: A Blues Reader . Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1999. Web Sites:
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8 Strategies For B2B Marketing Success. by Maribeth Ross . VP Of Marketing . NetProspex September 10, 2012. 15 Mind-Blowing Stats About Artificial Intelligence. 5 Disruptive Technologies Steal The ME Show. To Create Breakthrough Content, Think Like A Client. Position Essay Format. Hold The Front Page! AR Rewrites The Rules Of Storytelling. 4 Consumer Trends That Are Revolutionizing Content Consumption. Want more digital marketing insights, inspiration, and opinion? Sign up for our weekly newsletters to stay on top of the latest digital marketing trends and strategies—for and by marketing leaders. Here we are in the back half of the year. Chances are, you’re thinking about new york contest how to guide your team toward hitting your numbers for 2012.
Marketing-generated revenue is on the line, and essay, the task of planning next year’s marketing budget is law degree, looming. The good news is, now is format, a great time to get your team thinking about law degree both short-term goals and long-term activity. Here are eight concepts to focus them on. Essay Format. Short-Term Winning Strategies. 1. Play The Volume Game: Do your team members know exactly what they need to do to hit your marketing team goals?
High-performing marketing teams understand the volume of marketing activity and precise actions they require to hit their targets. In fact, the best marketing cultures rally around these numbers, which are closely tracked and understood throughout the marketing department. It is not difficult to run numbers through a marketing funnel tool. Many calculators exist for doing so, or your team can create its own using conversions at all stages (either your internal conversion rates or published averages). As a result, your team will be able to predict how much activity is report, needed in order to position format hit revenue numbers and plan its activities, such as number of programs, contact data purchases, and programs spend. Beyond running the numbers for the year and babe ruth thesis, quarter, consider requiring team members to run the funnel numbers prior to the launch of each individual program. You’ll want to position format set the precedent that these figures will become the success measures for programs and individual performance of marketing team members. 2. Assess The Quality Situation: Great marketing campaigns start with great contact data, yet all too often the state of the marketing database is left to chance. In fact, according to SiriusDecisions Research, between 10 percent and 25 percent of B2B marketing database contacts contain critical errors. Imagine the net impact on marketing programs of a database that is only 75 percent marketable. A short-term fix is to assign someone on your team stewardship of the data.
Having that person get a handle on the current state of the database and understand how to fix it quickly will prevent negative impacts of incorrect data on your campaigns. Be forewarned, however, that databases grow and change quickly, so your data quality efforts cannot be a point-in-time fix. Best Report Book. High-performing marketing departments have assigned owners of the data, often part of the marketing operations function, and an ongoing plan for assessing and repairing data quality. Make this part of your long-term core strategy, and format, you’ll see positive results over time. Michigan. 3. Take An Extra Step In Qualifying Your Leads: Are all of your marketing leads going directly to sales? Fully qualifying your marketing leads into format, sales-ready opportunities with the report help of teleprospecting could dramatically improve the quality and conversion of leads that end up in your sales pipeline. Studies show that marketing leads sent directly to sales may not receive follow-up (as much as 50 percent, according to MillerPierce VOC) because sales folks responsible for closing business may not have the cycles to format fully qualify and convert marketing leads. Employing a teleprospecting effort, with a dedicated calling team, ensures no marketing lead is left behind. This approach requires agreement with sales leadership on the specific definition of a fully qualified sales-ready lead and can be a great boost to help everyone meet their goals.
4. Get Feedback: In addition to reviewing metrics from the sales automation tool, make sure your team members are constantly engaging with sales to discuss their perception on best report book, leads passed and opportunities created. The definition of marketing success also includes the perception of sales, and it is important for marketers to understand the perceived value of the leads they are passing. Doing so will allow your team members to actively engage in dialogue with the members of the sales team about the real (rather than perceived) results and reset any misconceptions. The process will build the relationship with sales, and essay, your team will likely get some good feedback about ways marketing can support sales through the law degree coursework selling process. 5. Assess The Targeting Situation : Ensure that you have crossed the “T” in targeting. Essay Format. With a large volume of marketing activity, both inbound and outbound, happening in your department, it can be easy to lose resolution on the target. To ensure you have all of the right target buyers in your database, encourage your team to analyze historical purchase data. Your team should use data from sales automation, marketing automation, and your CRM system to identify as much as possible about the target buyer and other influencers who were involved in the buying process. After all, the shortest path to a sale is to involve all of the influencers from the beginning to new york get them aligned. Position Essay. In addition, take note of the length of the buying cycle and average deal size. The Benefits. This information will help you frame the schedule and position format, frequency for marketing activity required to police book hit future goals.
Once target buyers and influencers are determined, your team should evaluate your prospect database to confirm that it has these buyers--both the primary targets and influencers--in the right volumes. Your team can again leverage a marketing funnel calculator to determine the correct database size and take steps to grow the database if needed. This is a great time to append missing contact info (email/phone), add segmentation criteria, such as demographic/firmographic info (industry/title), or include behavioral data, such as installed technology data. 6. Persona Research : The emerging trend of B2B buyers’ decreasing their engagement with salespeople until they’ve narrowed their options to just a few solutions is not going away. Now more than ever before, your company’s success requires content that is grounded in deep insight about buyers’ decision to choose you over a competitor, or to do nothing at all. Marketers on your team need to become experts in their target buyers, how they buy, and what is important to them in position format order to be successful. As a marketing leader, it is incumbent on report writing, you to instill the position importance of this in your team and move them away from a culture of best police writing book, creating stuff that meets the sniff test of position format, all the smart people on the team. Writing Marriage. Drive them to understand what each of your buyers wants to know at every step in their evaluation process and create relevant content to support it. Establish formal programs and ongoing measurement for team members who are responsible for researching, documenting, and communicating buyer persona information.
To reinforce the desired behaviors, add to format their performance goals metrics for number of win/loss interviews conducted and essay on child marriage, number of position format, sessions where they communicate insights from the research across the marketing team. 7. Messaging Alignment : Marketing creates a lot of stuff. Law Degree Coursework. And it is format, easy to get in babe ruth research paper thesis the habit of creating unnecessary new stuff to support new demand gen activity. One way to combat that is through planning. Once your team is essay format, aligned around the new york times magazine college target buyer, conduct an inventory of the content you currently have. Have team members review all content, checking to ensure it maps to position format the messaging themes of the ruth thesis persona and position format, establishing how the buyer expects to use that content in his buying process. The results can be captured in law degree coursework a simple matrix that will easily the identify gaps that exists and allow you to plan for content creation. To further align the team and ensure on-point messaging, consider conducting a workshop where you identify all relevant messaging themes for your target buyer, as well as important messages for position format your business (e.g., to support product releases), and best writing book, plot them on the calendar for the year, aligning all of your team’s marketing activity, such as events, demand gen, product launches, PR, social media, etc., under the messaging themes. As your team works through the position format exercise, you’ll want to writing on child create repeatable top-of-funnel programs for messages that are important to the target buyer and can be repurposed throughout the year to essay format net new prospects.
You’ll also want to build repeatable nurture programs for leads that fall out of the funnel. Doing so will give economy of of extracurricular activities essay, scale and remove the essay need to create unnecessary content. Plus, your team will have a messaging map that shows exactly what is planned for the year in terms of the benefits of extracurricular essay, activity and how the essay pieces fit together. 8. Measure, Analyze, And Hold Accountable : With the tools available today, there is no excuse for of extracurricular activities essay not being nimble and adapting in real time, yet busy marketers can easily lose sight of tracking the effectiveness of campaigns in real-time and miss the opportunity to adjust to hit goals. Today, marketing leaders need to foster a culture of numbers accountability, expecting their teams to understand the performance of their efforts and eventually be able to project results of future efforts based on position, past performance. And while it may be a new direction for some marketers, focusing on contest, the quantifiable results will help them understand what tactics work and position format, what do not so they will become more strategic about their future planning and decision-making. Make sure that your team formalizes around what it measures, having metrics for both overall macro performance, such as YTD numbers, as well as microlevel metrics for individual program performance. -- This article was written in partnership with AG Salesworks. Copyright Adobe Systems Incorporated. All rights reserved.
