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bang book essay Physics Site Map. On Truth Reality. The Wave Structure of Matter (WSM) in Space. Cartoon? Below you will find a very good essay on some of the resume writing main problems of the Big Bang theory of Cosmology. However, the most compelling arguments against the big bang cosmology theory are; 1. We can deduce the most simple science theory of reality - which then leads to the most simple cosmology theory where our observable universe exists as a finite spherical region of cartoon essay, infinite eternal space. 2. From this most simple cosmology we find simple sensible explanations to the many problems of the big bang theory of resume, cosmology. Cosmology is profound because it shows that we humans (all matter) are universal structures! Discrete and essay separate 'bodies' are an illusion of the senses. by for it William C. Mitchell. (As Published in Physics Essays Volume 10, Number 2, June 1997) A critical look at the very old big bang problems (of the cartoon singularity, smoothness, horizon, and flatness) and the failed solutions of inflation theory; newer Big Bang problems relating to missing mass (as required for a flat inflationary universe), the age of the universe, radiation from the resume decoupling (smearing of black body spectrum), a contrived Big Bang chronology, the abundance of light elements, and red shift anomalies; and problems, newer yet, regarding inconsistencies of red shift interpretation, curved space, inflation theory, the decelerating expansion of a Big Bang universe, and cartoon essay some additional logical inconsistencies of Big Bang theory are presented. Key words: singularity, smooth universe, flat universe, average density, age, black body radiation, neutrinos, chronology, light elements, red shift, curved space, quasars, inflation, decelerating expansion. (Note: Numbers in brackets refer to references at the end of this document.) 1. IS A SINGULARITY ACCEPTABLE?



In one of its several variations the big bang cosmological theory is almost universally accepted as the most reasonable theory for the origin and evolution of the hs student universe. In fact, it is so well accepted that virtually every media article, story or program that touches on the subjects of cartoon essay, astronomy or cosmology presents the big bang (Big Bang) as a virtual proven fact. As a result, the how to write scientific great majority of the literate populace of the world, including most of the scientists of the world, accepts big bang theory (Big Bang Theory) as scientific fact. Education establishments involved in essay, the fields of astronomy, astrophysics, theoretical physics and cosmology are dominated by phd engineering resume those who have accepted Big Bang as the theory to be pursued. Scientists who seriously question the Big Bang are generally considered disruptive, ridiculed and derogatorily referred to as big bang bashers. As a result of cartoon essay, that attitude alternate cosmological possibilities are left uninvestigated. Untold man-hours and vast sums of money are spent in phd engineering, pursuit of essay, data in references and research paper, support of the cartoon prevailing theory. Such endeavors are not in keeping with the ideals of impartial scientific investigation. It is all but forgotten that the Big Bang is references paper not fact, but an unproven theory. Fortunately there long has been an unindoctrinated minority of scientists, both amateur and professional, who continue to discover and present observational evidence and logic that provides reason to doubt the accepted paradigm. Some of better known and most effective of the scientists in this struggle are Halton Arp of the essay Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics in Germany, Anthony Peratt of the Los Alamos National Laboratories, and Jayant Narlikar of the Centre for phd engineering, Astronomy and Astrophysics in India.

Other well known astronomers/cosmologists who have long fought for the proper consideration of alternate cosmologies include Geoffrey and Margaret Burbridge, Fred Hoyle, Herman Bondi, Thomas Gold and Eric Lerner. Due to the efforts of cartoon essay, those and other fighters for even-handed cosmological investigation and, despite the powerful influence of mainstream Big Bang cosmologists, evidence against the Big Bang has been building to how to scientific the point where the world may soon start to doubt it. Cartoon? Some of that evidence is expository essay exemplars briefly reviewed in this paper. The oldest and perhaps best known problem of Big Bang Theory is that of the singularity. At the first instant of the Big Bang universe, in which its density and temperature were infinitely high, is what is known to mathematicians as a singularity. That situation is considered to be a breakdown of theory. That is, it cannot be assumed that the laws of physics as we know them can apply to that event, thus presenting serious questions about it. In addition, the postulated creation of the entire mass and energy of the universe out of nothing in the first instant of time, seems to represent an extreme violation of the law of conservation of mass/energy. According to cartoon prevailing theory, before that instant, space and time did not exist.

Although to some, who confuse their religious ideas with science, this is seen as a reasonable interpretation of their religious beliefs, to others the beginning of space and time might represent a significant problem. Expository Essay? If there were a Big Bang, it would seem that events during the first instant of time would involve the instantaneous acceleration of the enormous number of particles (the entire mass) of the cartoon universe to relativistic velocity; and some variations of Big Bang Theory postulate velocities well above the speed of light. Because the acceleration of even a minute particle to the speed of light requires an infinite amount of energy, the Big Bang might have required on the order of an infinity times and resume infinity of ergs; not to mention the additional energy that would be required to overcome the gravitational attraction of the entire mass of the universe. It has been suggested that this singularity problem can be solved by postulating a universe of zero net energy;(2) a universe wherein the positive kinetic energy, the potential energy, and cartoon essay the Einsteinian equivalent energy of the writing review mass of the universe is equal and opposite to the negative energy of cartoon essay, gravity. Somehow, if the universe is to collapse in the future as some believe, all the energy that was expended in the birth and expansion of the Big Bang universe was only borrowed; someday to be paid back. However, that doesn't provide an adequate explanation for the source of the energy requirement described above. It should be noted that this zero net energy explanation couldn't reasonably be postulated for other than a recollapsing universe.

However, as will be discussed further on, observational evidence has all but ruled out the possibility of the collapsing Big Bang universe case, thus adding to the incredibility of zero net energy; and essay exemplars certainly it would seem that the positive energy of the potential, kinetic and the enormous mass equivalent energy of the of the universe must be far greater than the negative energy of its gravity. For any Big Bang universe case the postulated zero net energy idea appears to be unrealistic. Inflation theory, (3,4) which will be discussed further on, has claimed to solve the singularity problem (and other Big Bang problems as well) but it requires an cartoon essay, enormous quantum theory vacuum fluctuation (2) and, according to writing review some, an enormous cosmic repulsive force to provide for cartoon, a Big Bang. These are purely speculative ideas that have no known means of experimental verification. One of the older problems of Big Bang Theory, that of its postulated large-scale smoothness of the in a universe, appears to essay be the resume result of what was originally a simplifying assumption (5-8) that was made to aid in the solution of cartoon, Einstein's equations of general relativity on which the Big Bang is hs student based. That apparently resulted in the establishment of smoothness as a basic tenet of Big Bang Theory; that is, the universe is isotropic (the same in cartoon, all directions) and homogeneous (the same everywhere).

Those ideas, combined with curved space, provide the basis for resume, the Big Bang concepts of space expansion (rather than simple expansion of matter in space), for a Big Bang that happened everywhere, and for a centerless universe. However, the observed irregularities of the cartoon universe, which include vast galactic formations, (9) gigantic voids and sheets of galaxies, (10) and hs student resume the Great Wall, (11,12) that is estimated to stretch across one half billion light years of space, tend to deny that smoothness. The smoothness of the distribution of the matter of the universe is cartoon essay said to be verified by the smoothness of microwave background radiation (MBR) that is received from all directions of space. That radiation is believed by for it resume adherents of Big Bang Theory to have come directly from a smooth Big Bang. Cartoon? However, it would seem that both the improbability of a smooth Big Bang explosion (explosions experienced in our time certainly are not smooth), and presently observed irregularities of the for it universe, tend to deny a Big Bang as the direct source of MBR. (Regarding the plasma universe explosion postulated by Hannes Alfven, a leading advocate of Big Bang cosmology P. J. E. Cartoon? Peebles wrote, It would be hard to imagine that the explosion produced a spherically symmetric expanding system of galaxies . (13) One wonders why similar doubt is not expressed about a smooth Big Bang.) The enormous expansion of the early universe at speeds far in excess of that of light, in resume, accordance with inflation theory, is said to solve the Big Bang smoothness problem. However, postulating a different form of expansion doesn't change the present state of the universe, and, as will be discussed further on, it is not clear that inflation can provide an adequate explanation for the expansion of the universe at speeds far in excess of that of cartoon, light. 3. Phd Engineering? ORIGINAL SMOOTHNESS OR SMOOTHING?

Another old Big Bang problem that is related to cartoon the smoothness problem is called the review horizon problem. In the event, however unlikely, that the universe should ultimately prove to be smooth (on an extremely large scale), an additional problem would have to cartoon essay be faced. Regardless of whether the Big Bang was chaotic or smooth, how it might have become smooth or remained smooth is not explained. Because of the enormous initial rate of expansion of a Big Bang universe, faster-than-light signaling would have been necessary for gravitational (or other) forces to produce or retain that smoothness over billions of years. However, even the transmission of information at resume, or above the speed of light is essay a violation of the theory of relativity.

The rapid expansion of the very early Big Bang universe in accordance with inflation theory is thought to provide a solution to this horizon problem. As Peebles has also written, The recent tendency is to assume this embarrassment can be resolved by inflation or some other adjustment of the physics of the very early universe . Write In A Paper? (13) But again, it is essay not clear just how the more rapid expansion of inflation might solve this problem. An additional older problem of Big Bang Theory is the flatness problem. A special theory is required to explain a flat Euclidean Big Bang universe of uncurved space that is accepted by many mainstream cosmologists. Hs Student Resume? In that universe the cartoon average density would be at a critical level, that is, at a balance between the average density of a closed Big Bang universe (expanding at less than escape velocity) that would eventually collapse, and for it the average density of an open Big Bang universe (expanding at greater than escape velocity) whose expansion would continue to increase, but at an ever decreasing rate. The postulated expansion of this flat Big Bang universe (just at escape velocity) would eventually cease to increase, and thereafter remain at a fixed size.

It has been postulated that a universe of zero net energy, in addition to solving the singularity problem, might solve this flatness problem. However, as mentioned above, that concept is highly suspect. Additionally, the observed low average density of the universe, probably not more than a few percent of the critical amount, appears to essay deny the possibility of the flat universe case. As in the case of the previously mentioned problems, the enormous rate of expansion of the early Big Bang universe as postulated by inflation theory, is paper said to provide a solution to the flatness problem. However, it is essay not clear how an enormously fast rate of references and research, expansion might result in cartoon, an average density at the critical level; and the low observed density of the universe represents an especially severe problem to inflation theory. That situation has provided the incentive for a frantic search for the missing mass that would be necessary to increase the average density to the expectations of inflation theory. Actually, the density of the universe appears to be insufficient to support any Big Bang universe case: closed, flat or somewhat open.

That situation presents what is called the missing mass problem. The directly observed density of the for it resume universe is estimated at only one to cartoon essay two percent of the required density for the above cases. Calculations based on observed dynamics of galactic rotation of a small sample of galaxies indicate there may be as much as ten times that amount of matter in their vicinities. There is insufficient evidence to indicate that is true of the majority of galaxies, and hs student little evidence that the average density of intergalactic space is nearly that high. Cartoon? However, even if the and research paper density of all of space were found to be as high as in the vicinity of those sample galaxies, resulting in an average density on the order of ten percent of the critical amount, that is still far short of the level necessary for the usual Big Bang cases. If the Big Bang universe is flat, requiring its average density to be at the critical level (somewhat less for the open Big Bang universe and somewhat more for cartoon, the closed Big Bang universe), as much as 99 percent of its mass might consist of non-baryonic matter of no known characteristics other than gravitational attraction. Investigators have made valiant efforts, both theoretical and observational, to find that missing matter, both cold dark matter (CDM) and hot dark matter (HDM). How To Write In A? All sorts of exotic stuff, including photinos, gravitinos, small black holes, magnetic monopoles, solitons, cosmic strings and sheets, MACHOS (massive astrophysical halo objects), WIMPS (weakly interacting massive particles), massive neutrinos (meaning neutrinos that have mass), and several others have been proposed, but no significant observational evidence in essay, support of those has been discovered. [Because it has been said that the universe, in addition to photons, is flooded with neutrinos from the Big Bang, some theorists had suggested that electron neutrinos are more massive than previously thought by particle physicists; possibly as much as 30 eV (rather than less than 10 eV) which might be sufficient to solve the missing mass problem. For the same reason, it has more recently been suggested that muon neutrinos might have a mass of about 2500 MeV, more than 10,000 times greater than previously estimated. However, experiments failed to support an electron neutrino of 30 eV, (14) and there is no experimental evidence in support of a muon neutrino of 2500 MeV.] Inflation theory, that is how to write in a scientific paper claimed to solve several of the cartoon essay major problems of new york services, conventional Big Bang Theory, postulates a flat universe. (15) For that reason the significance of the missing mass problem has in recent years increased in the minds of those who support that theory.

As mentioned, that has provided increased incentive for the as yet unsuccessful search for cartoon essay, missing mass. For It Resume? A major problem, known as the cartoon age paradox, (16) plagues Big Bang Theory: The postulated age of the Big Bang universe may be incompatible with observations. Despite the insistence of some Big Bang advocates on a lower value, recent observations of distant galaxies have confirmed the Hubble constant to be approximately 80 km/sec/Megaparsec (about 24.5 km/sec/million light years). (13,17) Hubble time, the age 12 billion years. The age of a flat or near flat Big Bang universe, as postulated by Big Bang theorists in recent years, would be two thirds of that, or about 8 billion years; somewhat more than that for an open Big Bang universe, and for it resume somewhat less than that for a closed Big Bang universe. That age is only about one half of the known age of some stars and galaxies, (18,19) presenting an cartoon, obviously impossible situation. Conversely, a flat Big Bang universe having an resume, age of 15 billion years, would require a Hubble time of 22.5 billion years and a Hubble constant of about 42.2 km/sec/Mpc; little more than one half of the observed value. Even if the cartoon essay age of the Big Bang universe was considerably more than 8 billion years (and the Hubble constant correspondingly smaller), there may not have been time for the formation of observed gigantic galactic configurations. The time required for those to form (due to gravity) in essay exemplars, accordance with Big Bang Theory) has been estimated to be on cartoon essay, the order of resume, 100 billion years. The heavy elements observed in cartoon, the solar system, and in exemplars, other stars and cartoon essay galaxies, require at least one previous stellar cycle. (20,21) The formation of those stars, their life time, their collapse, explosion and dispersal, and the subsequent formation of our galaxy, sun and planets might well have required a period considerably greater than 8 billion years. Because of the a introduction in a scientific high probability of more than one previous stellar cycle in this process, an age of at least tens of billions of years may have been required.

Astronomical observations support a period of rotation of our galaxy of cartoon essay, 1/4 billion years. (22,23) At that rate, if the Big Bang had occurred on the order of 10 billion years ago, there would have been time for only 40 rotations. However, astronomical theory tells us that the and research rate of rotation has increased from a much lower rate as the essay galaxy has evolved, (24) providing time for considerably less than 40 rotations. As judged by a introduction in a the present spiral form of the galaxy, it might be expected that an order of magnitude more revolutions, and thus an order of magnitude more that 10 billion years, may have been required for cartoon, the formation of our galaxy. These comments apply to other spiral galaxies as well as our own. Possibly adding to this age problem, there have been observations of polarization of radiation received from distant quasars indicating the presence of relatively strong magnetic fields. Some of those quasars are reckoned by Big Bang theorists to be observed as they were at less than one tenth of the age of the universe, (25) far sooner than such fields might have developed in resume writing services review, accordance with Big Bang Theory. On the whole it would seem that the age of the universe is more likely to be at least several tens of billions of years, rather than 10 to 15 billion years as believed by Big Bang advocates. As in the case of the missing mass problem, Big Bang age problems alone appear to provide convincing evidence against all of Big Bang Theory. It should be noted that Big Bang theorists' estimates of the age of the universe are based on their belief in an expanding universe. Cartoon? That in turn is based on the accepted Doppler interpretation of red shift which, as we will see, may present additional difficulties.

The microwave background radiation (MBR), that is received uniformly from all directions of space, considered by many to be the most important evidence in support of Big Bang Theory, may be inconsistent with that theory. Expository? In addition to the previous comment that one would expect the observed gigantic galactic formations to cause irregularities in the isotropy of MBR reception, the observed spectrum of the MBR, corresponding to a near perfect black body temperature of 2.7 K, doesn't agree very well with temperatures predicted by various Big Bang theorists. Those predictions had varied over a range of 5 to 50 K. (26) History also shows that some Big Bang cosmologists' predictions of MBR temperature have been adjusted after-the-fact to agree with observed temperatures. The prediction of 5 K (by Ralph Alpher and Robert Herman in 1948), (27) which has been selected as a basis for agreement with the observed temperature, was made by those who had accepted a Big Bang scenario that included concepts that were incorrect. Those included the idea that all of the elements of the universe were produced in the Big Bang, which was later determined to be erroneous. Essay? If the temperature of the universe was at absolute zero, all matter would collapse. Phd Engineering? The temperature of radiation from space might reasonably be expected to be some small number of degrees above that temperature. In fact, some physicists (including Sir Arthur Eddington in 1926 and Andrew McKeller in 1942)(28) had estimated temperatures in cartoon essay, the range of 2 to 3 K; closer to that of the MBR than has been estimated by Big Bang cosmologists. According to Big Bang theorists, the decoupling era, from resume review whence MBR is cartoon essay said to have originated, may have lasted at least several hundred thousand years. (29) It has occurred to me that, if radiation comes to us directly from that period, later radiation would have lower source temperature and less red shift, resulting in distortion, smearing, (24) of the postulated black body spectrum from the decoupling. Phd Engineering Resume? Big Bang theorists may have assumed that the essay temperature and red shift changes of that period would cancel; but unless the universe had linear (fixed-rate) expansion, that cancellation could not be perfect.

Because Big Bang theorists believe, not in a fixed rate of expansion, but in phd engineering resume, a non-linear decelerating expansion, it would seem reasonable to suppose that a less than perfect black body spectrum might be received from the Big Bang decoupling than that which is observed. Smearing of cartoon, a black body spectrum from the decoupling would also result if the shape of the Big Bang universe were less than perfectly spherical during that period. Although Big Bang advocates believe in that smoothness, it may be difficult for others to accept an explosion of such symmetry. Hs Student? If MBR from the decoupling had caused thermal equalization (thermalization) of the matter of the space that surrounds us, as other theorists have suggested, and that matter were quite remote, the large irregularities of cartoon, galactic formations might be expected to cause fairly large directional variations of the MBR. If the MBR is radiated from thermalized matter relatively close to us (but perhaps outside of our galaxy), the MBR might possess the observed isotropy. However, the possibility should not be overlooked that, as the work of Eddington, McKeller and others indicates, the observed MBR may be the result of sources of new york resume, energy other than the Big Bang decoupling. Some Big Bang cosmologists have contended that thermalization of essay, surrounding space could not produce a spectrum so closely resembling that of resume services, black body radiation. However there is theoretical support for the existence of particles in cartoon, space (called whiskers) (30-32) that in essay exemplars, turn supports the possibility of thermalization. Physical evidence of these particles has been found in meteorites that have struck the earth. (33,34) Further doubt about the Big Bang as a source of the essay MBR results from consideration of the amplitude of MBR signal strength received here on earth. Calculations indicate that the received energy may be orders of write a introduction in a scientific paper, magnitude lower than would be expected from the essay enormous energy release of the postulated Big Bang decoupling. (24) According to Big Bang Theory, positively curved space provides the explanation for omnidirectional reception of MBR from the decoupling.

However, characteristics of the format for it resume positively curved space of a closed universe cannot be ascribed to the flat or somewhat open universe that is accepted by the majority of Big Bang theorists. Cartoon Essay? As presented above, the closed Big Bang universe would seem to be ruled out by how to write a introduction in a scientific age and density considerations. But if that had not been the case, and space were positively curved as postulated for essay, the closed Big Bang universe case, neutrinos from the Big Bang would be raining on us as well as photons. Those have not been detected. By similar reasoning, in a Big Bang universe of positively curved space, rather than being clumped at great distances (as they are perceived to be by the presently accepted interpretation of red shift data), quasars would be more evenly distributed in direction, distance and speed. If that were found to be true it might tend to deny one of the alleged proofs of write a introduction scientific paper, Big Bang Theory, that of an evolving universe. Photons [that is, electromagnetic radiation (EMR) in the infrared region] are believed to originate from the cartoon Big Bang decoupling, to be red-shifted by about 1,000, and to be received from all directions of space as MBR. Hs Student Resume? According to Big Bang Theory, neutrinos are also said to originate from the Big Bang, but at a much earlier time. They, like the MBR, are believed to fill the space that surrounds us. According to quantum wave theory, although they are particles rather than EMR, they are considered to have a red shift much greater than that of Big Bang photons.

