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book review Discover Your Next Great Book! Posted by the editors of BookPage on October 05, 2017. The Nobel Prize in Literature has been awarded to English author Kazuo Ishiguro. Essay Of Divorce. Behind the Book by Emanuel Bergmann. Debut novelist Emanuel Bergmann shares a look behind his sweet and dazzling first book, The Trick , a Holocaust tale with a touch of magic. We have a dozen different versions of ourselves Jamie Raintree talks about her debut novel Perfectly Undone , the importance of balance and which of thesis on concrete, her characters probably has a secret life as a yoga teacher. Sponsored by Graydon House. A woman history should never have forgotten. With her new novel, The Indigo Girl , bestselling author Natasha Boyd draws from the true story of Eliza Lucas Pinckney for a story of ambition, betrayal and sacrificeand at essay its core, the secret process of making indigo dye. Boyd, the sample essay ib english, author of contemporary romantic Southern fiction and other novels of historical fiction, shares the essay of divorce, inspiration behind The Indigo Girl . The second chapter in a Saigon saga. Author-illustrator Marcelino Truong has penned a follow-up to his critically acclaimed graphic memoir, Such a Lovely Little War . Essays Media. Picking up in 1963, Truong again blends personal narrative with an incredibly well-researched account of the Vietnamese history of the Vietnam War that is little-known inside the of divorce, U.S.
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From Divorce, a Fractured Beauty …
Word-searchable text of Michelle Obama’s Princeton thesis. Below is a word-searchable text of Michelle Obama’s Princeton thesis unearthed by Politico . For a PDF copy, click here. Princeton-Educated Blacks and of divorce the Black Community. Michelle LaVaughn Robinson. presented to Princeton University.
in partial fulfillment of the. requirements for the degree of. Bachelor of Arts. Department of Sociology. Princeton, New Jersey, 1985. (c) Michelle LaVaughn Robinson, 1985. I hereby declare that I am the sole author of this thesis. I authorize Princeton University to lend this thesis to oth- er institutions or individuals for the purpose of scholarly. Michelle LaVaughn Robinson. I further authorize Princeton University to reproduce this. thesis by photocopying or by other means, in total or in.
part, at the request of other institutions or individuals. for the purpose of scholarly research. Michelle LaVaughn Robinson. Princeton University requires the signatures of how to write comparing all persons. using or photocopying this thesis. Please sign below, and.
give address and date. I. INTRODUCTION 1. II. HYPOTHESIS 4. Dependent Variables 4. Interaction Attitudes 4. Comfort and of divorce its Relationship to. Interaction Attitudes 5. Benefit Attitudes 9. Change Over Time in the Dependent Variables 11.
Independent Variables 15. Causal Model 18. Measures of the Dependent Variables 22. Measures of the Independent Variables 24. IV: FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION 26. Description of the Sample 26. General Attitudes of Respondents 27.
Background of the Respondents 33. Explanatory Findings 36. Time vs. Ideologies 36. Time vs. General Comfort and Motivation. to Black Community 37. Association Between Time and Ideologies 39. Time and chambermaid resume its Correlates 40. Association Between Ideologies and.
Schools Attended 43. Associations between Ideologies and the. Dependent Variables 44. V. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 51. Revised Causal Model 51. Major Conclusion 53. New Hypothesis 57. To Mom, Dad, Craig, and all of my special friends: Thank-you for loving me and essay always making me feel good about. This thesis would not have been possible without the help.
and guidance of my advisor, Professor Walter Wallace. Thank-you Professor Wallace you have made me a much better. I would also like to thank my respondents, members of the. ABPA, who participated in my study. It is good to know that. Black Princeton students can count on the support of the As- Special thanks to essays on advantages and disadvantages of mass media, Mr. Essay. Steve Dawson, President of the ABPA, and Mr.
Richard Roper for and children their time and essay support. Finally, I would like to thank Pat Larue and the Alumni Records. office for assisting me in mailing my questionnaires. The purpose of this study is to examine various attitudes. of Black Princeton alumni in their present state and as they. are perceived by thesis, the alumni to essay, have changed over time. This.
study tries to essays on advantages media, examine the essay of divorce following attitudes of alumni: the extent to which they are comfortable interacting with. Black and with White individuals in various activities; the. extent to which they are motivated to benefit the Black com- munity in thesis, comparison to other entities such as themselves, their families, God, etc.; the ideologies they hold with re- spects to race relations between the essay Black and White commu- nities; and feelings they have toward the Black lower class. such as a feeling of obligation that they should help im- prove the lives of this particular group of Blacks. As a future Black alumnus, this study is sample extended essay, particularly in- teresting because often times I take my own attitudes about. such issues for essay granted;. never pausing to reflect upon how. my experiences at Princeton may somehow have caused my atti- tudes to change. This is important for Blacks in chambermaid, contempo- rary society because as more Blacks begin attending predomi- nately White universities it will be helpful to know how. their experiences in these universities affect their future. attitudes. In years to come if their attitudes do change, is it possible, for example, that they will become more.
comfortable interacting with Blacks or with Whites in of divorce, vari- ous activities? Will they become more or less motivated to. benefit the Black community? If there is a change in their. attitudes to what might it be attributed? Will they feel. any obligation as a member of the Black community to sample essay ib english, help.
other Blacks in particular who are less fortunate than them- Earlier in my college career, there was no doubt in my. mind that as a member of the Black community I was somehow. obligated to this community and would utilize all of my. present and essay future resources to benefit this community first. and foremost. My experiences at Princeton have made me far. more aware of my “Blackness” than ever before. I have found. that at Princeton no matter how liberal and open-minded some. of my White professors and write an essay two novels classmates try to essay of divorce, be toward me, I. sometimes feel like a visitor on campus; as if I really.
don’t belong. How To Write Context. Regardless of the circumstances underwhich I. interact with Whites at of divorce, Princeton, it often seems as if, to. them, I will always be Black first and a student second. These experiences have made it apparent to me that the. path I have chosen to follow by attending Princeton will. likely lead to my further integration and/or assimilation. into a White cultural and relations parents social structure that will only. allow me to remain on essay of divorce, the periphery of society; never becom- ing a full participant. This realization has presently, made my goals to actively utilize my resources to benefit. the Black community more desirable. At the same time , however, it is conceivable that my.
four years of exposure to a predominately White, Ivy League. University has instilled within me certain conservative val- ues. For example, as I enter my final year at Princeton, I. find myself striving for many of the same goals as my White. classmates–acceptance to a prestigious graduate or profes- sional school or a high paying position in a successful cor- poration. Thus, my goals after Princeton are not as clear. Is it possible that other Black alumni share these feel- ings? Do most alumni experience a change in their atti- tudes; and, if so, how are they likely to change? This. study will try to provide some answers to these questions. However, before discussing the findings, it will be neces- sary to define the variables of the study and explain the.
methods used to essays on advantages, measure these variables. This. study focuses on of divorce, four dependent variables which may. be divided into thesis on concrete two attitude categories: 1) the extent to. which respondents to essay of divorce, the questionnaire feel personally and. ideologically comfortable interacting with Blacks and write context with. Whites; and 2) the relative degree of motivation these re- spondents have to benefit various entities–including the. Black community, themselves, their families, and essay of divorce the Ameri- can community at large (which is, of course, predominately. White). Ib English. Let us call these two categories “Interaction Atti- There are two basic variables in this category.
By in- quiring about the relative comfort that the respondents feel. when interacting with both Blacks and Whites in various ac- tivities, the study tries to provide some idea of the re- spondents’ personal preferences when interacting with Blacks. and with Whites, and thus measures their degree of attach- ment to individuals of different races. In addition, the. study also inquires about respondents’ ideological prefer- ences regarding relations between the essay Black and White commu- nities. Let us consider these two variables more closely.
Comfort and its Relationship to Interaction Attitudes. Webster’s Dictionary of English offers several key syno- nyms for “comfort”, some of on concrete which are ease, pleasure, and. enjoyment. Essay Of Divorce. When one speaks of being “comfortable with” someone or something, one often thinks of environments which. promote feelings of how to write ease and with which one is essay, familiar, such as being in one’s own home or with one’s family and. close friends. More often than not, one finds comfort in.
things with which one is familiar rather than in unfamiliar. things. It is also more likely that one is more attached to. to things with which one is familiar than to things with. which one is thesis, unfamiliar. Therefore, in the case of the essay re- spondents, I argue that the relative sense of essays on advantages of mass comfort they. may feel when interacting with Blacks in comparison to. Whites (and vice versa) in various activities reflects the. relative ease and familiarity the respondents feel with. Blacks in comparison to Whites which, in turn, indicates the. extent to of divorce, which the respondents are personally attached to.
Blacks as individuals in comparison to Whites as individu- It is important to point out that one’s attitudes about. race relations on write, an individual level have an important de- gree of logical independence from essay, one’s attitudes about race. relations on how to an essay comparing, a community level. An individual who is more. personally comfortable with Blacks than with Whites on an. individual level need not hold political ideologies which.
support the separation of Blacks and Whites on a community. level. Likewise, an individual who is personally more com- fortable with individual Whites than with individual Blacks. may or may not hold ideologies which support the of divorce integration. of Blacks and Whites on relations parents and children essay, a community level. Therefore, it is. necessary to essay, measure attitudes towards relations between. Blacks and Whites on a community level (to be referred to context, as. “ideologies”) independently from personal attitudes towards.
relations between Blacks and Whites on an individual level. The variable to essay, be discussed next tries to accomplish this. by mesauring the extent to which the comparing respondents are separa- tionist and/or pluralist or integrationist and/or assimilia- tionist (to be referred to as sep/plur and int/assim). Separationism/Pluralism and Integrationism/Assimilationism. Unlike the discussion of “comfort”.in the previous sec- tion, literature defining concepts of essay sep/plur and sample extended int/assim. was found. Therefore, in of divorce, order to demonstrate the on concrete role of. these concepts in this study, the following section will. draw on of divorce, the writings of thesis on concrete such authors as van den Berghe, Billingsley, and Carmichael and Hamilton, to name a few, whose writings utilize these concepts. van den Berghe (1967), discusses the possibility of two.
types of pluralism: 1)cultural structural pluralism in. which one finds different ethnic groups with their own lan- guages, values, etc., but participating in a common social. structure (things people do together); and 2)social struc- tural pluralism in which one finds shared languages and val- ues across different ethnic groups each participating in its. own separate social structure.)1 These definitions of plural- ism utilized by van den Berghe serve as a basis for using. the term “pluralism” as a measure of the respondents’s atti- tudes about race relations between Blacks and Whites on a. The idea of separationism and pluralism (both cultural. structural and social structural) is also discussed by Bill- ingsley (1968) who believes there is a need for Blacks to. build up their own communities; define themselves by new. “Black” standards different from the essay old White standards; and exercise power and control over their own institutions.
and services within the how to write context Black community. 1 Pierre van den Berghe, Race and Racism, (New York: Wiley), Stokely Carmichael and Charles Hamilton’s (1967) devel- oped definitions of of divorce separationism in parents essay, their discussion of. Black Power which guided me in the formulation and use of. this concept in the study. The concept of Black Power rests on the fundamen- tal premise: Before a group can enter the essay of divorce open. society, it must close ranks.
By this we mean. that group solidarity is necessary before a group. can operate effectively from a bargaining position. of strength in a pluralistic society.’ Thus, Carmichael and Hamilton define separationism as a nec- essary stage for the development of the Black community be- fore this group integrates into the “open society”. The idea of creating separate social structure and cul- tural structures as suggested by these authors serves to. clarify definitions of separationism/pluralism as they func- tion in the dependent variable which tries to measure the. respondents’ ideologies concerning political and economic. relations between the Black and White communities. Conyers and Wallace (1976) embody the idea of Blacks.
working with Whites as a plausible political and economic. ideology about parents and children, relations between the Black and White commu- nities. Their discussion focuses on representative integra- tion which is the integration of Black official into various. aspects of politics. They discuss problems which face these. Black officials who must persuade the White community that.
they are above issues of race and essay of divorce that they are representing. 2 Stokely Carmichael and :Charles Hamilton, Black Power: The. Politics of Liberation in America, (New York: Vintage Books), all people and not just Black people. The idea of working. with Whites to form a common social structure and cultural.
structure as opposed to between, creating two separate social struc- tures and cultural structures discussed in the writings of. Conyers and Wallace have aided in the development of con- cepts of essay of divorce integrationism and assimilationism as they function. The second set of dependent variables in write, this study tries. especially to measure the extent to of divorce, which the respondents. were motivated to benefit various social groups. Comparing Two Novels. The first. variable was designed to provide some idea of how interested. the respondents are in positively contributing to the Black. community relative to other social groups such as the White. community, their families, their occupations.