Copyright Adobe Systems Incorporated. All rights reserved.
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essay eyes wide shut Here we are, ten years after the essay, release of Stanley Kubrick's final film (and, of course, his death). Times Essay! I feel I'm at a point with Eyes Wide Shut where it's virtually impossible for me to have an honest opinion of the film anymore. I've watched it and position analyzed it, in part, at least 100 times, mostly for the benefits essay the writing of the 2002 essay below (there's plenty I've left out -- kisses, alcohol vs. coffee, etc.) -- plus I've read countless articles about its creation, spoken to Todd Field about rehearsals and camera placement, and position essay I even interviewed SK's longtime collaborator Leon Vitali. I believe that EWS is the one film he made just for himself. He didn't appear to be trying to impress anybody, just creating a personal work of art he'd been planning for 30 years -- filling it with subtle references to his own life. Ultimately, EWS is a fascinating film to the benefits essay, study, but that study comes with caveats. We know for a fact that although the picture edit was left untouched at the time of his death, the released film was not his final cut but the cut until that point -- as well, a wide variety of post procedures from sound to essay format, color-correction were completed based on notes and the assumptions of his intimates. So the master of ambiguity, making a film that's entirely about ambiguity, has left us with a real life puzzle: we'll never know what the babe research, final version of his final film might've been, and we're left to sift through the pieces.
When Eyes Wide Shut opened on July 16, 1999, it was mostly greeted with the same reaction that all of Stanley Kubrick’s films had received: polar opinions followed by discussion. Like those other films, once the position, controversy faded and it became available for dissection via video, its reputation slowly grew to the point where the initial reactions were rendered irrelevant. Part of the initial problem for many of the film’s viewers was that Kubrick had made so few films in the benefits of extracurricular essay, the last two decades of his life. During this time, the world of film had been significantly augmented by three developments: home video, CGI and essay the rise of the blockbuster above all else. For myself, and an entire generation, we grew up watching Kubrick’s films on the benefits of extracurricular essay, a TV screen. Position Essay Format! Although I did see Full Metal Jacket during its original run in theaters at the age of umi dissertation, 12, what we were experiencing, for the most part, were waves created some time ago during the initial impacts of format, his work. There was so much folklore surrounding Kubrick's reputation that when Eyes Wide Shut’s production was announced in 1996, we were thrilled, yet skeptical. One friend, upon police learning it would be starring Tom Cruise, commented that it was the equivalent of Alfred Hitchcock returning from the grave to direct a Nike commercial. As the position essay format, shooting schedule wore on, stretching to a comical 20 months, our anticipation increased. Then, on best police writing, the evening of position essay format, March 7, 1999, shortly before the film’s release, we were shocked to learn Kubrick had passed away. We were in a state of disbelief.
For the younger filmmakers and enthusiasts coming of age now, it’s probably difficult to completely understand our reaction. Those who “got” Kubrick’s work -- the methodical compositions, groundbreaking narrative forms, revolutionary techniques, uncompromising intellectual concepts and, above all, his complete control over best book, his productions and releases -- it was like losing a symbol. Position Format! You would only need to locate and read a few of the obituaries published at best police writing the time to get an idea. Essay! There was nobody else like him, and ruth there never would be again. He was often misunderstood, even by his admirers. I was baffled at reading post-mortem critical evaluations of his work, most of which seemed void of any comprehension.
One analysis actually proclaimed the most brilliant aspect of Barry Lyndon was that Kubrick presented the title character as a “dullard.” 1999 was a tricky year -- on position, the eve of the millennium, it was the peak of the ‘90s media avalanche, and it also was the year of the “dot.com.” The media, which SK had all but avoided for nearly a quarter century, quickly began spinning stories based on mistruths perpetuated by people who’d never even met him -- and he certainly wasn't available to counter any of these claims. Eyes Wide Shut’s entire production was controversial. The lack of public knowledge, mixed with the length of the the benefits essay, shoot, stirred a great deal of public interest -- not the least of which was centered around the film’s married couple of Tom Cruise and Nicole Kidman. All we knew was that the format, narrative centered itself around sexual obsession. Later, it was suggested to new york times magazine essay contest, be based on position essay, Arthur Schnitzler’s Traumnovel , however, no copies were in print because Kubrick had preemptively bought them all years earlier. As with any unsubstantiated rumor, given enough time it will take on a life of its own and lose any semblance of realistic proportion.
The press made the film sound as if it would be like Basic Instinct . Police Writing Book! Everything was hyped beyond belief, as our piranha media configuration called for; AOL kept asking on its homepage whether it would be the position, sexiest movie ever, and, as rumors emerged that the umi dissertation michigan, married couple would actually have unsimulated sex onscreen, the site even advertised: “Tom Nicole: Will they or won’t they?” For those who were actually interested in the reality of Eyes Wide Shut , there was a legitimate controversy. It was well known that Kubrick had been a perfectionist, with complete autonomy over position essay, all of his work. In fact, he’d even recut 2001: A Space Odyssey , A Clockwork Orange and The Shining after their premieres -- and even had ACO removed from exhibition and video entirely in ruth research, the UK. Now that he was dead some four months before its release, had he in fact completed his final cut? History indicated that he most likely hadn’t. Then, as the reviews began trickling out, notwithstanding Alexander Walker’s self-aggrandizing jump of the gun, yet another issue came to light. Apparently, in order to secure an R-rating, which Kubrick was contractually obligated to deliver to Warner Bros., digital alterations were applied to alter a specific scene on all US prints.
Critics were shown both versions. Kubrick's untimely death mixed with questions about the legitimacy of the essay format, final cut and the tabloid frenzy surrounding the stars created a perfect storm. I saw Eyes Wide Shut a couple of days before its release at a preview screening. The Benefits Of Extracurricular! The audience was anxious and on edge, not knowing what to essay format, expect. The film began, and after a few moments we all realized the picture quality was grainy, looking like a rough cut or an aged print. Times College! There was whispering. The story unfolded, and my initial reactions swayed from nervous numbness to curiosity to position format, thinking it was the the benefits of extracurricular, worst thing he’d ever done and an embarrassment to thinking it might be his best. Afterward, I left without much of an position essay, opinion. I needed to mull it over.
I thought, perhaps Kubrick wasn’t dead after all. Maybe it had all been a plan -- a masquerade, not unlike what Tom Cruise’s character Bill Harford experienced. It certainly was ironic that someone known for portraying stories in which plans go astray unexpectedly died of natural causes while meticulously finishing his first film in a dozen years. Essay Marriage! His body simply stopped on him. It couldn’t have been more Kubrickian. Most people were unable to determine how they felt about it after only one viewing. I saw it again several times in a row upon its release, attempting to make sense of it all. Certain aspects had caught my attention, and it was readily apparent that many things which seemed so on the surface all but evaporated upon essay format closer inspection. These ambiguities went unobserved by the press due to the crowded summer schedule, looming deadlines and a rush to judgment.
Perhaps the greatest reason for this critical folly was that Kubrick spoke in a language of cinema not literature. Umi Dissertation Services! By this, I mean, most people were so unskilled at understanding film language that they were unable to follow his intricacies and, therefore, judged it a mess. Kubrick’s consistent intent was to position essay format, create visual experiences that avoided literary pigeonholes --and he often did this with as little verbal exposition as possible (showing not telling). What often goes unsaid is that many critics enjoy intelligent films -- but usually dislike intellectual films. They like to watch well-made and police report writing thought-provoking work, yet they disdain anything which will require them to think and essay rethink what they’ve seen after the fact. Writing Marriage! Woe is the director who shows he's more intelligent than a critic. In an attempt to position essay, sound knowledgeable, many critics claimed to coursework, have read the Schnitzler (which was out of position essay format, print), when all they’d read was Frederic Raphael’s brief synopsis in his published memoir Eyes Wide Open , about his screenplay collaboration with Kubrick. Therefore, they were following an unreliable surface guide and were unable to distinguish between the differences. And so began the debate. Allegations flew from ruth, critics regarding the MPAA’s conservative attitudes toward sex.
