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Othello Critical Essays - eNotes com

Othello essay

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Othello Critical Essays - eNotes com

Avoid These 10 Phrases for othello, a Better Resume. Everyone knows that a resume is one of the most important components of a job application. What many people may not realize is isentris resume, that it#39;s not just your past positions and accomplishments, but also the words you use to othello essay describe those achievements, that can make a difference in how the ap environmental science, hiring manager or recruiter views you. In an attempt to othello essay make their resumes more appealing, job candidates may include extra information or use words they think sound impressive. Isentris Resume. But sometimes, those words will not have the desired effect and, in fact, may turn off hiring managers. Experts agree that these 10 phrases should be removed from your resume because they are overused, meaningless or outdated.

If you have a higher degree, remove your GPA, especially if it is considered average or low, said Tim Davis, resource manager at staffing agency Kavaliro. For the most part, employers won#39;t even notice if it is not included on a resume. Only include GPA if a company specifically requests it on the application. Instead, summarize your academic statuses or awards, Davis said. Keep any special academic statuses or awards you may have achieved during your time in othello, school, he added. Recognitions such as these show ambition and overly dependent technology, initiative. Rather than saying you#39;re driven by essay, results, you should give examples of actual results, said Matt Doucette, director of global talent acquisition at Monster. List the results achieved, and become overly dependent, outline how you accomplished them, he said. Essay. Work is become overly dependent technology essay, all about solving problems, said Mikaela Kiner, founder and CEO of HR consulting firm uniquelyHR.The more important question is, what kind of othello problems, how complex are they and how do you solve them?

Opt for words that describe your approach to problem solving, such as creative or analytical, Kiner added. Years ago, an isentris resume, objective was considered a primary component of a resume. Today, however, objectives have lost their punch, said Janine Truitt, chief innovations officer at consulting firm Talent Think Innovations. Instead, candidates should summarize their skills based on othello essay the advertised job description, she said. This phrase is meaningless because it doesn#39;t say what you actually accomplished, experts say. #39;I was responsible for people have overly technology, maintaining company X#39;s servers,#39; doesn#39;t give enough insight into what the othello essay, candidate did, said Neil Napier, CEO of job search company jobrack.

Quantifying what you did and being clear would be better. For example, it would be better to write something like, Managed Company X#39;s servers for six months with Y technology . Essay On Holes. Napier also suggested alternative words, such as implemented or grew. This word is drastically overplayed, said Adam Hatch, career adviser and hiring manager at ResumeGenius.com. If someone is a #39;dynamic#39; accountant, what does that mean? Flashy number crunching? Instead, Hatch suggested using words such as energetic, diligent and creative, which are more descriptive and meaningful. Kimberly Bishop, founder and CEO of Kimberly Bishop Executive Recruiting, said many resumes she has read include the essay, phrase transformational leader, with no explanation of how the candidate was transformational.

That phrase is overused and doesn#39;t specifically mean anything that translates to a specific experience, Bishop said. My recommendation is to more specifically describe the political, skill set. Essay. 8. Microsoft Office (and other outdated tech terms) Technology is changing constantly, and you want to research science prove that you#39;re up-to-date on the latest business software. Othello. Joey Price, CEO of Jumpstart:HR, said job seekers who include experience with Microsoft Office on their resumes set the bar pretty low for themselves. Instead, be more specific about your skills, he said. Most HR managers expect you to already have familiarity with a software suite that has been around since [the beginning of] the on holes, internet, Price said. Dig deeper and share that you have experience with Visio, Project and Access more specialized software programs that can really pay off for othello essay, an employer. Like the once-ubiquitous objective, this formerly popular resume phrase has become outdated.

Dawn Rasmussen, founder of Pathfinder Writing and Career Services, said hiring managers hate seeing resumes that say References available upon people have overly dependent technology essay request. Essay. An employer already knows that most candidates will present their references without question when asked for them, she said. Heather Huhman, founder and president of HR tech public relations firm Come Recommended, agreed. You#39;re wasting precious resume space by including a phrase that is clearly understood and people have become overly dependent, implied, she said. Othello Essay. If a hiring manager is interested in contacting your references, he or she will request the information from you, Huhman said.

This phrase is clichéd and political science, doesn#39;t really say anything, experts agree. It sounds like a candidate who has been cooked, said Roy Cohen, a career counselor and othello essay, executive coach. Essay On Holes. It also gives the impression that the person it is describing has been around for a while. Additional reporting by Nicole Taylor. Some source interviews were conducted for a previous version of this article. Essay. Shannon Gausepohl graduated from Rowan University in 2012 with a degree in journalism.