Their energy is therefore too low to allow their detection: their frequency below the capability of available technology. Although neutrinos from nearby sources (from the sun and from Supernova 1987A) have been detected, the treatment of Big Bang neutrinos as waves is said to provide an explanation for the lack of their detection. However, the application of wave theory to neutrinos, but not to other particles (electrons, protons, neutrons, etc.) believed to have originated in the Big Bang at or before the time of the decoupling, appears to present a logical inconsistency. Cartoon Essay? It would seem that, upon consideration of the available evidence, rather than supporting Big Bang Theory, the and research presence of MBR might actually be counted against it. It seems more reasonable to postulate natural radiation from matter or energetic processes in relatively nearby space as the source of cartoon, MBR. The time line of events from the first instant of the Big Bang until the present time, as presented by various cosmologists in their attempts to reconcile Big Bang Theory with quantum theory, have been inconsistent with their own versions of Big Bang Theory thus presenting serious chronology problems. As an example of this, although there are few if any Big Bang adherents who believe in a universe that has expanded at a constant rate since the format for it resume Big Bang, the chronology that is most often presented indicates a fixed-rate universe that is cartoon essay 10 billion years old. (3,35,36) That chronology, indicating a Hubble time of how to write a introduction in a, 10 billion years, requires a Hubble constant of almost 100 km/sec/Mpc (30 km/sec/million light years), a value far in excess of that accepted by Big Bang supporters. Essay? For a Hubble constant of that value, all of the usual Big Bang cosmological cases (somewhat open, flat or closed) would require the phd engineering resume Big Bang to have occurred at essay, about 2/3 of hs student resume, Hubble time, or approximately 6 billion years ago, which is incompatible with current Big Bang thinking. The great majority of Big Bang advocates believe in a considerable degree of cartoon, gravitational deceleration of the expansion of the universe since the Big Bang for either a somewhat open, a flat or a closed universe. For those cases the expository essay plot of energy and temperature vs. Cartoon Essay? time would require considerable decreasing slope as time progresses, rather than the linear expansion that is usually depicted.

Furthermore, the nonlinearity required for a decelerating expansion, would require considerable modification to resume the occurrence of quantum theory events (and other events, such as the decoupling), in the Big Bang chronology as customarily presented. Study of this matter leads one to suspect that the timing of the events of the Big Bang Theory chronology as usually shown may merely have been contrived. Any amount of energy, measured or theoretical, required for the creation of particles of quantum theory can be placed between the cartoon essay infinite energy (infinite temperature and density) of the Big Bang singularity and the present low energy level of space (a temperature of 2.7 K). Adding to these inconsistencies is the lack of consideration of the impact of inflation theory on Big Bang chronology. Although many of those who present chronological information have accepted inflation theory, and must be aware of its impact, they continue to describe Big Bang events essentially in accordance with a chronology, already inconsistent with pre-inflation Big Bang Theory, that shows a linear decrease in energy and a linear increase in size as functions of format for it, time. The agreement of the observed abundance of light elements in the universe with those predicted by essay various Big Bang cosmologists is frequently cited as one of the primary proofs of their theory, but this proof also faces some difficulties. The study of phd engineering resume, historical data shows that over the years predictions of the cartoon ratio of helium to resume hydrogen in a Big Bang universe have been repeatedly adjusted to agree with the essay latest available estimates of that ratio as observed in the real universe. (Human science is very fallible!) The estimated ratio is dependent on a ratio of resume, baryons to cartoon photons (the baryon number) that has also been arbitrarily adjusted to agree with the currently established helium to hydrogen ratio. These appear to have not been predictions, but merely adjustments of and research paper, theory (retrodictions) to accommodate current data. Big Bang cosmologists tell us that the cartoon observed ratio of helium to and research paper hydrogen in the universe could only have been the result of Big Bang thermonucleosynthesis.

However, that presumes, not only a precise knowledge of the processes of a Big Bang, but a precise knowledge of the cartoon processes of other possible cosmologies. If, for example, another cosmology should suggest that helium has accumulated as a result of other processes (37,38) (such as stellar nucleosynthesis over tens of billions of years), having given other cosmological possibilities little or no consideration, on what basis might a Big Bang theorist deny that? In addition to write scientific paper helium, Big Bang theorists have in cartoon, the past maintained that other light elements including boron, beryllium and and research lithium, can only have been produced by Big Bang nucleosynthesis (fusion). However, it has been found that these elements can be produced by cosmic rays acting on supernovae remnants (fission). (29) It is also possible for deuterium to have been produced by processes in the formation of galaxies, rather than in Big Bang nucleosynthesis as claimed by cartoon essay those theorists. Hs Student? Adding to those problems, recent observations have shown that the abundance of helium is less than that indicated by standard Big Bang Theory, and cartoon essay that the ratios of beryllium and boron are inconsistent with that theory. (39-41) Inconsistencies regarding the current interpretation of observed red shift present many problems to hs student Big Bang Theory. Many of those have to essay do with the distant massive bodies that are called quasars.

As presently utilized, red shift data results in the perception of extremely great masses and resume brilliances of cartoon, quasars. Variations in the level of radiation from these sources (27,42) require their size to be extremely small and their densities to be extremely great. These extreme characteristics suggest that the present interpretation of red shift data as Doppler shift doesn't tell the phd engineering whole story about the cartoon speed and distance of resume, remote massive bodies in cartoon, space. Red shift data as presently used also shows quasars to be clumped at exemplars, great distances (great relative velocities). According to Big Bang Theory that would require the formation of large numbers of quasars too soon after the Big Bang. That interpretation of red shift data also results in the anomaly of quasars at various distances, and cartoon thus of various ages, that are observed to hs student have similar electromagnetic spectrums. Essay? But perhaps even in greater conflict with Big Bang Theory, the clumping of distant quasars in and research paper, all directions would appear to put us at the center of the universe.

That situation, known as the Copernican Problem, is in direct conflict with the basic Big Bang Theory tenet of essay, smoothness; that is, isotropy and homogeneity. Dependence on format resume, Doppler red shift for the determination of velocity and distance also results in cartoon essay, the perception of an unreasonably large number of distant quasars having associated superluminal flares. (32,43) Some simple mathematics can show that, if the perceived distance of those quasars was less, fewer of such flares would be indicated. (Also, mathematical investigation of the velocity relationships between quasars perceived to be at great distances and their perceived superluminal flares, has provided unintelligible results.) Big Bang theorists accept special relativity, and new york resume writing services review thus the application of the Lorentz transformations to the red shift of radiation from essay galaxies and quasars that are believe to be at great distances and receding from expository essay exemplars us at relativistic speeds. Those speeds are thus believed to result in red shifts that are greater than would be expected by the linear application of a Hubble constant. That would appear to be reasonable for a universe consisting of matter that is expanding as the normal result of an explosion. However, because Big Bang theorists insist that it is not the matter of the essay universe, but the space of the universe that is expanding, I have suggested an additional problem: Although the hs student resume Lorentz transformations may apply to matter, they do not apply to massless space. Cartoon Essay? It is therefore inappropriate to apply them to a Big Bang universe. Phd Engineering Resume? In addition to quasar related problems, there is considerable observational evidence indicating that the presently accepted interpretation of essay, red shift data is to for it some degree erroneous.

Observations over many years by highly regarded astronomers have shown many companion galaxies(27) to have considerably higher red shifts than those of unmistakably neighbouring galaxies. Most notable among those astronomers is Halton Arp, who has also provided considerable evidence that radiation from newly formed galaxies is in some manner red shifted by other than Doppler effect. (44) Although it has long ago been ruled out by Big Bang cosmologists as an essay, important factor, massive dense bodies, that may not be massive enough and dense enough to become black holes, may be massive enough and dense enough to cause appreciable amounts of gravitational red shift (Einstein shift)(24,49) of their radiation. In support of this it is known, for example, that even our sun has a small gravitational red shift (z 0.000002); and it is paper suggested that the differences in masses and radii of stars of some binary pairs(50) may be the cause of observed differences in their average red shift. Any of these possible causes of red shift may add to Doppler red shift (if that exists) and thus cause the appearance of greater relative speed and distance of cartoon, quasars and other massive bodies in space. If that should prove to be so, problems regarding the interpretation of red shift data might be eased or eliminated.

It seems obvious that, if other causes of the red shift of radiation from massive bodies were given consideration, problems resulting from the conventional interpretation of red shift might be eased. Quasars might be found to resume be much closer and their velocity much lower, thus solving the perception of excessive brilliance, mass, density, large numbers of superluminal flares and cartoon other problems, including the clumping of quasars at great distances. (If red shift were found to have causes other than or in addition to Doppler effects, the a introduction scientific velocity of distant quasars would fall on a lower, more linear portion of cartoon, a plot of velocity vs. red shift that incorporates relativistic effects [as derived from the Einstein- Lorentz transformations]. The perception of clumping would thus be reduced.) It should be pointed out writing that Hubble himself was not convinced that red shift was exclusively due to cartoon Doppler effect. Up to the time of his death he maintained that velocities inferred from red shift measurements should be referred to as apparent velocities. Hs Student Resume? (45,51) No references to negatively curved space can be found in Einstein's Relativity, The Special and cartoon General Theories, or in how to a introduction in a scientific paper, other early books on Einstein's work such as Biography of Physics by George Gamow or Understanding Relativity by Stanley Goldberg. Cartoon? In all of those there is only discussion of essay, positively curved space resulting from gravitational attraction (or equivalent acceleration). Not only have Big Bang theorists thoroughly accepted the questionable concept of positively curved space but, based on some later interpretations of relativity, (5,8) they have decided that space may be negatively curved. Accordingly, the closed Big Bang universe has positively curved space, the cartoon essay flat Big Bang universe has uncurved space, and the open Big Bang universe has negatively curved saddle shaped space. (In the second two of these space doesn't close on phd engineering resume, itself, and it has no edge.) According to Einstein, space is curved due to the presence of matter, but is only positively curved. Therefore, if it is believed that space is uncurved or negatively curved, it has occurred to cartoon me that there must be something in the Big Bang universe to overcome the positive curvature resulting from the presence of the matter of the universe.

If the universe is flat, that something must be just sufficient to hs student resume compensate for the gravitational influence of the matter of the essay universe and, if the universe is open, it must be sufficient to overpower that influence. In other words, logic would seem to indicate that Big Bang theorists' acceptance of uncurved space of a flat universe, or the negatively curved space of an open universe, implicitly acknowledges the existence of negative gravity. There must be more than an equation to provide the rationale for flat or negative curvature in a universe of significant mass; the mathematics must represent some physical phenomena; something like cosmic repulsion. (24) For many years it had been thought that a term in Einstein's equations known as cosmic repulsion was his greatest mistake; even he had reached that conclusion. But it would seem that Big Bang cosmologists have changed their minds on that score. Some of them have now accepted cosmic repulsion, now called the cosmological constant, as an essential feature of inflation theory. (1) Some Big Bang theorists have also suggested (quite logically) that cosmic repulsion provides the solution to the age paradox. Expository? If it is cartoon essay like negative gravity, and of sufficient magnitude, the expansion of the universe in the past may have been slower than indicated by the presently observed Hubble constant. If that is so, the Big Bang may have occurred sufficiently long ago for their universe to be older than some stars are observed to be, thus rescuing the Big Bang from its age problem. That, of course, would result in a kind of universe not normally envisioned by resume Big Bang enthusiasts; one that has an ever increasing rate of expansion. (As interpreted from red shift data in the usual manner, out to a red shift of essay, one [z = 1], astronomical evidence would appear to indicate a universe having a fixed rate of expansion. (13) However, because of measurement uncertainties and possible relativistic effects at a relative distance of about one billion light years and beyond, there is considerable doubt concerning the how to write in a scientific paper constancy of the Hubble constant.) It would seem that logical inconsistencies regarding the essay curvature of space might tend to format resume discredit the prevailing Big Bang cosmology.

12. DOES INFLATION FIX THE BIG BANG? Inflation theory, that was invented for the purpose, is said to provide simple solutions to some of the problems of pre-inflation Big Bang Theory. (3,4) However, convincing support for claims of solutions to the singularity, smoothness, horizon, and flatness problems is lacking. Inflation theorists have alleged that the inflationary expansion of the early Big Bang universe, involving speeds orders of magnitude greater than that of essay, light, (3,4) did not involve the travel of mass or energy, and thus did not violate the theory of relativity in solving the singularity problem. But how inflation, as opposed to ordinary expansion, can in some manner displace all the mass or energy of the universe without physically moving it, defies common understanding. A violation of Einstein's prohibition of speeds in excess of that of light seems to be inherent in that process. The quantum concept of false vacuum, previously postulated only to deal with the spontaneous generation of the tiny fundamental particles of modern physics, is called upon by inflation theory to instantaneously produce the phd engineering mass and energy of the entire universe. But this sudden appearance of the universe from the energy of cartoon essay, vacuum, (1) still essentially out-of-nothing, does not escape the perception of an enormous violation of the law of conservation of expository essay, mass/energy. Inflation theorists have also explained that an enormous cosmic repulsive force (an enormously large cosmological constant)(1) provided the expansive force necessary for an exponential expansion of the universe.

However, as previously noted, both the birth of the universe from essay a gigantic vacuum fluctuation(2,52) and the expansion of the universe from a gigantic cosmic repulsive force are speculations that have no means of verification. Perhaps as a form of insurance for their claim of inflation's enormous expansion of the early universe without violation of the conservation of mass/energy, some inflation theorists have borrowed the Big Bang zero net energy idea that an equivalent amount of energy is merely on loan from the how to a introduction in a scientific energy of the cartoon vacuum; that loan to be repaid upon the ultimate collapse of the universe. Because of the apparent impossibility of a collapsing closed universe, that repayment might be put off indefinitely. For It Resume? However, even if the Big Bang universe were some day to collapse, that wouldn't happen for many billions of years: seemingly a long time for the loan of all of essay, its mass and energy to go unpaid. Furthermore, those who support inflation theory espouse, not a closed universe, but a flat one, so the zero-net-energy idea appears to conflict with their own beliefs. It would seem that inflation has also failed to solve the other old problems of Big Bang Theory. To state that inflation smoothed the universe by stretching out irregularities of the first instant of the Big Bang, but left just enough of them to provide the seeds for the later formation of galaxies may be a matter of faith, not science. To state that inflation at orders of magnitude faster than the speed of light solved the horizon problem that had been attributed to the high rate of expansion of pre-inflation Big Bang Theory, may be illogical. To state that inflation, that is said to result in an exponential expansion of somewhere between 10 to the 50th power (Guth's original inflation)(3) and 10 to the 1,000,000th power (Linde's new inflation), (4) would cause anything greater than a minutely low average density, far less than the critical density required for a flat Big Bang universe, seems difficult to accept. How To Write A Introduction In A Paper? Inflation theorists postulate a universe that expanded to unimaginable size, and thus claim that we can observe only a tiny portion of it. Essay? But they continue to tell us that quasars can be seen to within a small percentage of the format resume distance to the Big Bang; two very conflicting ideas.

In addition, some Big Bang cosmologists who have accepted inflation, continue to essay describe events essentially in accordance with the typical chronology of pre-inflation Big Bang, having a linear decrease in temperature (energy) and a linear increase in size as functions of time, without consideration of the appropriate changes necessary to accommodate inflation. In addition to its apparent failure to solve pre-inflation Big Bang problems, it would seem that inflation has introduced some new problems and complexities. A new quandary, that I have called the Big Bang deceleration problem, has occurred to me. (24) If the universe is phd engineering resume expanding and, if that expansion is decelerating due to gravitational attraction of the mass of the cartoon essay universe, as Big Bang theorists believe, they have not made it clear whether the expansion of space is decelerating, or whether the phd engineering resume expansion of the matter of space is decelerating. Most Big Bang theorists agree that, rather than the matter of cartoon, space, space itself is expanding. However, if the expansion of space is resume decelerating, the physical law that relates the deceleration of space with gravitation has not been made clear. It would seem reasonable to expect the expansion of the matter of a Big Bang universe to cartoon be decelerating, but, if that is so, matter must have an increasing inward velocity relative to expanding space; or perhaps the hs student expansion of both matter and space is decelerating possibly doubling the effect of gravity. A lack of clarity regarding this matter would seem to add to the difficulties of Big Bang Theory. In addition to those suggested above, some miscellaneous logical oversights regarding Big Bang Theory are presented in the these closing paragraphs.

The first of these has been alluded to, but is cartoon essay repeated for emphasis. How To Write A Introduction Scientific Paper? Big Bang cosmologists repeatedly ascribe closed universe attributes to the flat and open Big Bang universe cases. Those attributes include the concepts of closed, curved, expanding space that has no edge, and cartoon essay a centerless universe in which the Big Bang happened everywhere: ideas that do not apply to a flat Euclidian universe or an write paper, open universe of saddle shaped space. It would seem that in those cases the universe must have a center at which the cartoon essay Big Bang once occurred, thus denying a basic tenet of Big Bang Theory. Because they believe it solves one of Big Bang Theory's major problems (despite its apparent unlikelihood), some Big Bang cosmologists still favor a closed cycling Big Bang universe. References? They feel that, because it didn't come out-of-nothing, but from the remains of a previous universe, the explosion of a collapsed universe avoids the singularity problem. However, there is no theory in physics that can account for the re-explosion, or bounce, of the universe. (2) Famous physics professor John Archibald Wheeler, who believed in the bounce, once said that black holes are laboratory models for the collapsing universe case. (54) However, prevailing theory denies that a giant black hole might explode. (55) Big Bang advocates have criticized the once competing steady state cosmology of Hoyle, Bondi and Gold because it provided no explanation for the origin of the universe. However, at the same time, some of those espouse a cycling Big Bang universe, that has repeatedly collapsed and essay re-exploded in the past (and that might continue to do so in the future), which exhibits the resume same no-origin flaw that they ascribed to steady state theory. Big Bang theorists have in the past indicated that all galactic formation had started in the same early era, that is, within the first billion years following the Big Bang. Cartoon Essay? However, recent evidence has increasingly indicated much later and continuing formation of galaxies. (56,57) In the light of this evidence the previous view is no longer stressed.

However, it would seem that such waffling might tend to discredit Big Bang Theory. Hs Student Resume? Furthermore, it seems unlikely for galaxies to have formed from particles of matter that were initially departing from each other at or above the speed of light. Cartoon? No known force, gravity, electrodynamic or other, may have been strong enough to cause those particles to accrete. This problem has been recognized by some Big Bang theorists in the past who have postulated that turbulence in the early Big Bang could have started the phd engineering necessary accumulation. However, it is difficult to cartoon imagine, even in the presence of turbulence, how the great departing speed of particles could allow their accretion. Furthermore, the insistence of most Big Bang theorists on format for it resume, extreme smoothness of the Big Bang explosion would also seem to deny that possibility.

Theorists insist that an expanding universe provides important evidence in support of essay, Big Bang Theory. However, they seem to ignore the fact that expansion (if true) might support other cosmologies, including the rejected steady state cosmology. Recent convincing evidence that the number of format resume, families of fundamental particles in essay, the universe is limited to just three, and recently observed lensing(49,58) of radiation from distant matter by the gravitational fields of closer matter in space (as predicted by Einstein) have both been cited as added proof of paper, Big Bang Theory. However, as in the cases of Hubble expansion, the presence of essay, MBR, and the abundance of light elements, these observations might provide support to alternate cosmologies equally well. Big Bang theorists have implied that their solution to Olber's paradox, (24,27,59) that the relativistic speeds (large red shifts) of distant bodies of the universe dim the sky, provides proof of Big Bang Theory.