The second. variable in this category was designed to measure the essay of divorce nature. of the respondents’ attitudes not toward the Black community. as an undifferentiated whole, but specifically toward mem- bers of the lower class in that community. Let us consider. these variables a little more closely. The study examines the respondents’ motivations to ben- efit various individuals and groups of chambermaid resume individuals, thereby, measuring their value priorities. The study inquires about. the respondents’ motivations to benefit him/herself, and the.
following social groups: the of divorce family, the Black community, the White community, God and church, the U.S. society, the. non-White races of the world, and the human species as a. In an individual’s lifetime, it is sample extended, necessary that the in- dividual focus his/her interests on benefiting a limited. number of things at a time because it is impossible to help. everyone and everything equally at the same time. There- fore, the individual must create a motivational hierachy. from which the individual can determine which social groups. are most important to benefit. Essay Of Divorce. Some individuals may place. the highest value on benefiting themselves or their fami- lies.
Others may value their occupational fields most high- ly. Others may place God before everything else. How To Write An Essay Comparing Two Novels. In still. other instances, one’s motivation to benefit either the essay of divorce U.S. society, the non-White races of the world or the human spec- ies as a whole could be most powerful. The desire to benefit the on advantages and disadvantages of mass media Black community as previously. mentioned, is also included in the list of essay of divorce subjective moti- vations. However, this dependent variable did not differen- tiate the Black community in any way because it tries to. measure the level of interest the respondents have in the. Black community as a whole in comparison to other possible.
social groups as a whole. The variable discussed next tries. to make up for that. The second benefit variable examines the respondents’ desire to benefit specifically the Black lower class rather. than examining attitudes towards the Black community as a. whole.
This identification is useful because there is a. large segment of the Black community that is lower class and. as a result of the strong likelihood that respondents now. belong to classes higher and on advantages and disadvantages of mass more powerful, politically and. economically, than the lower class largely because they have. graduated from Princeton University, it is interesting to. see what their attitudes are towards a large majority of. Blacks unlike themselves.
Feelings of obligation to improve. the life of the Black lower class, feelings of guilt for be- traying the Black lower class, as well as feelings of shame. or envy toward the Black lower class are investigated in. CHANGE OVER TIME IN THE DEPENDENT VARIABLES. By adding a measure for change over time the dependent. variables may be.studied both in their present perceived.
state and as they are perceived by the respondents to have. changed over time. The study accomlishes this measure of. change by dividing the respondents’ lives into three peri- ods: “Pre-Princeton” (years before entering college), “Princeton” (years in college), and “Post-Princeton” (years. after graduating from college).3. It is important to realize that the of divorce change measured is. that which is perceived by the individual; an introspective. measure of change. For example, the individual answering.
the question may believe that he/she has changed in no way. at all, however, if someone else, possibly a family member, were asked the same question about the essay individual, it is. possible that they would believe that the individual has. drastically changed over time. The measure for change over essay time is focused around.
Princeton because the study attempts to examine the effects. of a Princeton education on between parents essay, Blacks. Respondents are repre- sentative of a small number of Blacks who attend predomi- nately White universities and they also represent an even. smaller portion of essay Blacks attending Ivy League universities. Unversities such as Princeton only began admitting Blacks in.
the 1960’s and presently Blacks comprise only about 10% of. total enrollment. Due to the small number of Blacks in relations parents and children essay, at- tendance, the University does not often meet the essay of divorce social and. academic needs of its Black population because these univer- 3 For this study, change was computed for sample essay first, the Pre- Princeton to Princeton period (to be referred to as “Pre- to-Prin”) and then for the Princeton to Post-Princeton. period (to be referred to essay, as “Prin-to-Post”). How To. By calcu- lating the difference between the number indicated by re- spondents for Pre-Princeton point and the number indicated.
by respondents for the Princeton point, it was possible to. estimate the change during the Pre-to-Prin period. Like- wise the difference between the number indicated by the. respondents for Princeton point and the number indicated. for the Post-Princeton point shows the change during the. Princeton to Post-Princeton period.. sities focus their attentions on accommodating the White. students who comprise the majority of their enrollments. Dejoie discusses the claims of the negative effects of. predominately White universities on of divorce, the Black students at- tending those universities. Although I was unable to find.
empirical support for Dejoie’s essay, I feel the ideas she. expressed are worth some discussion. Dejoie believes that “Institutional policies of predomi- nately White universities have established practices which. favor the extended prefered groups and have ranked priorities which. are meant to essay, facilitate the tasks and improve the conditions. of White students while ignoring the needs of the Black stu- dents”.” Dr. Dejoie goes on in her study to how to an essay comparing, discuss the ef- fects of essay biased curricula which does not encourage,”…The.
contribution of Blacks, the thesis study of Blacks, as a group”.5. She states that Departments of Black Studies are kept very. separate from White university curricula. Dejoie also dis- cusses the negative aspects of social and non-academic ac- tivites at these schools: “Fraternities, sororities, home- coming activities and student government maintain the White. status-quo. As in academic areas, the social aspects of. university life systematically follow the interests of the. White students–the majority group”.6. 4 Dr. Carolyn Dejoie, “Low Morale in Higher Education: Blacks in.
Predominately White Universities”, (source of article unknown). As a result of essay of divorce such biases, both academic and non-academ- ic, it is often difficult for some Black students to adjust. to Princeton’s environment; and unfortunately there are very. few adequate support groups which provide some form of gui- dance and write context counsel for Black students having difficulty mak- ing the essay of divorce transition from their home environments to Prince- ton’s environment. Most students are dependent upon the use. of their own faculties to carry them through Princeton. Therefore, it is important to understand exactly what kinds. of changes Black students undergo, if any, while in Prince- For this study, the Pre-Princeton measure provides a. rough idea of what kinds of beliefs respondents held with.
respects to thesis on concrete, the dependent variables before entering college. and the essay Post-Princeton measure provides some idea of what. respondents’ beliefs are after college. Thus, if findings. show consistency between the thesis two periods (Pre-Princeton and. Post-Princeton), it may be possible that no change occured. as a result of their Princeton education, or possibly in. this case, Princeton’s effect on the respondents’ beliefs. lasted for a short time and then no longer effected their. attitudes, thus making these effects temporary. Of Divorce. If findings.
show some change through the periods, it may be possible. that their Princeton education influenced these changes. By measuring a number of independent variables, this. study will try to determine some correlates of the parents and children essay respon- dents’ interest in essay of divorce, interacting with Blacks and Whites on an. individual and a community level, as well as their interest. to benefit various social groups; the Black community in. particular. The independent variables of this study include. the following: the actual time the essay ib english respondents spent inter- acting with Blacks and essay Whites (to be referred to as “time”); and the racial make-up of the individual’s primary and sec- ondary schools, in on concrete, addition to essay of divorce, the racial make-up of the in- dividual’s neighborhood; the race of the how to write an essay comparing two novels person whom the in- dividual most admired throughout his/her lifetime; the. individual’s image of God; the number of books in the indi- vidual’s home while growing up and of divorce presently; and the age.
and sex of the write individual. Therefore, although this study. examines several independent variables, as will be shown in. a later chapter, only a few independent variables were found. to have strong relationships to the dependent variables. This section will discuss the essay independent variables found to. have the strongest relationship to the dependent variables.
first, and an essay comparing two novels will discuss the independent variables of the. study which are found to have no relationship to the depen- dent variables last. As will be demonstrated, the independent variables which. measure the actual time the indivdual spent with Blacks in. comparison to Whites throughout Pre-Princeton, Princeton, and Post-Princeton years will be used as an independent. variable.
This variable is related to several other inde- pendent variables which measure the racial make-up of the. individual’s neighborhood in which he/she grew up as well as. the individual’s primary and of divorce secondary schools. The individual’s past and present socio-economic status. is measured by the independent variable which asks for the. economic class in which the individual’s family belonged.
when growing up, in addition to the individual’s career mo- bility in comparison to the individual’s parents’ socio-eco- Another independent variable measured in this study is. the race of the media person whom the individual most admired. thoughout his/her lifetime. This variable enables one to.
examine the influence of the race of the individual’s role. models on their attitudes with respect to the dependent. variables of the study. A rough measure of literateness (tendency for an individ- ual to include reading and essay of divorce writing as a major part of his/ her life) is attempted by the variable examining the number. of books in the individuals home while growing up and on advantages pres- ently; and finally, age and sex of the individual will also. The study contains a set of questions examining the indi- vidual’s belief in essay, God. This measure has been used in place. of the chambermaid resume traditional measure which asks simply, “Do you be- lieve in God? “requiring a “yes” or “no” response or “Which. bests describes your religious beliefs? Check one: Protes- tant, Catholic, Jewish, Athiest, none of the above, other.” Instead of essay of divorce examining whether or not the individual believes.
in God, Piazza and Glock (1979) demonstrated that examining. the specific content of the individual’s beliefs as opposed. to measuring whether or not the individual believes in God. provides greater insight into the individual’s ideas about. God. The study found that when people answer “yes” or “no” to the traditional measure of Belief in God, they do not all. mean the same thing; their conception of God varies. Write Two Novels. “Most. Americans Believe in of divorce, a God, but this does not necessarily. imply that they have the same thing in essays on advantages and disadvantages of mass media, mind”.7.
In order to obtain a clearer idea of the content of the. individual’s religious beliefs, Piazza and Glock developed a. question that depends on three interrelated measures: the. extent to essay of divorce, which the individual does or does not believe in write context, a. God, the degree to which the individual believes God influ- ences the essay of divorce way society is organized, .and the degree to which. the individual believes God influences the individual’s own. 7 Piazza and Glock, “Images of God and Their Social Mean- ing”, Religious Dimensions, (New Jersey: Prentice Hall, The diagram below represents the chambermaid resume original hypothesized.
relationships between the independent and dependent vari- Comfort interacting with Blacks. Motivations to benefit the Black community. Attitudes towards the Black lower class. It is my belief, as seen by the above causal model, that. the independent variable which measures the actual time the. respondents have spent throughout the three periods of their. lifetime with Blacks and with Whites will have a strong ef- fect on the dependent variables of the of divorce study because the.
more the individual spends time with a group of people, the. more the individual will be familiar with that particular. group of essays of mass media people. For example, if the study shows that more. respondents spend time with Blacks than with Whites during. each period of his/her lifetime, the study is likely to show. more respondents tend to be comfortable with Blacks than.
with Whites when interacting in essay, various activities. I also further hypothesize that this sense of comfort. with Blacks will be greatest in all the activities measured. by this dependent variable except intellectual activites. Intellectually, Blacks may be more comfortable with Whites.
as a result of a greater amount of exposure to Whites in an. academic setting while at extended essay, Princeton. Attending Princeton. has probably forced the of divorce respondents to compete intellectual- ly with Whites more than with Blacks and, thus, they have. probably become more familiar with Whites intellectually, but in write comparing, other activities they are not likely to essay, have gained.
familiarity with Whites if they did not spend time with. Whites in other activities besides intellectual ones. As a result of this greater sense of comfort felt by re- spondents with groups with whom they have spent more time, more respondents will be interested in chambermaid resume, benefiting these par- ticular groups in comparison to others. Thus, the variable. measuring time spent with Blacks or Whites will also influ- ence the dependent variable measured by the respondents’ mo- tivation to benefit various social groups.
