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Reflective essay on christmas

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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. The personal statement might just be the hardest part of your college application. Mostly this is because it has the reflective essay least guidance and how does paper look like, is the most open-ended. One way to reflective, understand what colleges are looking for scaffold scenes when they ask you to write an essay is to reflective essay on christmas, check out the short paper essays of students who already got in—college essays that actually worked. On Christmas! After all, they must be among the most successful of proverbs this weird literary genre. In this article, I’ll go through general guidelines for what makes great college essays great. I've also compiled an enormous list of 100+ actual sample college essays from 13 different schools. Finally, I’ll break down two of essay on christmas these published college essay examples and explain why and how they work. With links to 125 full essays and essay excerpts , this article will be a great resource for learning how to craft your own personal college admissions essay! What Excellent College Essays Have in Common.

Even though in many ways these sample college essays are very different from one other, they do share some traits you should try to claims supporting my thesis language being, emulate as you write your own essay. Building out from reflective essay on christmas a narrow, concrete focus. You’ll see a similar structure in many of the quoting essays. The author starts with a very detailed story of an event or description of reflective essay on christmas a person or place. After this sense-heavy imagery, the essay expands out to make a broader point about the author, and verbe essayer, connects this very memorable experience to the author’s present situation, state of mind, newfound understanding, or maturity level. Knowing how to tell a story. Some of the experiences in these essays are one-of-a-kind. But most deal with the stuff of everyday life. What sets them apart is the way the author approaches the reflective essay on christmas topic: analyzing it for drama and short research assignment, humor, for its moving qualities, for what it says about the author’s world, and for how it connects to the author’s emotional life. Reflective! A killer first sentence. You’ve heard it before, and you’ll hear it again: you have to suck the reader in, and the best place to do that is the first sentence.

Great first sentences are punchy. They are like cliffhangers, setting up an exciting scene or an story research assignment, unusual situation with an reflective essay, unclear conclusion, in order to make the reader want to know more. Don’t take my word for it—check out these 22 first sentences from Stanford applicants and tell me you don’t want to read the how does research paper like rest of reflective essay those essays to find out what happens! A lively, individual voice. Writing is for quoting proverbs readers.

In this case, your reader is an admissions officer who has read thousands of essays before yours, and will read thousands after. Your goal? Don’t bore your reader. Use interesting description, stay away from cliches, include your own offbeat observations—anything that makes this essay sounds like you and essay on christmas, not like anyone else. Enchanted Prince Stan decided to stay away from any frog-kissing princesses to retain his unique perspective on ruling as an amphibian.

Technical correctness. No spelling mistakes, no grammar weirdness, no syntax issues, no punctuation snafus—each of these sample college essays has been formatted and proofread perfectly. If this kind of essay exactness is not your strong suit, you’re in luck! All colleges advise applicants to have their essays looked over several times by reflective essay, parents, teachers, mentors, and anyone else who can spot a comma splice. How Does Research Paper! Your essay must be your own work, but there is absolutely nothing wrong with getting help polishing it. Links to Full College Essay Examples. Some colleges publish a selection of their favorite accepted college essays that worked, and I've put together a selection of over 100 of these (plus some essay excerpts!). Reflective Essay On Christmas! Please note that some of these college essay examples may be responding to quoting, prompts that are no longer in essay, use. The current Common App prompts are as follows: 1. Some students have a background, identity, interest, or talent that is so meaningful they believe their application would be incomplete without it. If this sounds like you, then please share your story.

7. Share an essay on verbe, any topic of your choice. It can be one you've already written, one that responds to a different prompt, or one of your own design. These essays are answers to past prompts from either the Common Application or the Universal Application, both of which Johns Hopkins accepts. Essay On Christmas! Essay Examples Published by Other Websites. 7 Common Application essays from applicants admitted to Stanford, Duke, Connecticut College, NYU, Carleton College, Washington University, and the University of Pennsylvania 2 Common Application essays (1st essay, 2nd essay) from applicants admitted to quoting proverbs in essays, Columbia. Here is a smaller collection of essays that are college-specific, plus 22 essay excerpts that will add fuel to your essay-writing fire. The University of essay Chicago is well known for story research paper assignment its off-the-wall, often wacky supplementary essay prompts. These seven sample essays respond to a variety of reflective essay on christmas thought-provoking questions. Sometimes it's helpful to see how others managed to get over the difficult first-line hump.

We're guessing all these monkeys would write different first sentences. Analyzing Great Common App Essays that Worked. Au Future! I've picked out two essays from the examples collected above to examine in more depth so that you can know exactly what makes a successful college essay work. Full credit for these essays goes to the original authors and the schools that published them. Example #1: Breaking Into Cars, by Stephen, Johns Hopkins Class of '19 (Common App Essay, 636 words long) I had never broken into a car before. We were in Laredo, having just finished our first day at a Habitat for Humanity work site.

The Hotchkiss volunteers had already left, off to enjoy some Texas BBQ, leaving me behind with the college kids to clean up. Not until we were stranded did we realize we were locked out of the reflective on christmas van. Someone picked a coat hanger out of the dumpster, handed it to me, and took a few steps back. “Can you do that thing with a coat hanger to quoting proverbs in essays, unlock it?” “Why me?” I thought. More out of amusement than optimism, I gave it a try. I slid the hanger into the window’s seal like I’d seen on reflective essay on christmas, crime shows, and spent a few minutes jiggling the apparatus around the inside of the frame. Suddenly, two things simultaneously clicked. Au Future! One was the lock on the door. Reflective Essay! (I actually succeeded in springing it.) The other was the realization that I’d been in this type of situation before. In fact, I’d been born into quoting, this type of situation. My upbringing has numbed me to unpredictability and essay on christmas, chaos. With a family of seven, my home was loud, messy, and how does look like, spottily supervised.

My siblings arguing, the dog barking, the phone ringing—all meant my house was functioning normally. My Dad, a retired Navy pilot, was away half the time. When he was home, he had a parenting style something like a drill sergeant. At the age of nine, I learned how to clear burning oil from the surface of water. My Dad considered this a critical life skill—you know, in reflective essay, case my aircraft carrier should ever get torpedoed. “The water’s on fire! Clear a hole!” he shouted, tossing me in essayer au future, the lake without warning. While I’m still unconvinced about that particular lesson’s practicality, my Dad’s overarching message is unequivocally true: much of life is unexpected, and you have to deal with the twists and essay, turns. Living in my family, days rarely unfolded as planned.

A bit overlooked, a little pushed around, I learned to claims supporting unique, roll with reality, negotiate a quick deal, and give the improbable a try. I don’t sweat the small stuff, and I definitely don’t expect perfect fairness. So what if our dining room table only has six chairs for reflective essay on christmas seven people? Someone learns the importance of punctuality every night. But more than punctuality and a special affinity for musical chairs, my family life has taught me to thrive in situations over which I have no power. Short Paper! Growing up, I never controlled my older siblings, but I learned how to thwart their attempts to control me. I forged alliances, and realigned them as necessary.

Sometimes, I was the on christmas poor, defenseless little brother; sometimes I was the omniscient elder. Different things to scenes essay, different people, as the situation demanded. I learned to adapt. Back then, these techniques were merely reactions undertaken to ensure my survival. Reflective Essay! But one day this fall, Dr. Hicks, our Head of School, asked me a question that he hoped all seniors would reflect on throughout the being unique year: “How can I participate in a thing I do not govern, in the company of people I did not choose?” The question caught me off guard, much like the question posed to me in Laredo. Then, I realized I knew the answer. I knew why the coat hanger had been handed to reflective, me.

Growing up as the being middle child in my family, I was a vital participant in a thing I did not govern, in the company of people I did not choose. Reflective Essay! It’s family. Short! It’s society. And often, it’s chaos. You participate by letting go of the small stuff, not expecting order and perfection, and facing the unexpected with confidence, optimism, and preparedness. My family experience taught me to on christmas, face a serendipitous world with confidence.

It's very helpful to take writing apart in order to scaffold essay, see just how it accomplishes its objectives. Stephen's essay is very effective. Let's find out why! An Opening Line That Draws You In. I had never broken into reflective on christmas, a car before. In just eight words, we get: scene-setting (he is standing next to a car about to break in), the idea of claims supporting crossing a boundary (he is maybe about to do an illegal thing for the first time), and a cliffhanger (we are thinking: is he going to get caught? Is he headed for essay a life of crime? Is he about to my thesis being, be scared straight?).

We were in Laredo, having just finished our first day at on christmas, a Habitat for Humanity work site. The Hotchkiss volunteers had already left, off to enjoy some Texas BBQ, leaving me behind with the college kids to clean up. Not until we were stranded did we realize we were locked out scaffold essay, of the van. Someone picked a coat hanger out of the dumpster, handed it to essay on christmas, me, and took a few steps back. “Can you do that thing with a coat hanger to unlock it?” “Why me?” I thought. More out of amusement than optimism, I gave it a try.

I slid the verbe au future hanger into the window’s seal like I’d seen on crime shows, and spent a few minutes jiggling the apparatus around the inside of the frame. It’s the details that really make this small experience come alive. Reflective Essay! Notice how whenever he can, Stephen uses a more specific, descriptive word in place of a more generic one. The volunteers aren’t going to get food or dinner; they’re going for “Texas BBQ.” The coat hanger comes from “a dumpster.” Stephen doesn’t just move the coat hanger—he “jiggles” it. Details also help us visualize the cover letter emotions of the people in the scene.

The person who hands Stephen the coat hanger isn’t just uncomfortable or nervous; he “takes a few steps back”—a description of movement that conveys feelings. Reflective Essay On Christmas! Finally, the detail of verbe essayer au future actual speech makes the scene pop. Instead of writing that the other guy asked him to unlock the van, Stephen has the guy actually say his own words in a way that sounds like a teenager talking. Reflective Essay On Christmas! Coat hangers: not just for crows' nests any more! (Gotz/Wikimedia) Turning a Specific Incident Into a Deeper Insight. Suddenly, two things simultaneously clicked. One was the lock on story assignment, the door. (I actually succeeded in on christmas, springing it.) The other was the realization that I’d been in this type of situation before. In fact, I’d been born into this type of situation. Story Paper! Not only does Stephen make the locked car experience a meaningful illustration of how he has learned to on christmas, be resourceful and ready for anything, but he also makes this turn from the specific to the broad through an elegant play on like, the two meanings of the word “click.” Using Concrete Examples When Making Abstract Claims. My upbringing has numbed me to unpredictability and reflective essay on christmas, chaos.

With a family of seven, my home was loud, messy, and spottily supervised. My siblings arguing, the dog barking, the phone ringing—all meant my house was functioning normally. “Unpredictability and chaos” are very abstract, not easily visualized concepts. Not only that, but they could mean any number of things—violence, abandonment, poverty, mental instability. By instantly following up with highly finite and unambiguous illustrations like “family of how does research like seven” and “siblings arguing, the dog barking, the essay on christmas phone ringing,” Stephen grounds the abstraction in something that is easy to picture: a large, noisy family. Using Small Bits of research paper look like Humor and Casual Word Choice. My Dad, a retired Navy pilot, was away half the time. Reflective Essay On Christmas! When he was home, he had a parenting style something like a drill sergeant. At the age of nine, I learned how to clear burning oil from the surface of water.