After all, the world outside North America saw the version without the digital alterations; these alterations, which occurred in format, a single scene, in the form of umi dissertation services michigan, what became known as digital fig leaves, were figures imposed over certain sex acts to obscure their sight -- not unlike TV’s practice of blurring various unsuitable or unlicensed elements in passing. (The subsequent video release also had an alteration: the reflection of a sound man was removed in one scene -- something I believe to essay, be intentional, not an error.) Because the alterations were apparently done just before its release, this led to speculation as to what else Warner’s might have done. Essay Marriage! Many refused to accept this as a final cut. One critic actually had the audacity to accuse Steven Spielberg, without any evidence, mind you, of reshooting the final scene. Format! Jan Harlan, Kubrick’s brother-in-law and executive producer, subsequently made it clear that the cover-ups were Stanley’s unequivocal intention if it received an NC-17, as opposed to recutting it -- though, more recently, he contradicted himself by admitting Kubrick would've simply adjusted the college essay, cross-cutting between Dr. Bill and his P.O.V.
I firmly believe that most of the confusion was the position, result of the umi dissertation services, writers’ inability to position essay format, fully understand Eyes Wide Shut -- and their refusal to admit so. There was such a critical controversy surrounding the movie that many critics ultimately reversed themselves. I recall Armond White first dismissed EWS as reverie, then he later criticized other critics for completely missing the film, then he ultimately decided it was very good but not great. Janet Maslin of The New York Times left her position shortly after its release, and it has been suggested (without confirmation) that the media’s close-minded reaction was the final straw for law degree her. Eyes Wide Shut was accused of being as far behind the times as 2001 had been ahead. That’s already been proven incorrect, as its ideas have been absorbed, most recently by Wes Anderson’s The Royal Tenenbaums , which also featured a stylized version of New York -- however, where Kubrick was charged with inaccuracies, Anderson was praised for originality. Eventually, Eyes Wide Shut vanished from the scene and 1999 seemed to be a year that declared the arrival of younger talents. I couldn’t read any newspaper or watch TV without being inundated by the ZEITGEIST. Position Essay! For some, Being John Malkovich summed up the moment.
Others thought it was Magnolia . And Fight Club was even hailed as the future of filmmaking by Film Comment. It wasn’t that Kubrick’s style was so out of touch with modern expectations. He never made films that worked like anybody else’s in any decade. His films existed outside of time. Police! Designed to stand out. Designed to last. Yet subject to the tools and knowledge of their times.
Twenty years ago, Eyes Wide Shut would have received a platform release -- a practice that was still the norm, though it was quickly being superseded by essay, wide first weekends. Coursework! Now, only movies outside the mainstream that need to build interest, such as art films, are released in stages. Most films are front packed, and format if they don't perform on opening weekend, everybody knows as soon as Monday rolls around (even sooner now with Friday-Sunday estimates). Realistically, had Eyes Wide Shut received a platform release in 1999 it would have vanished immediately. It dealt with issues of infidelity that made most couples squirm, and new york times magazine college contest the aesthetics were organic -- a far cry from the position, quickening Avid-edited pace of the benefits activities, most films. Not even the star power of Tom Cruise, who at the time had the position, greatest box office track record ever, with five consecutive $100-million grossing films, could have saved it. In fact, by front packing it, Cruise led the film to gross 50-percent of its total $56-million U.S. box office take in the benefits activities, its first weekend. Worldwide it capped at roughly $160-million -- not bad, but unspectacular compared to average blockbusters. The film was designed to catch its audience off guard. Essay! It was full of college contest, tricks. Essay Format! So much so, that it made the reversals in The Sixth Sense and Fight Club look elementary by comparison.
Eyes Wide Shut was a film that anybody would have had to see more than once if they intended to come to terms with it. It was not easily digested. It was not mindless entertainment or a fun date movie. (It’s amusing to think what might have happened to a guy taking out a girl to see this with the intention of getting laid afterward.) Eyes Wide Shut is a series of reversals and dashed expectations where everybody has a motive and all actions are performances. The title itself is a contradiction; some suggested it was a reference to the “dream logic” the narrative followed -- it’s intentionally ambiguous and many correlations can be found between it and aspects of the film. I believe the title is ruth paper suggesting people have an inherent inability to essay format, actually observe and comprehend what is before them. Essay! That people create dream worlds for themselves, and all too often accept surface presentations instead of searching the depths which create such illusions. It's also a play about position, perspective and the limits to what can fully be known and the limits to truth. Needless to say, most audience members who had mentally salivated at babe ruth research the prospect of wall to wall sex with Tom and Nicole were disappointed. And that was the point. Michael Herr, Kubrick’s friend and collaborator, noted that Kubrick must have been severely out of touch if he thought he could get away with that type of position format, marketing campaign in 1999's culture.
Ticket prices were high, and people just wanted to activities essay, escape life for position format a couple of police report writing book, hours, maybe get a little aroused. Format! Instead, they received a meditation on lies, marital infidelity, class, procreation and death. The narrative of Eyes Wide Shut is assembled similarly to most of Kubrick’s post- 2001 films, in that it’s a series of episodes placed together without any overt exposition to bridge them. This format had many accusing it of being plotless. It isn’t plotless -- the of extracurricular activities, problem is that 99% of all movies follow the same structure, so people have been conditioned from Day One as to how a movie’s plot is supposed to position essay, play out. Of Extracurricular Activities Essay! When viewers don’t receive what they expect at any given moment, they become dislocated from the material, because they’re no longer on a treadmill and position have to think for themselves -- not unlike humanity's predicament in Kurt Vonnegut’s Timequake . To complicate things, Kubrick preferred keeping his compositions wide to show people within environments, rarely focusing on a single detail. Umi Dissertation! This created a web of ambiguity for viewers unaccustomed to this, since it’s less obvious what the important pieces are.
It also diminishes the emotional states of the characters. One example of ambiguous composition in Eyes Wide Shut is the use of establishing shots, usually of certain areas in position essay, New York. Instead of focusing on essay writing on child, the street signs, which might have been more helpful to anyone unfamiliar with the environments, the shots are left in detached masters. They don’t always match the essay, following action with Dr. Bill -- a tactic used to mock television’s use of new york times college essay, establishing shots for shows shot on essay format, sound stages miles away from the actual locations. It’s logical to infer that Kubrick’s style came about through his roots as a still photographer, focusing on exterior observation. By focusing on babe thesis, character actions rather than attempting to justify motivations or emotions, he was accused by position format, some of not being a psychological director. This is times magazine incorrect; he just factored more into essay format his observations than the illogical nature of mere human behavior -- such as temporal and spatial time, natural sciences and laws of physics. He preferred sociology to psychology. His characters didn’t exist in their own worlds where everything was justified to their emotional needs; they existed within a physical universe and had to maneuver through an existence often at law degree coursework odds with their motivations.
And to make matters worse, he often chose the point of view, some would say, of that physical world, reserving any compassion or sympathy for his characters’ plights. In comparision, The Sixth Sense , released the same summer, differs from format, Eyes Wide Shut in coursework, its emotional manipulation of physical reality in a fundamental way. In The Sixth Sense (as with Fight Club ), the main character could only have existed within the scenes dramatized, otherwise the illusion would’ve been shattered -- whereas in EWS , the locations and situations existed with or without Dr. Bill. Kubrick’s use of exposition and mise en scene differed greatly from position essay, more modern directors like Martin Scorsese. Whereas Kubrick routinely let multiple pieces of essay writing, information permeate his compositions, creating a tapestry like Where’s Waldo? , Scorsese has the tendency to focus on position essay format, only one thing at a time. Law Degree! With Scorsese, the viewer is essay never at best police writing book a loss as to what’s going on; he’s constantly freezing his narratives and fracturing time just to essay format, explain the details, as if he’s showing off how much he knows.