But, instead of relying on that solution, it might be more reasonable to accept the straightforward solution that Olber himself had long ago offered, that closer, smaller, cooler matter can obscure visible radiation from more distant, larger, warmer matter of space. In his discussion of C. V. L. And Research Paper? Charlier's clustering hierarchical universe(13), P. J. E. Peebles has recognized that the cartoon essay view of distant galaxies is obscured by new york dust in our galaxy. And certainly telescopic images of supernovae appear to show that dust hides more distant matter. If correct, that solution would seem to essay support no cosmology in particular. There has been a consistent pattern of neglect of hs student resume, evidence that might tend to discredit the prevailing Big Bang cosmology. Examples of this are the vast amount of data compiled over many years by Halton Arp that shows the proximity of objects of higher red shifts to galaxies of lower red shift, (44) and by Anthony Peratt regarding the role of plasma physics in the formation of galaxies. (60) Although that data is well known, its impact on the field of cartoon essay, cosmology is all but ignored. Although the problems presented here may seem overwhelming to those who question big bang theory, mainstream cosmologists insist that, like Dr. Pangloss, theirs is the best of expository exemplars, all possible worlds. They are confident that all Big Bang problems will ultimately be overcome by cartoon further pursuit of evidence in support of paper, that theory. However, on the chance that they could be wrong, it might be prudent to also pursue some alternate paths of investigation. One of the more prominent alternate cosmologies that deserves more attention is that presented by Anthony Peratt and Eric Lerner(61); a plasma cosmology based on the earlier work of Hannes Alfven, wherein electromagnetic forces have determined the evolution of the universe rather than gravitational force in accordance with General Relativity.

I admire Hannes Alfven's logic. The tired light concepts that deny Doppler red shift, and the vast amount of anomalous red shift data that has been presented by Halton Arp, both of which tend to deny a major premise of big bang theory, certainly should be taken more seriously. Some Big Bang dissenters, including those who support tired light theories, postulate a static steady state universe. However, I feel that the evidence for expansion, at least in the near universe (out to many thousands of light years?) is quite convincing, and therefore, have proposed a new steady state cosmology (24) similar to essay the old SS cosmology of Hoyle, Gold, and new york writing Bondi. Cartoon Essay? (62) In addition to the apparent imperfection of its perfect cosmological principle, a lack of rationale for either the generation of new matter in space or for expansion of the universe, appears to have caused the failure of old SS theory failed to win acceptance. This newly postulated SS cosmology overcomes those failings by proposing the generation of new matter from the energy of space in accordance with quantum theory, and expansion due to Einstein's previously condemned (but now accepted in inflation theory) cosmic repulsion. (These are proposed, not on new york resume review, the incredibly enormous scales required by inflation theory, but on scales just sufficient for the generation of fundamental particles and to overcome the force of cartoon, gravity in remote empty space.) One of these postulated alternate cosmologies, combinations or portions of those or others, unknown or omitted here, may or may not prove to be viable but, in view of the hs student resume many Problems of the Big Bang Theory, alternates possibilities certainly deserve more serious consideration. 1. P. Davies, Superforce (Simon Schuster, NY, 1984). 2. E. P. Tryon, Nature (14 December 1973).

3. A. H. Guth, and Paul J. Steinhardt, Sci. Am. Cartoon Essay? (May 1984). 4. References Paper? A. Linde, New Scientist (7 March 1985). 5. M. Rees and J. Silk, Sci. Am. (June 1970). 6. E. McMullin, Am. Philos.

Quarterly (July 1881). Cartoon Essay? 7. G. And Research Paper? Gamow, Sci. Cartoon? Am. (March 1954). 8. J. V. Narlikar, New Scientist (2 July 1981). 9. F. Flam, Science (November 1991). 10. S. A. Gregory, and L. A. Thompson, Sci.

Am. (March 1982). 11. A. Fisher, Popular Science (May 1991). 12. A. Chaikin, Omni (August 1991). 13. P.J.E. Peebles, Principles of Physical Cosmology (Princeton University Press, 1993). Essay? 14. D. Essay? Goldsmith, Discover (October 1992).

15. A. Format? F. Essay? Davidsen, Science (15 January 1993).16. R. Resume? Jayawardhana, Astronomy (June 1993). 17. W. Freedman, Sci. Am. (November 1992). 18. J. R. Gott III, J. E. Gunn, D. N. Schramm and B. M. Tinsley, Sci. Am. (March 1976). 19.

G. Abell, D. Morrison and S. Wolfe, Realm of the cartoon essay Universe (Saunders College Publishing, Philadelphia, 1988). 20. Resume? S. Gilkis, P. M. Lubin, S. S. Cartoon Essay? Meyer, and R. F. Silverberg, Sci. Am. References And Research? (January 1990). 21. D. Hegyi, Interstellar Medium in Encyclopedia of Physics, 2nd ed. (VCH Publishers, NY, 991). 22. J. Silk, The Big Bang (W. H. Freeman, NY, 1989). 23.

S. van der Bergh and J. Hesser, Sci. Am. (January 1993). Essay? 24. W. Exemplars? C. Mitchell, The Cult of the Big Bang (Cosmic Sense Books, NV, 1995). 25. J. Boslough, Masters of Time (Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1992). 26. D. Cartoon? Sciama, Cosmology Before and After Quasars in Cosmology +1 (W.

H. Freeman, NY,1977). 27. H. Friedman, The Amazing Universe (The National Geographic Society, Washington, DC,1985). Paper? 28. S. Essay? G. Brush, Sci. Am. (August 1992). 29. S. Weinberg, The First Three Minutes (Basic Books, NY, 1977). 30. R. Expository Essay? V. Coleman, Whiskers in Encyclopedia of Physics, 2nd ed. (VCH Publishers, NY, 1991). 31.

J. Kanipe, Astronomy (April 1992). 32. H. C. Arp, G. Burbridge, J. V. Narlikar, N. C. Wickramasinghe, Nature (30 August 1990). 33. P. Cartoon Essay? Yam, Sci. Am. (October 1990). 34. Before There Was Earth, There Was Lightning in Discover (July 1993). 35. Phd Engineering Resume? J. D. Barrow and J. Silk, Sci.

Am. (April 1980). Cartoon Essay? 36. D. N. Schramm, and G. Steigman, Sci. How To Write Paper? Am. (June 1988). 37. R. Cowen, Science News (19 October 1991). 38. Cartoon? S. Bowyer, Sci. Am. (August 1994). 39. A. Gibbons, Sci.

Am. (January 1992). Phd Engineering? 40. M. Bartusiak, Discover (August 1992). 41. J. A. Frieman, and B.-A. Gradwohl, Science (4 June 1993). 42. M. Schmidt, and F. Bello, The Evolution of Quasars in Cosmology + 1 (W. H. Freeman, NY, 1977). 43.

C. D. Dermer, and R. Schlickeiser, Science (18 September 1992). 44. H. Cartoon? C. Arp, Fitting Theory to Observation From Stars to Cosmology in Progress in New Cosmologies: Beyond the Big Bang (Plenum Press, NY, 1993). References? 45. E. Hubble, Observational Approach to essay Cosmology, (Oxford University Press, 1937). (see also) 46.

G. Reber, Endless, Boundless, Stable Universe, (University of Tasmania, 1977). 47. P. Marmet and a introduction paper G. Reber, IEEE Trans. on Plasma Sci. (April 1989). 48. P. Cartoon Essay? Marmet, Phys. Phd Engineering Resume? Essays 1,24, (1988). 49. Cartoon? P. J. E. Peebles, D. Hs Student? N. Schramm, E. L. Cartoon? Turner and resume writing services R. G. Kron, Nature (29 August 1991).

50. P. Marmet, IEEE Trans. on Plasma Phys. (February 1990). 51. D. E. Osterbrock, J. A. Gwinn and R. S. Brashear, Sci. Am. (July 1993). Essay? 52. G. Gale, Cosmological Fecundity: Theories of paper, Multiple Universes in essay, Physical Cosmology and Philosophy edited by J. Leslie (Macmillan, NY, 1990) 53. B. J. Carr, Irish Astron. New York Services? J. (March 1982). Cartoon Essay? 54.

J. A. Hs Student Resume? Wheeler, Beyond the End of Time in C. W. Misner, K. A. Throne and J. A. Wheeler, Gravitation (W. H. Freeman, NY, 1971). 55. T. J.-L. Courvoisier, and E. I. Robson, Sci. Cartoon? Am. (June 1991). 56. F. Flam, Science (28 February 1992). 57. S. Flamsteed, Discover (24 June 1992).

58. Jacqueline N. Hewitt, Gravitational Lenses in Encyclopedia of Physics , 2nd ed. Expository Essay? (VCH Publishers, NY, 1991). 59. A. Webster, The Cosmic Background Radiation in essay, Cosmology +1 (W. H. Freeman, NY,1977). 60. A. L. Peratt, IEEE Trans. of Plasma Sci. Format For It? (December 1996).

61. Cartoon? E. Resume? J. Lerner, The Big Bang Never Happened (Times Books, 1991). 62. Essay? H. Bondi , F. Hoyle, and T. For It? Gold, Rival Theories of Cosmology (Oxford University Press,1960). We have three other essays on various problems of the Big Bang Theory (all are very good) which provide compelling evidence that the Big Bang theory is wrong. Most importantly we can now also show that the most simple cosmology, founded on infinite eternal space, explains and solves these problems of cosmology relating to the Big Bang theory. Cartoon Essay? Wave Structure of Matter Cosmology: How our Finite Spherical Observable Universe exists within Infinite Eternal Space. Connect in an Inter-Connected Universe! In a time of format resume, universal deceit - telling the truth is a revolutionary act. Hell is Truth Seen Too Late. You must be the change you wish to see in the world.

When forced to summarize the general theory of relativity in one sentence: Time and space and gravitation have no separate existence from matter. . Physical objects are not in space, but these objects are spatially extended . Essay? In this way the concept 'empty space' loses its meaning. Phd Engineering Resume? . The particle can only appear as a limited region in space in which the field strength or the energy density are particularly high. Cartoon? . The free, unhampered exchange of ideas and scientific conclusions is necessary for the sound development of science, as it is in all spheres of a introduction paper, cultural life. . We must not conceal from cartoon ourselves that no improvement in how to a introduction, the present depressing situation is possible without a severe struggle; for the handful of those who are really determined to do something is minute in comparison with the mass of the lukewarm and the misguided. Essay? . Humanity is going to need a substantially new way of thinking if it is to survive! ( Albert Einstein ) Support simple sensible science that works. How To Write Paper? All that is necessary for evil to succeed is for good people to do nothing. Bill Mitchell: The Big Bang Theory Under Fire. Excellent Essay on Problems of the Big Bang Theory of Cosmology. 'The Gift of Truth Excels all Other Gifts.' (Buddha) One of the top ten shops at Cafepress for the past two years (out of 3 million shops!). A brilliant collection of portraits and quotes from 500 of the greatest minds in human history. Ancient Greek Philosophy. Chinese Indian Metaphysics. 20th Century Philosophers. Cartoon? Physics Prints Science Quote.

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ode to autumn essay The Pastoral Art of cartoon essay Robert Frost. Nature and Pastoralism Frost has so often written about the rural landscape and wildlife that one can hardly avoid thinking of him as a nature poet. To the Thawing Wind, Hyla Brook, The Oven Bird, Birches, A Drumlin Woodchuck -- one could cite such titles by the score. Frost began as a nature poet; To a Moth Seen in Winter, Rose Pogonias, Going for Water are representative of his work before 1913, and the interest in references, nature was to persist throughout his career. Frost's nature poetry is so excellent and so characteristic that it must be given a prominent place in any account of his art. In our attempt to understand this aspect of Frost, the cartoon, idea of pastoral proves useful.

Not that the resume, nature poems are to be considered as pastorals in any strict sense -- obviously the two kinds of poetry differ. Essay? In pastorals the how to write a introduction in a scientific paper, subject is a special society, or, more generally, a way of life, and nature is merely the setting within which we see this. The pastoralist does not write about nature; he uses nature as his scene, and it is cartoon essay, important only in that it defines the expository essay, swain's point of view. Nevertheless, Frost's nature poetry is closely related to his pastoralism. One might demonstrate the connection by essay pointing out how many poems combine both genres.

Such pieces as The Onset, Unharvested, and format, Evening in cartoon essay, a Sugar Orchard present vivid pictures of landscape, but in them the Yankee point of view through which nature is seen is as vital to the meaning as the resume writing services, things portrayed. This is not so in all the nature poems: in a great many others natural objects hold the center of interest, and the regional Arcadia with its Yankee characters is absent or unimportant. The shift in subject is not surprising, for a poet of rural life would find it natural to write about the countryside, but the connection between the two poetic types is more fundamental than this. It consists, I think, in a similarity of thought, and hence, in a similarity of poetic design. The basic structure we have noted in his eclogues appears again as the cartoon, dominant pattern in the nature poems. Both kinds of poetry seem to grow from a single way of looking at reality - the same perspective which creates pastorals when the poet's eyes are directed to rural life determines his vision of nature. That Frost's view of exemplars nature is unique may not at cartoon essay, first be apparent, for the modern reader's attitude toward nature poetry is pretty well determined by the Lake Poets and their English successors.

The very act of writing about nature seems to mean a commitment to treat it as poets in England have done since 1800, with the result that most people take Frost's nature poetry as they take Wordsworth's or Tennyson's. Yet there is a bleakness in his landscape and resume services, a sharpness of outline in cartoon essay, the imagery quite foreign even to Wordsworth's Cumberland. This cannot be explained by the difference between localities. The Oven Bird is an exemplars, entirely different kind of cartoon essay poem from Wordsworth's To a Skylark, and the dissimilarity has little to do with the fact that the bird in one poem is American and in the other English. Another sign of his uniqueness is that his nature poems do not evoke the same variety of emotional response.

Much of his popularity is traceable to the fact that he has managed to write of nature without exploiting the emotional effects which, however fine they are in Wordsworth and the other Romantics, seem rather shopworn in more recent poets. Of course no modern nature poet will be able to free himself completely from the Romantic way of treating nature, and in Frost there are many reminiscences of Wordsworth, Keats, and others. But what Frost has derived from tradition is adapted to his own quite different purposes. One may hear the Romantic harmonies in his work, but they reverberate within a world quite changed. When he describes a tree as Vague dream-head lifted out of the ground,/ And thing next most diffuse to cloud, the Romantic vision is immediately dispelled by the facts of a different landscape - Not all your light tongues talking aloud/ Could be profound. (1) This is not an ironic rejection of the Romantic attitude; Frost simply does not look at writing services review, nature through the essay, same eyes.

Though critics have pointed out his eminently reasonable view of nature, his farmer's sagacity and unwillingness to go beyond brute facts, they have failed to see the essential difference between his nature poetry and that to which the nineteenth century has conditioned us. This difference can best be seen by and research pursuing somewhat further the comparison with Wordsworth. In the poetry of his great period, Wordsworth's theme is the spirit immanent in nature and man. The philosophic ideas through which he seeks to justify this concept of spirit are diverse and combined in a variety of essay ways, the emphasis shifting from one poem to another. I suspect that Wordsworth's philosophy cannot be systematized, but whether or not this is so, it is not necessary here to untangle the references, various strands of cartoon essay his thought; for however complex the intellectual background of Wordsworth's Nature may be, his essential poetic idea remains constant -- the union of mind and external reality.

He expresses this union most often through suggesting a blending of format for it resume thought and landscape and cartoon essay, portraying the subtle affinities between the natural scene and the moral sentiments. This central theme is reflected in the poetic form. Wordsworth's language has an and research, intended imprecision which suggests both things and cartoon essay, thoughts. One sees this in the subdued double entendre of his philosophic terms: A motion and a spirit, that impels. All thinking things, all objects of all thought, And rolls through all things. (2)

The peculiar shift in the meaning of things and the way that Newtonian physics and the sublimities of philosophical idealism are blended in terms like motion, impels, rolls show how far beside the point Empson is in complaining that Wordsworth has muddled his philosophy. (3) The vague suggestiveness of Wordsworth's terms is the medium in hs student resume, which thought and cartoon, object merge. The same blending is manifested in the kind of vaguely outlined nature imagery Wordsworth and most other Romantics prefer. Their streams, breezes, odors, mists, tangled undergrowth, and twilight have the indistinct quality which allows them to drift into the area of subjective experience. (4) As Wordsworth put it, he prefers the regions where things are lost in each other, and hs student resume, limits vanish, and aspirations are raised. (5) A reader accustomed to this kind of essay nature poetry will find much that is familiar in a poem like The Wood-Pile. Here Frost's approach to nature seems not unlike Wordsworth's in Resolution and Independence. True, the manner is exemplars, more casual; Frost is cartoon, anecdotal where Wordsworth tends to be didactic. But the poet of The Wood-Pile strikes a typically Wordsworthian attitude: he regards his rambles through the countryside as the means of a natural and hs student, somewhat mysterious instruction of the soul. Essay? There is the same high seriousness and air of ethical purpose. In Frost's poem, as in Wordsworth's, it is tacitly assumed that the poet's stroll will lead to writing services review, a momentous discovery. And here too, the poet sets out without a plan, unaware of cartoon what his goal will be, relying on intuition, waiting for a spontaneous revelation to come to him from nature. The opening lines express an attitude reminiscent of Wordsworth's wise passiveness: Out walking in the frozen swamp one gray day, I paused and said, 'I will turn back from here.

No, I will go farther - and we shall see.' The true discovery must be fortuitous - he finds the wood-pile by the same happy accident that Wordsworth found the new york resume writing services review, leech gatherer. In both poems, there is a sudden recognition, and cartoon, the significance of the natural scene wells up as if from the subconscious. But here Frost's similarity to for it, Wordsworth ends. For what he finds at cartoon, the center of the forest is not an image of the spirit immanent in man and format resume, nature, but a symbol of the strictly human spirit and its ability to rise above the physical sphere. Cartoon? The Woodpile itself is unimportant.

It is expository exemplars, meaningful only because it leads to a revelation of human nature: . I thought that only. Someone who lived in turning to fresh tasks Could so forget his handiwork on which He spent himself, the labor of his ax, And leave it there far from a useful fireplace To warm the frozen swamp as best it could With the slow smokeless burning of decay. The firewood will never be used. Cartoon Essay? The man who cut it can carelessly forget its practical value, because humanity transcends the world of physical need.

Man lives in paper, turning to cartoon, fresh tasks, in the fulfillment of himself through creativity. The whole meaning of the poem lies in the difference between nature and man. Format For It Resume? The cedar swamp is an cartoon, endless tract without meaning or design: . The view was all in lines. Straight up and phd engineering resume, down of tall slim trees. Too much alike to mark or name a place by So as to say for certain I was here. Or somewhere else: I was just far from home.

Far from cartoon essay home - the search for meaning is really a search for something human within the infinite spaces which Pascal viewed with such horror. The woodpile shows that nature itself cannot provide this human element or give the poet's experience meaning. The only meaning one can find in how to write in a scientific paper, nature is that imposed upon it by the human mind. The woodpile is the symbol of man's creativity. Cartoon? Its decay does not represent any bond between man and nature. Review? It has been taken into the sphere of human purposes, so that even though abandoned, it has rotted away To warm the frozen swamp as best it could like firewood burning on a hearth. This contrast between man and nature is the central theme of Frost's nature poetry.

Whereas Wordsworth sees in nature a mystical kinship with the human mind, Frost views nature as essentially alien. Instead of exploring the margin where emotions and appearances blend, he looks at nature across an impassable gulf. What he sees on cartoon the other side is an image of a hard, impersonal reality. Man's physical needs, the dangers facing him, the resume, realities of cartoon essay birth and death, the for it, limits of his ability to cartoon essay, know and to act are shown in stark outline by the indifference and inaccessibility of the for it, physical world in which he must live. Thus Frost sees in nature a symbol of essay man's relation to the world. Though he writes about a forest or a wildflower, his real subject is humanity. The remoteness of nature reveals the tragedy of man's isolation and his weakness in the face of vast, impersonal forces.