My Dad considered this a critical life skill—you know, in case my aircraft carrier should ever get torpedoed. Obviously, knowing how to clean burning oil is not high on paper assignment, the list of reflective essay on christmas things every 9-year-old needs to know. To emphasize this, Stephen uses sarcasm by bringing up a situation that is clearly over-the-top: “in case my aircraft carrier should ever get torpedoed.” The humor also feels relaxed. Part of this is because he introduces it with the colloquial phrase “you know,” so it sounds like he is talking to us in person. Verbe Essayer! This approach also diffuses the potential discomfort of the essay on christmas reader with his father’s strictness—since he is making jokes about it, clearly he is paper look, OK. Reflective! Notice, though, that this doesn’t occur very much in the essay. This helps keep the tone meaningful and serious rather than flippant. Mr.

President? There's been an proverbs, oil spill! Then I want our best elementary school students on it, STAT. Essay On Christmas! An Ending That Stretches the Insight Into the Future. But one day this fall, Dr. Hicks, our Head of School, asked me a question that he hoped all seniors would reflect on throughout the year: “How can I participate in a thing I do not govern, in the company of people I did not choose?” The question caught me off guard, much like the proverbs question posed to me in essay on christmas, Laredo.

Then, I realized I knew the answer. I knew why the coat hanger had been handed to me. Trainee Cover Letter! Growing up as the middle child in my family, I was a vital participant in a thing I did not govern, in the company of people I did not choose. Reflective Essay On Christmas! It’s family. It’s society. And often, it’s chaos. You participate by quoting proverbs in essays, letting go of the small stuff, not expecting order and reflective on christmas, perfection, and facing the unexpected with confidence, optimism, and preparedness. My family experience taught me to face a serendipitous world with confidence. The ending of the essay reveals that Stephen’s life has been one long preparation for the future.

He has emerged from chaos and his dad’s approach to claims supporting my thesis unique, parenting as a person who can thrive in reflective essay, a world that he can’t control. This connection of past experience to current maturity and self-knowledge is a key element in scenes essay, all successful personal essays. Colleges are very much looking for mature, self-aware applicants. These are the qualities of successful college students, who will be able to navigate the independence college classes require and reflective on christmas, the responsibility and quasi-adulthood of college life. What Could This Essay Do Even Better? Even the best essays aren't perfect, and even the world's greatest writers will tell you that writing is never finished—just due.

So what would we tweak in this essay if we could? Replace some of the quoting proverbs cliched language. Reflective Essay! Stephen uses handy phrases like twists and turns and trainee cover, don’t sweat the reflective on christmas small stuff as a kind of shorthand for explaining his relationship to chaos and proverbs, unpredictability. But using too many of these ready-made expressions runs the risk of clouding out your own voice and replacing it with something expected and boring. Use another example from recent life. Stephen's first example (breaking into the van in on christmas, Laredo) is a great illustration of being resourceful in claims supporting, an unexpected situation. But his essay also emphasizes that he learned to adapt by reflective essay, being different things to different people. It would be great to see how this plays out outside his family, either in scaffold scenes essay, the situation in on christmas, Laredo or another context.

Example #2: By Bridget Collins, Tufts Class of story '19 (Common App Essay, 608 words long) I have always loved riding in cars. After a long day in first grade, I used to essay on christmas, fall asleep to the engine purring in short story research paper, my mother's Honda Odyssey, even though it was only a 5-minute drive home. As I grew, and graduated into the shotgun seat, it became natural and essay, enjoyable to look out the window. Seeing my world passing by through that smudged glass, I would daydream what I could do with it. In elementary school, I already knew my career path: I was going to be Emperor of the World. While I sat in the car and like, watched the miles pass by, I developed the plan for my empire.

I reasoned that, for the world to run smoothly, it would have to look presentable. I would assign people, aptly named Fixer-Uppers, to fix everything that needed fixing. That old man down the street with chipping paint on his house would have a fresh coat in no time. The boy who accidentally tossed his Frisbee onto the roof of the school would get it back. The big pothole on Elm Street that my mother managed to hit every single day on the way to reflective essay, school would be filled-in. It made perfect sense! All the people that didn't have a job could be Fixer-Uppers. I was like a ten-year-old FDR.

Seven years down the road, I still take a second glance at the sidewalk cracks and think of my Fixer-Uppers, but now I'm doing so from the driver's seat. As much as I would enjoy it, I now accept that I won't become Emperor of the World, and supporting, that the Fixer-Uppers will have to remain in reflective, my car ride imaginings. Or do they? I always pictured a Fixer-Upper as a smiling man in research look, an orange T-Shirt. Maybe instead, a Fixer-Upper could be a tall girl with a deep love for reflective on christmas Yankee Candles. Verbe! Maybe it could be me.

Bridget the Fixer-Upper will be slightly different than the imaginary one who paints houses and fetches Frisbees. I was lucky enough to discover what I am passionate about essay, when I was a freshman in high school. A self-admitted Phys. Short Story! Ed. addict, I volunteered to help out with the Adapted PE class. On my first day, I learned that it was for developmentally-disabled students. Reflective Essay! To be honest, I was really nervous. I hadn't had too much interaction with special needs students before, and wasn't sure how to handle myself around them.

Long story short, I got hooked. Three years have passed helping out in APE and eventually becoming a teacher in the Applied Behavior Analysis summer program. I love working with the essayer students and watching them progress. When senior year arrived, college meetings began, and reflective, my counselor asked me what I wanted to do for story a career, I didn't say Emperor of the World. Instead, I told him I wanted to become a board-certified behavior analyst.

A BCBA helps develop learning plans for students with autism and other disabilities. Basically, I would get to do what I love for the rest of reflective my life. He laughed and told me that it was a nice change that a seventeen-year-old knew so specifically what she wanted to do. I smiled, thanked him, and left. But it occurred to me that, while my desired occupation was decided, my true goal in life was still to become a Fixer-Upper. So, maybe I'll be like Sue Storm and her alter-ego, the Invisible Woman. I'll do one thing during the day, then spend my off-hours helping people where I can. Instead of how does paper look flying like Sue, though, I'll opt for a nice performance automobile. My childhood self would appreciate that. Bridget takes a somewhat different approach than Stephen, but her essay is just as detailed and engaging.

Let's go through some of the strengths of her essay. A Structure That’s Easy to Follow and Understand. Essay! The essay is arranged chronologically. Bridget starts each paragraph with a clear signpost of where we are in time: Paragraph 1: “after a long day in first grade” Paragraph 2: “in elementary school” Paragraph 3: “seven years down the road” Paragraph 4: “when I was a freshman in high school” Paragraph 5: “when senior year arrived” This keeps the reader oriented without being distracting or gimmicky. I would assign people, aptly named Fixer-Uppers, to fix everything that needed fixing. That old man down the street with chipping paint on his house would have a fresh coat in quoting proverbs in essays, no time.

The boy who accidentally tossed his Frisbee onto the roof of the school would get it back. Reflective On Christmas! Seven years down the road, I still take a second glance at the sidewalk cracks and think of my Fixer-Uppers, but now I'm doing so from the driver's seat. As much as I would enjoy it, I now accept that I won't become Emperor of the World, and that the Fixer-Uppers will have to remain in my car ride imaginings. Or do they? I always pictured a Fixer-Upper as a smiling man in an orange T-Shirt. Maybe instead, a Fixer-Upper could be a tall girl with a deep love for Yankee Candles. Trainee Fashion Cover Letter! Maybe it could be me.

I wanted to become a board-certified behavior analyst. A BCBA helps develop learning plans for students with autism and other disabilities. Basically, I would get to do what I love for the rest of my life. Reflective On Christmas! …But it occurred to trainee designer cover, me that, while my desired occupation was decided, my true goal in life was still to become a Fixer-Upper. What makes this essay fun to essay, read is that Bridget takes a child’s idea of a world made better through quasi-magical helpers and turns it into a metaphor for the author’s future aspirations. It helps that the scenes essay metaphor is a very clear one: people who work with students with disabilities are making the world better one abstract fix at a time, just like imaginary Fixer-Uppers would make the world better one concrete physical fix at reflective essay, a time.

Every childhood Fixer-Upper ever. Ask your parents to short assignment, explain the back row to you. (JD Hancock/Flickr) This essay uses many techniques that make Bridget sound genuine and make the reader feel like we already know her. Technique #1: humor. Notice Bridget's gentle and relaxed humor that lightly mocks her younger self’s grand ambitions (this is different from the more sarcastic kind of humor used by essay, Stephen in quoting proverbs in essays, the first essay—you could never mistake one writer for the other). In elementary school, I already knew my career path: I was going to on christmas, be Emperor of the World. I was like a ten-year-old FDR. Technique #2: invented terminology. The second technique is the claims supporting my thesis language being way Bridget coins her own terms, carrying them through the whole essay.

It would be easy enough to simply describe the people she imagined in childhood as helpers or assistants, and to simply say that as a child she wanted to rule the world. Reflective Essay! Instead, she invents the capitalized (and thus official-sounding) titles “Fixer-Upper” and “Emperor of the World,” making these childish conceits at once charming and iconic. What's also key is that the supporting language titles feed into the central metaphor of the essay, which keeps them from reflective essay on christmas sounding like strange quirks that don’t go anywhere. Technique #3: playing with syntax. The third technique is to au future, use sentences of varying length, syntax, and structure.

Most of the essay's written in standard English and uses grammatically correct sentences. However, at key moments, Bridget emphasizes that the reader needs to sit up and pay attention by reflective, switching to short, colloquial, differently punctuated, and sometimes fragmented sentences. The big pothole on Elm Street that my mother managed to hit every single day on the way to school would be filled-in. It made perfect sense! All the people that didn't have a job could be Fixer-Uppers. Scaffold! When she is narrating her childhood thought process, the sudden short sentence “It made perfect sense!” (especially its exclamation point) is basically the essay version of drawing a light bulb turning on over someone’s head. As much as I would enjoy it, I now accept that I won't become Emperor of the essay on christmas World, and that the Fixer-Uppers will have to remain in my car ride imaginings. Or do they? Similarly, when the essay turns from her childhood imagination to her present-day aspirations, the turn is marked with “Or do they?”—a tiny and arresting half-sentence question.

Maybe instead, a Fixer-Upper could be a tall girl with a deep love for Yankee Candles. Being! Maybe it could be me. The first time when the comparison between magical fixer-upper’s and essay on christmas, the future disability specialist is made is when Bridget turns her metaphor onto herself. The essay emphasizes the importance of the moment through repetition (two sentences structured similarly, both starting with the word “maybe”) and the use of a very short sentence: “Maybe it could be me.” To be honest, I was really nervous. I hadn't had too much interaction with special needs students before, and wasn't sure how to handle myself around them. Long story short, I got hooked.

The last key moment that gets the short story research paper small-sentence treatment is the emotional crux of the essay. Reflective! As we watch Bridget go from au future nervously trying to help disabled students to falling in love with this specialty field, she undercuts the potential sappiness of the moment by relying on reflective on christmas, changed-up sentence length and slang: “Long story short, I got hooked.” The best essays convey emotions just as clearly as this image. What Could This Essay Do Even Better? Bridget's essay is very strong, but there are still a few little things that could be improved. Explain the car connection better. Quoting In Essays! The essay begins and ends with Bridget's enjoying a car ride, but this doesn't seem to essay, be related either to the Fixer-Upper idea or to claims language, her passion for working with special-needs students.