She has worked at a newspaper and in the public relations field, and is currently a staff writer at Business News Daily. On Holes. Shannon is a zealous bookworm, has her blue belt in othello essay, Brazilian jiu jitsu, and loves her Blue Heeler mix, Tucker.

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Monique R. Morgan, “The Eruption of Krakatoa (also known as Krakatau) in 1883? This essay gives a brief overview of the events of 26-27 August 1883, when the volcanic island of Krakatoa in Indonesia exploded; it generated tsunamis which killed over 36,000 people, was heard 3,000 miles away, and produced measurable changes in othello sea level and air pressure across the world. Moral Political! The essay then discusses the findings of the Royal Society’s Report on Krakatoa, and the reports in the periodical press of lurid sunsets resulting from othello, Krakatoa’s dust moving through the isentris resume atmosphere. It closes by othello essay, examining literature inspired by Krakatoa, including a letter by Gerard Manley Hopkins, a poem by Alfred Tennyson, and novels by R. M. Ballantyne and M. P. Shiel. On 27 August 1883, after a day of alarming volcanic activity, an novel, obscure, uninhabited island now widely known as Krakatoa (or Krakatau)[1] erupted with a force more than ten thousand times that of the atomic bomb dropped on othello essay, Hiroshima (Thornton 1). The world quickly took notice. Officials reported the eruption via undersea telegraph cables. People thousands of miles away heard the explosion, and instruments around the world recorded changes in air pressure and sea level. In the months that followed, newspapers and journals printed vivid accounts of spectacular sunsets caused by fine particles that the volcano spewed into the upper atmosphere and that circled the globe, gradually spreading further north and essay moral and literary, south.

The Royal Society, a British academy of scientists, formed a special Krakatoa committee to collect these articles, other eye-witness testimony, and more precise data (such as barograph readings of air pressure) to analyze the material meticulously and to publish a thorough report of their findings. Krakatoa inspired not only scientific investigation, but also literary creations. Gerard Manley Hopkins published a letter describing the othello Krakatoa sunsets in evocative and figurative language. Alfred Lord Tennyson transmuted the crimson sunsets into novel, the setting, and the dominant imagery, of his poem “St. Telemachus.” In Blown to Bits , R. M. Ballantyne interwove a detailed, factual account of Krakatoa’s destruction with an invented tale of exploration, revenge, and romance, centered on othello essay, fictional characters who narrowly escape the eruption and tsunamis. M. P. Shiel used a volcanic eruption as the major plot device in his last man novel, The Purple Cloud , and, in his depiction of a fictional eruption, Shiel mimicked the central place of the telegraph and the periodical press for scientists’ and laymen’s knowledge of Krakatoa. The August 1883 eruption was not entirely unexpected, but nearly so. Krakatoa had erupted violently from May 1680 through November 1681 (Symons 10), but had then been dormant for people have overly technology essay, two centuries. The volcano stirred to life on othello essay, 20 May 1883 with a series of essay on holes novel, moderate eruptions (Symons 11). Locals took note but were not especially alarmed. In fact, the island briefly became a tourist attraction.

A steamship carrying an excursion party from Batavia (now called Jakarta) “reached the volcano on the Sunday morning, May the 27th, after witnessing, during the night, several tolerably strong explosions, which were accompanied by earthquake-shocks” (Symons 12). These visitors may have been foolhardy, but some were quite observant, and later were able to provide valuable data, such as estimates of the size of the crater, the frequency of explosions, and the height of the vapor column. One took a photograph of the volcano exploding; another collected a pumice sample (Symons 12-13). Eruptions continued in June and July, but, in the words of the Royal Society’s 1888 report, “in a district where earthquakes and volcanic outbursts are so frequent, this eruption of Krakatoa during the summer months of 1883 . . . soon ceased to othello essay attract any particular attention” (Symons 13). Residents of the Javan and Sumatran coasts near Krakatoa quickly became alarmed on 26 August 1883 when more serious explosions began, some accompanied by tsunamis (Thornton 11-12). The next morning the situation became much more dire. Four great explosions, the third of which was the strongest, occurred at 5:30 a.m., 6:44 a.m., 10:02 a.m., and have dependent, 10:52a.m. Krakatoa time (Symons 22).[2] Two-thirds of the island of Krakatoa disappeared (Symons 23), likely by collapsing into the hollow cavity left by the eruption of pumice (Simkin and Fiske 18).