But nature also serves to glorify man by showing the superiority of the human consciousness to brute matter. In this respect, nature becomes a means of portraying the heroic. There is a fundamental ambiguity of feeling in Frost's view of phd engineering nature. It is to be feared as man's cruel taskmaster, scorned as insensible, brutish, unthinking matter; yet it is to be loved, not because it has any secret sympathy for man - One had to be versed in country things/ Not to believe the phoebes wept (6) - but rather because it puts man to the test and thus brings out his true greatness: When stiff and essay, sore and hs student resume, scarred I take away my hand. From leaning on it hard In grass and cartoon essay, sand, The hurt is not enough: I long for weight and hs student, strength To feel the earth as rough To all my length. (7)

Such ambiguity indicates the poetic potential of Frost's nature. One sees it in Birches, where the delicate balance between the desire to withdraw from the world and love of the earth is cartoon, symbolized in the boy's game of swinging birch trees; in The Onset in review, the contrast between Frost's dismay at the descent of winter and his assurance of spring; in the April day of Two Tramps in Mud Time, which gives pleasure and yet is pervaded with the lingering threat of winter. Though his concept of nature does not allow for the sublimity one finds in Wordsworth, it has a richness of essay its own. Write A Introduction Scientific Paper? It is a paradox, and essay, it points toward the resume, greater paradox in man himself. Readers who think of Frost as a sketcher of pleasant landscapes should begin with a poem like The Most of It. Here the poet shows us the gulf separating man from nature in bold outline, and this is probably why the poem has been generally ignored. The picture he presents is certainly not cheerful, much less pretty. Essay? It is impressive.

It demonstrates how exalted an idea of the human mind and how awesome a view of reality the contrast between man and nature expresses: He thought he kept the universe alone; For all the voice in answer he could wake Was but the resume, mocking echo of his own. From some tree-hidden cliff across the lake. Cartoon? Some morning from the boulder-broken beach He would cry out on life, that what it wants Is not its own love back in copy speech, But counter-love, original response. And nothing ever came of hs student resume what he cried.

Unless it was the cartoon essay, embodiment that crashed In the cliff's talus on the other side, And then in the far distant water splashed, But after a time allowed for it to swim, Instead of proving human when it neared And someone else additional to him, As a great buck it powerfully appeared, Pushing the crumpled water up ahead, And landed pouring like a waterfall, And stumbled through the rocks with horny tread, And forced the underbrush - and that was all. There is pathos in paper, this poem but something close to tragedy too.

The man's search for a sign of love from nature may be foolish and sentimental to a degree, yet he is cartoon essay, wise enough to realize that what he wants is counter-love, original response rather than a mere reflection of his own love. It takes a certain toughness to see this, to hold out for the real thing. And the real thing when it comes is so remote from phd engineering resume his desires that he cannot recognize it. The magnificent buck which swims toward him from across the lake is the most of it - all that nature can give. That this is so shows the completeness of man's isolation, and in this sense the poem is despairing. On the other hand, we see man's true nature. It merely symbolizes the impersonal force of essay matter, and his blindness to it is really a measure of his spiritual strength. And as the man in the poem transcends nature through ignorance, the new york, speaker transcends it through knowledge.

He recognizes the meaning of the buck; he sees that that was all nature could give. He is able to look at the grim reality of nature, to recognize its remoteness and inhumanity, and at the same time to admire its magnificent strength. The vision of the great buck as he stumbled through the rocks with horny tread,/ And forced the underbrush reveals not only nature, but the superiority of the cartoon, human mind which can see it for what it is and no more. The struggle between the human imagination and the meaningless void man confronts is the write a introduction scientific, subject of poem after poem. Frost develops it in a variety of ways - Desert Places, Sand Dunes, and essay, There Are Roughly Zones represent different approaches to it. His tone modulates from poem to poem as he moves effortlessly from casual sketches to landscapes of new york resume writing review intense agony, but throughout his nature poetry the basic contrast persists. Sometimes it is the cartoon, subject for witty epigrammatic treatment.

Neither Out Far Nor In Deep for example, describes people along the shore of a beach staring endlessly out to sea. Their intent gaze is subtly identified with man's half-exploratory, half-defensive watch on the universe: They cannot look out far . They cannot look in deep. But when was that ever a bar To any watch they keep? At other times the contrast is not made explicit but is merely suggested by certain dark undertones. Even in Frost's most cheerful nature sketches there is always a bittersweet quality.

Admittedly he can and does enjoy nature. His flowers, trees, and animals are all described with affection, yet none of the nature poems is free from hints of hs student possible danger; under the placid surface there is always the unseen presence of something hostile. Spring Pools, for example, begins innocently enough with a description of the pools and flowers which one sees in the woodlands in early spring. Then suddenly the cartoon essay, tone becomes grave: The trees that have it in their pent-up buds To darken nature and be summer woods - Let them think twice before they use their powers To blot out and drink up and new york services review, sweep away.

These flowery waters and these watery flowers From snow that melted only yesterday. There is something sinister about the way the poem turns out. Spring, traditionally the season of birth, innocence, and cartoon, joy, ushers in darkness, and the optimistic ending of Shelley's Ode to for it resume, the West Wind is grimly inverted. Treacherous forces are forever breaking through the pleasant surface of the landscape in this manner. Frost on his nature rambles has the air of someone picking his way through no man's land during an uneasy truce. The weather is bracing, his spirits are high; but he must tread lightly for fear of mines, and there is always the chance that he may stumble upon a bullet-pierced helmet or something worse. At the most unexpected times, he gives glimpses of essay horror. In Two Tramps in Mud Time he interrupts his genial chat about the April weather to advise: Be glad of water, but don't forget The lurking frost in write a introduction scientific, the earth beneath That will steal forth after the sun is set And show on cartoon essay the water its crystal teeth. These vistas opening upon fearful realities do not in the least negate the beauty Frost also sees in nature; rather, it is and research paper, they which give his songbirds, wild flowers, brooks, and trees their poignant appeal.

The charm of many of the nature lyrics results from the essay, vividness with which sweet, delicate things stand out against the somber background. You cannot have the one without the other: love of natural beauty and horror at the remoteness and hs student resume, indifference of the physical world are not opposites but different aspects of the cartoon, same view. He stood there bringing March against his thought, And yet too ready to believe the most. 'Oh, that's the Paradise-in-bloom,' I said; And truly it was fair enough for flowers Had we but in us to assume in March Such white luxuriance of May for ours. We stood a moment so in a strange world, Myself as one his own pretense deceives; And then I said the truth (and we moved on). A young beech clinging to its last year's leaves. The boundless moment gives a vision of beauty, but this vision is merely an illusion - the flowers the references, two men thought they saw are only dead leaves clinging to a beech. The reader responds to cartoon essay, the gorgeous sight of the Paradise-in-bloom, in how to write a introduction in a paper, much the cartoon essay, same way as the characters in the poem. But nature itself is barren.

When the walkers recognize the leaves for what they are, they can only turn again to the routine of life. The incident shows man's tragic limitations. New York Resume Writing Services? His imagination cannot sustain the ideal vision long - for a boundless moment it can mold nature to its desires, then the Paradise-in-bloom again becomes the dead tree of reality. But there is more to essay, the poem than this hard lesson. The fading of a vision may be sad, but the truthfulness which will not take it too seriously has something noble about it. The speaker's refusal to accept anything but the truth, even when the how to in a scientific paper, truth is disappointing, demonstrates the courage of man's intellect. Unflinching honesty in the face of facts is a recurrent theme in Frost's nature poetry . For it is in this that he sees the basis of man's power and indeed of his spiritual being. Man can never find a home in nature, nor can he live outside of it. (8) But he can assert the cartoon, reality of his spirit and thus can exist independently of the physical world in the act of looking squarely at the facts of essay exemplars nature. Thus, while A Boundless Moment describes a trivial incident and gives us a pleasant picture with only the slightest hint of sorrow, it is very much like Bereft, where a scene symbolic of intense sorrow serves to express the same view of man's relation to nature: Where had I heard this wind before Change like this to essay, a deeper roar? What would it take my standing there for, Holding open a restive door,

Looking down hill to a frothy shore? Summer was past and day was past. Somber clouds in the west were massed. Out in the porch's sagging floor, Leaves got up in a coil and hissed, Blindly struck at my knee and missed. Something sinister in how to a introduction scientific, the tone. Told me my secret must be known: Word I was in the house alone. Somehow must have gotten abroad, Word I was in my life alone, Word I had no one left but God.

The speaker of this poem has just suffered some terrible bereavement, and his utter loneliness is embodied in the bleakness of the landscape. There is something ominous in the darkening sky and a blind hostility in the dead leaves which swirl about his legs. He is overwhelmed by the sense of complete isolation. He has no one left but God, and it does not seem that he will find any comfort there, for God, as he mentions him, is merely the cartoon essay, last resort of the desperate. Paper? Yet for all its gloom, Bereft is not a poem of despair. The very fact that the speaker can recognize in the landscape the full extent of his loneliness shows the mind's capacity for courage. In both his nature poems and his pastorals the poet portrays average human experience by projecting it into a world remote and essay, distinct. Nature, as Frost conceives it, is really a kind of wild-life Arcadia, and in writing of scenery and animals he uses it in much the same way as he uses the hs student resume, mythic rural New England in his pastorals. Like his rural New England, nature evokes paradoxical attitudes: on cartoon essay the one hand it is a realm of ideals where the essential realities are found in their pristine forms; on format for it the other it is an inferior plane where life is crude, insensate, mechanical. Most important, however, nature is separate, independent, off by itself away from man, just as the country north of Boston is separate from the urban environment of modern America. And because Frost's basic method is the same, the essay, structure of the for it resume, nature poems is also similar.

As we have already noted, he is able to focus broad areas of essay experience within his sketches and anecdotes of Yankee life because the format for it, very remoteness of the rural scene suggests parallels. The same is true of his nature poetry. By insisting upon the remoteness of nature he directs attention to the patterns in cartoon essay, nature which correspond to references and research paper, those in human experience. In Nothing Gold Can Stay this analogical method is obvious: Nature's first green is gold, Her hardest hue to hold. Her early leaf's a flower; But only so an hour. Then leaf subsides to leaf. So Eden sank to grief, So dawn goes down to day. Nothing gold can stay.

The first five lines are mainly descriptive, and it may seem that the poem merely expresses regret for the transience of natural beauty. Then, in the sixth line, the cartoon essay, image is suddenly placed in a new context. The loss of beauty in the leaf is phd engineering resume, likened to the loss of innocence in Eden. One feels a mixture of cartoon sadness and inevitability in the change from gold to green. The subject is not just the passing of a beautiful sight, but the corruption which seems to be a necessary part of maturing. The fall of man reveals this in human nature taken as a whole, and through the how to, next image - So dawn goes down to cartoon, day - we see the hs student resume, same process in the cosmos. Since the period from dawn to sunset is the established symbol of the individual life span, one can hardly avoid the suggestion that each man suffers a similar loss as he develops from childhood to maturity. However, this need not be insisted upon; what is important is Frost's method of comparing a process in the human sphere with a process in nature. The analogies do not weaken his description - quite the opposite.

The leaves seem preternaturally bright, because they hold so much meaning for man. We do not look away from the leaves to Eden, to dawn, to the life of the average man. We see all in a single line of vision. This is the perspective of pastoral, and cartoon, when we turn from imagery to the emotional tone of the poem, we find a characteristically pastoral irony. The tiny leaves, seemingly so trivial, enfold the problem of man's fate! Frost does not always spell out his parallels in such an explicit way. As a rule the format for it resume, analogies are implied rather than stated. By insisting on the remoteness of nature he can suggest ever-widening circles of correspondences in the human sphere without seeming to depart from pure description. Cartoon? Range-Finding is a good illustration of the way this is references and research, done: The battle rent a cobweb diamond-strung And cut a flower beside a ground bird's nest Before it stained a single human breast.

The stricken flower bent double and so hung. And still the bird revisited her young. A butterfly its fall had dispossessed. A moment sought in air his flower of rest, Then lightly stooped to it and fluttering clung. Cartoon Essay? On the bare upland pasture there had spread O'ernight 'twixt mullein stalks a wheel of thread And straining cables wet with silver dew. A sudden passing bullet shook it dry. The indwelling spider ran to greet the fly, But finding nothing, sullenly withdrew. The upland pasture contains two distinct worlds, the battlefield where the human struggle is played out and the realm of the bird, the butterfly, and the spider. Though man's world is superimposed upon theirs, he cannot ever penetrate it. A flower is bent double by a range-finding bullet, but the creatures of the and research paper, field go about their life undisturbed.

And even should the battle burn out the grass and destroy its inhabitants, man will not truly have broken in upon this other world, for essay the issues of victory, courage, and suffering can have no meaning in nature. What the contrast reveals is something far more subtle than mere difference. The world of nature comes to serve as a commentary on the human world, as we see in the way the spider responds to the range-finding bullet. The bullet has been fired with the sinister intent of groping out a human target, but for write paper him it is only a false alarm and he sullenly withdraws. Granted that human concerns are nothing to him, yet his nonchalance at cartoon, a moment when men are about to references and research paper, be slaughtered by the thousands is startling. But in cartoon essay, a sense he is right. It matters little to in a scientific, him what shook his web, so long as it was not a fly. If he is ignorant of what the essay, bullet portends for him, perhaps it is for the best, for though the tanks are about to grind over him there is no way to escape.

In terms of his own world, the spider is perfectly wise. The slightest vibration sends him scurrying up his cables - how much more subtle than the brute force of the expository essay, bullet, which only approximates its target! One admires the delicate response of the spider because, in essay, his closed world, he is perfectly efficient, and writing, so too are the ground bird as she hovers tenderly over cartoon, her young and the butterfly delicately poised on the broken flower . This view of nature has the same fundamental irony one finds in Frost's pastoral scenes. Services? It suggests that the natural world is better than man's. Essay? It is pure, simple, innocent. Man's cruel purposes cannot invade it. At the same time, however, we are not allowed to forget that it is far below the human sphere. The spider, the ground bird, and the butterfly are ignorant of the bullet's momentous meaning. Write Scientific Paper? They live mechanically and are incapable of the intense suffering of the human struggle. But Frost does more here than give us a picture of nature. Essay? The poem is about the beginning of a battle.

The irony the comparison with nature reveals serves as a means of write a introduction paper evaluating this battle, and by extension all warfare. Essay? Human acts are decisive. While nature goes on blindly in an unchanging pattern and with a power undiminished, the scientific paper, range-finder will eventually feel out his target, and men will die. Cartoon? For man death is an absolute, and this makes the events of phd engineering his life meaningful. The passing bullet is not just an accident. It symbolizes the very issue of survival.

Man's consciousness of death shows how wide the human range of experience is compared with nature's narrow confines. Cartoon? He thinks, he feels, he suffers, while nature only exists. Granted, the battle represents folly and paper, cruelty, but it also represents man's intense awareness of life. This awareness is only possible on the human plane, where consciousness gives the individual a life separate from that of the species and thus makes real death possible. Nature, which cannot die, though the particular spider and bird may be killed, does not really live either.

And by the same token, only the human act has ethical meaning. The spider is a mere predator; the bird's care for her young is just instinct. Only man is capable of the bullet's malice. Only in the human battle are cruelty and cartoon, heroism possible. I have discussed the nature poems in which suffering is the subject because in them we see most clearly how the contrast between man and nature enables Frost to deal with major issues of human life. But the contrast reveals beauty as well as horror, love as well as loneliness.

Frost's affection for nature, like his fear of it, is references, based on essay a sense of analogy. Two Look at Two is a perfect example. A young couple out for an evening walk have climbed part way up a wooded hillside, when darkness comes and they can go no further. They feel a wistful disappointment. It would be nice to go on, to hs student resume, penetrate deeper into nature, but it is too dark and the failing path would be treacherous: They stood facing this, Spending what onward impulse they still had.

In one last look the way they must not go . 'This is all,' they sighed, 'Goodnight to woods.' But not so; there was more. A doe and after her an antlered buck of lusty nostril appear on the other side of the cartoon, wall to stare at new york resume writing review, them in blank puzzlement and then pass on essay unscared. To the deer they appear as mysterious as the new york writing, deer seem to them: Two had seen two, whichever side you spoke from. 'This must be all.' It was all. Still they stood, A great wave from it going over them,

As if the earth in one unlooked-for favor. Had made them certain earth returned their love. It is the very distance between humanity and nature that makes the recognition so poignant. Cartoon? The man and woman cannot enter nature or identify themselves with it. Resume Services? Symbolically, they must stop at a wall - beyond this the path is cartoon, too dangerous. Resume? They do not dare To stretch a proffering hand - and a spell-breaking. The deer would merely run away. They can only reach nature in thought through the recognition of analogy. Cartoon? The words 'This must be all.' It was all echo the grim conclusion of The Most of It - and that was all. There the great buck represented the remoteness of nature; in this poem the deer are a sign of something parallel in nature and man. But there is still the impassable gulf - the horror at man's isolation and the delight in finding resemblances are aspects of a single view.

Wherever Frost treats nature sympathetically, one finds this process of discovering analogies. Whether he writes about a songbird or a seascape there is always a glimpse of something ironically parallel to paper, human experience. The sweet pathos of The Oven Bird comes from the tone of human regret in his song. He sings sadly of summer, remembering spring, just as man looks upon his everyday life with the discontent of one who judges reality by the dream of Eden: The question that he frames in all but words Is what to cartoon, make of references and research paper a diminished thing. In Devotion the shore holds the sea in cartoon, a lover's embrace: A final aspect of the nature poetry and one of the phd engineering, most important is Frost's strong tendency to personification. The device is common enough in poems about nature, and most readers are likely to take an unfavorable view of it. It suggests a sentimental pantheism or oversimple allegorizing.

Frost's personifications, however, are different from those to which the Romantics have accustomed us. Cartoon? Their personifications generally take the form of brief metaphor, while his are nearly always extended analogies. Keats' ode, To Autumn, illustrates the point well, for while the season is likened to a woman, the poet does not develop the comparison, but rather suggests through a series of brilliant descriptive images her mysterious presence in the autumn scene. The human and the natural are not compared but blended. Obviously Frost's mode of personification is more explicit and consciously rendered.

He does not merely liken things in nature to man, he explores the resemblance, usually at some length. Analogy is the lens through which he examines nature, and personification, which is simply the analogy between man and a natural object, is a introduction scientific, therefore a primary means of essay seeing. Frost's preference for personification is indicative of his whole manner of phd engineering resume conceiving nature, for cartoon essay such a mode of sustained comparison is only possible within the framework of phd engineering a world view in which the natural and the human are conceived as distinct and separate yet parallel planes. This contrast makes the human qualities of cartoon essay Frost's animals stand out with startling boldness. The effect is a quaintness and extravagance which seem more akin to the medieval beast fable than to Romantic nature poetry. Often his personifications approach the absurd, as in The Runaway, where the folksy and almost lugubrious tone illustrates how easily the device may get out of hs student hand. Frost seems to be aware of the danger, however, for generally his treatment of animals is cartoon essay, humorous. Consider the fine irony of the epigram entitled Waspish: On glossy wires artistically bent, He draws himself up to his full extent. His natty wings with self-assurance perk.

His stinging quarters menacingly work. Poor egotist, he has no way of knowing But he's as good as anybody going. While such humor may be a necessary safeguard against absurdity, Frost's technique of personification serves serious purposes, and it would be an error to mistake his animal poems for mere light verse. In A Scientific? Departmental for example, may be taken as a comic poem, but its humor is actually a means of essay portraying such serious matters as the blinding effects of custom and resume, the indifference of the group to essay, the individual. The poem is a perfect illustration of his pastoral method. Here human society is viewed through the analogy of an ant hive, and expository essay, we are made to see the absurdity of man's allegiance to an impersonal social order by watching the ants as they discover the death of one of their workers: Ants are a curious race; One crossing with hurried tread The body of one of their dead.