It would be great to either connect this into the essay more, or to take it out essay, altogether and create more space for something else. Give more details about being a teacher in trainee letter, the Applied Behavior Analysis summer program. It makes perfect sense that Bridget doesn't want to reflective essay, put her students on display. It would take the focus off of trainee fashion designer her and possibly read as offensive or condescending. But, rather than saying long story short, maybe she could elaborate on her own feelings here a bit more. What is reflective essay, it about this kind of teaching that she loves?

What is she hoping to bring to verbe au future, the lives of her future clients? 3 Essential Tips for Writing Your Own Essay. How can you use this discussion to better your own college essay? Here are some suggestions for ways to use this resource effectively. #1: Take Apart the Other Essays in reflective essay on christmas, the Links. Claims My Thesis Language! As you go through the essays we've compiled for you above, ask yourself the following questions: Can you explain to yourself (or someone else!) why the opening sentence works well? Look for the essay's detailed personal anecdote.

What senses is the author describing? Can you easily picture the scene in your mind's eye? Find the place where this anecdote bridges into a larger insight about the author. How does the essay connect the two? How does the anecdote work as an example of the author's characteristic, trait, or skill? Check out the essay's tone. If it's funny, can you find the places where the humor comes from? If it's sad and moving, can you find the imagery and description of feelings that make you moved?

If it's serious, can you see how word choice adds to reflective on christmas, this tone? When you figure out how all the cogs fit together, you'll be able to research, build your own . um . whatever this is. All of these essays rely on connecting with the reader through a heartfelt, highly descriptive scene from the reflective essay on christmas author's life. It can either be very dramatic (did you survive a plane crash?) or it can be completely mundane (did you finally beat your dad at Scrabble?). Either way, it should be personal and being, revealing about you, your personality, and the way you are now that you are entering the adult world. Reflective! Let me level with you: the best writing isn't writing at story paper assignment, all. It's rewriting. And in order to have time to essay, rewrite, you have to start way before the application deadline. My advice is to write your first draft at least two months before your applications are due.

Let it sit for trainee cover letter a few days untouched. Then come back to essay on christmas, it with fresh eyes and language unique, think critically about what you've written. What's extra? What's missing? What is in on christmas, the wrong place? What doesn't make sense? Don't be afraid to verbe au future, take it apart and rearrange sections. Do this several times over, and your essay will be much better for reflective it!

Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points? We've written a guide for each test about the essayer au future top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Reflective Essay! Download it for free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Anna scored in the 99th percentile on her SATs in high school, and supporting my thesis language, went on to major in English at Princeton and to get her doctorate in essay on christmas, English Literature at claims my thesis language unique, Columbia. She is passionate about improving student access to higher education. You should definitely follow us on social media. Essay! You'll get updates on claims my thesis being unique, our latest articles right on on christmas, your feed.

Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply! Series: How to Get 800 on trainee fashion designer letter, Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get to 600 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get 36 on Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in a variety of other topics! Looking for Graduate School Test Prep? Check out our top-rated graduate blogs here: Get the essay latest articles and test prep tips! © PrepScholar 2013-2015.

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How to Write an Evidence-Based Clinical Review Article. JAY SIWEK, M.D., and MARGARET L. GOURLAY, M.D., Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington D.C. DAVID C. SLAWSON, M.D., University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, Virginia. ALLEN F. SHAUGHNESSY, PHARM.D., Harrisburg Family Practice Residency, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. Am Fam Physician. 2002 Jan 15;65(2):251-258.

Traditional clinical review articles, also known as updates, differ from systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Updates selectively review the medical literature while discussing a topic broadly. Nonquantitative systematic reviews comprehensively examine the medical literature, seeking to identify and synthesize all relevant information to formulate the best approach to diagnosis or treatment. Meta-analyses (quantitative systematic reviews) seek to essay on christmas answer a focused clinical question, using rigorous statistical analysis of pooled research studies. This article presents guidelines for writing an evidence-based clinical review article for American Family Physician . First, the topic should be of story research paper common interest and on christmas relevance to family practice. Claims My Thesis Language Being! Include a table of the continuing medical education objectives of the review. Reflective On Christmas! State how the literature search was done and include several sources of evidence-based reviews, such as the Cochrane Collaboration, BMJ's Clinical Evidence , or the InfoRetriever Web site. Where possible, use evidence based on clinical outcomes relating to morbidity, mortality, or quality of life, and studies of primary care populations. Research Assignment! In articles submitted to reflective essay American Family Physician , rate the level of au future evidence for key recommendations according to the following scale: level A (randomized controlled trial [RCT], meta-analysis); level B (other evidence); level C (consensus/expert opinion). Finally, provide a table of key summary points.

American Family Physician is particularly interested in receiving clinical review articles that follow an evidence-based format. Clinical review articles, also known as updates, differ from systematic reviews and meta-analyses in important ways.1 Updates selectively review the medical literature while discussing a topic broadly. An example of reflective such a topic is, #x201c;The diagnosis and treatment of quoting proverbs in essays myocardial ischemia.#x201d; Systematic reviews comprehensively examine the essay on christmas medical literature, seeking to identify and supporting my thesis being synthesize all relevant information to formulate the best approach to reflective essay diagnosis or treatment. Examples are many of the systematic reviews of the Cochrane Collaboration or BMJ's Clinical Evidence compendium. Meta-analyses are a special type of systematic review. They use quantitative methods to analyze the literature and seek to answer a focused clinical question, using rigorous statistical analysis of pooled research studies. An example is, #x201c;Do beta blockers reduce mortality following myocardial infarction?#x201d; The best clinical review articles base the discussion on quoting existing systematic reviews and reflective meta-analyses, and incorporate all relevant research findings about the management of a given disorder. Such evidence-based updates provide readers with powerful summaries and quoting proverbs in essays sound clinical guidance. In this article, we present guidelines for writing an evidence-based clinical review article, especially one designed for continuing medical education (CME) and incorporating CME objectives into its format. This article may be read as a companion piece to essay on christmas a previous article and scaffold essay accompanying editorial about reading and evaluating clinical review articles.1 , 2 Some articles may not be appropriate for reflective essay on christmas, an evidence-based format because of the how does research like nature of the topic, the slant of the article, a lack of reflective essay sufficient supporting evidence, or other factors.

We encourage authors to review the literature and, wherever possible, rate key points of evidence. This process will help emphasize the summary points of the article and strengthen its teaching value. Choose a common clinical problem and avoid topics that are rarities or unusual manifestations of quoting disease or that have curiosity value only. Whenever possible, choose common problems for which there is new information about diagnosis or treatment. Emphasize new information that, if valid, should prompt a change in clinical practice, such as the recent evidence that spironolactone therapy improves survival in patients who have severe congestive heart failure.3 Similarly, new evidence showing that a standard treatment is no longer helpful, but may be harmful, would also be important to report. For example, patching most traumatic corneal abrasions may actually cause more symptoms and delay healing compared with no patching.4. When searching the on christmas literature on your topic, please consult several sources of evidence-based reviews (Table 1) . Look for pertinent guidelines on the diagnosis, treatment, or prevention of the scenes disorder being discussed. Incorporate all high-quality recommendations that are relevant to the topic. When reviewing the first draft, look for all key recommendations about diagnosis and, especially, treatment.

Try to ensure that all recommendations are based on the highest level of evidence available. If you are not sure about the source or strength of the recommendation, return to the literature, seeking out the basis for on christmas, the recommendation. Some Sources of Evidence-Based Medicine. Agency for story paper assignment, Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), formerly known as the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (AHCPR): Clinical Guidelines and essay on christmas Evidence Reports* The AHRQ Web site includes links to the National Guideline Clearinghouse, Evidence Reports from the AHRQ's 12 Evidence-based Practice Centers (EPC), and Preventive Services. Quoting! The AHCPR released 19 Clinical Practice Guidelines between 1992 and1996 that were not subsequently updated. American College of Physicians Journal Club (ACPJC) ACP Journal Club evaluates evidence in individual articles.

Commentary by ACP author offers clinical recommendations. Access to the online version of ACPJC is a benefit for members of the ACP-ASIM, but will be open to reflective on christmas all until at least the end of 2001. Features short evaluations/discussions of individual articles dealing with evidence-based clinical practice. Centre for scaffold essay, Evidence Based Medicine (CEBM) The University of Oxford/Oxford Radcliffe Hospital Clinical School Web site includes links to CEBM within the Faculty of Medicine, a CATbank (Critically Appraised Topics), links to evidence-based journals, and EBM-related teaching materials. Center for Research Support, TRIP Database. The AHRQ began the Translating Research into essay Practice (TRIP) initiative in 1990 to implement evidence-based tools and claims my thesis language information. The TRIP Database features hyperlinks to the largest collection of EBM materials on the internet, including NGC, POEM, DARE, Cochrane Library, CATbank, and reflective essay individual articles. A good starting place for an EBM literature search. Clinical Evidence , BMJ Publishing Group*

Searches BMJ's Clinical Evidence compendium for up-to-date evidence regarding effective health care. Lists available topics and describes the supporting body of evidence to date (e.g., number of trainee designer cover relevant randomized controlled trials published to date). Concludes with interventions #x201c;likely to be beneficial#x201d; versus those with #x201c;unknown effectiveness.#x201d; Individuals who have received a free copy of Clinical Evidence Issue 5 from the United Health Foundation are also entitled to free access to the full online content. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews* Systematic evidence reviews that are updated periodically by the Cochrane Group. Reviewers discuss whether adequate data are available for the development of EBM guidelines for diagnosis or management.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness (DARE)* Structured abstracts written by essay on christmas, University of York CRD reviewers (see NHS CRD). Abstract summaries review articles on diagnostic or treatment interventions and discuss clinical implications. Effective Health Care* Bi-monthly, peer-reviewed bulletin for medical decision-makers. Fashion Designer Cover Letter! Based on systematic reviews and reflective essay synthesis of research on trainee fashion designer the clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and acceptability of health service interventions. Bimonthly publication launched in 1995 by reflective, the BMJ Publishing Group. Article summaries include commentaries by clinical experts. Subscription is required. Evidence-Based Practice Newsletter (including JFP Patient-Oriented Evidence that Matters [POEM])*

This JFP newsletter features up-to-date POEM, Disease-Oriented Evidence (DOE), and tests approved for Category 1 CME credit. Subscription required. Includes the InfoRetriever search system for the complete POEMs database and six additional evidence-based databases. Subscription is required. Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement (ICSI)* ICSI is an independent, nonprofit collaboration of health care organizations, including the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Web site includes the ICSI guidelines for research paper look, preventive services and disease management. National Guideline Clearinghouse (NGC) Comprehensive database of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines from essay on christmas, government agencies and health care organizations.

Describes and compares guideline statements with respect to objectives, methods, outcomes, evidence rating scheme, and major recommendations. National Health Service (NHS) Centre for how does look, Reviews and essay on christmas Dissemination (CRD) Searches CRD Databases (includes DARE, NHS Economic Evaluation Database, Health Technology Assessment Database) for EBM reviews. More limited than TRIP Database. Primary Care Clinical Practice Guidelines.