The resultant dust cloud immersed in darkness a region extending to Batavia, nearly a hundred miles distant, and to some villages 130 to 150 miles away (Symons 26-27). For those within a radius of 50 miles, the othello essay total darkness lasted over two days (Thornton 29).[3] The greatest destruction was caused not by and literary, ash and fire but by water. The most violent of the explosions, occurring at approximately 10:02 a.m. on 27 August 1883, triggered an immense tsunami. The Royal Society Report on Krakatoa “assumed that the actual height of the wave, before it reached the shore, was about othello 50 feet,” but it also cites some eyewitnesses on people have overly dependent essay, the Javan shore who estimated the wave was 100 to 135 feet (Symons 93); later investigators credit the larger estimates (Simkin and Fiske 15). Whatever its exact height, the wave was incredibly deadly and far-reaching. Officially, it killed 36,417 inhabitants of coastal towns and villages, though more may have died (Thornton 13; Simkin and Fiske 15), and its faint remnants were detected as far away as the English Channel (Thornton 18). The 10:02 a.m. explosion also produced the essay furthest-travelling audible sound in recorded history (Thornton 1); it was heard over isentris resume almost one-thirteenth of the earth’s surface, including at Rodrigues Island approximately 3,000 miles across the essay Indian Ocean from Krakatoa (Symons 79). The reason such a violent eruption occurred at Krakatoa, rather than some other location, was partially understood by late-nineteenth-century science. According to the Royal Society’s 1888 Report on Krakatoa’s eruption, “The marked linear arrangement in this immense chain of volcanic mountains [across Java and Sumatra] points to the existence of a great fissure in the earth’s crust, along which the subterranean energy has been manifested” (Symons 4).

At the Straight of Sunda, a second fissure crosses it almost at isentris resume, a right angle (Symons 4), and Krakatoa lies “at the point of intersection of these two great lines of volcanic fissure” (Symons 5; see Fig. 1). Figure 1: Map from the Royal Society Report, labeled “Sketch-map of the Sunda Strait, showing the lines of volcanic fissure which appear to traverse the district” (Symons 4) Modern geology affirms this general idea, but offers a more specific explanation for essay, the convergence of volcanic activity. In an ocean trench near Sumatra and Java, two tectonic plates collide in what is called a subduction zone, and the Indo-Australian plate is forced under the Asian plate into the molten mantle below (Thornton 41). As the become overly essay Indo-Australian plate slides downward, some of it melts, and the range of volcanoes results from this molten magma occasionally rising to essay the earth’s surface and ap environmental, erupting (Thornton 41). Essay! As Ian Thornton summarizes, “Geologists have shown that the rate of subduction of oceanic crust is faster, and on holes novel, the angle of subduction shallower, along the Sumatran trench than along the Javan trench. The change is abrupt and occurs at Sunda Strait” (43), the fulcrum around which Sumatra has slowly rotated twenty degrees clockwise in relation to Java over the past two million years (Thornton 42-43). Krakatoa’s unique position as a center of volcanic and tectonic activity is now well understood, but several other aspects of the 1883 eruption are still open to scientific debate. Explanations for the cause of the third great explosion and the accompanying tsunami generally fall into essay, two competing camps, with some arguing for an upward explosion as seawater reacted with hot magma, and on holes novel, others for the downward collapse of the volcano’s walls.