Kubrick, on best police writing, the other hand, dramatized scenes as they might actually take place, allowing the essay, characters’ actions to justify the of extracurricular, pacing, letting them speak for themselves. Eyes Wide Shut’s main character, Bill Harford, is constantly entering into situations that existed before him, and position will continue once he’s gone. Bill is the benefits essay traveling through a series of future light cones, touring through the ripples of previous events, and the viewer, put in his place, enters into these situations as blindly as he does. We’re given no more exposition than the main character. Therefore, what Kubrick established was a method fundamentally at odds with Hitchcock’s subjectivity. Essay Format! Hitchcock built suspense by babe ruth thesis, granting the audience more information than his characters through the use of cutaways, or, in the case of Rear Window , panning away from a sleeping James Stewart to show the murderous events going on across the courtyard. Kubrick, who felt 20th Century art had become too subjective and essay was in dire need of locating a sense of law degree, objectivity, would have none of that winking. The first three shots give us our conceptual setup. The film opens with Shostakovich’s Jazz Suite, Waltz 2 , playing over white on black titles.
It then cuts to essay format, an image of best police, Alice Harford, Bill’s wife, nude with her back to us. Alice slips out of position essay, her dress, letting it brazenly drop to the floor. The room is brightly lit and mundane with some tennis racquets to the side. She’s framed by Roman columns (Italian influences abound throughout the film), juxtaposing classicism with modernism, as Kubrick was often fond of doing. This image is intended to law degree, deceive, and essay it actually calls attention to the benefits of extracurricular, where our minds are. People seeing Eyes Wide Shut in the theater for the first time had been promised a fair degree of arousal. The opening shot, featuring a beautiful woman without any clothes on, altered none of these expectations. (It’s integral to note that one’s reaction to what follows would be fundamentally different seeing it on video than in position format, a theater. The actual film it was shot on, Eastman 500 EXR, had been underexposed by magazine contest, 2 stops, then pushed another 2 during development, creating a haze of grain that lent it a documentary feel. The effect was rather like Suerat’s pointillism meeting the warm interior lights of Latrec.
Its intimacy was almost embarrassing. The DVD was cleaned up, slickening the presentation, thereby making it more palatable to audiences. Position Essay! ) After the image of Alice, a title card appears cleverly announcing the film’s title, followed by best police book, the second shot: a wobbly establishing shot of an apartment building on Manhattan’s Central Park West. What we didn’t notice in the theatrical release, during the first shot, was the position, picture’s grain -- we were too fixated on the naked woman. Upon moving to the exterior shot, however, the audience was thrown a curve. Not only was there a content contrast between the best police report writing, two shots, but the position essay, picture was literally filled with contrast.
It looked cheap and amateurish. Another thing we were distracted from, due to the image of nudity, was the attitude by ruth research thesis, which Alice undressed. Essay! Anyone paying attention would have noticed just how bored with contempt she was. She wasn’t even wearing anything below the dress. It can be inferred, when placed within the context of the following scenes, that Alice was unenthusiastically deciding what to wear for the party she and babe ruth research Bill were to essay format, subsequently attend. For shot #3, upon cutting from the CPW establishing, we find Bill in a tuxedo, standing where Alice was only services michigan, a moment before. There are major aesthetic differences to be noted: the exterior was lit with street lights, which lent an amber hue to the winter night, however, inside the light coming through the window is artificial blue. (The color blue will become an integral part of the position, film’s mechanics as it progresses.) In one Stedicam shot, with Shostakovich still playing on times contest, the soundtrack, Bill wanders through the position essay, apartment searching for something. He calls to Alice who’s off-screen, asking if she knows where his wallet is. Best Report Book! She suggests it's by the bed, an obvious location, and upon locating it, a look of resentment crosses Bill’s face.
He immediately attempts to deflect his incompetence by accusing Alice of essay format, taking her time. (His wallet, as it contains cash and his ID, will become another key motif, consistently offering others his identity and a means of exchange.) Bill enters the services, bathroom, and we discover Alice on the toilet -- killing our first image of position format, her. Bill is oblivious and looks at times himself in the mirror. Essay! Alice wipes herself, then asks Bill how she looks. He automatically replies without looking, telling her she looks beautiful, which she mocks him for.
He patronizingly tells her she always looks beautiful, then he kisses her on the neck. Bill walks back into the bedroom and turns off the stereo -- which it turns out police writing book was playing the Shostakovich, tricking the audience who assumed it was non-diegetic. ( Jazz Suite, Waltz 2 will appear again during the film as a theme for the routine of their lives. By using music by both Shostakovich and Ligeti as its main themes, an position format, interesting layer has been added: both were composers whose work was done under the rule of Stalinist Soviet Union; both composers’ work was therefore restricted accordingly. These pieces of music help set the tone for the decadent, post-Cold War America portrayed in the film.) One other piece of information granted us during this setup is a window air conditioner seen repeatedly as Bill passes it.
It’s an extremely subtle element of the mise en scene, but rather humorous when considering the setting is Christmas time, and new york the AC should have been removed a while ago. Later on, however, in subsequent scenes, the essay, AC is missing from the window; this is the essay writing, only time we’ll see it. The AC can be seen as symbolic of position, Bill and Alice’s frigid relationship, but it also plays into the film’s highly complex use of the benefits of extracurricular activities, mise en scene: as it’s never seen again, we can be left to position essay format, ponder whether it was a continuity error or whether it was removed outside of the drama -- though if it was, Alice most likely did the work, because we later see Bill as a lazy oaf after work the of extracurricular activities, following evening. Position Format! The point is: we don’t know. What we have learned drama-wise via these first three shots is that Bill and research paper Alice have been married for a while, and they’re wealthy, living on format, Central Park West. Bill is absentminded, a bit of a boob with things, and he's extremely self-centered. Also, we should prepare ourselves for services a certain amount of format, nudity.
And this narrative is going to consistently play mind fucks with us. We've also been exposed to the film's aesthetic strategies -- the blue exterior lights (against red curtains), black against white (tuxedo), the thick picture grain, the pairing of diegetic and babe ruth research non-diegetic, and the use of long unedited takes, often shot with a Stedicam. All this, in position essay, just 3 shots. Bill and Alice have been married for law degree nine years at this point. Their daily routine has become mechanized. It’s been suggested that Kubrick’s central theme throughout his career was the contrast between things which are mechanical and those which are spontaneous, contingent or unforeseen. More can be made of this. I would like to suggest that the underlying concept behind these themes is the danger of position, blind faith.
Blind faith, by its very nature, requires a submission of autonomy. Umi Dissertation! Therefore, it lends itself to mechanization because it eliminates the opportunity for someone to actually think and act independently. (The Ludovico Treatment, the Doomsday Machine, HAL 9000 or even Redmond Barry’s devotion to position essay, his mother and her advice.) Of course, there are pros and cons to both consistency and spontaneity. Some said Kubrick mocked plans, but that would be an best writing, incorrect conclusion based upon his widely reported meticulousness. (During the planning for his fabled film about Napoleon, for helicopter shots, SK reportedly calculated the position essay format, size of the battlefields in relation to the number of soldiers, as well as determining the speed at which a helicopter would have to fly to pass over best police book, all the troops, so he could determine how long the shot would last. Without computers.) Whereas too much planning stagnates and creates an appearance of essay, lifelessness (which Kubrick’s work was certainly accused of), too much spontaneity can lead to an inability to essay on child, accomplish a desired end. Kubrick believed that most people were incapable of determining the methods by which they intended to essay format, accomplish their goals. Umi Dissertation Services Michigan! He was able to acquire freedom from time constraints with his work; the format, success of his films allowed him to take whatever time he felt was needed to create work which he felt most proud of. That way, any malfunctions could be detected within time to be corrected. In the umi dissertation, end, of course, his time ran out -- his greatest victory, control of time, ultimately begat his downfall. As Eyes Wide Shut unspools, Kubrick begins filling our minds with strange inconsistencies, of position essay format, which the previously mentioned AC is only one.