University of California, San Francisco, Web site that includes links to NGC, CEBM, AHRQ, individual articles, and organizations. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF)* This Web site features updated recommendations for clinical preventive services based on systematic evidence reviews by the U.S. Research! Preventive Services Task Force. EBM = evidence-based medicine . *#x2014; These Web sites are AAFP-approved sources of reflective essay on christmas systematic evidence reviews. When these sources are used to being prepare continuing medical education clinical content according to guidelines issued by the AAFP Commission of Continuing Medical Education, the content will qualify for reflective, the special designation of evidence-based CME. See the AAFP Web site for additional information about preparing evidence-based CME . Some Sources of Evidence-Based Medicine.

Agency for Healthcare Research and scaffold Quality (AHRQ), formerly known as the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (AHCPR): Clinical Guidelines and Evidence Reports* The AHRQ Web site includes links to the National Guideline Clearinghouse, Evidence Reports from the reflective essay AHRQ's 12 Evidence-based Practice Centers (EPC), and paper assignment Preventive Services. The AHCPR released 19 Clinical Practice Guidelines between 1992 and1996 that were not subsequently updated. American College of Physicians Journal Club (ACPJC) ACP Journal Club evaluates evidence in individual articles. Commentary by ACP author offers clinical recommendations. Reflective! Access to the online version of fashion letter ACPJC is a benefit for members of the essay ACP-ASIM, but will be open to essayer all until at least the end of 2001. Features short evaluations/discussions of individual articles dealing with evidence-based clinical practice.

Centre for Evidence Based Medicine (CEBM) The University of Oxford/Oxford Radcliffe Hospital Clinical School Web site includes links to CEBM within the Faculty of Medicine, a CATbank (Critically Appraised Topics), links to reflective evidence-based journals, and proverbs EBM-related teaching materials. Center for Research Support, TRIP Database. The AHRQ began the Translating Research into on christmas Practice (TRIP) initiative in 1990 to implement evidence-based tools and quoting proverbs in essays information. The TRIP Database features hyperlinks to the largest collection of EBM materials on on christmas the internet, including NGC, POEM, DARE, Cochrane Library, CATbank, and individual articles. A good starting place for an EBM literature search.

Clinical Evidence , BMJ Publishing Group* Searches BMJ's Clinical Evidence compendium for up-to-date evidence regarding effective health care. How Does Paper Look Like! Lists available topics and describes the supporting body of evidence to essay on christmas date (e.g., number of relevant randomized controlled trials published to date). Concludes with interventions #x201c;likely to be beneficial#x201d; versus those with #x201c;unknown effectiveness.#x201d; Individuals who have received a free copy of Clinical Evidence Issue 5 from the United Health Foundation are also entitled to free access to the full online content. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews* Systematic evidence reviews that are updated periodically by the Cochrane Group. Reviewers discuss whether adequate data are available for the development of scaffold scenes EBM guidelines for diagnosis or management. Database of Abstracts of Reviews of reflective Effectiveness (DARE)* Structured abstracts written by University of York CRD reviewers (see NHS CRD). Abstract summaries review articles on diagnostic or treatment interventions and discuss clinical implications. Effective Health Care*

Bi-monthly, peer-reviewed bulletin for medical decision-makers. Based on systematic reviews and synthesis of research on the clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and acceptability of verbe health service interventions. Bimonthly publication launched in reflective on christmas, 1995 by supporting language being, the BMJ Publishing Group. Article summaries include commentaries by clinical experts. Subscription is required. Evidence-Based Practice Newsletter (including JFP Patient-Oriented Evidence that Matters [POEM])* This JFP newsletter features up-to-date POEM, Disease-Oriented Evidence (DOE), and tests approved for reflective on christmas, Category 1 CME credit. Subscription required. Includes the InfoRetriever search system for the complete POEMs database and six additional evidence-based databases. Subscription is required.

Institute for story paper, Clinical Systems Improvement (ICSI)* ICSI is an independent, nonprofit collaboration of health care organizations, including the on christmas Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Web site includes the ICSI guidelines for preventive services and disease management. National Guideline Clearinghouse (NGC) Comprehensive database of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines from government agencies and health care organizations. Short Story Research! Describes and compares guideline statements with respect to objectives, methods, outcomes, evidence rating scheme, and major recommendations. National Health Service (NHS) Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (CRD) Searches CRD Databases (includes DARE, NHS Economic Evaluation Database, Health Technology Assessment Database) for EBM reviews. More limited than TRIP Database. Primary Care Clinical Practice Guidelines. University of on christmas California, San Francisco, Web site that includes links to NGC, CEBM, AHRQ, individual articles, and organizations.

U.S. Claims My Thesis Language Unique! Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF)* This Web site features updated recommendations for clinical preventive services based on systematic evidence reviews by the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. EBM = evidence-based medicine . *#x2014; These Web sites are AAFP-approved sources of systematic evidence reviews.

When these sources are used to prepare continuing medical education clinical content according to guidelines issued by the AAFP Commission of Continuing Medical Education, the content will qualify for the special designation of evidence-based CME. See the essay on christmas AAFP Web site for how does research, additional information about preparing evidence-based CME . In particular, try to find the answer in an authoritative compendium of evidence-based reviews, or at least try to find a meta-analysis or well-designed randomized controlled trial (RCT) to support it. If none appears to be available, try to cite an authoritative consensus statement or clinical guideline, such as a National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference statement or a clinical guideline published by a major medical organization. If no strong evidence exists to support the conventional approach to managing a given clinical situation, point this out in the text, especially for reflective, key recommendations. Keep in mind that much of traditional medical practice has not yet undergone rigorous scientific study, and research paper assignment high-quality evidence may not exist to support conventional knowledge or practice.

Patient-Oriented vs. Disease-Oriented Evidence. With regard to types of evidence, Shaughnessy and Slawson5 #x2013; 7 developed the on christmas concept of Patient-Oriented Evidence that Matters (POEM), in distinction to scenes Disease-Oriented Evidence (DOE). Essay On Christmas! POEM deals with outcomes of importance to patients, such as changes in morbidity, mortality, or quality of life. DOE deals with surrogate end points, such as changes in laboratory values or other measures of how does research like response. Although the results of DOE sometimes parallel the results of POEM, they do not always correspond (Table 2) .2 When possible, use POEM-type evidence rather than DOE. When DOE is the reflective essay only guidance available, indicate that key clinical recommendations lack the support of outcomes evidence. Scenes! Here is an example of how the on christmas latter situation might appear in the text: #x201c;Although prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing identifies prostate cancer at an early stage, it has not yet been proved that PSA screening improves patient survival.#x201d; (Note: PSA testing is an example of DOE, a surrogate marker for the true outcomes of scaffold importance#x2014;improved survival, decreased morbidity, and improved quality of life.) Antiarrhythmic drug X decreases the incidence of PVCs on reflective on christmas ECGs.

Antiarrhythmic drug X is associated with an increase in mortality. POEM results are contrary to how does research look DOE implications. Antihypertensive drug treatment lowers blood pressure. Antihypertensive drug treatment is associated with a decrease in mortality. POEM results are in concordance with DOE implications.

Screening for prostate cancer. PSA screening detects prostate cancer at an early stage. Whether PSA screening reduces mortality from prostate cancer is currently unknown. Although DOE exists, the important POEM is reflective on christmas currently unknown. DOE = disease-oriented evidence; POEM = patient-oriented evidence that matters; PVCs = premature ventricular contractions; ECGs = electrocardiograms; PSA = prostate-specific antigen . Adapted with permission from verbe au future, Shaughnessy AF, Slawson DC. Getting the most from review articles: a guide for essay on christmas, readers and writers. Am Fam Physician 1997;55:2155#x2013;60 . Antiarrhythmic drug X decreases the incidence of PVCs on ECGs. Antiarrhythmic drug X is associated with an increase in mortality.

POEM results are contrary to quoting proverbs DOE implications. Antihypertensive drug treatment lowers blood pressure. Antihypertensive drug treatment is associated with a decrease in mortality. POEM results are in concordance with DOE implications. Screening for prostate cancer. PSA screening detects prostate cancer at reflective an early stage. Whether PSA screening reduces mortality from my thesis being unique, prostate cancer is currently unknown. Although DOE exists, the important POEM is currently unknown.

DOE = disease-oriented evidence; POEM = patient-oriented evidence that matters; PVCs = premature ventricular contractions; ECGs = electrocardiograms; PSA = prostate-specific antigen . Adapted with permission from Shaughnessy AF, Slawson DC. Getting the most from on christmas, review articles: a guide for readers and writers. Am Fam Physician 1997;55:2155#x2013;60 . Evaluate the quoting proverbs strength and validity of the literature that supports the discussion (see the reflective following section, Levels of Evidence). Look for meta-analyses, high-quality, randomized clinical trials with important outcomes (POEM), or well-designed, nonrandomized clinical trials, clinical cohort studies, or case-controlled studies with consistent findings. In some cases, high-quality, historical, uncontrolled studies are appropriate (e.g., the evidence supporting the efficacy of Papanicolaou smear screening). Avoid anecdotal reports or repeating the hearsay of conventional wisdom, which may not stand up to how does research paper look the scrutiny of scientific study (e.g., prescribing prolonged bed rest for low back pain). Look for studies that describe patient populations that are likely to be seen in primary care rather than subspecialty referral populations.

Shaughnessy and Slawson's guide for writers of clinical review articles includes a section on information and validity traps to reflective essay avoid.2. Readers need to know the strength of the evidence supporting the key clinical recommendations on diagnosis and treatment. Many different rating systems of how does research look varying complexity and clinical relevance are described in the medical literature. Reflective Essay! Recently, the third U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) emphasized the importance of rating not only the study type (RCT, cohort study, case-control study, etc.), but also the study quality as measured by internal validity and the quality of the entire body of evidence on a topic.8.

While it is important to appreciate these evolving concepts, we find that a simplified grading system is more useful in AFP . We have adopted the following convention, using an research paper ABC rating scale. Criteria for high-quality studies are discussed in several sources.8 , 9 See the reflective on christmas AFP Web site (www.aafp.org/afp/authors) for additional information about levels of quoting proverbs evidence and see the accompanying editorial in this issue discussing the potential pitfalls and limitations of any rating system. Level A (randomized controlled trial/meta-analysis): High-quality randomized controlled trial (RCT) that considers all important outcomes. High-quality meta-analysis (quantitative systematic review) using comprehensive search strategies. Level B (other evidence): A well-designed, nonrandomized clinical trial.

A nonquantitative systematic review with appropriate search strategies and well-substantiated conclusions. Includes lower quality RCTs, clinical cohort studies, and reflective on christmas case-controlled studies with non-biased selection of study participants and consistent findings. Other evidence, such as high-quality, historical, uncontrolled studies, or well-designed epidemiologic studies with compelling findings, is also included. Level C (consensus/expert opinion): Consensus viewpoint or expert opinion. Each rating is applied to a single reference in the article, not to the entire body of evidence that exists on fashion cover a topic. Each label should include the letter rating (A, B, C), followed by the specific type of study for essay on christmas, that reference. For example, following a level B rating, include one of these descriptors: (1) nonrandomized clinical trial; (2) nonquantitative systematic review; (3) lower quality RCT; (4) clinical cohort study; (5) case-controlled study; (6) historical uncontrolled study; (7) epidemiologic study. Here are some examples of the way evidence ratings should appear in the text: #x201c;To improve morbidity and short story paper mortality, most patients in congestive heart failure should be treated with an reflective essay on christmas angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. [Evidence level A, RCT]#x201d; #x201c;The USPSTF recommends that clinicians routinely screen asymptomatic pregnant women 25 years and younger for chlamydial infection. [Evidence level B, non-randomized clinical trial]#x201d; #x201c;The American Diabetes Association recommends screening for trainee cover, diabetes every three years in all patients at high risk of the disease, including all adults 45 years and on christmas older. Research Look Like! [Evidence level C, expert opinion]#x201d; When scientifically strong evidence does not exist to support a given clinical recommendation, you can point this out in the following way: #x201c;Physical therapy is traditionally prescribed for the treatment of adhesive capsulitis (frozen shoulder), although there are no randomized outcomes studies of this approach.#x201d; The introduction should define the topic and purpose of the review and describe its relevance to reflective family practice.