Simkin and Fiske consider the debate settled: “Verbeek, the Dutch Mining engineer studying Krakatau immediately after the eruption, correctly deduced that the missing portion of the island had collapsed into the circular void left by the eruption of huge volumes of pumice. Essay! Alternative explanations, such as the forceful blasting out of the missing portion of Krakatau, have not been supported, and Krakatau remains a type example of caldera collapse” (18). Thornton, however, thinks these key questions remain unresolved and suggests that “[i]t is likely that during the course of so complex an eruption many events cited as evidence for the competing theories occurred” (39). Scientists also continue to scrutinize Krakatoa as a case study in have become overly the formation and essay, development of an island ecosystem. Much of the attraction stems from political science, Krakatoa’s likely status as an ecological tabula rasa in the immediate aftermath of the 1883 eruption; most biologists who have studied the island group agree that no life forms survived.[4] Subsequent volcanic activity at Krakatoa has provided an even clearer example of an island completely devoid of life progressing toward a complex ecosystem. On 26 January 26 1928, a new volcanic ash island broke through the sea’s surface; it was later named Anak Krakatau (Krakatau’s Child) (Thornton 132). The new island was destroyed by essay, sea erosion three times, but in August 1929 a fourth version of the island arose and became a permanent fixture in the Krakatoa island group (Thornton 133). The emerging ecosystems on both the moral political remnants of the old Krakatoa islands and on Anak Krakatau could provide guidance for reconstructing ecosystems that have been devastated by human activity, such as logging and othello, mining (Thornton 251). As Thornton explains, the rules by ap environmental science lorax essay, which different species arrive and interact in a new ecosystem “appear to depend strongly on the historical context” (262), and Krakatoa offers an unusually thorough historical record for current scientists because of the sustained and othello essay, systematic attention it has received since 1883. Such attention, from scientists and laymen around the globe, began within hours of the eruption, because news of it travelled rapidly via the worldwide network of telegraph lines. Moral! “The instantaneity of the telegraph reports,” Richard Hamblyn argues, “create[ed] an entirely new category of disaster: the universal news event, a story followed, in the case of Krakatau, by more than half the world’s population” (179).

The telegrams themselves are startling, and essay, display a “terse eloquence” (Simkin and Fiske 15). Business Case! A telegram sent from Batavia to Singapore on 27 August 1883 reads: Noon . —Serang in othello total darkness all morning—stones falling. Village near Anjer washed away. Batavia now almost quite dark—gas lights extinguished during the night—unable communicate with Anjer—fear calamity there—several bridges destroyed, river having overflowed through rush sea inland. (qtd. in Simkin and Fiske 14) Calamity had, indeed, struck Anjer: at approximately 9:00 that morning, a large wave had inundated the coastal town (Simkin and ap environmental science, Fiske 38). A few residents survived because they had fled a prior wave and had run to higher ground. Amongst them was Anjer’s recently appointed Telegraph-master, who was later able to provide a harrowing eyewitness account of events (Simkin and Fiske 69-73, 80-81). Despite, or perhaps because of, the horrifying nature of the eruption, some of the telegrams from essay, Batavia are almost poetic in business study their condensed eloquence and evocative figurative language.

A telegram sent around noon on 28 August proclaimed, “Where once Mount Krakatau stood the sea now plays,” conveying calm, eerie beauty amid the desolation (qtd. in Simkin and Fiske 14). The telegraph coverage also enabled a more thorough scientific investigation of the eruption’s global effects, as Tom Simkin and Richard S. Essay! Fiske stress in their magisterial centennial review of Krakatoa: Telegrams bearing news of the Krakatau eruption spread quickly and accounts soon appeared in paper political science newspapers around the world. . . . Othello! Much of the importance of the Krakatau eruption stems from the fact that its news traveled so fast, because the eruption’s effects also traveled far beyond the Sunda Straits and political, observations made a great distance from the volcano could be connected to the eruption.[5] (15) Because the essay global scope of both Krakatoa’s effects and the news of its eruption quickly reached many interested observers, “for the first time, discrete local observations . Essay! . . assumed a contemporary global significance” (Hamblyn 179), and the eruption generated a wealth of othello, potential data. On 17 January 1884, the essay Royal Society, led by its president Thomas Henry Huxley, made use of this potential when it resolved that a committee would “collect the othello essay various accounts of the volcanic eruption at Krakatoa, and attendant phenomena, in such form as shall best provide for their preservation, and promote their usefulness” (Symons iii). (On Huxley, see Jonathan Smith, “The Huxley-Wilberforce ‘Debate’ on Evolution, 30 June 1860.?) It was not the dependent essay first scientific group devoted to essay studying Krakatoa: three months earlier, on 4 October 1883, the Dutch Indian Government had appointed the Dutch Scientific Commission, led by the geologist R. D. M. Verbeek, to study the eruption. Verbeek’s report was published in two parts, in Dutch in 1884 and 1885, and in French in 1885 and 1886 (Symons 2). The Royal Society’s report, published in 1888, frequently refers to Verbeek’s findings, but it also includes a large quantity of independently collected data. The Royal Society was able to isentris resume amass an extraordinary amount of information by soliciting the public’s help. The committee placed an advertisement in the London Times in essay February 1884 asking for “authenticated facts” and published papers concerning drifts of pumice, changes in barometric pressure and sea level, locations where explosions were heard, and unusual optical effects in the atmosphere (Symons iv). After it received numerous accounts from scientists and amateur observers, the multidisciplinary committee spent 28 months analyzing the data and writing the on holes report, which was edited by G. J. Symons, the committee’s chair (Symons vi). The Times ad requested that “[c]orrespondents . . . be very particular in essay giving the date, exact time (stating whether Greenwich or local), and position whence all recorded facts were observed” (Symons iv).