Isn't given a moment's arrest - Seems not even impressed. But he no doubt reports to any. With whom he crosses antennae, And they no doubt report To the higher up at court. Then word goes forth in Formic: 'Death's come to Jerry McCormic.' The poem then describes with savage irony the governmental red tape of the cartoon essay, instructions for Jerry's burial, the mortician-ant's cold professionalism, and the general indifference of the public. By picturing the ant colony as a miniature society, Frost reveals the essay, resemblance between the stultifying effects of departmentalism among men and the blindly mechanical operations of insect life. The whimsical effects of the comparison are of the cartoon essay, very essence, for the poem is phd engineering, funny just because it explores the resemblance between ants and men so thoroughly. And such thoroughness is only possible for a poet who sees man and nature separated by a boundary which is both definite and inalterable. 1. Tree at My Window. Essay? 2. Lines Composed a Few Miles Above Tintern Abbey.'.

3. Seven Types of Ambiguity (London. 1947). pp. 151-4. For It Resume? The view I favor is cartoon essay, pretty close to that of F. Scientific Paper? R. Cartoon? Leavis in Wordsworth. Expository Essay Exemplars? Revaluation (New York. 1947). Cartoon Essay? pp. Resume Writing Services Review? 154-85. 4. See W. K. Cartoon? Wimsatt. The Structure of Romantic Nature Imagery, The Verbal Icon (Lexington, Kentucky, 1954). pp.

103-16. 5. The Letters of William and Dorothy Wordsworth: The Late Years, ed. E. de Selincourt (Oxford University Press, 1939), I, 134-5. Expository? 6. Cartoon Essay? The Need of Being Versed in expository, Country Things. 7. To Earthward.

8. As the poet once remarked to essay, me, You know, there is nothing after this.

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opdyke thesis pdf Liberating While Enslaved: The Story of Irene Gut Opdyke and her Memories as a Holocaust Rescuer. Book Essay on: Irene Opdyke, In My Hands: Memories of a Holocaust Rescuer. (New York: Random House, 1999), 238 pages. UCSB: for Prof. Marcuse's lecture course. UC Santa Barbara, Spring 2009. About Jenna Leonard.

I am a junior history major at the University of California, Santa Barbara and have always found European history fascinating. Essay. Being of German descent, I definitely am especially interested in learning about the tumultuous past of for it resume such a unique country and after taking a similar course last quarter wanted to continue studying the history and culture. I chose this particular book because I am intrigued by any sort of cartoon essay resistance against the Nazi regime during World War II and found this to be a very inspiring read. The book I chose, In My Hands: Memories of a Holocaust Rescuer, provides a detailed story of one individual, Irene Gut, and her life as a Polish girl trying to phd engineering, help Jews while she herself was enslaved under the Nazis during World War II. Irene committed the acts she did because she saw it as the essay, right thing to do and essay exemplars her perception of her actions is very humble.

In reality, her acts were quite courageous and heroic and essay her memories relate this to readers. From working as a nurse, to how to write, being raped, and then forced to essay, work under the Nazis, Irene constantly held her own for the sake of others. Resume Writing. Her story of saving over 16 people and not trying to save herself is such an cartoon essay empowering story, revealing the selflessness of and research her deeds and proving that there were acts of resistance during the cartoon essay, reign of hs student Nazis in Europe. Cartoon. Her decision to risk her life to help victims of the Holocaust was a reflection of her strength of character and her belief that it was her duty to resist the Nazis from harming Jews in any way that she could. Liberating While Enslaved: The Story of Irene Gut Opdyke and her Memories as a Holocaust Rescuer. “How can I tell you about this war?

How can I say these things? If I tell you all at once--first this happened, and then this, and these people died and expository exemplars those people lived and then it was over—you will not believe me. Sometimes I wonder if these things could have happened. Essay. Was it me? Was I really there?

In the essay, war, everything was unnatural and unreal. We spoke lines that were not our own. This happened to me and yet I still don’t understand how it happened at all…” -Irene Gut Opdyke. In her memoir, In My Hands: Memories of a Holocaust Rescuer , Irene Gut relates her arduous journey as a Polish girl trying to survive in World War II-ravaged Europe, making a choice to cartoon essay, help those in need around her and continuously risking her life in doing so.

When faced with decisions of whether to do the right thing or to step aside, Irene Gut explains, “The war was a series of choices made by many people. Some of those choices were as wicked and shameful to humanity as anything in history. But some of us made other choices. I made mine” (Opdyke, 235). Her memoir is filled with traumatizing stories of expository essay being raped, beaten, and cartoon essay living alone as a non-Aryan exile during the war, but also exemplifies her self-sacrificing attitude and her ability to rescue more than sixteen Polish Jews. References And Research. Irene Gut Opdyke’s book shows that it is possible to make the right choices when faced with obstacles and hardships, and what readers can take from her experience is that this young Polish girl chose to take the higher route, to put others first, even when it could have led to her own punishment or death. She made these choices because she knew it was the cartoon essay, right thing to do, that there was no other option, and the small steps that she explains she took truly weren’t small at all, but courageous and expository essay exemplars heroic deeds. As a young girl growing up in Poland, Opdyke provides instances of foreshadowing for her martyr-like future.

She relates a fortune-telling incident of discovering her destiny when she and her younger sisters and her “melted candle wax and cooled it with water….then held up the cartoon essay, wax to the light and phd engineering studied the silhouette on the wall” in order to predict their future (Opdyke, 14). Cartoon. The shadow of her candle projected an image of a ship sailing with a crucifix on the bow. This sort of sign, along with another anecdote about her determination to save a wounded bird, provide a basis for Irene’s destiny to resume, be a compassionate and selfless human being. She did not just one day decide to change her ways and essay become a caring individual, but in actuality had been so from a very young age. In 1938, when Irene was sixteen years old, she decided to attend school in Radom, an industrial city in Poland, in pursuit of becoming a nurse.

Her dedication to her education and hope to one day be able to care for the sick left her “lonely and expository missing her family….hiding behind her books while other girls took their duties lightly” revealing her self-sacrificing tendencies and choice to study and get somewhere rather than go out cartoon with the girls at her school (Opdyke, 15). Her choices during childhood and her adolescent years were glimpses of what kind of a person she would become in later years and her desire to always take the right path. When it was certain that Hitler had plans to invade Poland Irene insisted on continuing her nurse-training program and contribute to format for it, her country’s needs. Upon the invasion, when thousands of German tanks rolled over the border, Irene’s choice to stay and help the wounded soldiers reflects her true nature. She could have returned home to her family, as her parents had insisted, but she instead, “…wanted to take part in driving the Germans out of Poland” (Opdyke, 22). Cartoon Essay. Traveling east with Polish doctors and soldiers, Irene was surrounded by expository essay exemplars, the casualties caused by the German military and desperately trying to cartoon, survive in harsh conditions such as “…living in the cold, growing sick, shivering, huddling against the snow” (Opdyke, 30).

Irene Gut could have refused to travel east and gone home, creating a better situation for herself, but that would not have been a reflection of who she was, a devoted and dedicated person to both her job and her country. There were many instances in services, her life, especially when it came to being abused, that Irene Gut Opdyke revealed her ability to overcome such pain and remain a pious person because of her strength and cartoon courageousness shown to readers. How To Paper. While fleeing into the woods, trying to escape the invading Germans, Irene also found herself running from a Russian Patrol in the east. At seventeen years old she was beaten and raped, “…left for dead in the snow, under the frozen stars, with the cartoon, dark forest keeping watch…” over her battered body (Opdyke, 33). Taken to a hospital and then forced to resume, work there as a nurse, she did not become revengeful or wallow in her misery because of her strong and silent character, and instead picked herself up and diligently helped tend to the wounded and sick. Essay. If she had not gone with the phd engineering, Polish army she would not have been in such a situation, raped and essay then left alone to work in a hospital where she knew no one, not even the how to in a paper, language. While living in the hospital she was accosted once again, this time by her superior, Dr. Ksydzof. She was able to escape sexual abuse by knocking him unconscious, but in turn she had to flee the hospital, in fear of later punishment by the cruel doctor.

With assistance from another doctor, Irene was able to escape to cartoon, Svetlana and stay under the care of a woman named Miriam, also a doctor. Irene was able to work with Miriam and references help the essay, inhabitants in the small town, finding peace in hs student, an unfamiliar atmosphere. When reflecting on cartoon her time spent in Svetlana, Irene sees it as an oasis from the for it, former hospital and an opportunity to become further immersed in the language and culture of the town. Again, she is informing readers of her choice to make the best out of the situation, showing her innate tendency to cartoon essay, be positive and writing services review altruistic, even though she was in a foreign country with only one person for support. After living in cartoon essay, Svetlana for one year, Irene learned of an opportunity to in a, move back to the west and finally be with her family. However, as Irene was accustomed to, this task was not accomplished without overcoming obstacles. The town of Ternopol, she had fled to escape the wrath of Dr. Ksydzof, was the place she had to first return to in order to pass through to her home town. This was no easy feat, and in fact she was recognized and then interrogated for her previous escape and her reasons for being back in town.

Her thoughts were, “almost home, almost home, almost home…” as she ran from authorities by leaving the country by cargo train in the dead of night (Opdyke, 49). After returning to her homeland, not unscathed, she was finally reunited with her family. Irene’s homecoming celebration, like most positive experiences in her life, did not last long. Her father was forced to assist the German military in a different region of Poland and her mother and three younger sisters all followed suit to be with the father. Irene, nineteen at the time, and cartoon essay her closest sister, seventeen, were able to stay together. Enlisted to do slave labor in an ammunition factory, Irene was fortunately allowed to go work for Herr Schultz, “a good and friendly man, having none of the ferocity of and malevolence…expected of the Germans” (Opdyke, 88). At this point in writing services review, her life, working in an old hotel as a waitress and essay helper to Herr Schultz, Irene began committing herself to helping Jews to survive in phd engineering resume, Poland.

Her constant viewpoint towards the essay, abusive treatment and utter terror of Nazi actions towards the Jews of the ghettos was one of disbelief and incomprehensibility. Irene Gut, with help from her sister, began providing food from Herr Schultz’ kitchen by format resume, sneaking out to cartoon, the gate of the ghetto and slipping food under the fence. Phd Engineering. This was her first step towards resistance and assistance regarding the Jewish community. In August of 1943, the German military moved east towards Russia and set up more ammunitions factories and production centers. Irene and cartoon her sister Janina moved along with Herr Schultz to continue serving the Nazi clientele. The bulk of Irene’s rescuing took place during this time at the complex called Harres-Krafa Park, referred to as HKP.

There Irene convinced Herr Schultz to admit six German Jews to exemplars, work under her and take care of the laundry and essay food preparations. More Jews were recruited to resume, work at HKP during the time Irene labored there, and cartoon while she saved them from death, she also helped four of them escape by phd engineering resume, horse and cart into the woods where most Jews preferred to be, rather than under Nazi control. Irene risked severe reprimands for providing shelter for the Jews, let alone for helping them escape, and yet she assisted them anyways, knowing that it was not right for them to be treated anything less than human. Irene Gut Opdyke’s most applauded and surprising accomplishment, when it came to saving the German Jews, was her hiding them in essay, a secret space in Major Rugemer’s brand new villa. Without knowledge of Irene’s intentions Major Rugemer insisted upon Irene being his housekeeper for his new home. Her ability to turn a tedious task into an escape route for her Jewish friends shows her bravery and willingness to find a way to help.

Although Irene’s secret was eventually discovered by Major Rugemer, her task did not go unfinished. Major Rugemer did not condemn the hiding Jews and he also let Irene live. Irene faced many obstacles but she completed what she said out to in a scientific, do, to bring kindness to their lives and save them from an unjust government. Irene Gut Opdyke’s memoir is a story of inspiration, turmoil, fear, and strength. Essay. The author could have portrayed herself as a victim of war, a lady in distress, constantly being handed the short straw. But instead, she tells her story as a person who was fortunate enough to format for it resume, be able to survive and explains her decision to help others was not to take the higher road, but that she could think of no other option. Her thinking, indeed, makes her a person of essay righteous standing, and one whom although definitely lucky, made fortune for herself by making self-sacrificing decisions in her life in references and research, order to better the lives of cartoon essay people around her.

There were times when she was frightened to death or lied to corrupt authorities, but these times only reveal that she is a real person, not a selfish person. Essay. Irene Gut Opdyke may have been enslaved by German and Russian authorities during World War II but she sacrificed herself in the face of cartoon essay severe punishment and/or death in order to phd engineering resume, help liberate the innocent. Bibliography and Links (back to top) (links last checked 3/x/09) Locke, J.A. Kaszuba. “In My Hands by Irene Gut Opdyke” BookLoons Reviews, 2004. This review uses many quotes to emphasize how great the reviewer thought this book was, and cartoon essay how descriptive the narrative of Irene’s story was. Phd Engineering Resume. The review states that the book is a magnificent one and even notes, “I urge you to read this, even if it is the only book you read all year.” Clearly, this is a very enthusiastic review and provides not only praise but a summary of the book. This review explains that Irene Gut’s “experiences while still in her teens remind adolescents everywhere that their actions count, that the power to cartoon, make a difference is in their hands” and gives nothing but praise for the book, also providing the reader with a short summary. The reviewer describes it as “a drama of moral choice and courage” and gives the reader helpful insight into what the and research paper, book is about. George Suboczewski, “Review of Opdyke, In My Hands” Polish Library in Washington, 2003. This review is different than most because it emphasizes that Jennifer Armstrong served as a ghost writer of Irene Gut’s story.

While the author of the book praises the writing and the story he also notes that there are “gaps and occasional errors” in the story. Cartoon Essay. The review was helpful in giving a short summary of the books contents. Terese Pencak Schwartz. “Holocaust Rescuers: Heroes and Heroines of the Holocaust” (1997/2008), This site provides many different pages on everything associated with the Holocaust. There are many personal stories on this site that provide readers with numerous accounts of Holocaust rescuers. This site is also very helpful in providing information about Polish citizens who were victims of the Holocaust, over 5 million in new york writing services review, fact, offering their stories and photographs. Humboldt University Site. “To Save a Life: Stories of Holocaust Rescues.” (2004)

This website is very helpful in providing readers with numerous stories of people helping victims of the Holocaust. The narrative provides the stories of six rescuers and thirteen rescued people. This website gives readers further insight into the experiences of cartoon those who rescued people and those who were rescued. This article provides readers with the biography of Raoul Wallenberg, a man from new york resume review, Sweden who worked in Hungary to cartoon essay, help save many Jews during World War II. This webpage offers not only an phd engineering extensive story of his life but also the awards he received because of his risky and diligent work saving Jews by issuing them passports to cross borders and get out cartoon of the how to write, reach of Nazi hands. His story, like Irene Gut’s is not only cartoon essay inspiring but shows the courage it took to do such heroic deeds. Books and Articles: Mordecai Paldiel, Sheltering the Jews: Stories of Holocaust Rescuers (Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress, 1996).

The author of this book uses many stories from the archives of the Jerusalem museum, Yad Vashem, to tell the experiences of format resume those non-Jewish Holocaust rescuers who were instrumental in giving aid to Jews during World War II. This book, like In My Hands, is extremely helpful in cartoon, teaching the world of the heroic acts of individuals trying to resist in any way possible the Nazi regime in Europe. Milton Meltzer, Rescue: The Story of How Gentiles Saved Jews in the Holocaust (New York: HarperCollins Publisher, 1988). This book has been awarded over ten honors for being such an inspiring and thrilling read. It tells the journeys and phd engineering experiences, like In My Hands, of essay brave individuals trying to resist Nazi reign.

This book is references, very insightful, especially, because it offers varying accounts of resistance and rescue stories. This book offers encouraging stories and shows the cartoon essay, power of courage and quiet rebellion. Any student tempted to use this paper for an assignment in resume, another course or school should be aware of the serious consequences for cartoon essay plagiarism. Here is paper, what I write in my syllabi: Plagiarism —presenting someone else's work as your own, or deliberately failing to credit or attribute the cartoon essay, work of others on whom you draw (including materials found on the web)—is a serious academic offense, punishable by dismissal from the university. It hurts the one who commits it most of all, by cheating them out new york services review of an cartoon education.

I report offenses to the Office of the Dean of Students for disciplinary action.

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Create your free Business Plan now. Make an cartoon essay investment-worthy business plan easily with our free template. Select a Industry Fill in new york writing the Form. Complete your Business Plan. Print and essay Download For Free.

Business Plans: Writing Guides, Downloadable Templates, and Samples. Updated February 15, 2017 by Legal Templates. 1. Free Business Plan Template Download. Are you an entrepreneur looking to write a introduction in a download a free business plan? If so, you have come to the right place. Legal Templates is happy to cartoon provide you with a hassle-free document downloads. References And Research. Click the buttons below to download (1) a blank document, and (2) a document that is filled in for you to reference. Related Business Documents: Click to View.

What’s included in the blank template: In the first download, you will find documents with all of the cartoon essay chapters, section titles, and section subtitles that you will need to successfully complete your plan. Resume. Our first plan contains the 8 chapters of a basic business plan including: Chapter 1: Executive Summary: The executive summary provides investors with a general layout of your company. This chapter is essentially your hook to convince potential financiers that your model is cartoon essay worthy of their investment.

Chapter 2: Company and Financing: In this chapter, the and research goal is to outline the legal and operational structure of cartoon your company, financing requirements, the history behind the company, mission statement and hs student resume the management team. If you are forming a corporation, be sure to include your Articles of Incorporation here. Chapter 3: Products and cartoon Services: This section describes what products and/or services your business will sell (now and in the future), and how you will build, assemble and deliver them. It also offers a comparison of write a introduction scientific your company and your direct and indirect competitors. Cartoon. Chapter 4: Customers and phd engineering Market Analysis: The customers and market analysis page indicates your target customer segments, what needs you are filling for them , and cartoon essay the latest trends among these consumers in terms of growth and behavior. Chapter 5: Marketing and Sales: The marketing and sales chapter allows you to describe how you will sell your product/service. Resume. Particularly what are your company’s strategies for positioning, pricing, promotion and distribution. Chapter 6: Strategy and Implementation: This chapter will give you an opportunity to set the key milestones that help establish a timeline of cartoon essay progress towards your goals. Additionally, it includes subsections like SWOT analysis, competitive edge, and strategic alliances.

Chapters 7 + 8: Financial Plan, Sales Forecast, Financial Statements: In the final two chapters, entrepreneurs must define and calculate the financial variables that will go into the creation/expansion of your idea, including its expenses, your anticipated sales forecast, personnel plan, cash flow assumptions, and more. If you are purchasing an existing company, you should also include the business purchase agreement in hs student resume your plan. What’s included in the template with sample text: In the second download, we give you a completed ice cream shop plan to reference. Essay. Each section gives an example of what you should write. Our guide also includes example graphs and charts, so that you are aware of the types of financial calculations, plans, and forecasts that a plan should offer to attract investment. For guidance on what you should include in your plan, and why, please reference our How to Write a Business Plan set of articles below. Downloading this small business plan comes at no cost, so feel free to start your download and get started. However, you should be aware that there are some pros and cons to phd engineering using free business templates, rather than using professional software or an experienced writer. Writing a business plan is cartoon a prerequisite to your company’s success. A solid plan is necessary to help found your company and ensure that your goals remain on track over time.

Your plan can and will change as you encounter the unpredictable variables that come with starting your own company. If you have an existing company, crafting a solid plan is equally important if you’re hoping to attract investment and expand your company beyond the limits you’ve already reached. Your business strategy should account for the next 3-5 years in advance, and cover every aspect of your industry, including the critical relation between marketing and sales to your company’s finances. Your plan should include the following sections before you submit it to investors. Phd Engineering. Click each accordion to read a how-to guide for each chapter: “How to Write a Business Plan” Table of Contents: How to Write the Executive Summary.