An obviously missing statue in one scene is another example; a chair that comes and goes near Bill’s front door which he likes to place his coat on is another. He’s begging us to wonder whether these things are intentional or not. Bill’s experience is a figurative dream, not the actual narrative of the movie. When Alice compares dreams and reality at the end, just before the return of Jazz Suite, Waltz 2 , she’s comparing her dreams to his reality -- and Bill, as a doctor, with little in the way of an imagination, is the butt of the joke. Some critics strangely declared this was Kubrick’s Ophul movie, but a more accurate reference would be that of Bunuel. Eyes Wide Shut is a surrealist film with a narrative that never resolves its questions.
Furthermore, it was Bunuel who routinely satirized the law degree coursework, bourgeois and their dreamlike removal from reality in such films as Belle de jour and The Discreet Charm of the Bourgeois . Bunuel also chose a mundane aesthetic sensibility to heighten the absurdity of the drama -- the outrageous presented realistically. Another reference point is Franz Kafka, whom Kubrick believed to be the greatest writer of the 20th Century. Kubrick argued that most film adaptations of his work were misconceived because the filmmakers confused the narrative surrealism for stylistic absurdity, when, in fact, Kafka wrote in position format, a very plain manner. Kafka's aesthetic was to portray insanity as perfectly sane. Surrealism manifests itself in EWS as Bill is so out of the loop during the day of his odyssey that the unfamiliar events which he stumbles through appear to function with a dream logic. The events are too irregular, and his lack of experience leads him to of extracurricular essay, paranoia, linking incidents together without any foundation -- and as Bill is the stand-in for the audience, the same confusion takes hold in us as well, just as we're also pouring over position, the continuity inconsistencies. Anyone who’s ever been in a similar predicament knows the movie portrays this scenario with scary accuracy. It’s also extremely acute in its rendering of the different worlds Bill steps into throughout the city -- worlds cut off by economic and cultural diversity. In the movie, like life, nothing ever seems to essay writing on child, fit together perfectly. Position Format! No disguise is absolute, hence the need for a disguise in the first place.
Such is Kubrick’s central theory on relationships and perceived reality in general: trust is the glue which holds all the loose ends together, yet nothing should be blindly trusted. and the whole truth can never be known. SHADOWS ON THE MIRROR: The unspoken secret to understanding the relationship between Bill and Alice can be viewed during the mirror make out scene, accompanied by Chris Isaak’s Baby Did a Bad Bad Thing (which we can assume is playing on police report book, their stereo). We see Alice standing in front of format, a mirror with her back to us. New York Magazine Essay! Her front side is represented by a mirror’s reflection.
Throughout the essay, film we’re shown characters from umi dissertation, behind, then from the front, suggesting a simple formal reversal of perception. Mirrors will also be seen repeatedly in the film as a hint of duplicity. The reflection here offers our first glimpse of Alice’s bare front, and as the essay format, camera zooms in, Bill approaches from behind. Research! He looks at essay format her, then himself in the benefits activities essay, the reflection -- comparing image to reality -- then he begins passionately kissing Alice. We cut closer on their reflected image. Then.
Alice’s eyes open, and format a look of disappointment crosses her face. Without resolution there is magazine college contest a fade to black. Obviously, there’s a problem. The first thing to understand is that they’ve been married for 9 years. We’ve already seen that they’re comfortable enough with each other to share the bathroom. Position Essay! We know that at the earlier party Bill revived a naked woman who had OD’d -- a scene portrayed without a hint of eroticism. He also indifferently (or trustingly) left his wife to fend for herself at a party at which she didn’t know anybody, and didn’t want to michigan, be at.
What could cause a doctor, someone who is around nudity without sexuality on a daily basis, to become so passionate? The act of having saved someone’s life. Bill is essay a 40-ish doctor with an overblown sense of ego, and the ability to save someone’s life fuels his God complex. New York Magazine College Contest! However, he’s a man so self-involved that he’s clueless to anything outside his general grasp. He has everything he wants: a beautiful wife and daughter, a general practice on Park Avenue and a $2-million apartment on Manhattan’s Upper West Side, which contrary to some critical remarks, could easily be paid for essay with a mortgage. There are several things worth noting about this scene. Essay Writing! The first, is that it’s incomplete. We don’t know the outcome.
Kubrick faded to black just as things seemed to be getting interesting. This was an often repeated tactic in his vocabulary: untimely optical transitions. (Think: the fade to black in 2001 just as Floyd’s recorded message is nearing an end, or the dissolve from Mr. Touchdown giving directions in Full Metal Jacket to the actual scene of the crime -- or even the format, fade out at the end of Part 1 in law degree, Barry Lyndon , while the Narrator is still reading Sir Charles’ obituary.) It’s a rude gesture on Kubrick’s part, as most filmmakers want to be as smooth with their audience as possible. The integral piece of information has usually been established, yet instead of resolving the matter at hand, this technique leaves the ending loose, usually to have it played out in the following actions, implying that nothing can be done to position essay format, alter this fate. (One more note regarding the fade to black. In theaters, there was a reel change just after the fade, and the transition to the elevator doors opening was extremely abrupt. According to Leon Vitali, Kubrick stipulated that his films be screened reel-to-reel instead of on a platter to avoid prolonged scratches.) The question must be begged: did they or didn’t they? Everything we’ve seen about Bill prior to this -- from writing, his indifference with Alice on the toilet and an unflinching professional demeanor when confronted with the nude woman, to his hesitation as Gayle and Nuala proposed to position format, take him, “. Where the rainbow ends. ” -- suggests he’s not exactly the hot-blooded type. The audience, however, used to Tom Cruise’s hero screen persona, has not made the switch.
There’s even a line he speaks during the models' encounter that pointedly mocks Cruise’s image: “Well, that is the type of hero I can be sometimes.” The subsequent events of the story prove otherwise. Marriage, as portrayed in law degree, Eyes Wide Shut , is not merely a psychological game of emotional manipulation or deceit, but it primarily serves as an evolutionary function for the species. It’s a matter of survival; it provides structure for society, financial security for individuals, maintains population control to an extent, and it subdues to the varying effects that marriages succeed, the position essay, spread of disease. Umi Dissertation Services! The problem is not in the intellectual concept or morality of one man and one woman, but in the reality of actually applying it to real people. It’s often a case of trying to fit a circle (humans: living things capable of position format, choice and babe ruth research paper emotional response), into position format a square (marriage: a rigid structure). This single scene, bouncing reality off of the mirror to show disconnect, illustrates the crutch of their predicament: since Bill is a doctor who practices the hippocratic oath, by definition, he can never be entirely honest with his wife. The event that sparked his libido was saving a life -- and what happened between he and Ziegler was in umi dissertation services michigan, strict confidence. (It's also this secret event that ultimately saves Bill, since Ziegler owes him.) KUBRICK HATED THE WIZARD OF OZ: Bill’s view of position, his life is, for all intents and purposes, black white. This is visually played out in law degree coursework, several ways: when Bill and Alice initially arrive at Ziegler's party the position essay format, floor beneath their feet is checkered black white; during Bill and law degree coursework Alice’s argument, he’s wearing black shorts and essay format she white lingerie, and he even dubiously states, “Well, I don’t think it’s quite that black white. ” Also, at the party, Bill is paired against writing book, Nick Nightingale, and he’s wearing a black jacket while Nick is wearing a white jacket; the newspaper in which Bill reads about Amanda Curran's overdose is black ink printed on white paper; and, most tellingly, we see Bill’s jealous fantasies of position format, Alice with the Sailor played out in his mind in law degree coursework, black white.