The traditional way of doing this is to discuss the research paper epidemiology of the condition, stating how many people have it at one point in time (prevalence) or what percentage of the population is expected to develop it over a given period of time (incidence). A more engaging way of doing this is to reflective essay indicate how often a typical family physician is likely to encounter this problem during a week, month, year, or career. Paper! Emphasize the key CME objectives of the review and summarize them in a separate table entitled #x201c;CME Objectives.#x201d; The methods section should briefly indicate how the literature search was conducted and reflective what major sources of evidence were used. Scenes! Ideally, indicate what predetermined criteria were used to include or exclude studies (e.g., studies had to be independently rated as being high quality by an established evaluation process, such as the Cochrane Collaboration). Be comprehensive in trying to on christmas identify all major relevant research. Critically evaluate the quality of research reviewed. Avoid selective referencing of only information that supports your conclusions.

If there is controversy on a topic, address the full scope of the scaffold scenes essay controversy. The discussion can then follow the typical format of reflective essay a clinical review article. It should touch on one or more of the following subtopics: etiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation (signs and symptoms), diagnostic evaluation (history, physical examination, laboratory evaluation, and research paper diagnostic imaging), differential diagnosis, treatment (goals, medical/surgical therapy, laboratory testing, patient education, and follow-up), prognosis, prevention, and future directions. The review will be comprehensive and balanced if it acknowledges controversies, unresolved questions, recent developments, other viewpoints, and any apparent conflicts of interest or instances of bias that might affect the strength of the reflective on christmas evidence presented. Emphasize an trainee fashion letter evidence-supported approach or, where little evidence exists, a consensus viewpoint. In the on christmas absence of a consensus viewpoint, you may describe generally accepted practices or discuss one or more reasoned approaches, but acknowledge that solid support for these recommendations is essayer lacking. In some cases, cost-effectiveness analyses may be important in reflective essay on christmas, deciding how to implement health care services, especially preventive services.10 When relevant, mention high-quality cost-effectiveness analyses to help clarify the scenes essay costs and health benefits associated with alternative interventions to achieve a given health outcome. Highlight key points about diagnosis and treatment in the discussion and include a summary table of the reflective essay key take-home points. Scenes! These points are not necessarily the same as the key recommendations, whose level of evidence is rated, although some of them will be.

Use tables, figures, and illustrations to highlight key points, and present a step-wise, algorithmic approach to diagnosis or treatment when possible. Rate the evidence for key statements, especially treatment recommendations. We expect that most articles will have at on christmas most two to four key statements; some will have none. Rate only scenes essay those statements that have corresponding references and base the rating on the quality and level of evidence presented in the supporting citations. Use primary sources (original research, RCTs, meta-analyses, and reflective on christmas systematic reviews) as the supporting language being unique basis for determining the essay level of evidence. In other words, the supporting citation should be a primary research source of the information, not a secondary source (such as a nonsystematic review article or a textbook) that simply cites the original source. Systematic reviews that analyze multiple RCTs are good sources for determining ratings of evidence. The references should include the most current and important sources of support for key statements (i.e., studies referred to, new information, controversial material, specific quantitative data, and information that would not usually be found in most general reference textbooks).

Generally, these references will be key evidence-based recommendations, meta-analyses, or landmark articles. Although some journals publish exhaustive lists of reference citations, AFP prefers to scaffold include a succinct list of reflective essay key references. Claims Being! (We will make more extensive reference lists available on our Web site or provide links to reflective your personal reference list.) You may use the following checklist to ensure the completeness of your evidence-based review article; use the source list of reviews to identify important sources of evidence-based medicine materials. Checklist for an Evidence-Based Clinical Review Article. The topic is look common in family practice, especially topics in which there is new, important information about diagnosis or treatment. The introduction defines the topic and the purpose of the review, and describes its relevance to on christmas family practice. A table of CME objectives for fashion designer cover letter, the review is included. The review states how you did your literature search and indicates what sources you checked to ensure a comprehensive assessment of reflective essay relevant studies (e.g., MEDLINE, the essay Cochrane Collaboration Database, the Center for Research Support, TRIP Database). Several sources of evidence-based reviews on the topic are evaluated (Table 1) . Where possible, POEM (dealing with changes in morbidity, mortality, or quality of life) rather than DOE (dealing with mechanistic explanations or surrogate end points, such as changes in laboratory tests) is reflective used to support key clinical recommendations (Table 2) . Studies of patients likely to be representative of those in primary care practices, rather than subspecialty referral centers, are emphasized. Studies that are not only statistically significant but also clinically significant are emphasized; e.g., interventions with meaningful changes in absolute risk reduction and low numbers needed to treat. Short Story Research Paper! (Seehttp://www.cebm.net/index.aspx?o=1116.)11. The level of evidence for key clinical recommendations is labeled using the on christmas following rating scale: level A (RCT/meta-analysis), level B (other evidence), and quoting level C (consensus/expert opinion).

Acknowledge controversies, recent developments, other viewpoints, and reflective any apparent conflicts of interest or instances of bias that might affect the strength of the scenes evidence presented. Highlight key points about essay diagnosis and treatment in essayer, the discussion and include a summary table of key take-home points. Use tables, figures, and illustrations to highlight key points and present a step-wise, algorithmic approach to diagnosis or treatment when possible. Emphasize evidence-based guidelines and primary research studies, rather than other review articles, unless they are systematic reviews. The essential elements of this checklist are summarized in Table 3 . Essential Steps in Writing an Evidence-Based Clinical Review Article.

Choose a common, important topic in reflective essay, family practice. Provide a table with a list of continuing medical education (CME) objectives for the review. State how the literature search and reference selection were done. Use several sources of evidence-based reviews on verbe essayer the topic. Rate the level of reflective essay evidence for key recommendations in the text. Provide a table of key summary points (not necessarily the research same as key recommendations that are rated). Essential Steps in Writing an Evidence-Based Clinical Review Article. Choose a common, important topic in family practice. Provide a table with a list of continuing medical education (CME) objectives for the review. State how the literature search and reference selection were done. Use several sources of evidence-based reviews on the topic.

Rate the level of evidence for key recommendations in the text. Provide a table of key summary points (not necessarily the essay on christmas same as key recommendations that are rated). Read the full article. Get immediate access, anytime, anywhere. Choose a single article, issue, or full-access subscription. Earn up to 6 CME credits per issue. Already a member or subscriber? Log in.

Get Full Access. Includes: Immediate, unlimited access to all AFP content More than 130 CME credits per verbe, year Access to the AFP app Print delivery option. Access This Issue. Includes: Immediate access to this issue CME credits in this issue. Access This Article. JAY SIWEK, M.D., is reflective on christmas professor and claims my thesis language being chair of the Department of Family Medicine at Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, D.C.

He is also editor of American Family Physician. A graduate of Georgetown University School of Medicine, Dr. Siwek completed his family practice residency at essay on christmas Middlesex Hospital in Middletown, Conn. . MARGARET L. GOURLAY, M.D., is currently the American Family Physician Medical Editing Fellow at Georgetown University Medical Center. Paper Like! A graduate of Rush Medical College, Chicago, she completed a residency in family medicine at the University of essay California, San Diego, Medical Center. DAVID C. SLAWSON, M.D., is the B. Lewis Barnett, Jr. professor of family medicine at the University of trainee fashion cover Virginia Health System in Charlottesville, Va. He is director and founder of the Center for Information Mastery and on christmas serves as section editor for trainee letter, The Journal of Family Practice POEMs. Dr. Reflective! Slawson is a graduate of the University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Mich., and he completed postdoctoral training in family medicine at the University of Virginia. ALLEN F. SHAUGHNESSY, PHARM.D., is how does director of research and associate director of the Harrisburg Family Practice Residency, Harrisburg, Pa.

He completed his doctorate and fellowship training at the Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston. Address correspondence to Jay Siwek, M.D., Department of essay Family Medicine, Georgetown University Medical Center, 215 Kober-Cogan Hall, 3750 Reservoir Rd. Supporting My Thesis Language Being! NW, Washington DC 20007 (e-mail:afp@family.georgetown.edu). Reprints are not available from the authors . The authors thank Ted Ganiats, M.D. for reflective essay, a helpful review and conceptual contributions to the manuscript . The authors indicate that they do not have any conflicts of interest. Sources of scaffold essay funding: none reported . 1. Siwek J. Reading and reflective evaluating clinical review articles. Designer! Am Fam Physician . 1997;55:2064,2069#x2013;70,2072. . 2. Shaughnessy AF, Slawson DC. Getting the most from review articles: a guide for readers and writers. Am Fam Physician . Reflective Essay On Christmas! 1997;55:2155#x2013;60. 3. Pitt B, Zannad F, Remme WJ, Cody R, Castaigne A, Perez A, et al. for the Randomized Aldactone Evaluation Study Investigators.

The effect of spironolactone on proverbs morbidity and mortality in patients with severe heart failure. N Engl J Med . 1999;341:709#x2013;17. 4. Flynn CA, D'Amico F, Smith G. Essay On Christmas! Should we patch corneal abrasions? A meta-analysis. Scaffold Scenes Essay! J Fam Pract . 1998;47:264#x2013;70.

5. Slawson DC, Shaughnessy AF, Bennett JH. Becoming a medical information master: feeling good about not knowing everything. J Fam Pract . 1994;38:505#x2013;13. 6. Shaughnessy AF, Slawson DC, Bennett JH. Becoming an information master: a guidebook to the medical information jungle. J Fam Pract . 1994;39:489#x2013;99. 7. Slawson DC, Shaughnessy AF.

Becoming an information master: using POEMs to change practice with confidence. Patient-oriented evidence that matters. J Fam Pract . 2000;49:63#x2013;7. 8. Harris RP, Helfand M, Woolf SH, Lohr KN, Mulrow CD, Teutsch SM, et al. Methods Work Group, Third U.S. Preventive Services Task Force.

Current methods of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. A review of the essay process. Am J Prev Med . 2001;20(3 suppl):21#x2013;35. 9. CATbank topics: levels of evidence and fashion designer cover grades of reflective recommendations. Essayer! Retrieved November 2001, from: http://www.cebm.net/. 10. Saha S, Hoerger TJ, Pignone MP, Teutsch SM, Helfand M, Mandelblatt JS. for the Cost Work Group of the Third U.S. Preventive Services Task Force.

The art and science of incorporating cost effectiveness into reflective essay on christmas evidence-based recommendations for clinical preventive services. Am J Prev Med . 2001;20(3 suppl):36#x2013;43. 11. Evidence-based medicine glossary. Retrieved November 2001, from: http://www.cebm.net/index.aspx?o=1116. Copyright © 2002 by verbe essayer, the American Academy of Family Physicians. This content is owned by the AAFP. A person viewing it online may make one printout of the material and may use that printout only for his or her personal, non-commercial reference.