For example, re- spondents who. have spent time with Blacks are likely to be. more comfortable with Blacks and will, therefore, take a. great interest in benefiting this group in comparison to. other social groups. Consequently, it is also likely that. these respondents are motivated to benefit self, their loved. ones (who are also likely to be Black) and the Black commu- nity in comparison to other social groups indicated by this. variable. While Blacks who are more comfortable with Whites. than with Blacks will probably be less interested in ben- efiting the Black community. The more respondents spend time with Blacks, the more po- sitive and compassionate they will be in their attitudes to- wards lower class Black Americans, expressing strong feel- ings of obligation to take part in improving their lives. Feelings of obligation will also tend to be strong for.
Blacks who have spent more time with Whites because of a. general sense of compassion towards all underprivileged peo- ple. Of Divorce. However, the comparing feelings of pride in remaining apart from. their lives will be much stronger than their feelings of. pride in essay of divorce, not remaining apart from their lives because these. respondents will show tendencies of downplaying the rela- tionship between themselves and other Blacks. The socio-economic status of the respondents’ parents in.
addition to the individual’s career mobility are likely to. place these individual’s in social and economic arenas more. compatible with Whites, who make up a large segment of mid- dle class Americans, because they will be able to afford all. of the luxuries typical of the White middle class. Thus, the higher the class and resume the more upward the career mobili- ty, the more comfortable these Blacks will be with Whites. than with lower class Blacks.
Class and upward mobility. will probably influence the essay dependent variables in the same. way that time spent influenced the independent variables. My overall hypotheses described in this section focuses. on the group with whom the respondents identify most. The. independent variables measure identification through such. questions as time spent with Blacks and Whites, socio-eco- nomic class, career mobility, etc. The individual’s degree.
of identification with either Blacks or Whites will deter- mine his/her motivations to benefit various social groups, his/her ideologies about race relations between the Black. and White communites, relative comfort felt by him/her when. interacting with Blacks and Whites, and his/her interest in. the Black lower class. The more the individual identifies. with the Black community the more his attitudes will sway. towards a positive relationship with the Black community, however, the context more the individual identifies with the White.
community the more his attitudes will sway towards a neg- ative relationship with the Black community. This idea of. identification will be discussed further in the Summary and. Conclusions chapter of this study. The first part of the questionnaire, questions 1, 3, 4, and 5 measure the essay dependent variables, interaction and ben- efit attitudes. The second part of the questionnaire, ques- tions 2 and 6 through 19, measure the independent variables. Measures of the Dependent Variables.
Using a scale varying from feeling “much more comfortable. with Blacks” through feeling “about equally comfortable with. Blacks and relations Whites”, to essay, feeling “much more comfortable with. Whites”, the first question of the thesis on concrete study asked respondents. to indicate the relative degree of comfort they felt while. interacting with Blacks and Whites in various activities. during the three life-periods. The activities referred to. were as follows: “intellectual (discussing philosophical, scientific, technical or artistic ideas”; “social (partying, dining, going to shows and sports)”; “religious (sharing re- ligious views, worshipping)”; “political (participating in. demonstrations, political campaigns and organizations)”; “business (working on of divorce, a paying job, as ‘subordinate and/or.
superordinate)”; “dating (including all specifically sexual. activities)”; “sports and athletics (including keeping in. shape and chambermaid resume competing)”; and of divorce “in general (considering all ac- Question 3 asked alumni to rate the contributions to. their behavior, during the three life-periods, of motiva- tions to benefit various individuals and social groups. The. scale used for this question varied from how to write an essay two novels, feeling the motiva- tion made “no” contribution to their behavior through feel- ing the essay motivation made a “moderate” contribution to their. behavior to essay ib english, feeling the essay of divorce motivation made a “very strong” con- tribution to their behavior. The individuals and chambermaid resume social. groups referred to were as follows: self; loved ones; occu- pation; God and church; local residential community; the. Black American community; the USA as a society; the non-
White races of the world; and the human species as a whole. A similar scale was used to measure the respondents’ views during the three life-periods about essay, relations between. the Black and White communities in the U.S. in resume, question 4. In this scale, alternatives ranged from being “very strongly. separationist and/or pluralist” through being “undecided” to. being “very strongly integrationist and/or assimilationist. Question 5, the last measure of the dependent variables. asked respondents about their personal attitudes towards. lower class Black Americans. This question was broken into. a series of statements to which the essay respondents were asked.
to indicate if they felt the statement was “very true”, “false” or if respondents were “undecided”. Some of the. statements measured were as follows: “I feel proud that I. have been strong enough to avoid remaining in context, or falling. into, lower class life”; “I feel obligated to help improve. their life”; “I feel they must help themselves”.
Measures of the Independent Variables. The second part of the questionnaire consists of fourteen. questions aimed at measuring the independent variables of. the study (e.g., how much time spent with Blacks vs. Whites).
These questions are very straightforward and try. to provide a general description of the respondents. Essay. For. example, question 9 asks “Which of the following describes. your primary and secondary schools?” The choices are, all. or almost all Black, mostly Black, about equally Black and. White, mostly White, and all or almost all White. This.
question, in addition to others like question 5 which asked. for the predominate racial make-up of the on advantages and disadvantages media neighborhood in. which the respondents grew up, provide a general idea of the. types of racial associations the respondents had before en- tering Princeton. Others such as those questionning respon- dents’ current living arrangements, age, sex, and essay career mo- bility in questions 16, 17, 18, provide a general picture of. the respondents’ ,present lifestyle. Questions 6, 7, and 8. measure the content of the respondents’ belief in God. These. questions asked the following: the respondents’ belief in. “God”, the influence of “God” in the respondents’ personal. life, and the respondents’ belief in the influence of “God” on the way society is organized.
These variables may be. combined to create new independent variables if desired. The sample of 400 Black Princeton alumni was obtained. from the Alumni Records Office at write context, Princeton University. With the permission of Steve Dawson, the President of the. Association of essay of divorce Black Princeton Alumni (ABPA) and his office, the staff at the Alumni Records Office assisted the study by. selecting every fourth name on a mailing list of approxi- mately 1200 names until 400 names were collected. The questionnaire was sent through U.S. mail along with a. letter from the context President of the ABPA, encouraging subjects. to participate in the study, and essay of divorce a stamped, self-addressed. envelope for the return of the questionnaire. The sample.
consists of context Black Americans who graduated from essay of divorce, Princeton’s. undergraduate program. The total number of chambermaid returned ques- tionnaires was 89; thus, the essay of divorce response rate for this ques- tionnaire was approximately 22%. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION. DESCRIPTION OF THE SAMPLE. The following section intends to provide an idea of how. the alumni responded to relations, the questionnaire in general. In.
order to of divorce, fully appreciate such a discussion one must keep in. mind the chambermaid uniqueness of the essay individuals upon which this study. focuses. Not only are these respondents representative of. middle class Black Americans, but as some of the first. Blacks to be integrated into Princeton University(infamous. for being racially the most conservative of the Ivy League. With 73% of respondents indicating that they were between.
the ages of 25 and 34 years (see table 1), it is how to context, also proba- ble that the majority of the respondents were attending. Princeton during the 1970’s when affirmative action which. provided numerous opportunities for of divorce Blacks economically, ed- ucationally, and occupationally was put into effect. For. the first time since reconstruction Blacks were beginning to. be properly represented in between and children essay, such fields as politics, govern- ment, medicine, education, etc. The Black Power Movement.
was also strong during this time and as I have mentioned. earlier in the study, such leaders as Stokely Carmichael. were stressing the need for Blacks to separate themselves. from White society in order to essay, strengthen the Black communi- ty. Relations Between. Thus, it will be fascinating to find out essay, what types of. Blacks decided to attend a prestigious, White university, and how this education may have affected them. General Attitudes of Respondents. In table 2, during the Pre-to-Prin period, the percentage. of respondents who reported spending more time interacting.
with Blacks than with Whites rose sharply from 43% to 61%. Yet, during the resume Prin-to-Post period, the percentage of re- spondents spending time with Blacks dropped back down from. Data in. Table 2 only essay show percentages of respondents. spending time with Blacks and Whites for what shall be re- garded, for the purposes of this study, as particular points. in time, i.e., Pre-Princeton, Princeton, and Post-Princeton.
One cannot know from these data, how individual respondents. changed between these points. Essay Ib English. This type of information is. available,: however, by examining Table 2a which shows the. percentage of respondents that (1) changed in the direction. of spending more time with Blacks, (2) made no change in. this respect, and essay (3) changed in the direction of spending. more time with Whites during the Pre-to-Prin and the Prin- to-Post periods.
Thus, Table 2a shows that during the Pre- to-Prin period 46% of the how to context respondents changed toward spend- ing more time with Blacks, while only 26% changed toward. spending more time with Whites. During the Prin-to-Post. period, however, the percentage of respondents who changed. toward spending more time with Blacks dropped drastically by.
Thus far in the findings, an interesting trend has al- ready appeared which shows that the changes and differences. in the tables are related to something that happened to the. respondents while at Princeton. This belief will be dis- cussed further in the conclusion section of the study. Just as the percentage of respondents who spent more time. with Blacks than with Whites (and vice versa) appeared to. change during Princeton, the percentage of respondents who.
reported holding sep/plur ideologies regarding relations be- tween the Black and White communities also changed during. Princeton. In Table 3, from the Pre-Princeton point to of divorce, the. Post-Princeton point the on concrete percentage of respondents who held. sep/plur ideologies greatly increased from 26% to essay, 40%. Yet, from the Princeton point to the Post-Princeton point this.
percentage of respondents declined from how to context, 40% to 31%. In Table 3a which shows the individual-level change in. ideologies over of divorce time, it is clear that 45% of the respon- dents changed toward becoming more sep/plur in comparison to. only 16% who changed toward becoming more int/assim during. the Pre-to-Prin period. However, during the Prin-to-Post. period this 45% of chambermaid resume respondents who changed toward becoming. more sep/plur dropped to 19%, while the 16% of respondents.
who changed toward becoming more int/assim rose to 32%. The data in tables 3 and 3a demonstrate that not only did. the percentage of respondents who spent more time with. Blacks than with Whites increase during Princeton, but there. was also an increase in the percentage of respondents who. held sep/plur ideologies. Interestingly enough, the percentage of respondents who.
were motivated to benefit the Black community increased from. 46% at the Pre-Princeton point to essay, 63% at the Princeton. point, and essays on advantages of mass remained drastically unchanged (64%) Post-Prince- ton (see Table 4.3). The change over time as seen in Table 4.3a shows that the. 35% of the essay respondents becoming more motivated to benefit. the Black community during the Pre-to-Prin period decreased.
to 13% during the Prin-to-Post period, and relations between parents and children similarily, the. 10% of of divorce respondents becoming less motivated to chambermaid resume, benefit the. Black community increased to 20% during the same two peri- ods. Thus, even though Table 4.3 shows roughly the same. percentage of respondents were motivated to benefit the. Black community Post-Princeton as Princeton, Table 4.3a. shows that during the of divorce Pre-to-Prin period the individual-lev- el change was away from this motivation.
Findings in tables 4 and 4.1 are roughly similar to find- ings in chambermaid resume, Table 4.3 for. respondents’ motivations to essay of divorce, benefit. self and loved ones. However, for individual-level change. tables 4a and 4.1a, a larger percentage of respondents be- came motivated to benefit self and loved ones during the. Pre-to-Prin and Prin-to-Post periods than they become less. motivated to benefit themselves and thesis their loved ones. Thus, becoming increasingly motivated to essay, benefit self and relations between parents loved.
ones during both periods, but especially during the Prin-to- Post periods, and especially toward benefiting self. Occupational motivations, in table 4.2 show that during. Princeton, there was a larger percentage of respondents who. were not motivated to benefit their occupations in compari- son to the percentages of respondents who are moderately mo- tivated and motivated to benefit occupation. During Post-
Princeton, however, the percentage of respondents who were. strongly motivated to benefit occupation increased greatly. Tables 4.4 and essay 4.4a which show the percentage of context respon- dents who are motivated or were motivated to benefit God, and the of divorce individual-level change in this motivation respec- tively demonstrate an essays and disadvantages of mass media, increase in the percentage of essay of divorce respon- dents not motivated to benefit God; during the essays on advantages and disadvantages of mass Pre-to-Prin. period; 40% during Pre-Princeton to 45% during Princeton, which decreases during Post-Princeton from 45% to essay, 41% (see. table 4.4).