The executive summary contains all of the essential information about what makes your business strong and worthy of investment . It covers the major highlights of the rest of your plan’s chapters. The goal is to briefly tell your reader what your company will do, where you want to take it, and why your business idea will be successful. If you are seeking financing, the executive summary is essay your first opportunity to references and research grab a potential investor’s interest. The executive summary will be the first chapter of your business plan, though it’s actually the last section that you should write . First, you’ll need to do heavy research to ensure that your plan is cartoon essay sound before you can write the executive summary. This section will be different depending on if you are an resume established business or a new startup. A startup company’s executive summary will need to be interesting and convincing to capture the attention of investors. Your company will lack the essay historical data and trends that existing companies are able to provide, but there are strategies to mitigate these factors. First, you’ll need to briefly explain who you are, the background of your management team, and your reasoning behind starting a business in and research your chosen niche. Secondly, you’ll need to cartoon demonstrate that you’ve done quality research that supports how you’ve conceptualized your business. Format For It Resume. Investors know that talk is cheap – do you have the data and analysis to back up your claims? Even in a standard plan, the essay executive summary for an existing business has no set template, although there are several suggested guidelines that you can find around the expository essay exemplars web.

We suggest the cartoon following basic template – feel free to add or subtract sections according to your own needs: Summary Management Team Products and Services Customers Marketing and Sales Financial Forecast Financing Requirements (optional) Describe the purpose of the plan (e.g.; to raise a specific amount of references and research paper debt financing to essay expand a store location) as well an overview of the company (name, location, company type, products sold, founder(s) and founding date). Describe the key milestones or objectives that you want to achieve with this business (these are the tangible results in phd engineering which you use to prove success of the venture). This statement should be concise and to the point. Summarize the members of the management team, including highlights of their expertise and experience . Describe how each member contributes to the success of the organization. Keep this section brief, as you will go into more detail in the Products and essay Services section.

Products and Services. Describe the products and services you are providing and who the competitors are within the industry . Keep this section brief, as you will go into more detail in the Products and Services section. Describe whom your customer groups are and whom your key customers are , as well as how you will market to them. Keep this section brief, as you will go into more detail in the Market section. Describe briefly how you will market your product or service. Summarize the major points in the Marketing and Sales chapter, which may include market positioning, pricing, promotion, and essay distribution.

Summarize the most important points from the Financial Plan section here. This should include your sales forecasts and essay projected expenses as well as the logic behind the projections. If you are a new company, describe when you expect to turn a profit . If you are an existing company, highlight past financial performance. 7. Financing Requirements (Optional) Summarize the amount of hs student equity and/or debt financing that you are seeking, when you need it, the essay use of the funds, and when you expect to reach your next milestone event and/or start paying back the loan. Keep this at an overview level , as you will go into more detail later on format for it resume, in other chapters. Note: This is a complex question that you cannot answer until you complete your plan, so it is highly recommended you work your way through the entire writing process first . Essay. In particular, complete the financial planning process before attacking this section.

Only then will you be able to identify the amount of money you will need to raise. With these sections fleshed out, you’ve finished your executive summary. How to Write the Company and Financing Chapter. The company and references finance section of cartoon your plan is important, because introducing the resume management team is cartoon essay critical for both start-ups and established companies alike. Investors will use this information to gauge the future likelihood of success. Company and Financing Sections.

Company Overview Management Team Required Funds (optional) Exit Strategy (optional) Mission Statement (optional) Company History (optional) Location and Facilities (optional) There are many variations and approaches on how to lay out the various components of references a business plan. Our approach for cartoon, the company overview section is to exemplars provide the cartoon reader with the company’s legal information, address and a brief description of the company’s history. Since there are follow up sections in and research paper this chapter that over go the cartoon company’s location and phd engineering resume history in more detail, you will want to cartoon keep this short (2-3 sentences). A BRIEF PRIMER ON COMPANY TYPES. The optimal company type is best determined by a credible Attorney. The primer below is resume meant only to explain the broad differences between the most common company types. A sole proprietorship, according to the IRS: “A sole proprietor is cartoon someone who owns an unincorporated business by him or herself.” While the most simple to set up and the most common, there is a significant drawback: you will be personally liable for any obligations.

So for phd engineering resume, example, if you sell someone a cupcake and they sue you because they found a hair in it, and essay you lose in expository essay exemplars court, the creditors can legally go after your personal possessions – such as the roof over your head. A partnership, according to the IRS: “A partnership is the relationship existing between two or more persons who join to carry on a trade or business. Each person contributes money, property, labor or skill, and cartoon essay expects to share in the profits and losses of the phd engineering resume company.” A partnership has certain advantages compared to a LLC, such as not needing to file formation documents when setting up a partnership, and not needing to file dissolution documents if dissolving the partnership. However, similar to sole proprietorships, partners in a partnership have unlimited liability for cartoon, the company’s debts and hs student liabilities.

Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs) LLPs are different from cartoon, traditional partnerships in that there are two classes of partners: (1) General partners that have full management and write a introduction in a scientific control but also full personal liability and cartoon essay (2) Limited partners that have no personal liability beyond their investment in the partnership interest. Limited partners are often times “silent partners” that wish to invest in the venture but limit their exposure to liability. A corporation is for it a separate legal entity owned by shareholders. A corporation is commonplace for businesses that anticipate seeking venture capital financing. The downside to a corporation is the problem of “double taxation” since the corporation’s profits is taxed at the corporate level, and then any dividends distributed to shareholders are then taxed again at the personal level. You can elect a special tax status with the essay IRS to have your corporation not be taxed at the corporate level (instead, it would be taxed as a pass-through entity). Some of the drawbacks include not being able to have more than 100 shareholders , and not being able to have non-US citizens/residents. A popular choice among many small businesses , a LLC limits the resume member’s personal liability and only taxes profits at cartoon essay the individual level (acts as a pass-through entity). Describe the type of company you plan to open, along with the registered name you plan to use.

Explain your rationale – for example, if you are starting a company where you plan on seeking venture capital financing, then you will want to start a C-Corporation as majority of VCs will insist on this legal structure. If you have a home office/no dedicated business address. Include your current office setup and your future office plans once your company expands, if applicable. For start-ups, and especially those seeking financing, the Management Team section is new york writing services review especially critical. Essay. With the lack of history, there is little investors can go by to gauge the format resume future success of cartoon a venture.

The question lenders and write scientific investors will ask: Why should we trust your team with our money? You must demonstrate your team’s ability to execute on the stated goals. To accomplish this, you should highlight: Background of each member of the cartoon management team (education, relevant work experience, etc.) Roles and responsibilities within the company. Tip: Don’t include details about members of the Management Team that are not relevant to the reader. Everything presented should reinforce why your team is the scientific paper right team to execute on the company’s vision. If you have an established business the information you want to cartoon present is the same. Keep in mind, however, that you also want to demonstrate that your team has the capability to paper manage growth of the cartoon company. As a company grows from start-up to established business, the management team must also change. New York Resume Review. They must be able to manage employees, institute standardized systems, and ensure the business’s ability to cartoon scale operations while keeping profitability stable.

If you already have a Board of Directors and/or Advisory Board, list these individuals and a brief description. In a publically trading company the resume Board of cartoon essay Directors is elected by the shareholders and is the phd engineering resume highest authority in the management of the company. Cartoon. For our purposes (context of a private company that is most likely a startup or small but growing business), a Board of for it Directors is comprised of investor(s), founder(s), CEO and cartoon independent board member(s) who have substantial business and industry experience. A Board of Director’s typical responsibility is to set broad policies for expository exemplars, the company, determine compensation for company management, and approve annual budgets. An advisory board is cartoon a group of business leaders that can help guide your company and phd engineering provides it with assistance when needed. Choose individuals with knowledge in your industry and essay are willing to play a role in your company . While some advisors are compensated, it comes down to a case-by-case basis, frequently depending on how much time the member is committed to your company. Tips on building your Advisory Board: Choose a well-respected and well-known individual as the first member of your Advisory Board.

This will help you to recruit other members of the hs student Board. Cartoon Essay. Choose individuals that have strengths and relationships your business will need. As your business evolves, so will the members of your Advisory Board. Resume. Feel free to shake up the line up over time. In this section you will tell the reader how much money you need to raise, what you are going to use it for, and how you got to the requested amount. Important note: This is a complex question that you cannot answer until you complete your plan, so it is highly recommended you work your way through the entire writing process and in particular, complete the financial planning process. Only then will you be able to identify the amount of money you will need to raise. There are two primary financing options: equity and essay debt. The primary difference between equity and debt financing is phd engineering resume that debt financing is essentially a loan that is backed by essay your assets or via a personal guarantee. If your company is format for it already in existence and has trading history, then you may also secure a loan off of cartoon essay your receivables. In contrast, equity financing is essentially you exchanging a stake in new york review your company for a specific sum of money from an investor . Therefore, the amount you are able to raise from investors comes down to how much they value your company.

There are three fundamental questions every savvy investor will ask you: Cool idea, how do you make money with it? How much money do you need, and essay why and how to in a scientific paper when? What do you think your company is worth? If you are seeking financing (regardless of its equity or debt), that most likely means that your financial model shows your company taking a loss in the initial stages, followed by break-even and subsequent profitability. Essay. The money you are seeking to expository exemplars raise will simply allow you to have enough cash to cover the initial period where you will be taking a loss so that you can eventually make a profit. This is a simplification; you may be raising money to further grow your company, which may already be profitable. Or you might use the financing to get your product to the next stage in cartoon its product development lifecycle (i.e.; milestone event). But the general concept is the resume services same; the investment you are seeking bolsters your company’s cash position , allowing it to grow revenue and/or profitability.

Cool idea, how do you make money with it? / How much money do you need, and why and when? The financial statements provide the answer to the first two questions (which is cartoon essay why we recommend you complete your plan first). To answer how much money you need, analyze the new york review cash flow statement to determine the cumulative cash flow. The lowest point on this curve will tell you what your maximum financing needs are , and at cartoon essay what point in and research paper time. What do you think your company is worth? The third question is much harder to answer, especially for a new company. At the end of the day it really comes down to what an investor thinks your company is worth (which is more art than science). However, there are three popular methods of valuing a company that can help you come up with a valuation to facilitate the cartoon negotiation.

Cost approach (asset based approach) The cost approach seeks to determine a company’s value by analyzing the market value of its assets. In other words, in hs student resume this approach the company is worth the sum of all its assets if they were to essay be liquidated . This approach may be appropriate for some industries such as real estate where the asset value may actually be worth more than the going concern value (present value of future cash flows generated by the asset). However, for many companies the value of phd engineering resume its branding and essay reputation, along with its ability to generate profits, will exceed the value of its assets. The market approach seeks to determine a company’s value by analyzing recent sales of similar assets, with the theory that valuations of similar companies can serve as a good proxy. This is a common approach in the real estate industry. The income approach seeks to determine a company’s value by a introduction in a scientific using its expected profit over essay time and essay then placing a value on that future stream of income in today’s terms . Since there is essay inherent uncertainty with a future stream of phd engineering resume income, there are numerous ways to discount that expected income to account for cartoon, risk. Now you have all the pieces to complete the equation. You have the amount of money you need by looking at cumulative cash flow. You also have an idea of how much money your company will be worth. Equation to determine how much equity you should offer:

Equity to offer = Company Valuation / Money needed. If raising debt, you are not exchanging equity for cash. Instead, you should focus on the loan’s interest rate and payment schedule. Make sure you will be turning a profit that is format both large enough and soon enough to essay ensure there is no delinquency on servicing the loan. For equity financing, answer the how to scientific following: Investment amount needed When you need it How much time it will buy you / When you expect to turn a profit or get to the next milestone event % of equity offered and at what company valuation (you may wish to cartoon essay keep exact figures vague in order to further negotiate) Exit strategy. For debt financing, answer the following:

Loan amount needed When you need it When you will be able to pay back the loan The amount and frequency of loan payments. In addition to the information above, you should also summarize how you plan to use the funds. The level of detail should be at a high level ; if the investor or lender wants to see expenses in more detail that will be available in the Appendix within the expository essay Profit/Loss statement. Construction of new kitchen: Kitchen remodeling, March 1, 2014, $25,000 Kitchen hardware, April 1, 2014, $50,000 Total Loan Amount: $75,000. If based on your financial model you anticipate relatively small yet variable expenses month to month, a line of credit may be a good choice. With a line of credit you draw upon cartoon essay, it when you require the new york writing funds and pay interest immediately on the money as it is borrowed. It works very similarly to cartoon a credit card in that you typically have a pre-set limit to how much you can borrow, the major exception that since you may be able to secure the line of credit with assets, you may be able to get better terms.

In the Quick Start Guide we briefly went over phd engineering resume the different strategies available and how thinking about cartoon, your company’s eventual exit will help shape your business model. It’s recommended you review the Quick Start guide and practice that exercise. Depending on resume, your company, there are various exit strategies available, including: Selling your business Passing it down through the family Taking the company public (IPO) Liquidation. If you are seeking equity financing, then your investors will pay close attention to this section. Angel investors and VCs demand a large return on their investment since they are taking a large risk by investing into your company.

Therefore, you need to include detailed information on how you intend to sell the company or take it public. Demonstrating a large market opportunity. If investors are going to take a big risk, they demand a big return. You need to essay demonstrate your business has the potential to either take substantial market share from an incumbent competitor, or create a new market. Investors like to be in hot, growing industries such as biotechnology, mobile e-commerce and healthcare. These are all industries that have huge upside growth potential and ones that investors are more inclined to invest in. Solving a larger company’s problem. If your exit strategy is to sell your company to a larger company, then identify how your company’s product solves that larger company’s stated problems and/or goals. For example, Apple’s mapping software is playing catch-up to expository essay Google Maps. If your company can help Apple improve its software, your company would become an attractive acquisition target.

The mission statement reflects the core purpose and vision of the company. It’s a statement your employees and customers can get behind. Some tips on writing a well-crafted mission statement: Keep it short. Cartoon. 1-2 sentences max. Don’t use “fluff” words. Make the statement mean something.

A mission statement, if done well, should encapsulate both what the references and research paper company does (what it sells) as well as the culture/vision/purpose. Examples of Fortune 500 firms that really get it right: A. BRISTOL-MYERS SQUIBB COMPANY (PHARMACEUTICALS) Mission Statement: “To discover, develop and deliver innovative medicines that help patients prevail over serious diseases.” Why it’s great: The keywords “discover, develop and cartoon essay deliver” demonstrate the company’s capability to resume in delivering an end-to-end solution. By using the words “innovate” and “prevail over serious diseases” it serves as a rallying call for their thousands of employees that what they are doing is (1) cutting edge and (2) has a higher purpose then themselves. Mission statement: “ We will be the easiest pharmacy retailer for cartoon, customers to use.” Why it’s great: In one short sentence, the company has managed to (1) describe what it sells (2) how it will win in the marketplace. It is a pharmacy retailer and and research it will solely focus on making itself easier for the customer to essay use (that could mean so many things, such as innovating online to fulfill prescriptions to hs student resume improved customer service within their stores). Example of poorly written mission statements.

A. FORTUNE 500 FOOD AND BEVERAGE COMPANY. Mission statement: “ The Company’s primary objective is to maximize long-term stockholder value, while adhering to the laws of the essay jurisdictions in which it operates and at write paper all times observing the highest ethical standards.” Why it’s horrible: It does not serve as a rallying call for employees, suppliers, or partners. Its objectives are obvious (what company does not want to maximize value) and borderline absurd (are there companies that do not want to adhere to local and federal laws)? Lastly, it does not mention what the cartoon essay company actually does.

B. FORTUNE 500 VEHICLE PARTS SUPPLIER. Mission Statement: “ We are committed to attracting, developing, and keeping a diverse work force that reflects the nature of our global business.” Why its horrible: While a diverse workforce is certainly not a bad thing, only stating that as the review company’s mission statement is ineffective, lacks direction or focus, and completely misses the cartoon essay point of having a mission statement. This is predominately for businesses that have previous trading history, but can also be used by new companies that want to format for it highlight relevant history on how the essay company came to existence, work completed to write a introduction paper date, milestones achieved, etc. Some information you may want to include: Start date First location First product/service Significant milestones/events. Reminder: keep in mind that there is no set rule as to the level of essay detail you want to include. This is hs student resume dictated by essay the relevancy of the information to the reader and how this information helps strengthen your plan’s ability to review build credibility for your company.

Every company is made of cartoon milestones. Milestones for a business are achievements that demonstrate the for it business is on the right track. They are best when quantifiable and measureable. For example, achieving a working prototype of your product, or getting to break-even, are both huge milestones that showcase your ability to execute and reduces subsequent risk of your company. Key concept: The more uncertainty that you can take off from the table, the better valuation you can get for your business. For businesses that have a retail or manufacturing component, this is an important section of your plan. Information you may want to cartoon essay include:

Size (e.g.; in sq. ft.) Location/Address Other notable facts, such as equipment at paper the facility. Location is important for a large number of retail businesses, whether you are a restaurant or purveyor of consumer products. If possible, provide statistics about the essay retail location you have chosen or are planning to resume choose. Essay. Describe the lease terms you are able to secure, and if there are any laws that protect the lessee from unreasonable price increases. You can read a detailed article about what to look for how to write paper, in a lease agreement here.

Provide detailed information on the manufacturing facilities. Cartoon. For example, your operation may require a reliable source of electricity and water. Describe how the format for it resume facility provides the business with these resources. If the facility is essay pre-existing equipment or structures that can be leveraged, make mention of that. Location can be an important aspect of your business even if you are not in retail or manufacturing. For example, you might want to open your software company in references and research paper Silicon Valley as that provides a competitive advantage from an employee recruitment and fundraising perspective.

If you operate out of a home office. Describe your future expansion plans, including expected date of expansion. Upon completing these sections, you will then be finished with the company and financing section of your business plan. Writing the Products and Services Chapter. The products and services chapter of your business plan should be written clearly and descriptively, to help give investors a comprehensive understanding of the bread and butter of your business. Cartoon. Your products and services section should include the following sections. Products and Services Chapter Sections. Products and Services Competitors Sourcing and Fulfillment (optional) Technology (optional) Intellectual Property (optional) Future Products and Services (optional) Your products and services are the lifeblood of your business – it’s what your customers need, and if you get this right, everything else will follow . Commonly referred to write a introduction scientific paper as “product lift”, which essentially means getting the secret sauce working.

It means that customers want to buy your product/service, and you are filling a need that was previously not satisfied. Thinking in essay terms of benefits vs. features. What is the consumer really buying? For example, a person buying a Rolex watch is not only buying a device to tell time, but the prestige and and research status that comes with a luxury product. Think about cartoon, what end benefit your product/service delivers. Of course, the functional aspects of your product/service are also important. Depending on what you are going to sell, think through the features it will provide, packaging, design, branding, quality, and exemplars other aspects that help position and/or differentiate it from competing products/services. You may have heard the business adage that acquiring a new customer is indefinitely more expensive then keeping an existing customer. One of the reasons this is cartoon true is the potential to sell additional add-ons, upgrades and substitute products/services to existing customers . Think about references and research, how you can drive incremental revenue. Whether it’s via subscriptions, repeat business, or annual contracts, you may be providing products/services that generate a recurring revenue stream.

This is a good thing, because (1) your revenue can be more predictable and cartoon essay stable (2) you are maximizing earning potential . Resume. Think how you can generate recurring revenue, which is expressed with a metric called Lifetime Value per customer. You will complete the cartoon essay price you want to set your products/services in the Financial Plan chapter, and we also have a section for you to describe your pricing strategy; however it is references and research paper advisable to start thinking about how you want to price your products/services. Competitive analysis is an extremely useful tool and one that should be revisited often as the competitive landscape changes over time. It starts with competitive analysis. Background (location, history, ownership) Financials (revenue, profitability) Products (product line, services, patents, licenses) Marketing (channels used and budget, pricing, alliances/affiliates) Personnel (headcount, notable executives, compensation, job openings) Market share Strengths, Weaknesses. Tips on how to perform competitive analysis. The Internet makes this much easier then in cartoon days past. Some ideas:

Google search using keywords that your customers would use to find you Look up industry association websites Look up directories such as Yahoo or Crunchbase Use to find your competitor’s job openings Competitor’s websites Find your competitor’s management team members on LinkedIn. Not only do you have to worry about current competitors you can see, but you have to be vigilant and be on the lookout for new entrants. For example, a company that already sells to your customer base may see your industry as a logical next step. You should consider the likelihood of new entrants high if: The industry sees high margins (its super profitable) There is unmet demand (more customers then suppliers) There are no major barriers to entry (does not take much to start competing) There is future growth potential (such as mobile apps) Much of a introduction in a paper this is common sense – if you see a market opportunity that no one is competing in yet, don’t expect that you will be alone for long. Sourcing is simply the process of procuring goods and services from suppliers that are required for your company to make its products or deliver its service. Cartoon Essay. Some things to paper consider when choosing and managing your suppliers: Cost: This is an obvious one – the cartoon essay lower the price, the higher your profit margins will be. Payment terms: The longer you have to pay your suppliers, the expository more working capital you have on hand. Reliability: You must consider how reliable your suppliers are and what would happen to your ability to operate if they cannot deliver.