This material may not otherwise be downloaded, copied, printed, stored, transmitted or reproduced in essay, any medium, whether now known or later invented, except as authorized in fashion designer cover letter, writing by the AAFP. Contact afpserv@aafp.org for reflective, copyright questions and/or permission requests. This page will be removed from your Favorites Links. Are you sure? Want to use this article elsewhere? Get Permissions.

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43 Resume Tips That Will Help You Get Hired. When you haven’t updated your resume in a while, it can be hard to know where to start. What experiences and accomplishments should you include for the jobs you’ve got your eye on? What new resume rules and reflective essay trends should you be following? And seriously, one page or two? Well, search no more: We’ve compiled all the resume advice you need into one place. Read on for tips and tricks that’ll make sure you craft a winning resume—and help you land a job.

Your resume should not have every work experience you’ve ever had listed on it. Think of your resume not as a comprehensive list of fashion designer cover, your career history, but as a marketing document selling you as the on christmas, perfect person for the job. For each resume you send out, you’ll want to highlight only the quoting proverbs, accomplishments and skills that are most relevant to the job at essay on christmas hand (even if that means you don’t include all of my thesis being, your experience). Job search expert Lily Zhang explains more about what it means to tailor your resume here . 2. Reflective Essay On Christmas! But Keep a Master List of All Jobs. Since you’ll want to how does paper like, be swapping different information in and out depending on reflective, the job you’re applying to, keep a resume master list on your computer where you keep any information you’ve ever included on a resume: old positions, bullet points tailored for different applications, special projects that only sometimes make sense to include. Then, when you’re crafting each resume, it’s just a matter of cutting and pasting relevant information together. Think of this as your brag file . 3. Proverbs! Put the Best Stuff “Above the Fold” In marketing speak, “above the fold” refers to what you see on the front half of a folded newspaper (or, in on christmas the digital age, before you scroll down on scaffold scenes, a website), but basically it’s your first impression of a document. In resume speak, it means you should make sure your best experiences and accomplishments are visible on the top third of your resume. Reflective! This top section is what the trainee fashion letter, hiring manager is going to see first—and what will serve as a hook for someone to essay on christmas, keep on reading. So focus on putting your best, most relevant experiences first—and then check out these five other marketing tricks to get your resume noticed . According to scenes essay, Zhang , the only occasion when an objective section makes sense is on christmas, when you’re making a huge career change and need to explain from the get-go why your experience doesn’t match up with the position you’re applying to. In every other case?

Consider whether a summary statement would be right for you —or just nix it altogether to save space and focus on making the rest of quoting, your resume stellar. Reflective Essay! There are lots of different ways to organize the information on your resume, but the good old reverse chronological (where your most recent experience is listed first) is proverbs, still your best bet. On Christmas! Unless it’s absolutely necessary in proverbs in essays your situation, skip the skills-based resume—hiring managers might wonder what you’re hiding. The two- (or more!) page resume is reflective on christmas, a hotly debated topic , but the being, bottom line is this—you want the information here to be concise, and making yourself keep it to on christmas, one page is a good way to force yourself to do this. If you truly have enough relevant and important experience, training, and credentials to showcase on more than one page of your resume, then go for it.

But if you can tell the same story in scaffold scenes less space? Do. If you’re struggling, check out these tips for cutting your content down , or work with a designer to see how you can organize your resume to fit more in less space. Can’t figure out how to reflective, tell your whole story on one page, or want to be able to claims supporting my thesis being unique, include some visual examples of your work? Instead of essay on christmas, trying to have your resume cover everything, cover the trainee fashion designer cover, most important details on that document, and then include a link to your personal website , where you can dive more into what makes you the reflective, ideal candidate. We’ll talk about getting creative in order to stand out in supporting my thesis language being a minute. But the most basic principle of good resume formatting and design?

Keep it simple. Use a basic but modern font, like Helvetica, Arial, or Century Gothic. Make your resume easy on hiring managers’ eyes by essay on christmas, using a font size between 10 and verbe 12 and reflective essay leaving a healthy amount of white space on scaffold, the page. You can use a different font or typeface for your name, your resume headers, and the companies for which you’ve worked, but keep it simple and essay on christmas keep it consistent. Your main focus here should be on readability for the hiring manager.

That being said, you should feel free to… Really want your resume stand out from the sea of paper, Times New Roman? Yes, creative resumes—like infographics, videos, or presentations—or resumes with icons or graphics can set you apart, but you should use them thoughtfully. If you’re applying through an ATS, keep to the standard formatting without any bells and on christmas whistles so the computer can read it effectively. If you’re applying to a more traditional company, don’t get too crazy, but feel free to add some tasteful design elements or a little color to make it pop. No matter what, don’t do it unless you’re willing to put in look the time, creativity, and design work to make it awesome. 10. Make Your Contact Info Prominent. You don’t need to include your address on your resume anymore (really!), but you do need to make sure to include a phone number and professional email address (not your work address!) as well as other places the hiring manager can find you on the web, like your LinkedIn profile and Twitter handle. Reflective! (Implicit in this is that you keep these social media profiles suitable for prospective employers.) You’ve heard before that hiring managers don’t spend a lot of time on scaffold scenes, each individual resume. So help them get as much information as possible, in as little time as possible. These 12 small formatting changes will make a huge difference. Know that design skills aren’t your strong suit but want your resume to look stunning?

There’s no shame in getting help, so consider working with a professional resume designer. Reflective Essay! This is scaffold scenes essay, arguably the most important document of essay, your job search, so it’s worth getting it exactly right! 13. Keep it Recent, Keep it Relevant. Scaffold! As a rule, you should only show the most recent 10-15 years of your career history and only include the experience relevant to the positions to which you are applying. And remember to reflective essay, allocate real estate on your resume according to importance. If there’s a choice between including one more college internship or going into more detail about your current role, always choose the trainee fashion cover, latter (unless a previous job was more relevant to the one you’re applying to).

14. No Relevant Experience? No Worries! Don’t panic if you don’t have any experience that fits the bill. Instead, Zhang explains , focus your resume on your relevant and transferrable skills along with any related side or academic projects, and reflective on christmas then make sure to pair it with a strong cover letter telling the short story, narrative of reflective essay, why you’re ideal for the job. No matter how long you’ve been in a job, or how much you’ve accomplished there, you shouldn’t have more than five or six bullets in story research a given section. No matter how good your bullets are, the recruiter just isn’t going to get through them. Check out reflective essay on christmas, these tips for writing impressive bullet points . You may be tempted to throw in claims supporting my thesis unique tons of industry jargon so you sound like you know what you’re talking about, but ultimately you want your resume to be understandable to the average person. Remember that the reflective essay, first person who sees your resume might be a recruiter, an assistant, or even a high-level executive—and you want to be sure that it is scenes, readable, relevant, and interesting to all of them. Use as many facts, figures, and numbers as you can in reflective essay your bullet points.

How many people were impacted by your work? By what percentage did you exceed your goals? By quantifying your accomplishments, you really allow the hiring manager to picture the level of work or responsibility you needed to achieve them. Even if you don’t actually work with numbers, here are some secrets to adding more to your resume . People hire performers, so you want to show that you didn’t just do stuff, but that you got stuff done! As you look at your bullet points, think about how you can take each statement one step further and add in scaffold essay what the benefit was to your boss or your company.

By doing this, you clearly communicate not only what you’re capable of, but also the direct benefit the employer will receive by hiring you. Reflective! If you’re not sure how to explain your impact, check out essay, these tips for turning your duties into essay accomplishments . Describing soft skills on a resume often starts to sound like a list of meaningless buzzwords, fast. But being a “strong leader” or an “effective communicator” are important characteristics you want to story paper, get across. Think about how you can demonstrate these attributes in your bullet points without actually saying them. Zhang demonstrates here how you can show five different qualities with the reflective on christmas, same bullet point—try it yourself until you get the scaffold scenes essay, result you’re going for! 20. Don’t Neglect Non-Traditional Work. There’s no law that says you can only put full-time or paid work on your resume. So, if you’ve participated in a major volunteer role, worked part-time, were hired as a temporary or contract worker , freelanced, or blogged?

Absolutely list these things as their own “jobs” within your career chronology. If every bullet in your resume starts with “Responsible for,” readers will get bored very quickly. Use our handy list of better verbs to reflective essay on christmas, mix it up ! Use keywords in your resume: Scan the job description, see what words are used most often, and make sure you’ve included them in au future your bullet points. Not only is this a self-check that you’re targeting your resume to the job, it’ll make sure you get noticed in applicant tracking systems. Stuck on which words to include? Dump the job description into reflective essay on christmas a tool like TagCrowd , which will analyze and spit out the most used keywords. What words shouldn’t you include? Detail-oriented, team player, and hard worker—among other vague terms that recruiters say are chronically overused . We bet there’s a better way to describe how awesome you are. 24. Experience First, Education Second. Unless you’re a recent graduate, put your education after your experience.

Chances are, your last couple of verbe essayer, jobs are more important and relevant to essay on christmas, you getting the job than where you went to claims my thesis unique, college. 25. Also Keep it Reverse Chronological. Usually, you should lay down your educational background by listing the most recent or advanced degree first, working in reverse chronological order. But if older coursework is essay on christmas, more specific to the job, list that first to grab the reviewer’s attention. Don’t list your graduation dates. The reviewer cares more about whether or not you have the degree than when you earned it. If you graduated from college with high honors, absolutely make note of it. While you don’t need to list your GPA, don’t be afraid to showcase that summa cum laude status or the fact that you were in the honors college at how does paper your university. On Christmas! 28. Include Continuing or Online Education.

Don’t be afraid to include continuing education, professional development coursework, or online courses in your education section, especially if it feels a little light. Kelli Orrela explains , “Online courses are a more-than-accepted norm nowadays, and your participation in them can actually show your determination and motivation to get the skills you need for your career.” Be sure to add a section that lists out short research assignment, all the relevant skills you have for reflective essay, a position, including tech skills like HTML and Adobe Creative Suite and any industry-related certifications. Just make sure to skip including skills that everyone is trainee designer, expected to have, like using email or Microsoft Word. On Christmas! Doing so will actually make you seem less technologically savvy. If you have lots of skills related to a position—say, foreign language, software, and leadership skills—try breaking out one of those sections and listing it on proverbs, its own. Reflective! Below your “Skills” section, add another section titled “Language Skills” or “Software Skills,” and detail your experience there. Fashion Designer Cover! Again—we’re going for skimmability here, folks! Feel free to include an “Interests” section on your resume, but only reflective essay on christmas add those that are relevant to the job. Look Like! Are you a guitar player with your eye on essay, a music company? Definitely include it.

But including your scrapbooking hobby for a tech job at a healthcare company? Don’t even think about how does look it. 32. Beware of reflective on christmas, Interests That Could Be Controversial. Maybe you help raise money for your church on the reg. Or perhaps you have a penchant for proverbs in essays, canvassing during political campaigns. Yes, these experiences show a good amount of work ethic—but they could also be discriminated against by someone who disagrees with the cause.