Table 4.4a shows that during Pre-to-Prin period. a larger percentage of respondents reported becoming unmoti- vated to benefit God, than they were becoming motivated to. benefit God, but during the Prin-to-Post period a larger. percentage of respondents reported becoming motivated to. benefit God than they were becoming not motivated to benefit. Tables 5 and 5.1 which show the relations parents essay percentage of respondents. feeling comfortable interacting with Blacks and essay of divorce Whites in. both intellectual and social activities provide data which. also appear to change during Princeton in comparison to Pre- Princeton and Post-Princeton.
Even though the change is not. drastic for intellectual activities, the 26% of the respon- dents who were comfortable with Blacks rose to 37% from thesis, Pre- Princeton to essay of divorce, Princeton, and sample extended ib english dropped back to 22% during the. Post-Princeton point. The pattern of group-level change for. social activities was similar: the change from the Pre- Princeton to the Princeton point (64% and 73% felt more com- fortable with Blacks at these times) was followed during the. Princeton point to the Post-Princeton point by an opposite. change (73%, and 62% felt comfortable with Blacks). In tables 5a we find that 36% of the respondents reported. becoming intellectually more comfortable with Blacks, in.
contrast to the 16% of the respondents who reported becoming. intellectually more comfortable with Whites during the Pre- to-Prin period. During the Prin-to-Post period, however, these figures were reversed, with only essay 10% becoming more. comfortable with Blacks while 31% became more comfortable. Similar individual-level changes in feelings of thesis comfort.
in social activities appear in table 5.1a. Essay Of Divorce. The 31% of parents re- spondents who reported becoming comfortable with Blacks dur- ing the Pre-to-Prin period decreased to 10% during the of divorce Prin- to-Post period, and how to the 11% who reported becoming more. comfortable with Whites during the Pre-to-Prin period in- creased to 31% during the of divorce Prin-to-Post period. In table 5 we find that a larger percentage of the re- spondents reported feeling equally comfortable with Blacks. and Whites in intellectual activities during each of how to write comparing the.
three periods than reported feeling more comfortable with. Blacks or more comfortable with Whites. Indeed, comparing. intellectual comfort (table 5) with social comfort, dating. comfort, political comfort, and general comfort respondents.
feel interacting with Blacks and Whites in tables 5.1, 5.2, 5.4, and 5.6, table 5 shows a greater percentage of respon- dents who felt equally comfortable with Blacks and Whites. than in any of these other tables (which is closer to feel- ing more comfort with Blacks) and also shows a smaller per- centage of respndents who felt comfortable with Blacks in. comparison to of divorce, any of the essay other comfort tables. The latter. supports the hypothesis that the comfort respondents feel. with Blacks will be greater in of divorce, all activities accept intel- lectual ones. However, it must be noted that for business. and sporting (see tables 5.3 and 5.5), percentages of re- spondents reporting comfort with Blacks are also small in. comparison to tables (5.1, 5.2, 5.4, and 5.6). Background of the Respondents.
There was a split between the sexes; 60% of the respon- dents were male and 40% were female (see table 6). Fifty- one percent of the respondents were raised in homes which. were lower middle class; while 24% of the respondents were. raised in lower or under class households, and 24% were. raised in extended essay ib english, upper to upper middle class households (see table.
Table 8 shows that reading and writing became more apart. of the respondents’ lives after they left Princeton. Essay. The. seventy-four percent of respondents who indicated having 51. to over 100 books in how to, their homes during the time they were. growing up increased to 89%, while the 25% of respondents. indicating living in homes with less than 50 books while. growing up decreased to 11%. Sixty-five percent of respondents said they grew up in.
all or mostly Black neighborhoods, 20% said they grew up in. all or mostly White neighborhoods, and 15% of the respon- dents reported growing up in essay of divorce, neighborhoods that were equally. Black and White. Fifty-one percent of the respondents re- ported that they grew up in chambermaid, cities, 40% grew up in suburbs, and only 9% reported growing up on essay of divorce, a farm or in “open coun- Even though more respondents reported growing up in Black. neighborhoods many attended secondary schools whose popula- tion was becoming less Black than White in comparison to. their primary schools. For example, the percents for re- spondents who reported attending Black primary schools and. White primary schools were almost equal; 46% Black, 45% White and 9% Black and White. However, for essays of mass the secondary.
schools, the percent of respondents reporting that they at- tended White schools increased to 63%, while the percent of. respondents who reported they attended Black schools dropped. to 24%, and essay 13% attended schools that were equally Black and. Although the schools the respondents attended during the. Pre-Princeton point became more White than Black, this trend.
did not appear with respect to their present living arrange- ments. Fifty-four percent of respondents reported living. with one or more Blacks, only 5% reported living with one or. more Whites, 4% reported living with one or more Blacks and. Whites, and 38% lived alone. At all three times investigated in this study, respon- dents reported admiring Blacks more than Whites. During the. Pre-Princeton point, 58% reported admiring a relative, while. 30% reported admiring a Black friend, or Black fictional or. non-fictional person; and only 11% reported admiring a White.
friend, or White fictional or non-fictional person. During. the Princeton point, 50% of the respondents reported admir- ing a Black friend or fictional/non-fictional person, while. 39% reported admiring a relative, and once again, only 10% reported admiring a White friend or fictional/non-fictional. person.
During the Post-Princeton point, 47% reported ad- miring a relative, 44% reported admiring a Black friend or. fictional/non-fictional person, and 9% reported admiring a. White friend or fictional/non-fictional friend (see table. Seventy-one percent of the respondents reported being in. careers that have made them upwardly mobile from their pa- rents’ socio-economic class, while none of the respondents. reported being downwardly mobile from their parents’ socio- economic class, and only 17% of the respondents reported re- maining even with their parents’ socio-economic class; 12% did not know yet how they were moving (see table 10). With respect to belief in God, it appears that their gen- eral belief in some kind of God was relatively high.
Sixty- two percent of the respondents said they definitely believe. in God, while only 6% reported that they do not believe in. God; .24% are uncomfortable with the word “God” but believe. in a.transcendent force; and 9% either do not know or are. uncertain.
Seventy-one percent of the respondents believe. God influences their own lives, but only 43% of the respon- dents believe that God influences the way society is organ- The strongest relationships found in this study focus on. two variables. The amount of time the respondents spent. with Blacks in comparison to relations between parents and children, Whites over the three periods. of the respondents’ lifetimes was found to be stongly relat- ed to most of the dependent variables. However, it was also. found that the essay ideologies held by the respondents about de- sirable race relations between the Black and White communi- ties was also strongly related to most of the dependent. variables. Thus, it was helpful to write two novels, determine which of these.
variables was more closely related to the dependent vari- Time vs. Ideologies. In order to determine which came first, time or ideolo- gies, a new analysis was performed to obtain the relation- ships in tables 11-11.3. Essay. Tables 11 and 11.2 show how close- ly time is related to.ideologies, while tables 11.1 and 11.3. show how closely ideologies is related to time. Essays Media. This analy- sis is done to determine whether time is a better predictor. of ideologies or whether ideologies is a better predictor of. time.
The comparison of the relationships in essay, these tables. demonstrate that there is no great difference between them. For example, the difference between the 62% of respondents. who reported spending time with Blacks and sample extended essay holding sep/plur. ideologies and the 48% of of divorce respondents who reported spending. time with Whites and holding sep/plur ideologies in Table 11. was not much smaller than the difference between the 74% of. respondents who reported holding sep/plur ideologies and. spending time with Blacks and the 56% who reported holding.
int/assim ideologies and spending time with Blacks in Table. 11.1. Thus, it is not possible to determine which variable. is a better predictor of the other. Although the data of this study do not permit us to de- termine the primacy of time over ideologies or vice versa, I. have chosen to examine time as the how to write an essay comparing major controlling vari- able of the study as demonstrated by the causal model in di- agram 1. Thus, it is my hypothesis that the actual time the. respondents spent with Blacks and Whites throughout the. three periods of their lifetime will have a strong effect on. the dependent variables of the study. Time vs. General Comfort and Motivation to Black Community.
Support for the hypothesis discussed in the previous. paragraph may be found in the relationships between change. in time and of divorce change in general comfort the respondents feel. when interacting with Blacks and Whites in various activ- ates. In Table 12, there is chambermaid, a strong relationship between. change in time from the of divorce Pre-to-Prin period and change in. “general comfort” for the same period.
The more respondents. increased the thesis time they spent with Blacks during this peri- od, the more comfortable respondents became, in essay, general, with Blacks; and the more respondents increased the time. they spent with Whites during this period, the more comfor- table respondents became, in general, with Whites. Chambermaid Resume. This. same positive relationship is also shown in Table 12.1 for. the period Prin-to-Post. The motivation to benefit the Black community is of divorce, also in- fluenced by time (see table 13).
The more respondents in- creased the time they spent with Blacks the more motivated. they became to benefit the Black community; and on advantages and disadvantages media the more the. respondents spent time with Whites, the more unmotivated the. respondents became to benefit the Black community. The relationship between change in time and change in essay, mo- tivation to on concrete, benefit the Black community for Prin-to-Post. period in Table 13.1 is more ambiguous than the of divorce other rela- tionships for time. A strong relationship is indicated in. the top portion of the table which shows that the more re- spondents began spending time with Blacks, the more respon- dents became motivated to benefit the Black community. Yet, the relationship in the bottom portion of the table shows no. relationship at all.
It is possible that the disappearance of between parents and children essay this relation- ship in the bottom portion of the essay of divorce table is correlated to relations parents and children, the. inability to determine which of the variables, time or. ideologies, is more closely related to essay of divorce, the dependent vari- ables. Relations Parents. As opposed to Table 13.1, tables 19 and 19.1 demon- strate that the relationship between ideologies and essay motiva- tion to benefit the Black community provides a less ambigu- ous finding. In these tables, it is clear that for both the. Pre-to-Prin and Prin-to-Post periods there is a strong posi- tive relationship which shows that the more respondents be- came sep/plur, the more respondents would become motivated. to benefit the Black community, and context the more respondents be- came int/asim, the more unmotivated respondents became to. benefit the essay Black community.
Thus, for certain cases and. periods of time, it is possible that ideologies is on concrete, more in- fluential than time. Association Between Time and essay of divorce Ideologies. The relationship between change in time and change in. ideologies is demonstrated by tables 11-14.1. How To. For each time. period, it was found that the more respondents increased the. time they spent with Blacks, the more they became sep/plur; and the more the respondents increased time they spent with.
Whites, the more respondents became int/assim. Thus, it may. be understood that the more respondents increased the time. they spent with Blacks or Whites greatly influenced their. sense of comfort with Blacks and Whites, in general, in ad- dition to influencing their desire to benefit the Black com- munity, and their ideologies. Before discussing the relationship between ideologies and. the other dependent variables of the study, let us examine.
the actual percentage of essay of divorce respondents spending time interact- ing with Blacks and Whites in the three periods in order to. gain an understanding of how these respondents’ attitudes. may have been affected by the change in time. Time and chambermaid its Correlates. The frequencies from the data (see tables 2 and 2a) indi- cate that a smaller percentage of respondents spent time. with Blacks during Pre-Princeton, in comparison to Prince- ton.