The black white motif is used to essay, directly counter the “rainbow” of colors awash throughout most of the the benefits activities, film. (Remember, The Wizard of Oz pairs BW reality in position essay, Kansas against michigan, lush color in essay, Oz.) There appears to be a logic to the use of times, colors which goes as follows: blue represents an artificial or mechanical surface; red represents an internal entry, Eros, or the life instinct; orange represents normalcy and familial warmth; and yellow represents unreliability and a lack of control. Red and blue are seen most frequently, often paired within the same shot to contrast each other. Format! Kubrick paired these two once before during the opening titles of new york magazine college, A Clockwork Orange , and essay a clockwork orange is, of course, somebody who appears to be living yet is babe paper really mechanical. Our first introduction to blue is essay during the tracking shot of Bill at the beginning: there’s a cold blue light seeping through the windows. As the film progresses, blue begins coming through more and more windows, brighter and brighter, illuminating what we can obviously tell is a false exterior set, literally illustrating the best police writing, false exterior. As that first shot ends, the position, lights in the room have been turned off, leaving only two sources of light: the on child, harsh, artificial blue coming through the window and the warm orange lamp light from the hallway.
Bill closes the position format, bedroom door behind him, blocking out the warm light of normalcy, leaving only the cold artificiality of the blue. Ruth Research Thesis! Kubrick primarily weaves blue, along with the other colors, into the fabric of the mise en scene. Blue is used as a tile on the wall when Bill negotiates entry into Rainbow Costumes, as a stage light at the Sonata Cafe, as the door to Domino’s apartment, and so on. Red, constantly opposing blue, is position seen most prominently during the orgy, where the carpet is bright crimson and the party’s chief is appropriately called Red Cloak. Umi Dissertation Michigan! This is position essay format where the id has been unleashed, and Bill believes somebody might have given their life to save his. Umi Dissertation Michigan! It can also be found as a traffic light outside the window of Rainbow Costumes contrasting the blue tiles, on the neon lights that decorate the Sonata Cafe, as well as its dark interior upon Bill’s entrance. There’s even a red neon sign that says EROS in one scene. Orange is the color emitted from position essay format, all of the normal functioning lights in the film’s settings, as it would be.
In this way, orange is natural and de facto in its representation of normalcy. Yellow, the final major recurring color, is essay contest prominent because of the taxis taken by Bill that are everywhere throughout the city. Just about format, every cab which Bill comes in contact with screws him in some way. This is the result of his abandoning control to let somebody else manage his means of travel. With the police book, exception of the obviously artificial blue exteriors, the color scheme is blended into the film by position format, motivated objects. The most obvious of coursework, these objects are the recurring Christmas lights (Christmas trees are everywhere as a symbol of fantasies and format self-delusions, namely by report book, celebrating the birth of a man who purports to offer eternal life). The use of the Christmas lights brings up an aspect of Kubrick’s filmmaking which, with the position, exception of best police book, Barry Lyndon’s candlelight sequences, has gone criminally unsung: source lighting. While examples can be viewed in his work as far back as Killer’s Kiss , most of Kubrick’s interiors from 2001 on were lit by actual sources, instead of sculpting the light with multiple hidden sources and format cut with flags the way most films do. Best Police Report Book! This approach was logical (Where exactly does rim light come from, anyway?), and created a beautiful naturalism to his work.
It also affected the light timing, in that because we were actually experiencing incident light from definable sources with the light correctly fading to position essay format, darkness the farther the rays fell away from the bulb, a truer, more inhabitable space was created around the characters. This touches on another issue that separated Kubrick from other directors. New York Magazine College Essay Contest! While many ambitious directors strive to experiment with the latest technologies, Kubrick personally oversaw the essay, creation of best writing book, new technologies for his films. It was Kubrick who acquired the NASA Zeiss lenses and figured out the means by position essay format, which they could be attached to the Mitchell BNC cameras for the afore-mentioned Barry Lyndon (with the umi dissertation services michigan, help of essay, Ed Di Giulio). Best Police Writing Book! Also, if you watch the format, credits for 2001 , he is listed as the director of the film’s special photographic effects, which won him his only Oscar. (It was all done in-camera; there was no such thing as digital back then.) He was editing on video, and then computers, using a system called Montage, in the mid-'80s on FMJ , long before Avid became the standard, and he even created a Video Village of 2-dozen VCRs and monitors to to record and of extracurricular activities essay compare takes on set. And for everybody who loves Scorsese’s or Paul Thomas Anderson’s epic Stedicam shots, check out The Shining , done a full decade before Goodfellas . All said, however, he never used technology as an end in itself.
Technology was a means to position format, an end. Even EWS , which has an new york times magazine college essay contest, almost retro feel to it, was shot at times using a robotic camera remote-controled by Kubrick in format, a separate room from the ruth paper thesis, actors. It is not without good reason that everyone from Arthur C. Clark to position format, the myriad of rocket scientists who advised 2001 , hailed him as probably the single most intelligent human being they’d ever personally known. Eyes Wide Shut is difficultly filled with obscurities. Paper Thesis! God is in position format, the details. One sequence, in particular, displays Kubrick’s deft use of mise en scene to illuminate or mask information: When Bill first meets Domino, he has just come from the Nathanson apartment. Bristling in the cold night, he reaches a street corner and waits for the light to change. Domino approaches, dressed in a black white faux fur coat and a short, tight purple dress (purple being the combination of writing on child marriage, red and blue).
In the background we can see the red and blue neon sign for an XXX video store, subliminally planting sex in our minds. She asks him for the time, which he gives her. As the light changes, we switch to a reverse angle (front and format back), leaving the background of the video store for that of best writing book, a hardware store, grounding us in essay, the mundane world. Bill starts across the street, and Domino starts coming onto report writing him. Bill’s initial impression of her, as is most people’s, is that she’s a prostitute -- however, we’re getting details which subvert this initial reaction. For example, the position essay format, aggressiveness in book, which she propositions him seems quite unprofessional. Most hookers wait to be approached, or they might say something like, “Hey, baby, want a date?” But they certainly wouldn’t play so hard as follow somebody and walk in front of them, not letting them out of their grasp. Also, just as Domino is asking Bill if he’d like to have some fun, they pass a bright neon sign that reads HOTEL -- Domino then informs Bill that she lives nearby.
Now, I’m not exactly an expert on prostitution, but it seems unlikely to me that a woman would come on this strong and invite a john back to her apartment. Position Essay Format! Prostitution is a business. It’s not personal. It’s selling an new york college essay, image, not a reality. It’s Bill’s lack of experience that leads him to assume her identity. It’s the average man’s impression, too, revealing how men really do think about women. But she's got an agenda. Upon reaching her building, which features red doors, Bill incredulously asks her, “You live in there?” He finally agrees to go inside with her, and essay we cut to the interior lobby of the building, as they enter. Umi Dissertation! This is typical in that the camera never follows Bill through any doorways; he’s followed directly up to doorways, then picked up from the reverse side, as he enters into a different world.
In the position essay, corner of the lobby next to Domino’s door is an umi dissertation, abandoned blue baby carriage, mockingly juxtaposing sex as reproduction with sex for money (just as Mandy's naked OD was paired with a painting of a pregnant woman on Ziegler's bathroom wall). The following sequence involves six interior shots and several cutaways to Alice at home. The placement of the camera is format central to law degree coursework, Domino’s true identity. We start with the camera’s back to the apartment, focused on the front door. Position Essay Format! The door opens and Domino enters, followed by Bill. The camera tracks backward with them, as they walk into the apartment. Bill comments that her small Christmas tree is “nice,” for lack of anything better to magazine college contest, say. Essay Format! Upon entering the kitchen, which we see is filthy with plates on the table and bras hanging above the bathtub, Domino puts a frying pan aside and comments, “Sorry, maid’s day off.” (This is a marked contrast from the Nathanson apartment where Rosa, the maid, let him in and took his coat.) Are we really supposed to buy that this sweet, attractive girl with a messy apartment is a hooker? Again, showing, not telling.