Scalability: As your business expands, will your suppliers be able to meet your needs? Fulfillment is simply the essay process of how your company delivers its products/services, from point of sale to delivery. There are several popular fulfillment options: Engineer to write a introduction scientific paper order: the product is designed and built to customer specifications (e.g.; large construction projects) Build to order: the product’s design is standardized but manufacture of final product is based off of essay customer specifications (e.g.; aircraft and yachts) Assemble to order: the resume writing services review product is essay assembled to the customer’s specifications using pre-fabricated components (e.g.; Chipotles burritos, Dell computers) Make to new york resume writing services stock: the product is essay manufactured in quantity based on new york resume writing review, expected sales of the cartoon essay product (e.g.; retailers) If you are going to be selling physical products and expect to hold inventory, then you should pay very close attention to how you forecast the amount of inventory you need to meet your projected sales. Too little inventory and you may not be able to meet demand.

Too much inventory and hs student resume you tie up all of your cash on excess inventory. Essay. Some key points: Have accurate sales forecasts. Use historical sales data if you have it, and make sure you account for references and research, seasonality. Have accurate inventory tracking. Use bar code scanning or equivalent to ensure there are no data entry errors. Utilize inventory management software. QuickBooks, Sage, and a plethora of other vendors provide a cloud-based solution for you to cartoon essay manage and maximize your inventory levels. Technology in today’s business environment is becoming more and more important and serves as a source of competitive advantage.

Take Wal-Mart or FedEx as two examples of companies that provide services (low-cost products and shipping), but utilize technology as a critical means of delivering those services. Wal-Mart uses a sophisticated supply chain management IT system to ensure its low prices. FedEx uses technology to optimize delivery routes and times, which enables it to ship to practically every corner of the globe, seamlessly and for it resume with very low error rates. Think about how technology plays a part in essay your business and if it is critical to your business operations. If technology is critical to your business operations, then you must think about your disaster preparedness and how to write in a scientific paper contingency planning . Depending on essay, your business, you may want to create back-up copies of references and research data and software, routine security checks, and securing physical assets. What would happen if you lost access to the technology?

Think about alternatives that you could utilize. For example, if you license a piece of software and cartoon later down the road decide that the cost is too high, is there a competitor who can license you an alternative? If you have exclusive rights to a technology, either through a patent or through an services exclusive license agreement, this is a great competitive advantage and one that you will want to cartoon essay describe in detail. There are two types of intellectual property that may be applicable to a business: industrial property (such as patents and hs student resume trademarks), and copyright (such as novels and movies). If you have intellectual property that you want to protect, it is advisable that you seek the professional advice of a good Patent/IP Attorney , since this is a great way to provide a barrier to cartoon essay entry for your business. Intellectual property type 1: Industry property. These include inventions (patents), trademarks and industrial designs (trade secrets, trade dress). If you have any proprietary process or technology then it is recommended that you apply for a patent to protect your invention.

You should apply for a trademark for your company name and for it logo as well. Intellectual property type 2: copyright. These include literary and artistic works such as novels, poems and plays, films, musical works, artistic works such as drawings, paintings, photographs and sculptures, and architectural designs. In 2011, counterfeit copyrighted and trademarked goods were a $600 billion dollar industry worldwide. Enforcing your intellectual property may be feasible from a legal point of view, but many times is not practical in practice. For example, Microsoft cannot possibly prosecute every single instance where its popular operating systems are copied and downloaded. IP and your employees and contractors. It is just as important to essay secure your intellectual property in relation to your employees and contractors. Resume Services Review. Everyone should be required to sign an invention assignment agreement, which basically states that the company owns all works produced while contracted by the company. In addition, you may consider handing out essay serialized notebooks for employees to use , so that if there is ever a conflict as to how to a introduction in a scientific paper whom owns a piece of intellectual property, there is a physical record. If you have future products and services planned, it is a good idea to describe the product roadmap and strategy behind it . A key concept is essay that of how to a introduction scientific product lifecycle, which describes the stages of the life of a product.

During this phase, your product will incur heavy promotional costs as you get the word out. You may discount the price of the product to encourage new customers. During this phase, you may focus on expanding your product to new segments in the marketplace, and expand the product line (for example, with new colors or other variations). During this phase, you are enjoying the fruits of cartoon essay your labor. You may add new features to your product to stay competitive and to further differentiate your product from competitors. Marketing spend for your product starts to format for it dissipate as sales of your product are in steady decline. After including all of this information, you’ll have completed the cartoon essay products and services chapter. Writing the Customers and for it Market Analysis Chapter. The customers and market analysis chapter will give you an opportunity to describe what your customer segments are, what needs you are filling for them, and how these groups of customers are trending in cartoon terms of growth and behavior.

This chapter also includes any regulatory restrictions specific to and research your industry. Customers and Market Analysis Sections. Market Overview Market Needs Market Trends (optional) Market Growth (optional) Industry Analysis (optional) Key Customers (optional) In the market overview section you are going to calculate the total market (referred to as Total Addressable Market) for your products, and then the segment of that market your business can capture. Total addressable market can be thought of in several distinct levels. At the highest level is an estimate of the total market given 100% saturation. Cartoon. Another way of looking at this is what would be the total market if one company had 100% market share. Once you have the total addressable market, then you can estimate what percentage of this you can realistically capture. This, of course, is much harder to predict with accuracy. So the important thing to remember is to utilize strong sources for write a introduction in a paper, your assumptions.

For example, lets say you plan to open a high-end steakhouse in downtown Miami. To calculate your total addressable market, you might count how many high-end restaurants are in cartoon the downtown area and exemplars research the average annual sales for each restaurant. Then multiply the two to get the cartoon essay total sales for all high-end restaurants. References Paper. This would be your total addressable market. Using the cartoon essay example above, we can then drill down to for it the next level and determine what percentage of the market you can realistically capture. You might assume that you will take an equal share of the market, thereby decreasing all other competitor’s shares in the market. Cartoon. Or you might offer cheaper prices, which you assume would take a larger percent of the market. Whatever your assumption, make sure it is how to a introduction in a well documented and logical.

To obtain jaw-dropping product-lift you must solve a difficult and painful problem for essay, the customer. And if there are competitors, you must solve the problem better than them, and enough so that customers are willing to switch to your company. Describe what problem your product is solving. If you are targeting multiple customer segments, make sure you go into detail on how your product serves each customer segment. Describe how your solution better solves customer’s pain points then your competitors. We as consumers are inherently lazy. We do not want to go through the references and research paper time and cost of switching from one company’s product/services unless it is compelling enough, which is cartoon essay dependent on the switching cost.

For example, there is virtually no cost to hs student resume switch from cartoon, Coke to Pepsi. On the other hand, there is high switching cost associated with migrating from a Mac to a PC. To overcome this problem, describe how your product either is format for it resume able to overcome customer’s inherent adversity towards switching products, or if your product is able to reach new customers and cartoon essay bypass switching costs altogether (in other words, instead of taking customers away from your competitors, you are creating a new market for your products). Understanding market trends at the macro level is critical for various aspects of your business. A growing or shrinking market is described in more detail in new york writing services review the market growth section. Below are some of the essay other factors that will affect market trends: The overall economy has a disproportionate effect on some businesses. For example, dog-walking services usually see a decline in sales as households reduce spending on non-essential purchases. Government regulations and policies can completely alter an industry, so it is imperative that you are up to date on upcoming changes. For example, the Jobs Act of 2012 allowed for the first time non-accredited investors to expository essay participate in private placement of securities.

This in turn has created a new market for crowd-funding websites to cartoon essay emerge to resume connect startups with all types of investors. You may be in an industry where political conditions have an impact on the bottom line. For example, if you count the Dept. of Defense as one of your clients, then the essay across-the-board budget cuts (i.e.; Sequestration in the Budget Control Act of 2011) would surely have a negative effect on your business. If you build your business on top of a technology platform that will soon be replaced with a more cost affordable, powerful, and easier to use technology, then that will surely put you in a less advantageous position. Knowing technology trends is valuable in ensuring you are gaining a competitive advantage through the how to write in a use of technology. Your customers may change their sensitivity to price depending on a variety of factors, including competition, macroeconomic conditions, and cartoon changing consumer tastes. Keeping an eye on this trend will ensure you optimize your pricing strategy.

Market growth, mathematically, is how to a introduction in a scientific simply measuring the essay change in hs student resume market size from one time period to the next (usually in essay years). So if the market in the first year was $100 million and $150 million the second year, then the market can be said to have grown by 50%. You will find that measuring market growth using historical market size data is much easier then forecasting market growth. Hs Student. Utilize publically available data sources, trade publications, market research firms, and government agencies to find much of this research. Being able to demonstrate a market is growing is obviously important – for example, the essay market for Blackberry accessories is clearly a declining market. Hs Student Resume. Most investors and lenders will not want to see a new business chase after dwindling customers.

On the other hand, the market for Apple and essay Samsung phone accessories have seen great growth and will continue to grow as those companies continue to add new customers. Your industry is defined as the group of companies that are related to you in terms of what you sell/how you derive your revenue. For example, Ford and phd engineering resume Nissan are both in the automotive industry. Essay. Ford and paper Nissan’s market (i.e.; customers) would be the end consumers who buy their cars. You will want to describe your industry name/classification (SIC/NAICS Code), which can be found on the Dept. of Labor website. Essay. Understanding your industry’s dynamics is imperative to hs student resume knowing it’s profit potential and attractiveness. Essay. A popular framework for conducting industry analysis is Porter’s five forces analysis, which analyzes an industry’s competitiveness (and therefore attractiveness).

By performing this analysis you will have a clear picture of your competitors and writing services how your company fits within the competitive landscape. If your industry has low barriers to entry and low switching costs, then expect increased competition, as there is cartoon little standing in the way for new entrants to enter the for it market and compete. If your industry is supplied by very few suppliers with little alternative but to source from those suppliers, then expect downward pressure on cartoon essay, your margins. If your industry only has a small number of buyers, or there are many alternative products to choose from, then expect downward pressure on your margins. If there are many substitute products in your industry and the switching costs between them are low, then expect substantial competition. An industry is very competitive if there are many competitors about the same size, there is little differentiation between competitor’s products, and it is mature with little growth (so the only way to phd engineering grow is to take a competitor’s market share).

Although your product may cater to many different sets of customers, you want to focus on a select group that will be the most likely to essay purchase your product/service and account for the lion’s share of your company’s revenue. For many businesses, you will soon realize that a large portion of your revenue comes from a small percentage of expository your customers. For example, Starbucks may realize their key customers are white-collar business types that purchase a cup of coffee every day, versus the student type that comes in once a month. When you can name your key customers. If you are in a business where volumes are low and prices are high, then you should be able to name your key customers individually. In this case, you should describe in detail your relationship with each of cartoon them separately. If you’ve filled out this chapter, congratulations.

Doing market research and customer analysis is a complicated and time consuming task. Time to move on to the next chapter! Writing the Marketing and services review Sales Chapter. The marketing and sales chapter gives you an opportunity to describe how you will manage your sales force and what sales activities they will conduct in order to close sales. Overview Positioning Pricing Promotion Distribution. In this section, summarize your marketing plan, being sure to include:

Positioning: Are you going to be the essay lowest cost provider or provide a differentiated product? Pricing: How will you price your products/services? Promotion: How will your market your products/services? Distribution: Where will your product/services be available? Tip: It will be easier to how to a introduction paper write this section after you complete the subsequent sections as the overview section summarizes key findings from the other section. Keep this section at the summary-level, as you will go into cartoon further detail in the subsequent sections. Describe how you position your company within the competitive landscape. Will you compete on price, or will you differentiate your offering and stand out from your peers? For example, Wal-Mart positions itself as the low-cost provider in an industry, while Apple designs premium products to reach the scientific paper luxury end of the market. Provide your product/service at cartoon the cheapest price point in hs student the marketplace. There are three primary ways to achieve this:

Economies of Scale: For example, being able to turn more tables in a restaurant or produce more widgets in essay a factory. The more you are able to produce from format, your asset, the cheaper it becomes. It will also be harder for your competitors to enter the market since you have fixed assets and experience that requires a large investment. Low operating costs: Keeping costs down across all aspects of the business, including: Standardization: Limited customization Outsourcing: Outsourcing labor to low cost production centers Thrift: Limiting advertising and cartoon essay RD spend Optimized supply-chain: By lowering inventory and phd engineering resume negotiating with suppliers, companies can substantially improve their profitability and cartoon cash flow. Making your product/service unique by targeting a specific segment of the market is a compelling strategy, especially if: Your customers are not price sensitive The market is competitive Your are targeting a specific niche You can provide a product/service that is not easily copied.

You can also achieve differentiation through branding and marketing – for example, Starbucks sells premium coffee at phd engineering resume a premium price point, primarily through the strength of cartoon their branding and resume not through the taste of their coffee. Determining the optimal price for your products/services will require you to think through several factors: If you are going shooting for the low cost provider strategy, then you will want to price yourself accordingly. Essay. Likewise, if you are going for the luxury end of the market, then a higher price is often times a proxy for quality. How price sensitive are your customers?

If your customers are making their purchase decision primarily based on price, then you will want to phd engineering resume be sensitive to this. The price you set must be high enough to essay over your costs so you can turn a profit. There are, of services review course, exceptions. Cartoon. For example, you might want to achieve economies of format scale by maximizing units sold, or you might be maximizing revenue to achieve dominant market share. There may be regulatory/legal constraints on cartoon, how much you can charge. For example, payday loan vendors are restricted in how much they can charge their customers.

Looking at what your competitors charge can give you a understanding of what current customers are accustomed to for it resume paying and will likely be willing to cartoon pay for your products/services. There are price points that consumers are psychologically more accustomed to, such as amounts ending in .99 or .95. In this section, you move from describing your marketing plan onto how you will convey your marketing message to format resume your intended audience. What marketing channels will you utilize to essay reach your target customers? Depending on your business, traditional media may be an important component of your complete marketing toolbox. These would include television, radio, billboards, flyers, etc. In today’s environment few companies can afford not to have a strong online presence. There are a myriad of options available. Each marketing channel must be carefully measured for effectiveness, as online marketing can quickly add up and consume a small business’s entire marketing budget.

A website is a key component of your digital marketing efforts as it will be the phd engineering destination in essay which your online leads will first visit. Some online marketing options include: Search engines (i.e.; Google, Bing) Directories (Yelp, Angies List) Daily deals (Groupon) Email marketing Social media (Facebook, Twitter) Word of format for it resume mouth marketing is by essay far the most profitable and powerful marketing channel available to any business. Format. New customers that are referred to your business are more likely to purchase and more likely to continue referring your company. There are ways to boost word of mouth marketing, especially with the advent of social media. Cartoon. For example, asking a satisfied customer to for it like your business on cartoon essay, Yelp and Facebook will potentially reach hundreds of their contacts, all with one click. Integrating social media into your word of expository essay mouth marketing strategy is cartoon invaluable for every business.

Blogging/Becoming a subject matter expert. Having a leading voice in your industry will help your business gain credibility from customers, suppliers, partners and competitors. You can start by exemplars participating on public forums and essay blogs related to your business and adapting the adage “give more to format for it resume get more”. How will your products be available? On one end of the spectrum is cartoon direct marketing, whereby you sell directly to your customers. Or if you manufacture your products, you might sell through distributors, who in turn sell to retailers, who in turn sell to consumers. Hs Student Resume. Three common models: Product is essay stocked in phd engineering mass-market distribution channels. Examples include soft drinks, magazines, etc.

Product is specialized and sold through specialized channels. Examples include nautical computers and cartoon essay tooling/machinery. Product is only sold through an exclusive channel. Examples include luxury products such as high-end motorcycles or designer handbags. The Internet presents an unparalleled opportunity to references paper reach customers directly, as well as working with online channel partners to reach and sell to customers. Writing the Strategy and Implementation Chapter. The strategy and implementation chapter will give you an opportunity to define the key milestones that mark meaningful progress towards your goals. It also includes sections that further elaborate on your competitors. Strategy and Implementation Sections. Milestones SWOT Analysis (optional) Competitive Edge (optional) Strategic Alliances (optional)

Milestones are the key events that demonstrate progress is being made , such as completing the company’s first prototype or breaking even. These provide a tangible way to measure the essay success of the business venture. Milestones are so incredibly important to a business yet are one of those things that can be easily overlooked. Hs Student. Why are milestones so important? Because they are a way to measure meaningful progress of a company that in effect, makes that company less risky (and therefore more valuable). A new company has an extremely high-risk profile – but as it meets tangible milestones, such as completing a prototype or breaking even, the company’s risk decreases. It becomes more apparent that the venture will succeed.

Investors and cartoon lenders will be looking at what milestones your company has reached in order to create a fair valuation. Milestones might include: Assembling company team First working prototype Filing/receiving patent or other IP Securing physical location for store First paying customer Breaking even Turning a profit* *If you can demonstrate not only turning a profit, but also sustaining that profit, then that is a huge milestone. SWOT Analysis is a useful technique for understanding your company’s strengths and weaknesses , while identifying both the paper opportunities open to your business and the threats it faces. Strengths and Weaknesses refer to internal factors in your company, such as:

Employees and staff Physical assets such as equipment and cartoon facilities Financial assets. Opportunities and Threats refer to external factors facing your company, such as: Market trends Regulatory and legal Macroeconomic conditions Competitors. Competitive edge can be bucketed into format for it four primary areas: cost, differentiation, innovation and essay operational effectiveness. Are you providing a product/service at expository essay a lower cost then your competitors?

This is a straightforward competitive edge that is cartoon very difficult to deliver. Providing the lowest cost may require operating on razor thin profit margins or heavy investment in references and research fixed costs in order to achieve economies of cartoon scale. Are you providing a product/service that your competitors are not offering or cannot offer? This is a common strategy whereby you provide differentiated value in order to better serve customers and/or reach a portion of the market that may be under-served. Are you leapfrogging your competition and providing a notably superior or new product/service?

Popularized by the book “Blue Ocean Strategy”, creating new demand in an uncontested market space is a powerful business strategy. Do you provide superior time to paper market or customer service? For example, your customers may be willing to pay a higher price for better customer service . Nordstrom’s is an example of a company that uses superior customer service as a competitive advantage. Forging strategic alliances is a commonplace occurrence in business. Cartoon Essay. There are a wide variety of alliances you might encounter, with various parties in references paper which you do business. Even if you do not have any alliances, there may be an opportunity for a partnership in the future and cartoon that should be included in this section. You might have a supplier who has a disproportionate amount of influence and hs student power of your business. Essay. Striking a partnership in this case may decrease those risk factors and provide a competitive advantage over your competitors. You might have a large portion of your revenue coming from several key customers. Inking an exclusive agreement to lock in revenue would, for instance, give you predictable cash flow.

It is for it resume not uncommon to partner with competitors under certain circumstances – for example, to set standards for the industry or to help further adoption of a technology. Cartoon. For example, Sony and Panasonic partnered together to increase the adoption of Blu-ray DVDs. Aligning your brand with another company is frequently used, especially if both brands are targeting the same demographic. For example, Samsung is the official sponsor of the Olympic games and will provide free mobile phones to all Olympic athletes. Upon completing these sections, your strategy and implementation chapter will be finished. Writing the Financial Plan, Statements, and Sales Forecast Chapters. Writing the resume financial plan, financial statements, and sales forecast will be the most difficult part of your entire plan. It requires making a large number of intelligent assumptions about the essay size of the how to a introduction in a scientific market you can realistically target, and cartoon essay the costs associated with making your product or rendering your services. These sections are the red meat of paper your plan — these are the chapters that any seasoned angel investor or venture capitalist will dig into to make sure they know they’re making a solid financial investment. Chapter 7: Financial Plan and Sales Forecast Sections.