During Princeton, this percentage increased greatly, but declined during Post-Princeton. The percentages in tables 2 and 2a, in addition to the. relationships between change in essay, time and the dependent vari- ables in thesis, tables 12-14.1 show interesting findings about essay, the. respondents. It is clear that during Princeton, as a result. of the greatly increased percentage of respondents who spent. more time with Blacks than with Whites, it is very likely. that the percentage of respondents who’indicated that they.
spent more time with Blacks than with Whites was more com- fortable with Blacks than with Whites in sample extended, various activities. while at Princeton in comparison to before entering Prince- ton and also in comparison to the percentage of respondents. who spent more time with Whites or equal time with Blacks. Tables 15-16.1 support this idea by examining relation- ships between change in time and two activities in particu- lar, namely intellectual and social ones. The tables demon- strate that for both the Pre-to-Prin and the Prin-to-Post. periods, the more respondents increased the time they spent. with Blacks, the more comfortable respondents became while.
engaging in intellectual and social activities with Blacks. and the less comfortable they became with Whites. The more. respondents increased time spent with Whites, the essay more com- fortable respondents became while engaging in intellectual. and social activities with Whites and the less they became. comfortable with Blacks. Thus, the essays and disadvantages of mass respondents who spent.
more time with Blacks during the Pre-to-Prin period were un- comfortable when interacting with Whites in social and inte- Tables 14 and 14.1 show that during the Pre-to-Prin peri- od, respondents’ ideologies became sep/plur as opposed to. int/assim. Essay Of Divorce. Therefore, not only did respondents who began. spending time with Blacks prefer interacting with Blacks in.
comparison to on concrete, Whites on a’ one-to-one basis, but they in- creasingly held ideologies which support sep/plur. Of Divorce. This ob- servation indicates a likelihood that the context high percentage of. respondents who began spending time with Blacks during the. Pre-to-Prin period did so consciously as opposed to essay of divorce, being. forced to do so as a result of discrimination on the part of. the University forcing Blacks and Whites apart.
Also, given relationships shown in tables 13 and 13.1, it. may be seen that the respondents who increased time spent. with Blacks during the Pre-to-Prin period also became more. motivated to benefit the chambermaid Black community than respondents. who increased the time they spent with Whites. As we have seen, the findings discussed in the previous. paragraphs seem to support the hypothesis that respondents. who were increasing the time spent with Blacks were becoming. more attached to the Black community during the essay of divorce Pre-to-Prin.
period both in their individual interactions and in their. political ideologies about relations between parents essay, Black and White relations on a. community level. Essay. Respondents who were increasing time spent. with Blacks were also becoming interested in positively con- tributing to the Black community. As a result of the huge decline in the percentage of re- spondents who began increasing time spent with Blacks during. the Prin-to-Post period demonstrated earlier in Table 2, it. seems probable that as respondents became. attached to the. White community with respects to chambermaid resume, their attitudes, they be- came detached from the Black community. Evidence to support the hypothesis previously discussed. may be seen in Table 2a which shows the percentage of re- spondents who began spending time with Blacks and Whites. During the Prin-to-Post period, as respondents reported.
spending time with Whites (an increased from 26% to essay, 31%), respondents also began spending less time with Blacks (a de- crease from 61% to 39%). However, it must be noted that these findings could be. the result of the questionnaire design. Respondents were. asked to rate their attitudes by chambermaid resume, comparing Blacks and. Whites, thus, as certain attitudes towards Blacks increase, it is inevitable that these attitudes towards Whites will. decrease and essay vice versa.
Association Between Ideologies and Schools Attended. The study tries to essays on advantages, examine ideologies as it relates to. the dependent variables. Table 17 demonstrates change in. ideologies during the Pre-to-Prin period is not only related. to change in time but also to another independent variable, namely, “schools attended”, which measures change in the ra- cial make-up of the primary and secondary schools attended. by the respondents before Princeton. The variable, schools attended, was created by calculat- ing the difference between the racial make-ups of each re- spondents’ primary school and his/her secondary school. “Schools attended” was crosstabulated with ideologies only.
for the period Pre-to-Prin and not the essay period during Prin- to-Post because too much time elapes from before Princeton. and after Princeton to consider any relationship between. these two variables. Table 17 shows the more the respon- dents went to secondary schools whose populations were be- coming more Black than that of their primary schools, the. more the respondents would become sep/plur; and the more re- spondents went to secondary schools whose populations were. becoming more White than that of their primary schools, the.
more the respondents would become int/assim. Thus, ideolo- gies during Princeton are not only related to relations between parents and children, time during. Pre-Princeton, but to a combination of time and schools at- Associations between Ideologies and the Dependent Variables. It is of divorce, my hypothesis that ideologies held by the respon- dents will be positively related to essays on advantages and disadvantages, attitudes, comforts, and. motivations of respondents.
However, tables 18 and 18.1., which show relationships between change in ideologies of re- spondents and the change in comfort felt when interacting. with Blacks and Whites in of divorce, general on an individual level for. the periods Pre-to-Prin and Prin-to-Post, indicate an unex- pected finding. In Table 18, it is clear that a strong re- lationship exists which demonstrates that as more respon- dents became sep/plur, more respondents became comfortable. with Blacks in chambermaid, general; and as more respondents became int/ assim, more respondents became comfortable with Whites in. general. This table shows the variables moving together, yet, after Princeton, these variables move in different di- rections. Table 18.1 shows that the essay of divorce previous relationship. In order to write comparing, explain this disappearance it would be help- ful to find some third variable having the same relationship. to ideologies and to general comfort during the essay of divorce Pre-to-Prin. period but would have different relationships to these vari- ables in the Prin-to-Post period.
Unfortunately, I have. been unable to find such a variable in this study. Ideolo- gies and “general comfort” were crosstabulated with every. variable in this study and essays on advantages and disadvantages of mass media no such relationship occurred to. explain the disappearance.
Thus, in this instance, I will. not venture to essay of divorce, speculate beyond the limits of my data. Despite this peculiar occurance, ideologies and other de- pendent variables show relatively strong relationships with. few inconsistencies. Extended. For example, tables 19 and 19.1 demon- strate that the essay more respondents became sep/plur, during the. Pre-to-Prin period, the more respondents became motivated to. benefit the Black community; and the more int/assim they be- came, the more unmotivated they became to thesis, benefit the of divorce Black. One possible explanation for this occurance may be that. both integrationist and how to context separationist strive to of divorce, benefit the.
Black community because supporters of these ideologies may. believe that their ideologies best serve to benefit the. Black community. However, it is between and children essay, possible that while a Black. separationist may be solely concerned with the essay particular. community he/she chooses to resume, work within, a Black integra- tionist may be equally concerned with the essay Black and White. communities, thus must divide his/her motivations between. these communities. In essense, a Black integrationist who. is dividing motivations between two groups is less concerned. with benefiting the Black community specifically than a.
Black separationist who is placing his/her energies into thesis the. Black community only. Essay Of Divorce. Such reasoning could account for extended essay the. findings which show separationists becoming more motivated. to benefit the Black community in essay of divorce, comparison to media, integration- With respect to their attitudes towards the Black lower.
class, during both the Pre-to-Prin and the Prin-to-Post. periods, the more respondents became sep/plur, the more re- spondents became obligated to help improve the lives of the. Black lower class (see tables 20 and 20.1). However, the. relationship between the change in ideologies during the. Prin-to-Post period and of divorce the change in feeling of obligation. to the how to two novels Black lower class in essay, table 20.1 is much weaker than.
the relationship during the Pre-to-Prin period. Relationships in the previous tables could be the result. of the respondents’ increased occupational motivation during. the Prin-to-Post period as discussed earlier. This table. shows that the percentage of respondents who became motivat- ed by their occupation increased from 28% during the Pre-to- Prin period to 50% from the Prin-to-Post period, while table.
4.3a shows that more respondents lost their motivation to. benefit the Black community during the Prin-to-Post period. These findings make it possible to speculate that at the. Post-Princeton point, as more respondents were becoming in- creasingly motivated by their occupations, they had less at- tention to divide among their other priorities. As a re- sult, some of their motivations to the Black community may. have become withdrawn in chambermaid resume, order to place more emphasis on oc- cupational attainments. Consequently, their feelings of ob- ligation to essay, the Black lower class were decreased as well. Tables 21 and write context 21.1 demonstrate that a different relation- ship exists for both periods when change in ideologies was. crosstabulated with the feeling of pride the respondents. have in avoiding remaining in or falling into of divorce the life of. the Black lower class.
It was found that the more respon- dents became int/assim, the write context more proud they were of this. fact; and the more sep/plur they became, the less proud they. were. But, it should be noted that the of divorce relationship during. the Pre-to-Prin period, in this case, is a little weaker.
than the Prin-to-Post period relationship. With some speculation, these findings may be attributed. to the idea that in order for an individual to be int/assim, that individual may hold the belief that Blacks, as a whole, should strive to become integrated into , as opposed to seg- regated away from the White community, while a Black who is. sep/plur may believe in striving for the opposite goal. Therefore, an int/assim may not be achieving his/her goals. by falling into a life with other Blacks, and thus, be more. proud of avoiding their life. A sep/plur, however, may feel. that falling into a life led by other Blacks is a step to- wards achieving his/her goal and, thus, be less proud of.
avoiding the life of the Black lower class. When the relationship between change in ideologies and. guilt of betraying the Black lower class is analyzed in ta- bles 22 and 22.1, it is evident that respondents who became. sep/plur, felt more guilt of betrayal and those who became. more int/assim, felt less guilt. In this instance it is possible that respondents who be- came sep/plur face some conflict that may produce feelings. of guilt for betraying the Black community. Thesis On Concrete. This conflict. may result from actively integrating in a predominately. White environment by attending Princeton.
If separtist. ideologies are based on total separation from the White com- munity, a certain level of guilt is’ more likely to essay, be felt. by a respondent who became sep/plur than by those who became. int/assim. An integrationist is not opposing any of his/her. ideologies by attending Princeton. On the chambermaid other hand, the. respondent is acting in the best interest of integrationist.
ideologies and, thus, is faced with no conflict to cause. feelings of essay guilt. Table 23, however, shows this same relationship but con- siderably stronger than the relationship in table 22. For. the Pre-to-Prin period, when respondents were asked if they.
felt that the on advantages and disadvantages of mass Black lower class must help themselves, a very. weak relationship showing that the more sep/plur the essay respon- dents became, the on concrete more the respondents felt that the of divorce Black. lower class must help themselves appeared; and the more int/ assim they became, the thesis on concrete more they felt that the Black lower. class must not help themselves. Of Divorce. This same relationship was. present for the Prin-to-Post period in write context, Table 23.1, but it. has become stronger. Integrationist and separationist ideologies both encour- age the active participation of the essay of divorce Black community in work- ing towards self-help. Thesis. Integrationism and separtionism may. both be ways for the Black lower class to help themselves. Thus, it is not surprising that the idea of essay of divorce self-help by the.
lower class continued to increase through the life periods. of the respondents. Finally, tables 24 and 24.1 demonstate a strong relation- ship for the change in on advantages and disadvantages, ideologies during the Pre-to-Prin. period and essay the feeling that the situation of the Black lower. class is hopeless, such that the more respondents became.
sep/plur, the more respondents felt hopeless; and the more. respondents became int/assim, the sample extended less hopeless they felt., However, once again, this relationship was very weak for the. same relationship in the Prin-to-Post Table 24.1. My speculation for this finding is based on the possibil- ity that a separationist is of divorce, more likely to thesis on concrete, have a realistic. impression of the plight of the Black lower class because of. the likelihood that a separationist is more closely associ- ated with the Black lower class than are integrationist.
By. actually working with the Black lower class or within their. communities as a result of essay of divorce their ideologies, a separationist. may better understand the desparation of their situation and. feel more hopeless about a resolution as opposed to an inte- grationist who is ignorant to their plight. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS. The original hypotheses of the study as demonstrated ear- lier by the causal models in diagram 1, stated that time. would have a positive relationship to essays and disadvantages media, the dependent vari- ables such that the more respondents began spending time. with Blacks, the essay more they would become attached to Black. individuals and thesis the Black community in several respects; and. the more respondents began spending time with Whites, the.
more they would be attached to Whites in essay of divorce, several respects. The findings as demonstrated by the revised causal models. below in diagrams 2 and 3, were not far off from these orig- REVISED CAUSAL MODEL. Comfort interacting with Blacks. Motivation to benefit the Black community. Attitudes towards the Black lower class. The causal model in diagram 2 demonstrates that there is. still a positive relationship between time and the dependent.
variables. Ideologies, however, was found to chambermaid resume, have the essay same. relationship to the dependent variables. Unfortunately, the. data do not provide a way of determining whether time or. ideologies is more closely related to the dependent vari- ables for how to comparing reasons discussed earlier.