Zhang explains here how to weigh the reflective on christmas, decision of whether to include them or not. Do include awards and accolades you’ve received, even if they’re company-specific awards. Just state what you earned them for, e.g., “Earned Gold Award for having the company’s top sales record four quarters in a row.” What about research look personal achievements—like running a marathon—that aren’t totally relevant but show you’re a driven, hard worker? Zhang shares the proper ways to include them. Gaps and Other Sticky Resume Situations. If you stayed at essay on christmas a (non-temporary) job for only a matter of months, consider eliminating it from your resume. According to The New York Times ’ career coach , leaving a particularly short-lived job or two off your work history shouldn’t hurt, as long as you’re honest about quoting in essays your experience if asked in reflective on christmas an interview. If you have gaps of a few months in your work history, don’t list the usual start and end dates for each position.

Use years only story (2010-2012), or just the number of reflective essay on christmas, years or months you worked at your earlier positions. If you’ve job-hopped frequently, include a reason for leaving next to each position, with a succinct explanation like “company closed,” “layoff due to downsizing,” or “relocated to supporting my thesis, new city.” By addressing the gaps, you’ll proactively illustrate the reason for your sporadic job movement and reflective essay on christmas make it less of an essayer au future issue. Re-entering the workforce after a long hiatus? This is the perfect opportunity for a summary statement at the top, outlining your best skills and accomplishments. Then, get into reflective your career chronology, without hesitating to include part-time or volunteer work. See more tips from Jenny Foss for killing it on your comeback resume. Don’t try to creatively fill in gaps on unique, your resume. For example, if you took time out of the on christmas, workforce to raise kids, don’t list your parenting experience on your resume, a la “adeptly managed the growing pile of laundry” (we’ve seen it).

While parenting is as demanding and intense a job as any out there, most corporate decision makers aren’t going to take this section of your resume seriously. 39. Ditch “References Available Upon Request” If a hiring manager is interested in you, he or she will ask you for references—and will assume that you have them. There’s no need to address the in essays, obvious (and doing so might even make you look a little presumptuous!). Essay! It should go without saying, but make sure your resume is free and clear of typos. And don’t rely on spell check and grammar check alone—ask family or friends to take a look at it for verbe essayer, you (or get some tips from an editor on essay, how to how does look like, perfect your own work ). If emailing your resume, make sure to always send a PDF rather than a .doc. That way all of your careful formatting won’t accidentally get messed up when the hiring manager opens it on his or her computer. To make sure it won’t look wonky when you send it off, Google’s head of HR Laszlo Bock suggests, “Look at it in both Google Docs and Word, and then attach it to an email and open it as a preview.” Ready to save your resume and send it off? Save it as “Jane Smith Resume” instead of “Resume.” It’s one less step the hiring manager has to take.

Carve out some time every quarter or so to pull up your resume and make some updates. Reflective! Have you taken on new responsibilities? Learned new skills? Add them in. Claims Supporting My Thesis Language! When your resume is updated on a regular basis, you’re ready to pounce when opportunity presents itself. And, even if you’re not job searching, there are plenty of reflective on christmas, good reasons to keep this document in tip-top shape. Photo courtesy of Hero Images / Getty Images . Erin Greenawald is a freelance writer, editor, and content strategist who is passionate about elevating the claims supporting my thesis language being, standard of writing on the web. Erin previously helped build The Muse’s beloved daily publication and led the reflective essay, company’s branded content team.

If you’re an individual or company looking for short, help making your content better—or you just want to reflective essay on christmas, go out to tea—get in touch at eringreenawald.com. Claims Supporting Unique! Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class. While you#39;re here, you may as well check out on christmas, all the story research assignment, amazing companies that are hiring like crazy right now.

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chisholm homework Logan Airport generates over $13 billion in revenue for Boston and is one of the city's biggest employers, but residents of East Boston are paying for it with their health. National Security Agencies Are Evading Congressional Oversight. Concerns about mass surveillance aren't new, but the current administration's disregard for constitutional limits on reflective on christmas, executive power should be a wake-up call. LIKE WHAT YOU'RE READING? Get Truthout's independent news and commentary delivered to your inbox once a day: We don't share your email with anyone. Somebody Had to quoting proverbs in essays, Do It First: The Story of Shirley Chisholm.

Shirley Chisholm, future member of the U.S. House of Representatives (D-NY), announcing her candidacy on January 25, 1972. (Photo: Thomas J. O'Halloran, U.S. News World Reports) Shirley Chisholm: Catalyst for Change, by Barbara Winslow, Lives of American Women Series, Westview Press, 192 pages, $2013, $20.00 paperback. Barbara Winslow's Shirley Chisholm: Catalyst for Change profiles the first black woman presidential candidate, a person who prided herself on being unbossed and unbought. Historian Barbara Winslow's fascinating portrait of trailblazer Shirley Chisholm (1926-2005) offers activists and organizers an inside look at reflective essay one woman's political ascent. Proverbs In Essays! Although little of the material in the book is new, Winslow's synthesis and attention to race, class and gender dynamics makes it an excellent introduction to a woman who prided herself on being unbossed and unbought.

What's more, Shirley Chisholm: Catalyst for Change acknowledges the limitations of individual achievement and credits the great social movements of the twentieth century - including some outside the essay United States for helping to boost Chisholm's influence and power. But let's start at the beginning. Research Assignment! Shirley St. Hill - Chisholm was her first husband's surname - was born in reflective essay, Brooklyn, New York, to working-class immigrants from Barbados. As the Great Depression worsened, her parents sent her and two sisters back home, where they were reared on land owned by their grandmother, a domestic servant. Because grandma left at sun-up and did not return for 15 hours, the girls essentially were raised by their teenage aunt. Grandmother's large house sat on a plot that provided the essayer au future family's food: Sweet potatoes, yams, corn, tomatoes and root vegetables, Winslow writes.

The waters around the island provided abundant seafood, including the Barbadian staple flying fish. The girls had chores on the farm but also had access to sea, sand and an array of animals. School - one room - lasted eight hours a day and included corporal punishment. Lessons were focused exclusively on academics and essay, religious and moral instruction. Discipline was prized. But being taught by claims language unique, black teachers allowed Chisholm to reflective on christmas, see people of color as competent and au future, professionally successful, something she might not have witnessed had she remained in reflective on christmas, New York.

By the cover time she returned to Brooklyn, however, there was much she needed to adjust to. Not only did the weather fluctuate between brutally hot and brutally cold, the streets, buses and on christmas, subways were filthy, crowded and scaffold scenes, noisy; she was terrified. Kids, however, are resilient, and Shirley quickly adapted, excelling in school and declaring that she wanted to spend her life in the service of education. She graduated from essay on christmas Brooklyn's Girls' High in 1942. And even though she was offered scholarships to attend Vassar and Oberlin colleges, her family could not pay for room and board at an out-of-state school. Somewhat reluctantly, she applied to Brooklyn College and was admitted, Winslow writes. Tuition was free, a great boon to how does research look, countless working-class and poor youths from the reflective five boroughs. And because Chisholm could live at home and get to class by public means, she savored the opportunity. There were academics, of supporting my thesis, course, but in addition, college taught Chisholm numerous life lessons, among them to question why Brooklyn College's 10,000-student body included just 60 blacks.

In addition, because the country was at reflective on christmas war, Winslow writes, that the campus was alive with political protest. A wide range of radical political clubs organized meetings, leafleted students, or assembled platforms to call attention to quoting proverbs, their particular cause. Chisholm joined the all-black Harriet Tubman Society as well as the reflective on christmas Debating Society and the Brooklyn chapters of the NAACP and paper look, Urban League. This array of activities set the stage for essay on christmas, her later career, helping her to become an adept political analyst, excellent public speaker and astute observer. It also made her aware of quoting in essays, pervasive race bias. As Winslow reports, She chafed at the thought that because of her skin color she was expected to be subservient to on christmas, whites. Scaffold Scenes Essay! . She was deeply aware - and resentful - of the fact that whites looked upon on christmas, blacks as inferior and in need of help. Her fury was undoubtedly stoked by the fact that despite graduating cum laude, jobs were hard to come by and she found herself repeatedly rejected as an verbe essayer au future applicant. When she finally found a position teaching at the Mount Calvary Child Care Center in Harlem, it freed her to begin socializing. Heartbreak - her boyfriend turned out to be married - temporarily shattered her, but she later met Conrad Chisholm, a Jamaican immigrant, and married him in 1949. Career success followed. At the same time Chisholm became increasingly active in essay on christmas, the Democratic Party club in scaffold scenes essay, Bedford-Stuyvesant, a poor central Brooklyn community that was two-third black but was represented by white politicians.

Although the club was black-led, as her involvement escalated, Chisholm became increasingly aware of gender discrimination. As Winslow writes: She noticed that club leaders were men; the women, mainly wives of members, were expected to on christmas, fulfill traditional gender roles - to organize socials, raffles and other fundraising events. Chisholm quickly raised a ruckus, getting elected to the club's board of directors, and began pushing for black candidates to campaign for public office, from judgeships to the state Assembly. Shortly thereafter, in 1964, Chisholm notified the Democrats that she intended to run for state Assembly herself. While many of the club's male members were aghast, she ultimately got their endorsement. Still, the sexism that greeted her was incredible. Short Paper! Did you make your husband breakfast this morning? she was asked while handing out fliers. Annoyed but undeterred, Chisholm was confident of reflective on christmas, victory; she had done her homework and understood that there were 5,000 more Democratic women in the 17th Assembly District than there were Democratic men. She appealed to the sisterhood and fashion, won handily. Reflective Essay On Christmas! Although she was not the first black woman elected to verbe essayer, state office, by the time she was sworn in in January 1965, numerous progressive men already were serving. They basically ignored her.

Albany at that time was not particularly welcoming to African Americans, and in the mid 1960s, respectable women did not go out to restaurants or bars on on christmas, their own, Winslow writes. Once the day's legislative session ended, the male legislators would go off to bars, movies, restaurants and clubs. Not a single one of Chisholm's colleagues ever invited her to their social gatherings. Presumably quite lonely, Chisholm turned to essay, her work and her first successful bill extended unemployment benefits to personal and domestic workers. She also was instrumental in getting funding for a program, called SEEK, which gives low-income black and Latino high school students scholarships and counseling support to make it easier for them to attend city and on christmas, state universities. Four years later, in research, 1968, Chisholm ran, and was elected, to Congress, becoming the first African-American women to do so. Virtually overnight, she became more symbol than leader. And while she took many progressive positions - raising money for the Black Panther Party, supporting striking workers and declaring that she would vote no on all military appropriation bills - overall, her record was less than stellar.

In her first two years, for reflective essay, example, she sponsored no major legislation and was often absent for key votes because she was speaking about short story paper assignment women in politics throughout the country. Even more disappointing, after being elected to Congress for a second term, she became somewhat less outspoken. Perhaps, Winslow writes, she was thinking of her long-term future as a successful legislator, or she wanted to create allies in anticipation of a presidential run. We may never know; she never explained her shift in on christmas, tactics. But she did run for quoting proverbs, the Democratic nomination for president in on christmas, 1972, becoming the designer first African-American woman to take the plunge. Chisholm's presidential campaign was the high point of her political career, Winslow writes.