Sales Forecast Personnel Plan Budget Cash Flow Assumptions Loans and Investments Starting Balances Historical Financials Key Metrics for Success. Define the price in cartoon which you will sell your products and format services, the cost it will take to produce or sell the cartoon product/service, and the number of units you will sell. Hs Student. Be conservative when making your estimates on essay, the number of units you will sell, ensuring you have a reasonable methodology when making your forecast. It is highly recommended that you first complete the following sections as they lay the foundation for defining the sales forecast. Products/Services section: Defines what you will sell and at what price point; also seeks to define the production cost Target Market section: Defines the size of your target market and what quantities you can sell. Tip: Your sales forecast should sync with your Sales and expository Marketing plan. For example, if you plan on hiring several sales people nine months from the essay start of resume your business, you should forecast an increase in cartoon sales thereafter.

This is the price you will sell your products/services. Fixed price: Suitable for most sales forecast modeling Price changes over references and research time: The price of your product/service may increase/decrease in essay price over resume time for several reasons: Keep up with inflation Keep up with increased cost of raw materials or components Seasonal product – discount to offload excess inventory Promote new product – discount upfront to encourage sales, then increase later. This is the direct cost of producing your product/service (at the unit level). Otherwise known as cost of goods sold (COGS). Fixed costs: Suitable for most sales forecast modeling % of cartoon sales: A good way to forecast costs; as sales increase you can set the cost as a % of sales on a sliding scale. Costs vary each month: The cost of your product/service may increase/decrease in price over time for several reasons: Economy of scale: the more units you produce, the cheaper it becomes to for it produce them Bargaining power: the more units you buy from your supplies, the cheaper they become Seasonality: cost of raw materials may fluctuate based on time of year. This is the expected number of units you will sell. My units are constant: Not particularly suitable as most businesses will expect to have some growth over time. Units sold changes over cartoon essay time: The quantity sold of references your product/service may increase over time for several reasons: Growing market share Finding new markets. Sales tax requirements vary by country and by products/services sold. Cartoon. In the how to write in a paper United States, there is no sales tax at the federal level; however, many states levy selective sales tax on particular goods or services.

Check with your state department of cartoon essay taxation if you are required to collect sales tax. If yes, you collect the sales tax from your customers and then remit the tax to resume the state each year. If the individual assumptions used for each component of the sales forecast is cartoon accurate, so will the overall sales forecast. You should be able to explain where each number comes from, citing studies/research that validates your assumptions. The costs of hiring personnel are often the largest expense of any business. In this section, you will enter forecasted employees and contractors you plan to hire. The number of personnel you plan to hire and at what time is more of an art then a science. Expository Essay. Too much staff too soon and essay you’ll burn through your working capital.

Too few staff and you’ll run the risk of alienating your customers and partners when you can’t deliver. A good way to think about your personnel plan is to phd engineering resume think about the milestones you want your business to accomplish and essay what personnel are required to get your business there. You can always revise your estimates, so start off with your best estimate and format for it come back to this section later. Tweak as needed so that your business model demonstrates profitability within your target time frame. The type of company you are building and the financing required also makes a big difference in your staffing plan. Cartoon. For example, if you are seeking venture capital that mean you are going to want to hire and scale quickly in order to new york writing services generate large revenues. Conversely, if you are seeking debt financing, you want to operate as lean as possible and maximize profitability so you can service your loans.

Fixed amount: Suitable for cartoon, most situations. Changes over references paper time: You might want to define a compensation plan for sales personnel that have an annual bonus component, for example. Employee: If choosing employee you will have to consider certain employee taxes and other considerations. Contractor: If selecting contractor, ensure that you are classifying said contractor correctly. In the United States, for example, you are legally required to provide employee-type benefits in certain situations even if you classify the personnel as a contractor. If hiring employees, you will be responsible for additional costs such as (but not limited to) payroll taxes, worker’s compensation and cartoon health insurance, paid time off, training and hs student travel expenses, vacation and sick leave, pension contributions and other benefits. This is referred to the burden rate, which provides a truer picture of total labor costs than payroll costs alone. Burden rate only cartoon affects employees and not contractors. If unsure what to enter, 15% is a fair estimate. Explain the assumptions and methodology used to phd engineering resume define the personnel your business plans to cartoon retain, including how you came up with your compensation figures and burden rate.

For example, you might explain that as you plan to hire several sales people to coincide with the release of how to write a introduction paper a new product. Enter expenses you plan on incurring for your business. A good way to make sure you capture majority of your business’s expenses is to think through costs associated with each functional area of your business, such as product development, marketing and operations. Categorize expense into groups, such legal and essay administrative, rent and leases, and telecommunications. Do not include fixed asset expenses (assets whereby you derive value from for more than 12 months) such as a company van or computers. For It. You will enter these in cartoon essay the next step. Advertising Expense Amortization Expense Auto Expense Bad Debt Expense Bank Charges Cash Over and Short Commission Expense Depreciation Expense Employee Benefit Program Freight Expense Gifts Expense Insurance – General Interest Expense Professional Fees License Expense Maintenance Expense Meals and expository Entertainment Office Expense Payroll Taxes Printing Postage Rent Repairs Expense Salaries Expense Supplies Expense Taxes – FIT Expense Utilities Expense Gain/Loss on Sale of Assets.

Enter long-term asset expenses here. Long-term assets are comprised of two types: tangible and intangible assets. Fixed assets are tangible assets that provide value for more than 12 months, such as a company van or computers. Fixed assets are depreciated over its useful lifetime. Cartoon Essay. This is an accounting method that allows the business to allocate the costs of the asset over its life by gradually reducing its value. Common fixed assets: Land and Buildings Motor vehicles Furniture Office equipment Fixtures and fittings Plant and how to write in a scientific paper machinery. Intangible assets are long-term assets that are not physical in nature. Intangible assets are amortized over its useful life. These might include:

Intellectual property (items such as patents, trademarks, copyrights, business methodologies) Goodwill Brand recognition. Enter other short-term assets here, which most likely will be any prepaid expense that lasts for less than 12 months. Besides prepaid expenses, other current assets also include short-term investments and securities that are likely to turned into cash within a year. A prepaid expense can be described as such: A 12-month office lease is signed with the essay total lease amount of phd engineering $12,000 being paid upfront. Classifying this as a regular expense would not be accurate because then the cartoon PL Statement and for it resume Cash Flow Statement would both show the $12,000 as a one-time upfront payment on essay, the month it which it was made. This type of expense is essay better described as a prepaid expense, since the use of the office is spread out over a 12-month period of cartoon time and can be considered an asset on the Balance Sheet that is how to write a introduction paper expensed over time.

By classifying this as a prepaid expense (or an cartoon amortized short term asset) then the PL Statement would show the $12,000 prepaid expense spread across 12 months at $1,000 each month, while the services Cash Flow Statement would reflect the $12,000 payment on cartoon essay, month in which it was made. Under Assets, the Balance Sheet would then show the amount of Prepaid Lease that is remaining at the end of the accounting period. Enter an estimate for write in a scientific paper, income taxes you expect to pay, which should be a summation of cartoon federal, state and local income tax. Do not include other taxes such as property tax (should be entered as a separate expense) or employee-related taxes (this is resume writing covered in the Personnel Section as the Burden Rate). As this is essay only an estimate, 100% accuracy is not required (if unsure what to how to write scientific paper enter here, use 20%). Dividends and distributions (for corporations and cartoon essay LLCs/partnerships, respectively) are payments to the company’s shareholders/owners, taken from the company’s profit.

Dividends are typically paid out at the end of the fiscal year, while distributions can be given out at the discretion of the owners. You may want to new york resume services review set this to zero initially and see how the essay financials of your business model work out; then you can work backwards and determine how much of retained profit you want to distribute to owners/shareholders. Here you can explain any regular costs that are associated with running your business. What are the resume writing review monthly or ongoing costs that you must pay to keep the essay business up and running? For example, this could be paying monthly utilities and rent expenses for your office space, insurance, or any marketing or advertising costs. For a start-up, remember that there are always up-front costs or one-time costs associated with getting things started, so be aware of any of these expenses and include them in your budget. Accounts receivable is defined as sales that the company has made but has yet to collect the money from the references and research purchaser.

Most companies operate by allowing some portion of cartoon essay their sales to be on credit. These types of sales are usually made to frequent or special customers who are invoiced periodically, and format resume allow them to avoid the hassle of physically making payments as each transaction occurs. You want your accounts receivable to be as low as possible to increase your cash flow. Defining what percentage of your sales will be on credit. You want this percentage to be as low as possible, while keeping in mind that for some businesses it is preferential to provide some credit to your best customers. Defining how long it will take to collect payment. Of the customers that you provide credit to, you need to define when they are to pay you back. The faster, the essay better your cash flow will look like. It is typical to provide net-30, which is paper 30 days.

Accounts payable is essay defined as short-term debt owed to suppliers and banks. It is to your advantage to negotiate longer payment terms with your suppliers, as it will improve your cash flow. When looking at and research paper accounts receivable (what is owed to you) and accounts payable (what you owe), the key thing to cartoon remember is that you want to be paid as soon as possible, and you want to how to a introduction scientific pay others as late as possible (cash on hand is king). Defining what percentage of your purchases will be on credit. You want this percentage to be as high as possible, as that will improve your cash flow. However, ensure you are able to cartoon pay your vendors on the purchases made on credit. Defining how long it will take to resume collect incoming payments. How many days will it take, on average, to collect incoming payments? Select the typical number of days between when you make a credit sale and when the payment arrives. Keep in cartoon essay mind that shortening this period can vastly improve your cash flow. If your business will sell physical products and you plan on keeping inventory on hand, then you need to define how many months of inventory you wish to new york resume writing review keep on hand.

The more months of inventory you hold on hand, the more cash is cartoon essay tied up in inventory. This will affect your cash flow. How much inventory should you carry? The ideal amount varies from industry to resume writing services industry, and cartoon essay business to hs student business. A good place to find more information is trade associations for your industry. In order to improve your company’s inventory management, you will need to start by collecting good records on your inventory. Using inventory turnover rate as an essay indicator.

Inventory Turnover Rate = Costs of Goods Sold (COGS) / average cost of inventory on hand. A low inventory turnover rate means that you may have too much inventory on hand. Understanding and managing cash flow is very important to essay any business. The time period for credit sales and payments may depend on your suppliers or your industry. Essay. Paying and getting paid later rather than earlier can entirely change your cash flow projections. You can utilize this section to explain any assumptions about cash flow, including details on the time period in which you will make and receive payments. How did you come to these assumptions and how will it affect your business?

When taking out a loan, you borrow an amount of money (principal) from phd engineering resume, a lender, and are obligated to pay back at a later time (usually in cartoon installments). Expository Essay Exemplars. You will typically pay interest on the loan. If you are seeking a loan then enter the amount, as you want to forecast the financials assuming you have secured the loan. Personal vs Commercial Loans. For many small businesses, taking out a personal loan to cartoon finance growth is commonplace.

These might include credit cards, home equity line of how to write credit (HELOC), and installment loans. If you have an existing small business, commercial loans can be obtained, which are based on a variety of factors. Secured vs Unsecured Loans. A secured loan is a loan in which you pledge some asset (equipment, property, etc.) as collateral. Unsecured loans (credit cards, personal loans) are not secured against a borrower’s assets. Interest rates will be higher for unsecured loans versus secured loans, for obvious reasons. If you have a pre-existing loan, then you can specify those details in the Starting Balances section.

A line of credit is cartoon similar to a loan with the difference being that interest is not charged on resume, the part of the line of credit that is unused, and the borrower can draw on essay, the line of credit at expository exemplars any time that he or she needs to. If you are seeking a line of cartoon essay credit then enter the amount, as you want to forecast the new york services financials assuming you have secured the line of credit. The line of essay credit may be classified as a demand loan, which means that any outstanding balance will have to be paid immediately at write in a the financial institution’s request. Investments include injections of cash into the business from you, other shareholders or owners, or investors. This typically refers to equity investments where investors contribute cash to the business in cartoon exchange for hs student resume, equity (ownership). In this section, you can describe how your business will be funded.

If you are a startup, it is likely that the money you make from sales will not cover all your business expenses so you may need additional sources of funding, such as taking out a loan, receiving investors’ capital, credit lines, or other ways of borrowing money. What type of cartoon essay funding will you acquire? At what point in writing services review your plan are you expecting these funds? For existing businesses only. The starting balances will be used to adjust the balance sheet to take into account your company’s financial history. Important: all starting balances should be entered as they are at the start of cartoon essay your plan. Enter starting balances for assets:

Cash Accounts Receivable Inventory Other current assets Long term assets Accumulated depreciation. Enter starting balances for liabilities: Enter starting balance for Capital and Earnings: Enter your Recent Sales: One month before start date Two months before start date Three months before start date Four months before start date Five months before start date Six months before start date. If you are an existing business, you can enter past financial data here.

This is optional and will be used to new york calculate historical financial ratios in the Financial Statements section. For each year of your company history , include: $ Sales $ Gross profit $ Income from operations $ Net profit $ Current assets $ Current liabilities $ Inventory $ Total assets $ Total liabilities $ Total owner equity. Every business model has several key metrics that management can use to see if the essay business is how to write a introduction in a healthy. For example, a restaurant might use the number of cartoon essay tables it can turn per night and the average revenue per and research dinner. Think about what levers make the essay most impact to your business. You will want to continuously track and monitor these metrics to ensure your business model is working. Chapter 8: Financial Statements Sections. Profit and Loss Statements Balance Sheet Cash Flow Statement Financial Ratios. The Profit Loss (i.e.; income statement) shows your revenue, expenses, and profit.

It is the hs student most common of the three reports as it provides a view into cartoon the company’s projected “bottom line”. The statement here is a read-only display, calculated automatically from the information you entered in the Sales Forecast, Budget, and Personnel Plan sections. If you wish to hs student resume edit or change any information, you may do so by going back to cartoon those sections. The statement here will update automatically. The balance sheet gives a snapshot of phd engineering your company’s financial position at a given point in time, usually the last day of a fiscal period. Cartoon. It is called a balance sheet because assets (what you own) will always equal the sum of your liabilities (what you owe) and stockholder’s equity (your investments from stockholders plus money that your business earned that is references and research paper put back into cartoon essay running your business). The balance sheet here is a read-only display. If you wish to change the balance sheet, you can do so by going back to the builder in the Financial Plan section.

If you are an existing business, you have the option of adding starting balances under the Financial Plan section. The cash flow statement displays the cash inflows and outflows from format, your operating, investing and financing activities. Rather than providing an overview like the balance sheet, the cash flow statement will measure the change in cash during a period. Essay. In other words, how much money did you start and end up with? The statement here is a read-only display. You can go back to phd engineering resume edit the sections in the Financial Plan section in order to change the accounts affected in essay the cash flow statement. The Financial Ratios section gives a general overview of the health of your business.

The report here is a read-only display. If you wish to references paper change any of the information, you may do so by editing the relevant financial information you’ve entered previously. The ratios here will update automatically. The Liquidity Analysis shows how solvent your company is, or how easily convertible to cash is the company in cartoon case. Phd Engineering. This is cartoon important in a introduction scientific paper determining the ability of the cartoon essay business to meet its obligations, or paying off what it owes in debt. The Profitability Analysis shows the overall performance of the company in its ability to make a profit. The ratios show how much of sales revenue is actual profit after taking costs and expenses into account. The Debt Ratio shows how much of the business’s assets are financed by debt and how much of the business’s assets are financed by stockholders’ equity. The Investment Measures show ROI (Return on Investment) which is the resume percentage of the return (net profit) of the cartoon business divided by the cost of the investment. The most common method of calculating ROI is to divide net profit by total assets. Finishing these chapters represents a massive achievement in hs student completing your business plan.

It is by cartoon far the most difficult chapter, as it requires doing somewhat complicated math to generate accurate financial statements. Exemplars. In all likelihood, you will need to essay hire an expert or accountant to hs student help you create an accurate and essay detailed plan that adheres to essay exemplars realistic outcomes. To finish it off, you’ll need to write an appendix and a glossary of terms. Your appendix will be a more detailed version of the cartoon essay financial statements detailed in this chapter, and your glossary of terms will simply define the terms of your business that an investor may not understand. Upon including those chapters, your plan will be complete. Feeling inspired to start a business, but don’t know how to write a plan? We have a sample database of essay plans that you can look through to learn the different chapters and sections necessary to cartoon attract equity investments and loans. Although our examples are specific to each industry, keep in mind that every plan will be unique depending on your location, your customer base, and your own vision, so these will only serve as a starting point for you and your dream. Click the paper images to view our full business examples. 4. Essay. The Pros and Cons of references and research Downloading a Business Plan Template.

1. Cartoon Essay. Write with confidence — you won’t be forgetting any important information. Using this free template can help you write your own plan, without the hassle of figuring out how to order your chapters, or the worry of expository essay feeling like you might be missing a section. We provide the entire bare bones skeleton of a business plan within this Microsoft Word .doc download. After you download it, it’s up to you to cartoon essay flesh out the details and ensure that each section is as well researched and intelligently conceived as possible. 2. Step-by-step writing guide and writing samples included. Our plans come with a complete how-to guide with examples from our professional business plan samples to help steer you through your writing. 3. Completely free – no hidden costs, just download and start writing. This plan is expository completely free. You may encounter other people or websites on the Internet charging a price to download the guide. Essay. Do not purchase them – there is no benefit at all to purchasing a pre-fabricated plan.

None of the information will be relevant to your company, and you’ll be gaining nothing but the order and structure of the plan – something that you could easily research and re-create on how to write in a paper, your own. Sound good? Keep in mind that while this guide may give you a better idea of how a it should be structured, that represents only about 5% of the heavy lifting of writing an actual the complete document. Don’t forget that every plan needs well structured elevator pitch. 1. Cartoon Essay. You’ll have to do complicated business planning math and calculations yourself — or pay an expensive rate for hs student resume, someone else to cartoon do them. You’re going to have to do the financial calculations, plans, and forecasts that a plan should offer to attract investment — all by yourself.

Creating these sections requires years of training, math skills, market knowledge, and investment savvy. This requirement is essay exemplars beyond the scope of most peoples’ abilities, which is cartoon essay why entrepreneurs turn to hs student resume professional writers and accountants to do the heavy lifting for them. Keep in mind: You may have a brilliant idea, but until you’ve subjected your product/service to meticulous research, and calculated your potential market as conservatively as possible, your business idea will be nothing but empty words and blather to a seasoned investor. 2. You’ll need to manually create visual graphs and charts to essay make the calculations easily understandable. You’ll need to take the numbers you calculated and create attractive graphs, charts, and tables for expository exemplars, your plan. Making your data attractive and easy to comprehend is no easy task. Professional planning software can not only do the calculations for you, but will also turn them into cartoon relevant graphs, charts, and tables presented in the appropriate order, according to how equity investors and bank loan officers expect to see them.

3. A basic template won’t allow you to track your business’ progress. You won’t be able to keep your company’s information up to how to date easily. One of the major benefits of using software is that you can continually update your numbers based on your real expenses and earnings, allowing you to track the progress of your business easily and essay without a major hassle. Nonetheless, we encourage you to download this document and references and research paper get started with writing out your product/service concepts and cartoon marketing plan. If or when you encounter the financial sections, we’ll be looking forward to how to in a scientific helping your progress through the major obstacles of writing a successful strategy that will help you get funding for your ideas. Crafted by licensed attorneys Updated regularly Applicable to cartoon essay all 50 states. Create your free. Business Plan Template document in how to in a paper only 5-10 minutes!

Copyright 2017 Legal Templates LLC. Legal Templates LLC is not a lawyer, or a law firm and does not engage in cartoon essay the practice of law. Legal Templates cannot and does not provide legal advice or legal representation. All information, software and services provided on the site are for informational purposes and self-help only and are not intended to be a substitute for a lawyer or professional legal advice. Phd Engineering Resume. Use of cartoon essay this site is subject to our Terms of Use.

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