However, I have chosen. to examine the time respondents spent with Blacks and Whites. as it determines later ideologies and attitudes because I am. more interested in essay of divorce, this relationship as opposed to examining. how ideologies determines time. The causal model in diagram 3 demonstrates that the between parents study. examines the essay respondents who spent time interacting with.
Blacks and Whites on an individual level as the major causal. variable of the study. As discussed earlier, the time spent. has a positive relationship to all the dependent variables. of the study which show that the and disadvantages of mass more respondents began. spending time with Blacks, the more respondents became sep/ plur and.the more respondents became attached and interested. in the Black community. However, the more respondents began. spending time with Whites, the more they became attached to. and interested in essay of divorce, the White community. The causal model goes on to argue that the relationships.
between ideologies and the variables which measure attit- dues, i.e., towards the Black lower class, comfort felt on. an individual level with Blacks and Whites , and the desire. to benefit the how to an essay comparing Black community is as follows: the more re- spondent became sep/plur, the more respondents became com- fortable with Blacks, the more respondents became motivated. to benefit the Black community, and of divorce held more positive atti- tudes towards the essays on advantages of mass media Black lower class in general. The more. respondents became int/assim, the essay more they became comforta- ble with Whites, the less motivated they became to on concrete, benefit. the Black community, and essay of divorce the less positive their attitudes. became towards the relations between parents and children essay Black lower class in essay, general. The major conclusion to be drawn from the findings of the. study is relations parents and children, as follows: despite the essay respondents’ sense of sample com- fort with Blacks and Whites, their motivation to benefit the. Black community, or their attitudes towards the Black lower.
class before Princeton, more respondents tended to identify. with Blacks during Princeton in every measured respect. However, after Princeton this identification decreased dras- tically. Before discussing this finding in more detail, I. feel it is essay, necessary to of mass media, clarify this idea of identification. as it is used in this study. When I first set out to examine the essay of divorce attitudes of the. respondents towards Blacks and Whites, I believed that the. extent to which a respondent identified with the Black com- munity would determine that individual’s attitudes. In de- fining the how to an essay comparing two novels concept of identification or the ability to. identify with the Black community, I based my definition on.
the premise that there is essay, a distinctive Black culture very. different from how to an essay comparing, White culture. Elements of Black culture. which make it unique from White culture such as its music, its language, the struggles and a “consciousness” shared by. its people may be attributed to the injustices and oppres- sions suffered by this race of people which are not compara- ble to the experiences of any other race of people through. this country’s history. However, with the increasing inte- gration of Blacks into the mainstream society, many “inte- grated Blacks” have lost touch with the Black culture in.
their attempts to become adjusted and comfortable in their. new culture–the White culture. Some of these Blacks are no. longer able to essay of divorce, enjoy the qualities which make Black culture. so unique or are unable to openly share their culture with. other Blacks because they have become so far removed from. these experiences and, in thesis, some instances, ashamed of them. as a result of their integration. There are other Blacks who, in being integrated have not. lost touch. They have maintained an awareness and a sincere.
appreciation for the uniqueness of the Black culture. Of Divorce. Un- like those who have lost touch, these Blacks have not become. ashamed of Black culture. It is with these ideas that I formulated my conception of. identifying with the chambermaid resume Black community. Thus, I believe that.
a respondent who did not identify with the essay of divorce Black community. would be less likely to spend time with Blacks and how to an essay comparing two novels be less. motivated to benefit the of divorce Black community. However I encoun- tered several problems following this line of reasoning. I now believe it is incorrect to assume that just because. a Black individual does not enjoy or choose to participate. in the culture of his people, that that individual is essays and disadvantages, not. interested in benefiting that group of people. For example, a Black may not enjoy the of divorce music, or language of the Black.
community because his preferences lead him to other inter- ests, but this same individual may actively work to improve. employment for Blacks because of a sincere interest in ame- liorating this condition. Sample. Therefore, the essay inability to. identify with one aspect of the chambermaid Black culture does not nec- essarily cause apathy towards Blacks in general. Also, a Black individual may be unable to understand or. appreciate the Black culture because that individual was not. raised in that culture, yet still be able to;identify as be- ing a Black person. Essay Of Divorce. For example, a Black person may have. all White friends and prefer these friends and extended essay their activi- ties to those with Blacks without the individual believing.
that he/she is White. Essay Of Divorce. It is possible that the individual. identifies with being a Black person and how to an essay two novels chooses to benefit. the Black community because he/she is of divorce, a Black person, but. does not necessarily identify with the relations between and children culture. Thus, defining identification as an of divorce, appreciation and chambermaid resume an. enjoyment found in essay of divorce, the Black culture is not complete enough. for the purposes of the study. However, through my study I. was able to resume, redefine the concept of identification. Earlier in the discussion of essay of divorce “comfort” in the Hypothesis.
Chapter, the concept of how to context familiarity was introduced. Until. this point familiarity only of divorce served to explain the an essay comparing two novels role of. comfort in this study. However, after completion of my. study, it is clear to me that familiarity or the essay of divorce extent to. which respondents are familiar with the Black community is. helpful in redefining the concept of identification. Extended. It is.
my belief that a respondent’s sense of familiarity with the. Black community or with the White community will result in. the respondent’s inclination to become attached to Blacks or. Whites on an individual and on essay of divorce, a community level. By measuring relative comfort respondents feel interact- ing with Blacks and how to with Whites as well as the essay of divorce time spent. actually interacting with Blacks and Whites, the respondents.
ideologies, motivations, and media ‘ attitudes towards the Black. lower class, the study is providing an idea of the respon- dents’ familiarity with Blacks and Whites, which will influ- ence the extent to which respondents are attached to Blacks. or Whites, thereby indicating the extent to which the essay indi- vidual identifies with Blacks or Whites. For example, a re- spondent who spends increasingly more time with Blacks in. comparison to Whites or feels comfort with Blacks in how to write comparing, compar- ison to Whites or holds ideologies that are sep/plur rather. than int/assim, or is more motivated to essay, benefit the between Black. community as opposed to being unmotivated, or is more obli- gated to the Black lower class, is more likely to be famil- iar with Blacks as opposed to Whites, be more inclined to. become attached to Blacks as opposed to essay of divorce, Whites and, thus, identify more with Blacks as opposed to sample, Whites. Many questions arise from these findings. For instance, why did some respondents tend to become more attached and.
interested in the Black community during Princeton? What. influence did their Princeton environment have on of divorce, their at- titudes and why were these influences not present before and. after Princeton? The findings provided by this study leave. these questions unanswered because the questionnaire was not. designed to investigate these surprising occurances. How- ever, it is essays and disadvantages of mass, possible to develop new hypotheses which might. explain these findings and essay suggest methods for testing them.
One possible hypothesis explaining why some respondents. become attached to Blacks during Princeton was derived from. some ideas Dejoie brought out in write comparing, her report discussed earli- er in the Hypothesis Chapter. Predominately White universi- ties like Princeton are socially and essay academically designed. to cater to the needs of the White students comprising the. bulk of their enrollments. At Princeton, for example, pres- ently their are only five Black tenured professsors on its. faculty; and the program of Afro-American studies is one of. the smallest and most understaffed departments in the Uni- versity only essays of mass offering four courses during the spring semes- ter of 1985; and there is only one major University recog- nized organization on campus designed specifically for essay the. intellectual and social interests of Blacks and other Third.
Activities organized by University groups such as Student. Government rarely, if ever, take into account the diverse. interests which exist at a University that is not 100% White. Resume. If Black students want to have certain speakers or. programs, catering to their interests, they must form sepa- rate groups within the University, i.e., the Organization of.
Black Unity, the Princeton University Black Thoughts Table, the Society of Black Engineers. Several Black students. within the past four years, have even organized a Food Co- operative which provides these students with an inexpensive. alternative to University eating facilities and Eating Clubs. which are very expensive by comparison. Thus, it is not.
surprising that, in their attempts to essay of divorce, satisfy their own in- tellectual, social, and also economic needs, some respon- dents became attached to Blacks during the Pre-to-Prin peri- In order to study this hypothesis which, in essence, is. saying that the more respondents became attached to Blacks. during the essay ib english Pre-to-Prin period, the more respondents became. dissatisfied with the social and academic environment at.
Princeton, one might measure the of divorce degree of satisfaction re- spondents felt in an essay two novels, their experiences at essay of divorce, Princeton. By creat- ing a scale from being “very satisfied” to context, being “not satis- fied at essay of divorce, all”, respondents could be asked to rate numerous. Princeton experiences, i.e., social life, academic diversi- ty, eating options, and in general on this scale. From such. a question, one could discover how satisfied Blacks were at.
Princeton and what satisfied them most and least. Another possible hypothesis created from resume, this study’s. findings explaining why respondents became attached to. Blacks at Princeton is that the mood of Black students at. Princeton during the time that most of the respondents were. attending Princeton was more separationist. As discussed.
earlier, most respondents were attending Princeton during. the 70’s, at a time when the essay of divorce Black Power Movement was still. influencing the attitudes of an essay two novels many Blacks. It is possible that Black individuals either chose to or. felt pressured to come together with other Blacks on essay, campus. because of the belief that Blacks must join in solidarity to. combat a White oppressor. As the few Blacks in a White en- vironment it is understandable that respondents might have. felt a need to look out for one another.
One can contrast the mood of the campus years ago and the. level of attachment to Blacks to that of the present mood of. the campus, which is more pro-integrationist, and the level. of attachment to Blacks. Presently, with the Black Power. Movement behind us and with the implementation of CURL. (College Undergraduate Residential Life), the mood of the. campus has been shifted in such a way that Black students. are discouraged from forming separate groups because of a. fear that they are segregating themselves from how to an essay, mainstream.
campus life by doing so. Thus, if a survey were to be made. today of the level of essay Black involvement in minority organi- zations and their involvement in campus organizations, there. would be a larger percentage of Blacks involved in main- stream life in comparison to the years when these respon- dents were at Princeton. Relations Essay. But, on the other hand, the per- centage of involvement in essay, Third World organizations would be.
much lower now than then. It appears, that the present mood. of the how to write an essay comparing campus is one that encourages the integration and as- similation of Blacks, whereas the mood of the campus and. even society in general several years ago encouraged the. separation of Blacks. Thus, the mood of the time may have. contributed its influence to more respondents becoming at- tached to Blacks. So far, I have discussed a few characteristics of of divorce Prince- ton and the time at which respondents were attending the. University which may account for extended ib english some of the main findings. of this study. However, it is still necessary to discuss.
why the respondents’ Princeton experiences were different. from their Pre and Post-Princeton experiences. It is essay of divorce, impor- tant to remember that before Princeton, a large percentage. of the respondents were attending secondary schools whose. population was more heavily White in comparison to on concrete, their. After Princeton, one may speculate that respondents were. also in predominately White work environments or attending. graduate or professional schools that were also predominate- ly White.
Thus, a discussion of the differences between. these experiences in predominately White environments and. Princeton experiences that prevented Pre and Post environ- ments from changing their attitudes will be interesting. What I believe distinguishes Pre-Princeton from Princeton. experiences accounting for the respondents’ tendencies to.
identify more with Blacks during Princeton, is the presence. of a support group, i.e., family or home, during Pre-Prince- ton that was absent during Princeton. During Pre-Princeton. if respondents became frustrated or discouraged as a result. of their experiences in a predominately White academic envi- ronment the respondents could always escape from these frus- trations when they left these environments to go home. Thus, respondents’ families and homelives provide relief. from any problems or tensions encountered in predominately. White environments. Essay Of Divorce. However, when respondents enter col- lege, many, if not most, are unable to go home for support. from families readily when they are frustrated or discour- aged by their Princeton environment usually because their. familiies are far from them and telephoning home may be re- stricted because of the expense.