The next shot is a reverse-angle 2-shot of Bill and Domino. We can see more dishes and food on the table, as well as the bathtub in the kitchen (contrasting Ziegler’s luxurious bathroom from the party). Activities! A room can be seen in the background, though its details are unassuming. Bill asks Domino if she’d like to talk about money. Position! She plays along with him, flattered, and is quite surprised when he says he’ll pay $150. She sweetly tells him that she won’t keep track of the time, a dead-on clue. Domino’s expressions and facial reactions are highly important in this scene: she's acting.
We now cut away to Alice at home, staying up to wait for Bill so they can resolve their argument. Bathed in blue light, she’s eating Snackwells and watching Blume in marriage, Love , by Paul Mazursy, who starred in Kubrick’s first feature Fear and Desire. Bill, however, in the apartment of a beautiful and willing young woman, is oblivious. We return to Bill and find him in a tight 2-shot with Domino in her bedroom, as they kiss -- another give away (what hooker kisses on the lips?). This shot, number three inside the apartment, is position essay format taken facing the same direction as the previous shot in the apartment.
Then. Bill’s cell phone rings. With the essay writing on child marriage, ring of the phone, we move to format, a wider shot. This is now shot four of the apartment, and it is the benefits activities from the same direction as the previous two shots. We learn that Bill was seated on the bed with Domino kneeling above him -- as if he’s the patient to her doctor. Position Format! The camera tracks with Bill as he steps away. Bill turns off the stereo and answers the call.
Two books can be seen on the shelf, one more obvious than the other. The book in plain view is humorously titled Introducing Sociology . (Is Domino a student?) The second book, lying down and difficult to make out, is Shadows on the Mirror , a novel by Frances Fyfield, about a successful woman attorney at babe paper thesis a prestigious firm who keeps lonely men company at night. until she finds herself stalked -- a perfect parallel to the film’s plot, both thematically and narratively. This is what I’m talking about position format, with regard to Kubrick’s use of detail. Umi Dissertation Services! You’d better believe that book is intentional. This is why his films took so long to shoot -- he was making sure that everything within every scene and within each frame played out exactly the position, way he wanted it to.
After a series of report writing, cross-cuts between Bill and Alice, as he lies to her about his whereabouts, we cut to shot #5, a medium close-up of Domino reclining on her bed. “Was that. Mrs. Dr. Bill? This shot is from a different position, yet varies by only ninety degrees to format, the left.
Bill exhaustedly sits on her bed in of extracurricular activities essay, shot #6, and we’ve finally gone to a reverse angle on our final shot. And what do we see? A room behind Bill and Domino. And what room is format it? The kitchen. We’ve now seen the entire layout of the apartment. There are only 3 rooms: a small living room which they initially entered, the kitchen and the bedroom. The Benefits Of Extracurricular Activities! Therefore, Domino’s “roommate” is format probably a bit more than a roommate. This final shot of the sequence with Domino contains a subtle zoom, indicating that we’ve just received an important piece of information. (The zoom appears in new york magazine college contest, the film at several integral moments, in varying degrees of size and length.) Bill offers to pay Domino anyhow, though she refuses -- yet another clue. He insists and places the money in her hand.
Surprised and essay format flattered , she thanks him. New York College Essay! The trick is: even if she wasn't a prostitute and she was only acting, by accepting his money, now she's a prostitute. Everything in position format, this film is specific -- camera directions and dramatic locations alike. We’re constantly being shown establishing shots that cue us to locations which give us a certain amount of information about the rules and wealth of any given area. It also helps drive home how people in New York, like Dr. Bill, live their lives in a routine that takes them to the same locations within the city on a regular basis. Their lives become mechanical, and upon entering another district, as Dr. Bill does by wandering Greenwhich Village, he becomes lost in another world. Kubrick’s films were visually tight. So much so, that he was praised as much as he was criticized.
He never storyboarded, though. His feeling was that until he was on the set and staging the scene with the actors, there was no way to know where the times, camera should be. The camera’s function for position essay him was to essay on child marriage, document, not dictate. And he wouldn't quit until he got exactly what he wanted -- whether it meant spending an entire week shooting the brief hotel exchange with Alan Cumming, or even recasting Jennifer Jason Leigh's role as Marion Nathanson with Marie Richardson, when she was unavailable for reshoots. The shoot didn't last 20 months for nothing. GREATEST AMERICAN HERO: Bill is a boob. He’s utterly clueless, and essay it’s hysterical to watch America’s hero, Tom Cruise, wander through a series of situations that ultimately illustrate him a buffoon. Babe Research Paper! For example, after Nick Nightingale tells him about the orgy, there's a cut to Bill’s cab arriving at Rainbow Costumes (he mistakenly calls it Rainbow Fashions).
Bill thanks the driver and tells him to keep the change, then he rings the buzzer and asks for Peter Grenning, a patient of his. Mr. Milich comes to the door to inform him that Grenning moved over a year ago. This scene features one of the funniest moments in the film. As Mr. Milich steps out of his apartment, we can see some lights reflected on format, the glass door of the building. Babe Research Thesis! These lights are the neon signs in front of Sonata Cafe and Gillespie’s Diner. Upon cutting to a reverse we can see both buildings directly behind Bill.
He's apparently hired a cab to format, drive him to a destination that was right across the street from babe research, where he was. The cabby most likely drove around, then dropped his clueless passenger off. Now, here’s a curve ball. The next day when Bill returns to Sonata Cafe and finds it’s closed, he steps back and looks around the block; in the background, we can see the building with the storefront that’s supposed to be Rainbow Costumes -- however, it’s been stripped of essay, any visible identification, save the writing on child, marks of where the Rainbow sign was. What’s going on?
Is this intentional? Poor production values? No. Once again, it’s intentional. Like the AC. Essay! Like the missing statue. The reason Kubrick has Bill step aside to look around is to deliver this information. Just when we thought we knew what was up, the essay writing on child, playing field has been shifted.
Kubrick is position essay refusing to grant us the new york, slightest bit of resolution. The filmmaking itself is weaving paranoia into our subconscious through subtleties like this. And it's these traits that render the film functionally surrealist. There are several other instances where people pointed out, albeit incorrectly, other continuity errors. For example, the 2 times Bill arrives at Somerton, the location of the orgy, it’s from opposite directions. Format! If you pay attention it’s because he takes two different routes. Coursework! A cab drives Bill the first time; the cab turns off the highway, and we see a series of shots of the cab riding through a town and a dark rural road, before it arrives at the gated driveway. Bill has been too consumed by feelings of jealousy to pay much attention. On the second occasion, Bill drives himself in the movie’s only scene involving his car. He sticks to position format, the main artery highway and times arrives from position essay, a different direction. This is the new york times magazine college essay, only scene in which he drives himself and takes his transportation in his own hands.
Many people felt that Kubrick had lost his touch, that there was nothing adventurous about his filmmaking anymore. I assume these are the position essay format, same people who champion what I term “Commodified Controversy,” something at which Oliver Stone is a master. “Commodified Controversy” is exactly what it sounds like: using the media to magazine, create a controversy to help sell your film. In fact, I would argue there’s been so many attempts to position, shock that nothing shocks anymore; it’s manufactured hype. The corporations, in umi dissertation michigan, my opinion, are quite happy with this. By legitimizing rebellion, rebellion is no longer rebellious, and therefore, true rebellion is fringe. Stanley Kubrick was the original American independent film prodigy, another concept that’s been exploited to the point of being meaningless. He started on format, his own without a college diploma and shot two DIY features funded by relatives, Fear and Desire and Killer’s Kiss, before Hollywood took notice and gave him his break. By the ruth research thesis, time Eyes Wide Shut was released, controversy had taken the form of Fight Club or Natural Born Killers (nowadays it's Bruno ) -- both topical and against the grain, but unlikely to shift the playing field and unwilling to risk commercial losses through bans. Essay! Of course, the climate is best different today than in essay format, Kubrick’s heyday. A director like Stone can afford to release NBK as an R-rated film in theaters, then promote an law degree, unrated “Director’s Cut,” for home video.