She was under no illusions that she'd be victorious; at reflective essay on christmas the same time, she saw the campaign as a way to shake things up. Cover Letter! Winslow further notes that while many white women worked tirelessly to reflective, put Chisholm in the White House, they typically did not understand how to how does paper look like, connect the issues of abortion, day care, and Equal Rights Amendment to reflective, the concerns of the Black civil rights and liberation movements. Scaffold Essay! The campaign was further beset by financial woes and disorganization. On top of this, most black male leaders - Al Sharpton was one of the few exceptions - snubbed her, or worse. Not surprisingly, George McGovern won the on christmas 1972 nomination. I ran, Chisholm said, because somebody had to how does research look like, do it first. On Christmas! . I ran because most people think the country is not ready for a Black candidate, not ready for how does research paper look, a woman candidate. Someday. . Needless to say, Barack Obama and Hillary Clinton - and maybe even Sarah Palin - owe Chisholm a huge, belated thank you. Chisholm continued to serve in Congress for another decade and in 1982 announced that she would not seek re-election. Instead, she returned to teaching - this time at the all-female Mount Holyoke College - and later helped found The National Political Congress of Black Women.

She also spoke at the first national reproductive rights conference for women of color in 1987. Chisholm moved to reflective, Florida in 1991 and died in 2005. In a 2004 interview she was asked how she wished to be remembered. Quoting! Surprisingly, she did not emphasize her presidential run or time in elected office. Instead, she said that she wanted to be remembered as a catalyst for change. Reflective Essay! Barbara Winslow presents her as this, and more. Shirley Chisholm: Catalyst for Change celebrates the research like Congresswoman's gumption, sass and political savvy - and acknowledges some large blunders - while simultaneously making the case for engagement in local, statewide and national government. Essay! Chisholm understood that politics is never a spectator sport; Winslow reminds us that we ignore it at our peril. Eleanor J. Bader teaches English at Kingsborough Community College in Brooklyn, New York. She is a 2015 winner of a Project Censored award for outstanding investigative journalism and a 2006 Independent Press Association award. The coauthor of Targets of Hatred: Anti-Abortion Terrorism , she presently contributes to Lilith, Rewire, Theasy.com and other progressive feminist blogs and print publications.

The Journalist and the Fixer: Who Makes the Story Possible? DHS Should Stop the Social Media Surveillance of Immigrants. Trump Tax Plan Is a Rocket for the Rich. Will UN Secretary General Achieve Gender Parity in scaffold, Leadership Roles? Russian Journalist Masha Gessen on Trump and reflective essay on christmas, Putin's Autocracy and Media's Refusal to Call Out Lies. It Was an Insult: Rep. Nydia Velazquez on Trump's Visit to Puerto Rico, Attacks on San Juan Mayor.

Somebody Had to Do It First: The Story of Shirley Chisholm. Shirley Chisholm, future member of the U.S. House of Representatives (D-NY), announcing her candidacy on January 25, 1972. (Photo: Thomas J. O'Halloran, U.S. In Essays! News World Reports) Shirley Chisholm: Catalyst for Change, by essay on christmas, Barbara Winslow, Lives of American Women Series, Westview Press, 192 pages, $2013, $20.00 paperback. Barbara Winslow's Shirley Chisholm: Catalyst for claims my thesis unique, Change profiles the first black woman presidential candidate, a person who prided herself on reflective on christmas, being unbossed and look, unbought. Historian Barbara Winslow's fascinating portrait of reflective essay, trailblazer Shirley Chisholm (1926-2005) offers activists and organizers an inside look at one woman's political ascent. Although little of the material in the book is new, Winslow's synthesis and attention to race, class and gender dynamics makes it an claims my thesis language being unique excellent introduction to a woman who prided herself on being unbossed and unbought. What's more, Shirley Chisholm: Catalyst for Change acknowledges the limitations of individual achievement and credits the great social movements of the twentieth century - including some outside the reflective United States for helping to boost Chisholm's influence and power. But let's start at the beginning.

Shirley St. Hill - Chisholm was her first husband's surname - was born in Brooklyn, New York, to working-class immigrants from essayer Barbados. Essay! As the Great Depression worsened, her parents sent her and two sisters back home, where they were reared on land owned by their grandmother, a domestic servant. Because grandma left at sun-up and quoting, did not return for 15 hours, the reflective essay girls essentially were raised by their teenage aunt. Grandmother's large house sat on a plot that provided the family's food: Sweet potatoes, yams, corn, tomatoes and root vegetables, Winslow writes. The waters around the island provided abundant seafood, including the Barbadian staple flying fish. Short Research! The girls had chores on the farm but also had access to sea, sand and reflective essay, an array of animals.

School - one room - lasted eight hours a day and included corporal punishment. Lessons were focused exclusively on academics and how does like, religious and moral instruction. Discipline was prized. But being taught by essay on christmas, black teachers allowed Chisholm to see people of color as competent and professionally successful, something she might not have witnessed had she remained in New York. By the time she returned to Brooklyn, however, there was much she needed to adjust to. Not only quoting in essays did the weather fluctuate between brutally hot and brutally cold, the on christmas streets, buses and subways were filthy, crowded and noisy; she was terrified. Kids, however, are resilient, and research paper look like, Shirley quickly adapted, excelling in school and declaring that she wanted to spend her life in the service of reflective on christmas, education. She graduated from Brooklyn's Girls' High in 1942. And even though she was offered scholarships to essayer, attend Vassar and essay on christmas, Oberlin colleges, her family could not pay for room and my thesis language unique, board at an out-of-state school.

Somewhat reluctantly, she applied to Brooklyn College and was admitted, Winslow writes. Tuition was free, a great boon to countless working-class and poor youths from the five boroughs. And because Chisholm could live at essay home and get to class by public means, she savored the opportunity. There were academics, of course, but in addition, college taught Chisholm numerous life lessons, among them to question why Brooklyn College's 10,000-student body included just 60 blacks. In addition, because the verbe country was at war, Winslow writes, that the campus was alive with political protest. A wide range of radical political clubs organized meetings, leafleted students, or assembled platforms to call attention to their particular cause. Reflective Essay On Christmas! Chisholm joined the all-black Harriet Tubman Society as well as the Debating Society and the Brooklyn chapters of the NAACP and Urban League. This array of activities set the stage for her later career, helping her to scenes essay, become an reflective essay on christmas adept political analyst, excellent public speaker and astute observer. It also made her aware of pervasive race bias. Claims Supporting My Thesis Unique! As Winslow reports, She chafed at the thought that because of her skin color she was expected to be subservient to whites. . She was deeply aware - and resentful - of the fact that whites looked upon blacks as inferior and in essay on christmas, need of help.

Her fury was undoubtedly stoked by trainee letter, the fact that despite graduating cum laude, jobs were hard to come by and she found herself repeatedly rejected as an applicant. Reflective Essay On Christmas! When she finally found a position teaching at the Mount Calvary Child Care Center in Harlem, it freed her to begin socializing. Heartbreak - her boyfriend turned out to be married - temporarily shattered her, but she later met Conrad Chisholm, a Jamaican immigrant, and married him in fashion designer, 1949. Career success followed. At the same time Chisholm became increasingly active in the Democratic Party club in essay on christmas, Bedford-Stuyvesant, a poor central Brooklyn community that was two-third black but was represented by white politicians. Although the club was black-led, as her involvement escalated, Chisholm became increasingly aware of gender discrimination. As Winslow writes: She noticed that club leaders were men; the women, mainly wives of members, were expected to fulfill traditional gender roles - to organize socials, raffles and other fundraising events. Chisholm quickly raised a ruckus, getting elected to the club's board of directors, and began pushing for trainee, black candidates to campaign for public office, from judgeships to the state Assembly. Shortly thereafter, in 1964, Chisholm notified the Democrats that she intended to run for state Assembly herself.

While many of the club's male members were aghast, she ultimately got their endorsement. Still, the sexism that greeted her was incredible. Did you make your husband breakfast this morning? she was asked while handing out fliers. Annoyed but undeterred, Chisholm was confident of victory; she had done her homework and understood that there were 5,000 more Democratic women in the 17th Assembly District than there were Democratic men. She appealed to the sisterhood and won handily. Although she was not the first black woman elected to state office, by the time she was sworn in reflective essay, in January 1965, numerous progressive men already were serving. They basically ignored her. Albany at that time was not particularly welcoming to African Americans, and in the mid 1960s, respectable women did not go out to quoting in essays, restaurants or bars on on christmas, their own, Winslow writes.

Once the day's legislative session ended, the quoting in essays male legislators would go off to bars, movies, restaurants and clubs. Not a single one of Chisholm's colleagues ever invited her to their social gatherings. Presumably quite lonely, Chisholm turned to her work and her first successful bill extended unemployment benefits to personal and reflective, domestic workers. Story Research Assignment! She also was instrumental in reflective essay, getting funding for a program, called SEEK, which gives low-income black and Latino high school students scholarships and counseling support to quoting proverbs, make it easier for them to attend city and essay, state universities. Four years later, in claims supporting language, 1968, Chisholm ran, and was elected, to Congress, becoming the first African-American women to do so. Virtually overnight, she became more symbol than leader.

And while she took many progressive positions - raising money for the Black Panther Party, supporting striking workers and declaring that she would vote no on all military appropriation bills - overall, her record was less than stellar. On Christmas! In her first two years, for example, she sponsored no major legislation and was often absent for key votes because she was speaking about story paper women in politics throughout the country. Even more disappointing, after being elected to Congress for a second term, she became somewhat less outspoken. Perhaps, Winslow writes, she was thinking of her long-term future as a successful legislator, or she wanted to create allies in anticipation of reflective essay, a presidential run. We may never know; she never explained her shift in tactics. But she did run for the Democratic nomination for essayer, president in 1972, becoming the first African-American woman to reflective essay, take the plunge. Chisholm's presidential campaign was the high point of her political career, Winslow writes. She was under no illusions that she'd be victorious; at the same time, she saw the campaign as a way to claims supporting my thesis unique, shake things up.

Winslow further notes that while many white women worked tirelessly to put Chisholm in the White House, they typically did not understand how to connect the issues of abortion, day care, and Equal Rights Amendment to reflective essay, the concerns of the Black civil rights and liberation movements. The campaign was further beset by financial woes and disorganization. Trainee Fashion Designer Cover Letter! On top of this, most black male leaders - Al Sharpton was one of the few exceptions - snubbed her, or worse. Essay On Christmas! Not surprisingly, George McGovern won the quoting in essays 1972 nomination. I ran, Chisholm said, because somebody had to do it first. . I ran because most people think the country is not ready for a Black candidate, not ready for a woman candidate. Someday. . Needless to say, Barack Obama and Hillary Clinton - and maybe even Sarah Palin - owe Chisholm a huge, belated thank you.

Chisholm continued to serve in essay on christmas, Congress for another decade and in 1982 announced that she would not seek re-election. Instead, she returned to scenes essay, teaching - this time at the all-female Mount Holyoke College - and later helped found The National Political Congress of Black Women. She also spoke at the first national reproductive rights conference for women of color in 1987. Chisholm moved to Florida in 1991 and died in 2005. In a 2004 interview she was asked how she wished to reflective on christmas, be remembered.

Surprisingly, she did not emphasize her presidential run or time in elected office. Verbe! Instead, she said that she wanted to be remembered as a catalyst for change. Barbara Winslow presents her as this, and more. Shirley Chisholm: Catalyst for Change celebrates the Congresswoman's gumption, sass and political savvy - and on christmas, acknowledges some large blunders - while simultaneously making the case for engagement in quoting proverbs, local, statewide and national government. Chisholm understood that politics is never a spectator sport; Winslow reminds us that we ignore it at our peril.