Thus, in thesis, their attempts to. find a substitute support group, respondents turn to indi- viduals in their environments who most resemble their old. support groups; individuals who share the same problems as. themselves and essay of divorce understand their complaints. Consequently, many respondents find themselves spending more time with.
other Blacks while at Princeton because it is likely that. other Blacks are more sensitive to respondents’ problems, and it is also likely that respondents are identifying more. What distinguishes Post-Princeton from Princeton experi- ences, accounting for on advantages of mass media the respondents’ tendencies to essay, identi- fy more with Blacks during Princeton are the respondents’ increased motivations to benefit their occupations. Assum- ing that most of these respondents are working or attending. schools during Post-Princeton that are predominately White, most of their time during Post-Princeton will be spent in- teracting with their White co-workers or classmates. Thus, the increasing amount of time spent with Whites resulting.
from the respondents’ occupational pursuits can account for. the increased attachment to Whites during Post-Princeton. In essence, in thesis on concrete, order to advance in their careers or post- graduate studies, respondents realize they must be able to. get along with their co-workers or classmates who are likely. to be White, thereby identifying more with Whites. I began this study questionning my own attitudes as a fu- ture alumnus. I wondered whether or not my education at. Princeton would affect my identification with the Black com- munity.
I hoped that these findings would help me conclude. that despite the high degree of identification with Whites. as a result of the educational and essay occupational path that. Black Princeton alumni follow, the alumni would still main- tain a certain level of identification with the how to an essay Black commu- nity. However, these findings do not support this possibil- Findings show that some respondents did experience a. change in their attitudes over the periods of time indicated. in this study. Essay. By studying respondents who did change, it. was shown that respondents’ experiences while attending. Princeton caused their identification with Blacks and extended ib english the. Black community to increase as their’ identification with.
Whites and the White community decreased. However, after. Princeton, respondents’ experienced the opposite change in. attitude; their identification with Blacks and the Black. community decreased as their identification with Whites and. the White community increased. Essay. Thus, these findings suggest. that respondents who experience change as a result of their.
Princeton experiences are likely to identify less with. Blacks and the Black community in comparison to Whites and. the Whites community. It is important to note that it is relations and children essay, impossible for me to. generalize these findings for of divorce all Black Princeton alumni be- cause the sample for this study was much too small to how to, make. any kind of essay generalizations. An Essay Comparing. Therefore, I am only able to.
draw conclusions from these findings for the respondents to. What is left to be done now is a further examination of. this issue to determine if a Princeton education has unique. effects on Blacks or if the effects are common for essay of divorce all col- lege-educated Blacks in general. It is my belief that such. a study should be undertaken by developing a new question- naire to be distributed to Black alumni of several different. types of how to write an essay universities. Such a study could prove to be inva- luable to bettering the educational environments for Blacks. who are able to attend college, thereby improving the over- all quality of a college education for of divorce Blacks. Billingsley, Andrew, Black Families in White America, (New.
Jersey: Prentice-Hall), 1968. Carmichael, S. Hamilton, C., Black Power: The Politics of. Liberation in America, (New York: Vintage Books), 1967. Conyers, J. Wallace W., Black Elected Officials, (New. York: Russell Sage Foundation), 1976. Dejoie, Carolyn, “Low Morale in Higher Education: Blacks in. Predominately Whites Universities”, (source of article. Havemann, E. West, P., They Went to College: The College. Graduate in America Today, (New York: Harcourt, Brace Piazza Glock, “Images of God and Their Social Meaning”,
Religious Dimensions, (New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc.), Thomas, Gail E., Black Students in Higher Education, (Connecticut: Greenwood Press), 1981. van den Berghe, Pierre, Race and Racism, (New York: Wiley), PDF of Michelle Obama Princeton Thesis. A Politico post by essays and disadvantages media, Jeffrey Ressner on essay of divorce, Michelle Obama’s 1985 Princeton thesis, entitled “Princeton-Educated Blacks and the Black Community,” can be found here.
Politico is currently hosting it in a 4-part PDF. A complete PDF of the thesis can be downloaded here. The next post will be a word-searchable version, from a quick optical scan, minus the relations between and children statistical data near the end of the thesis.
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This transmission is sent in good faith, for the sole purpose of delivery to the intended recipient. If you have received this transmission in thesis, error, please discard and destroy its content immediately. Any use, reproduction or dissemination of this transmission is strictly prohibited. If you are not the intended recipient, please immediately notify the sender, (your company name) via email or phone at (your phone number). If you work in a sensitive position in a law office, medical provider or social services organization, this privacy statement is often a legal requirement. Due to privacy regulations, you will want to make sure your fax cover sheet clearly identifies the recipient. Because your organization wants to of divorce make a good impression, as well, you will want to brand your fax cover sheet by adding a logo and other distinctive features that you might use in between parents, your printed correspondence as well. Choosing a clean, bold font is advised because many fax machines copy poorly. There’s a lot of other useful information you’ll want to add to your cover sheet, such as how many pages are attached, your email and website address, your tag line, if you have one, and other specifications. A great fax cover sheet template will help your communications be clear and professional.
We have several printable fax cover sheets available as samples for essay, you to chambermaid download today. Fax Cover Letter Tips for Job Applicants. Essay! There’s at least one situation where an individual is set to the task of creating a fax cover letter. Usually, it’s when we want to get the job. Essays On Advantages Media! While it used opt be common to essay of divorce mail your cover letter and resume, nowadays, it’s more common to fax, email or upload these vital communications.
While there are still times when a company will request paper resumes and essay, cover letters, it’s still a good idea to get permission to fax it. The reason for essay of divorce, this is on advantages of mass, that a fax is more immediate and will get your resume seen by somebody. Of Divorce! Email may seem like the write, quickest route, but it’s easy for the recipient to screen out essay of divorce, people and delete the email. Faxing a resume can help put the write, information into essay of divorce the right person’s hands –literally- and, at least in theory, may help you get your cover letter read. You can also more easily control the presentation of materials that you fax, while in emails, the formatting will more often than not come out differently.
How Else Can You Get Your Fax Cover Letter to Stand Out? Focus on the Format: As with any cover letter or business communication, your cover letter needs to relations between parents and children essay be properly formatted, typically in block style format. Error-Free: Check your cover letter for essay, any spelling mistakes by using your word processor’s spellcheck program. And Disadvantages Of Mass! Once you’ve done that, take the time to read the letter out loud to yourself to scan for any awkward language. Be Clear and to the Point: You’re writing the cover letter to introduce yourself, but you don’t want to waste much time to get it down. Your cover letter should be no longer than one page in of divorce, length. Write a Strong Introduction: Do your homework and read up on write comparing the company you’re applying to, their corporate culture and their place in their industry. Make sure you have the name of the person who is doing the hiring. This is whom you want to address it to. Make sure you mention the job and the title that you’re applying for, as well as how you heard about the essay of divorce, position.
Do your best to let your passion for the job show. Identify Your Skills. In the paragraphs following your introduction, you should focus on your skills and how you’ll fit them with the position’s requirements. Pay special attention to the language used in the job description and adapt your language accordingly. You want the recipient of this cover sheet to know that you hold the same values as the potential employer. How To! Close the Cover Letter Strongly: You can sum up the letter in a few sentences, but remember the primary purpose of your fax cover letter, as a job applicant, will be to essay of divorce get your resume read, and secure a job interview.
With this in mind, you can re-state how you believe you’re a good for for the company, and let them know more information lurks in your attached resume. Let them know when you are available to interview, and how they can contact you. You should do this even if your contact information is in the top of the fax cover sheet. Remember that your cover letter needs to be written in a persuasive tone. Don’t be afraid to be creative or include details that may help you stand out from the crowd.
Mention any awards you’ve won, favorite classes relevant to the business, and extended essay ib english, other skills that may not have made it onto your cover letter. For Businesses: What to Always Include In Your Fax Cover Letters. It doesn’t matter what industry you’re in; every now and essay of divorce, then there comes a time to send or receive a cover letter. Whether you’re using a machine or an online faxing service, it’s important that a professional cover sheet or letter accompanies the documents you send. A cover letter, as we mentioned earlier, is to fax machines what an envelope is to how to write context the paper letter. It tells the essay of divorce, recipient where the fax is meant to go, who it is context, to, who it is from, whether the essay, information is confidential, and the total number of pages that have been sent over thesis on concrete, the fax. Of Divorce! Without a cover letter, a fax is naked. It may be incomplete, but no one would know that.
In fact, without a cover page, your fax machine is thesis on concrete, likely to essay of divorce be ignored, thrown away, or handed to the wrong person. There’s absolutely no good excuse to skip the cover page when you send a fax. Besides the essential to extended ib english and from information, a fax with a cover letter has an air of professionalism that you just won’t get without a cover sheet. Downloadable and printable templates, like the ones on this page, give you a variety of options, from the barebones approach to a designed cover sheet. You can use your cover letter to creating the essay of divorce, right image for your business, and add a bit of class to thesis any proposals, invoices, or other documents that your business regularly sends. Because so many businesses have digitized their fax services, you no longer have to worry about using up their expensive toner ink with each fax. This means you can make the essay of divorce, cover letter page with decorative elements, even if they have a lot of elements that use ink. Of course, the relations, documents you send should also be professional and well written, too. Don’t underestimate the power of good business communications.
If you’re not sure where to start, we have a lot of templates for a lot of essay commonly used business documents on our website. By coupling your fax machine with excellent, professional communications, you can help ensure your business projects a solid, professional, trustworthy reputation.
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The Evolution of Divorce | National Affairs
SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. Just as with most essays, the major secret to excelling on of divorce, the SAT essay is to pre-plan the examples and evidence you want to use. But wait! I hear you cry. On Concrete! Can you do that on the new SAT essay? Isn’t the point of the essay that you’re supposed to be using information from the passage in your answer, which you don’t know about ahead of of divorce time? The answer: Yes and no. While the specifics of each example will obviously change, depending on the passage, the types of examples you choose to on concrete, discuss (and the way you explain each example builds the author’s argument) can be defined, and thus prepared for, ahead of time. In this article, we give you 6 good SAT essay examples you’ll be able to find in nearly every prompt the SAT throws at you.
By assembling a collection of these reliable examples that can answer most prompts, you'll cut down on planning time and significantly increase the essay amount you can write, making you able to walk into every SAT essay confident in your abilities. If you haven’t already read our introduction to the SAT essay prompt, read it now. This will give you a good idea of how to context what the SAT essay assignment looks like. Of Divorce! Then come back to this article. The SAT essay prompts have several important things in common: They’re all passages that try to convince the reader of the veracity of the resume author’s claim They’re all around the same length (650-750 words) They’re all meant to essay of divorce, be analyzed and relations between parents essay written about in a relatively short period of time (50 minutes) This means that you can have a pretty good idea ahead of time of what types of argument-building techniques you might see when you open the booklet on test day. The main techniques the author uses aren't going to be overly complex (like the first letter of of divorce every word spelling out a secret code), because you just don’t have the time to write context, analyze and write about complex techniques. And because of that, you can prepare yourself with SAT essay examples that’ll be likely to essay of divorce, found across persuasive passages about many different issues —we've provided some ideas below.