For those unfamiliar with Stanley Kubrick’s record, this is what real controversy looks like. His 1957 film Paths of position essay, Glory , which depicted the French Army’s execution of its own soldiers, was actually banned in umi dissertation services, France for 20 years. Position Format! Dr. Strangelove , released in 1964, depicted an best police report writing, American General launching a nuclear strike against the Soviet Union -- it came out four months after JFK’s assassination, and essay less than two years after the Cuban Missile Crisis. It would be the essay on child marriage, equivalent of somebody today making a comedy about an American staging a terrorist attack, so we could clobber another country. In 1971, he released A Clockwork Orange , one of only two X-rated films to ever receive an Oscar nomination for best picture. After a series of position essay format, death threats made against him and essay his family, he chose to withdraw it from theaters in Great Britain, and it remained that way until after his death. I'd like to now discuss the position essay, orgy scene.
Dramatically speaking, the orgy is the apex of the movie, conceptually speaking. You want balls? How many major filmmakers would put a twenty-minute sequence in the center of their film where nobody's face can be seen and makes no rational sense to the average viewer? Dr. Bill wanders into an environment that’s as alien to him as to the viewer. He doesn’t belong there. He doesn’t know the rules -- and since he’s our guide, neither do we.
All we can do is try to put the pieces together and, like much of the film, it’s an exercise in comprehension skills. What I can tell you is this: the party is a variation on Venetian masquerades, Bill’s mask is inappropriate, both Gayle and Nuala are likely in attendance, Ziegler is in attendance, and Mandy is in attendance. Detractors commented that the scene had poor sound quality. I’m not sure what they meant by that. Did they want the umi dissertation michigan, dialogue to position, be more stylized? It was lurid melodrama played out by naked people wearing masks. It was funny and scary at best police report writing book the same time. The masks and costumes created a sense of fantasy, yet the position, plain, earnest voices coming from under the masks was comical in its juxtaposition. Some people were so confused that they thought Alice had been at best report writing the ball.
For the record, she wasn’t. This completely balls-out bat-shit sequence was criticized by some for not being sexy, or because Dr. Essay! Bill doesn't get anything. They're missing the forest for the trees (fig leaves not included). What Kubrick has been building toward with this sequence is a manipulation of the viewer into umi dissertation services michigan wanting Bill to cheat on Alice. This is the same strategy he used time and again -- convincing the audience to root for the main character to position essay, do something bad (the B-52 reaching its target in Dr. Strangelove , Alex prevailing in ACO , Jack getting his wife in The Shining , etc.) It's a moral litmus test for the viewer. GOD IS IN THE DETAILS: While I’ve already pointed out that every detail in a Kubrick film was meticulously arranged, it goes deeper than most imagine. For example, when Dr.
Bill is reading the article about Amanda Curran’s drug overdose, an best writing book, actual article about the incident was written. If you freeze-frame your DVD you can read it. You’ll notice that the essay format, two final paragraphs read as follows: AFTER BEING HIRED FOR A SERIES OF MAGAZINE ADS FOR LONDON FASHION DESIGNER LEON VITALI, RUMORS BEGAN CIRCULATING OF AN AFFAIR BETWEEN THE TWO. SOON AFTER HER HIRING, VITALI EMPIRE INSIDERS WERE REPORTING THAT THEIR BOSS ADORED CURRAN -- NOT FOR HOW SHE WORE HIS STUNNING CLOTHES IN PUBLIC, BUT FOR HOW SHE REMOVED THEM IN PRIVATE, SEDUCTIVE PERFORMANCES. Anyone familiar with Kubrick’s films would recognize the name Leon Vitali. He was Kubrick’s personal assistant for the last twenty-five years of his life. He played Lord Bullingdon in services michigan, Barry Lyndon , and also Red Cloak in Eyes Wide Shut . But also, if you look carefully at the whole article, it's filled with errors and repetitions, again playing into the question of position essay, error versus intent. I’d also like to law degree, point out a scene in which the mise en scene gives us a clue to position format, a character’s motivation: Bill’s visit to the Nathanson apartment. The Benefits Essay! This use is simple and logical.
While Bill and Marion are seated, talking about her recently deceased father, also in the room, an IV drip can be seen directly behind Bill. Bill, Lou Nathanson’s doctor, is position represented as a symbol of life in Marion’s eyes, and the IV is an extension of this. On Child! Just before Marion deliriously kisses Bill and position essay format tells him she loves him, he leans forward and obscures the law degree, IV machine, effectively becoming one with this device. Bill, however, is essay not a machine, just a human. And contrary to popular myth, doctors do not save lives and prevent deaths, they extend lives and postpone deaths. With Eyes Wide Shut , Stanley Kubrick created a film so layered with latent meaning that it perfectly encapsulated a modern society so overloaded with conflicting and essay on child referenced culture that it’s lost its meaning. It is, therefore, a requiem for postmodernism (and not a moment too soon), a movement which his earlier work could quite easily be connected with.
This film dramatizes the position format, ultimate effects that postmodernism has had on our culture, and its reception perfectly illustrated this. We’ve degenerated from activities, a culture which embraced intellectual adventurism and new ideas, making not only critical, but commercial successes out of films like 2001: A Space Odyssey and A Clockwork Orange , to position essay, one which criticizes films for being adult and dark, as Jeffery Lyons did to the Kubrick/Spielberg collaboration A.I.: Artificial Intelligence . We no longer make choices based on quality but aesthetics. Our current culture is disposable. And time will render it as such. Stanley Kubrick’s cinematic legacy will continue to grow.
His position as a 20th Century master is law degree coursework assured. His reputation as a maker of many great films is evidenced in the 2002 Sight and Sound poll -- an international event conducted every ten years. The poll is format divided into two sections, one by directors, the other by critics. While most directors were lucky to have one film on babe ruth research, either list, and a few were lucky enough to position essay format, have the same film on both lists, Kubrick had a different film on both lists. The Benefits Activities! The critics chose 2001: A Space Odyssey , and the directors chose Dr. Strangelove . I don’t know what the future holds for the medium of film, other than it will no longer be film but digital soon enough. I see mixed messages. There are virtually no independent film companies at position essay format this point -- by that, I mean independently financed and released. While most films are independently produced, they’re being released by umi dissertation services, studios -- and that means the studios have final say over which films get distributed and essay what they’ll look like. There seems to be no connection between real life and our cinematic culture, it’s all been filtered from its source. The studios seem intent on producing big-budget special effects epics without much plot or character -- and law degree coursework as long as audiences choose to see these behemoth, soulless shit festivals, I suppose we’ll be forced to endure them.
I don’t mind this stuff. Position Essay! It’s how the industry has always functioned. There just needs to be room to breathe, that’s all. The democracy of technology has made it easier for artists to get their voices heard. Unfortunately, nobody of any real ability has been able to utilize these tools to propel themselves into the mainstream yet. Means of distribution will eventually change that. College Essay Contest! Either through the essay, home manufacturing of DVDs or by the internet. At this point, though, we’re just not there. I’m also pleased that some of the babe thesis, filmmakers who’ve come of age lately have begun inserting more signature points of view into their work, such as Wes Anderson and Darren Aranofsky, while older holdovers like the Coen Brothers continue to go strong. It’s dispiriting to see an entire generation raised on postmodern notions of essay format, repetition and babe research paper borrowing -- one without an format, intellectual center, since everything seems to be “relative.” The intellectual fault of this is that it has no foundation; it borrowed a scientific premise based on activities essay, mathematically observed facts, and incorrectly applied it to everything in life, rendering it valueless and indefeatable. And much worse, it’s the position, perfect tool for the corporations bent on feeding us repetitious, numbing product.
The greatest act of rebellion anyone can ever hope to achieve -- and umi dissertation michigan Stanley Kubrick was a prime believer in this -- is to actually break the essay format, mold and THINK for yourself: to open your eyes.