We've chosen two examples of evidence, two examples of reasoning, and two examples of stylistic/persuasive elements you can use as stellar evidence to support your thesis . Play to the features of the passage – if there are a lot of facts/statistics, make sure to discuss that; if it dwells more on essays on advantages and disadvantages, personal anecdotes/appeals to of divorce, emotion, discuss those. For each example below, we also show you how you can use the write context type of evidence to support your thesis across a range of prompts. This should prove to you how effective pre-planned examples are. So, without further ado, onto our list of multipurpose support for any SAT Essay prompt. The most basic way author builds an argument is by supporting claims with evidence . Essay Of Divorce! There are many different kinds of evidence author might use to support her/his point, but I'm just going to discuss the two big ones I've seen in the various official SAT Essay prompts that have been released. Thesis! These two types of evidence are Facts and Statistics and essay of divorce Anecdotes . Example Type #1: Facts and essays on advantages media Statistics. Employing statistics and facts to bolster one's argument is one of the most unassailable methods authors can use to build an argument. This argument-building technique is of divorce particularly common in context essays written about scientific or social studies-related topics, where specific data and facts are readily available. Statistics usually show up in the form of specific numbers related to the topic at hand - maybe as percents, or maybe as a way to essay of divorce, communicate other data. Here're a couple of examples of statistics from an official SAT essay prompt, Let There Be Dark by Paul Bogard:
Example : 8 of how to context 10 children born in the United States will never know a sky dark enough for the Milky Way. Example : In the United States and Western Europe, the amount of light in the sky increases an average of about 6% every year. Factual evidence can also be in the form of non-numerical information. Often, you'll see facts presented with references to the research study, survey, expert, or other source from essay of divorce which they're drawn. Resume! Here's another example from Let There Be Dark: Example : Already the World Health Organization classifies working the night shift as a probable human carcinogen. Another form of evidence that is often used as an alternative to actual facts or statistics is the anecdote. Essay! This type of evidence is how to write context most often found in speeches or other sorts of essay prompts that are written as a personal address to of divorce, the reader. An anecdote is a short story about how to context, a real person or event . When an author discusses own personal experience or personal experience of of divorce someone they know or have heard of, that's anecdotal evidence. Here's an example of (part of) an anecdote from an official SAT essay prompt that was adapted from a foreword by former U.S. President Jimmy Carter:
One of the resume most unforgettable and humbling experiences of our lives occurred on the coastal plain. We had hoped to see caribou during our trip, but to our amazement, we witnessed the migration of tens of essay of divorce thousands of caribou with their newborn calves. In a matter of a few minutes, the sweep of tundra before us became flooded with life, with the sounds of grunting animals and essay ib english clicking hooves filling the air. The dramatic procession of the Porcupine caribou herd was a once-in-a-lifetime wildlife spectacle. We understand firsthand why some have described this special birthplace as “America’s Serengeti.” Even though anecdotes aren't statistics or facts, they can be powerful because it’s more relatable/interesting to the reader to read an of divorce anecdote than to be presented with dry, boring facts. People tend to write, put more faith in experiences if they can personally connect with the experiences (even though that doesn't actually affect how likely or not a statement is to be true).
In the example above, rather than discussing the statistics that support the creation of wildlife refuges, Jimmy Carter instead uses an anecdote about experiencing the wonder of essay nature to illustrate the same point - probably more effectively. Context! By inviting the reader to experience vicariously the essay of divorce majesty of witnessing the migration of the Porcupine caribou, Carter activates the thesis reader's empathy towards wildlife preservation and so makes it more likely that the reader will agree with him that wildlife refuges are important. All authors use reasoning to some extent, but it’s not always a major part of of divorce how the essays media author builds her/his argument. It's not always enough just to throw out support for essay of divorce, a claim – an author may choose to use reasoning to explain how the evidence presented actually builds the argument. Example Type #3: Counterarguments and Counterclaims.
One way in which an author might use reasoning to how to context, persuade the reader to essay, accept the claim being put forward is to discuss a counterargument, or counterclaim, to the author's main point. The discussion (and subsequent neutralization) of counterarguments is resume found in prompts across all subject areas. A counterargument or counterclaim is simply another point of view that contradicts (either fully or partially) the author's own argument. When some might claim, however, or other contrast words and phrases show up in an essay prompt, the author is essay of divorce likely presenting a counterclaim. Here's an example of an effective presentation (and negation) of on concrete a counter claim from an official SAT essay prompt, The Digital Parent Trap by Eliana Dockterman: “You could say some computer games develop creativity,” says Lucy Wurtz, an administrator at essay, the Waldorf School in Los Altos, Calif., minutes from extended essay ib english Silicon Valley. Of Divorce! “But I don’t see any benefit. Waldorf kids knit and build things and paint—a lot of really practical and creative endeavors.” But it’s not that simple. Sample Extended! While there are dangers inherent in access to Facebook, new research suggests that social-networking sites also offer unprecedented learning opportunities. So how does bringing up an opposing point of view help an essay author build her argument?
It may seem counterintuitive that discussing a counterargument actually strengthens the main argument. However, as you can see in sample ib english the brief example above, giving some space to another point of view serves to make it seem as if the essay of divorce discussion’s going to be more “fair.” This is still true whether the between parents and children essay author delves into the counterargument or if the author only briefly mentions an opposing point of view before moving on. But a true discussion of the counterargument , as is present in Dockterman's article, also shows a deeper understanding of the topic than if the article only presented a one-sided argument . And because it demonstrates that the author knows the topic well enough to be able to see the issue from multiple sides, it means that the reader is more likely to trust that the author's claims are well-thought out and worth believing. In the case of the Dockterman article, the author not only essay mentions the opposite point of view but also takes the time to get a quote from someone who supports the opposing viewpoint. This even-handedness makes her following claim that it's not that simple more believable, since she doesn't appear to be presenting a one-sided argument. Example Type #4: Explanation of Evidence.
In some cases, the clarity with which the author links her evidence and her claims is integral to the author's argument. As the College Board Official SAT Study Guide says, Reasoning is the connective tissue that holds an argument together. It’s the “thinking” — the how to write an essay two novels logic, the analysis — that develops the argument and ties the of divorce claim and evidence together. This is one of the thesis on concrete trickier argument-building techniques to discuss (at least in my opinion), because while it is present in many essay prompts, it isn't always a major persuasive feature. You can pretty easily identify an author's explanation of evidence if the author connects claims to of divorce, support and explains it , rather than just throwing out evidence without much ceremony or linking to essays on advantages and disadvantages of mass media, the claim; however, whether or not the explanation of the evidence is a major contributing factor to the author's argument is somewhat subjective. Here's a pretty clear instance of a case where an author uses explanations of each piece of evidence she discusses to logically advance her argument (again from the Dockterman passage): And at MIT’s Education Arcade, playing the empire-building game Civilization piqued students’ interest in history and was directly linked to an improvement in the quality of their history-class reports.
Unfortunately, the explanation the Official SAT Study Guide gives for how to essay of divorce, discuss an author's reasoning is a little vague: You may decide to discuss how the author uses (or fails to use) clear, logical reasoning to draw a connection between a claim and the evidence supporting that claim. But how exactly you should go about between parents and children, doing this? And wh y is it persuasive to clearly explain the link between evidence and claim? In general, when an author explains the essay logic behind her argument or point, the reader can follow along and understand the author’s argument better (which in relations parents some cases makes it more likely the reader will agree with the author). In the Dockterman example above, the author clearly lays out data ( Civilization leads to essay, improvements in history class), a claim (this is because of engagement with the game and thus the subject material), provides data that back up that claim (retention rate skyrockets when students do things for themselves), and links that smaller claim to a larger concept (actively browsing pages on a computer or tablet is chambermaid way more brain-stimulating than vegging out in front of the TV). This clear pattern of data-explanation-more data-more explanation enables the reader to follow along with Dockterman's points.
It's more persuasive because, rather than just being told Civilization leads to of divorce, improvements in history and having to take it on faith, the reader is forced to how to write context, reenact the thinking processes that led to the argument, engaging with the topic on a deeper level. Examples of Stylistic/Persuasive Elements. This final category of examples is the top layer of argument building. The foundation of a good argument is of divorce evidence, which is often explained and essays on advantages and disadvantages elucidated by reasoning, but it is often the of divorce addition of stylistic or persuasive elements like an ironic tone or a rhetorical flourish that seals the deal. Vivid language is truly the icing on chambermaid resume, the persuasive cake. As with explanations of evidence, vivid language can be found across all topics of essay prompts (although they usually play a larger role when the passage is light on facts or logic). Vivid language is pretty easy to spot - it shows itself in similes, metaphors, adjectives, or any words that jump out at you that don’t seem to have purely functional purposes . Here are a couple of examples - the first is Paul Bogard again: …show that what was a very dark country as recently as the 1950s is now nearly covered with a blanket of light. This example is relatively restrained, using the essay metaphor of a blanket of light to add emphasis to Bogard's discussion of how to write an essay light pollution. A more striking example can be found in another official SAT essay prompt, adapted from Martin Luther King, Jr.'s speech Beyond Vietnam - A Time To Break Silence:
Vietnam continued to draw men and skills and money like some demonic destructive suction tube. Vivid language is an effective argument building device because it puts the reader in the author’s shoes and draws them into the passage . If used in of divorce moderation, vivid language will also make the topic more interesting for the reader to read, thus engaging them further. Of Mass! In the excerpt taken from Martin Luther King Jr.'s speech above, the of divorce phrase demonic destructive suction tube is startling and how to write provocative, meant to rouse the audience's indignation at essay, the injustice and waste of the Vietnam war. If King had left out the how to write second part of the sentence and only said, Vietnam continued to draw men and skills and money, his point would not have had as big of an impact. Example Type #6: Direct Addresses and Appeals to the Reader.
The last category I'll be discussing in this article are direct addresses and appeals to the reader. Essay! These stylistic elements are found across all sorts of different passage topics, although as with the previous category, these elements usually play a larger role when the passage is light on facts or logic. Direct addresses and appeals to the reader are wordings or other stylistic devices specifically designed to provoke a response (often emotional) in the reader . Essay! This category covers many different elements, from appeals to emotion to rhetorical questions. Here's an example of an appeal to essay of divorce, emotion, taken again from Martin Luther King, Jr.'s speech: Perhaps a more tragic recognition of thesis reality took place when it became clear to me that the war was doing far more than devastating the essay of divorce hopes of the poor at home. It was sending their sons and their brothers and chambermaid resume their husbands to fight and to die in extraordinarily high proportions relative to the rest of the population. And here's an example of a rhetorical question (from the Paul Bogard article): Who knows what this vision of the night sky might inspire in each of us, in our children or grandchildren? Appealing to the emotions , as Martin Luther King, Jr. does in his speech, is an alternate route to persuasion, as it causes readers to emotionally (rather than logically) agree with the author . By describing how the war was causing their sons and their brothers and their husbands to fight and die, King reminds the essay of divorce reader of the terrible costs of war, playing upon essays and disadvantages, their emotions to get them to agree that the Vietnam War is a mistake, particularly for the poor. Rhetorical questions , on the other hand, get the readers to step into the author's world.
By reading and thinking about the author's question, the reader engages with the topic on a deeper level than if the reader were just given a statement of what the author thinks . In the case of the Bogard example above, the rhetorical question draws the reader into thinking about his/her descendants, a group of essay people for whom the reader (presumably) only wishes the best, which then puts the reader into a positive mood (assuming the chambermaid reader likes his/her descendants). As you can see, these examples of different argumentative techniques can be extracted from a lot of different article types for a wide range of topics . Essay Of Divorce! This is because the examples themselves are so meaningful and complex that they can be used to sample essay ib english, discuss a lot of issues. The main point is, you don't have to wait until you see the prompt to develop an arsenal of types of argument-building techniques you can use to support your points. Instead, preparing beforehand how you’ll discuss these techniques will save you a lot of time and essay of divorce anxiety when the test rolls around . If you're reading this article, you probably want to how to an essay, excel on the SAT essay. We've written a bunch of detailed guides to make sure you do. Took the old SAT and not sure how the new essay compares to the old? Start with our article about what’s changed with the new SAT essay, then investigate the SAT essay rubric for essay, further edification. Want to score a perfect SAT score?
Check out sample essay, our guide on essay, how to score a perfect SAT score, written by our resident perfect scorer. How happy would you be with adding an extra 160 SAT points to write an essay comparing two novels, your score ? If it's a lot, check out our guide to how you should study to improve your SAT score by 160 points: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Laura graduated magna cum laude from Wellesley College with a BA in Music and Psychology, and earned a Master's degree in Composition from the Longy School of Music of Bard College. She scored 99 percentile scores on essay, the SAT and GRE and loves advising students on how to excel in high school. You should definitely follow us on social media. You'll get updates on thesis, our latest articles right on your feed. Follow us on all 3 of of divorce our social networks: Have any questions about thesis on concrete, this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply!
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