Such specificity was essential for ebay in japan business case, calculating the distances and othello, velocities of the oceanic and atmospheric phenomena associated with the ebay in japan business strategy case eruption. One such phenomenon was the unusually long-lasting and far-travelling air wave created by one of Krakatoa’s explosions, which was especially noteworthy because “large air waves passing round the earth’s surface had not previously been observed as a result of volcanic eruptions” (Thornton 17). The air wave expanded outward from othello, Krakatoa until it formed a circle around the earth’s circumference, then it contracted to people have overly essay a point on the globe directly opposite Krakatoa (a point which happens to othello lie near Bogota, Colombia [Thornton 17]). The air wave then continued away from Bogota and back toward Krakatoa, and the process repeated. According to Simkin and Fiske, “Every recording barograph in the world documented the passage of the airwave” (15). Some of them registered the have overly dependent essay air wave a total of seven times: four times as the wave travelled outward from Krakatoa, three as it returned toward the essay volcano (Symons 63). The committee used the people have overly precise times and locations of the othello essay barogram readings to calculate the essay novel speed of the air waves, which ranged from othello, 674 to 726 miles per hour, “very nearly the characteristic velocity of sound” (Symons 72). The committee also discussed the speed at ebay in japan business, which fine ash and dust travelled through the essay upper atmosphere. Scientists inferred the isentris resume presence of microscopic particles from the unusual atmospheric effects they produced, which included intense and long-lasting sunsets, a blue or green tinge to the sun and moon, and a large, corona-like haze around the sun. Reverend Sereno E. Bishop in Honolulu, for whom the corona-like “Bishop’s Ring” was named, “was the first to document the westward movement around the equator of the high-altitude eruptive products (what he called the Equatorial Smoke Stream) as evidenced by their atmospheric effects” (Thornton 23). The Royal Society report further analyzed the direction and speed of the particulates based on the first onset of the characteristic atmospheric phenomena, and thus provided the “first evidence of circulation patterns in othello the stratosphere” (Thornton 25).

The Krakatoa committee discovered that the equatorial smoke stream made a complete circuit around the globe several times, each time taking about thirteen days (Symons 322), “mov[ing] at about 73 miles an hour from east to west, and gradually spread[ing] southwards and northwards” (Symons 325). By tracking the dates, the atmospheric effects first appeared at various locations and people have become essay, extrapolating backward in time, the committee verified their origin was around the Strait of Sunda, where Krakatoa had stood (Symons 179). Some of the descriptions are remarkably precise about not only the date and othello, geographical location where a sunset afterglow was first observed, but also about the timing and location in the sky of its particular colors. F. A. Rollo Russell, who compiled the Royal Society Report’s section on the unusual twilight glows, included his own description of the 11 December 1883 sunset in essay moral Surrey: At 4.15 green spot about 10° above the horizon. Pink up to essay and beyond zenith, and on both sides . . . . Whole sky at moral political, 4.15 appearing covered with a sea of streaky cloud film, regularly ranged S.S.W. to N.N.E.; no appearance of a radiant point. At 4.20 spot of green being closed in by bright pink all over othello essay western sky . . . . At 4.30 pink edge about 22° from horizon.

Green sunk beyond horizon. At 4.36 pink, about 15°. Sky blue. Research! At 4.41 edge of red glow about 10° above horizon. Othello! (Symons 164) Such precision about the order and duration of the paper political sunset colors allowed the committee to hypothesize the composition of the stratospheric particles from Krakatoa: “small reflecting dust, partially transparent and partially opaque, or else . . . a mixture of transparent spherules and fragments” (Symons 186).

More recent studies have arrived at essay, a more complete understanding of the strategy optics involved. Othello Essay! H. H. Lamb, writing in essay on holes 1970, explains the interaction of particles of different diameters with light of different wavelengths (and hence different colors). Lamb argues that volcanic dust smaller than ? micrometer (? µm = 1/51,000 inch) produces especially red suns, while blue suns and moons are produced by larger particles of 1 to 5 µm, and the Bishop’s rings seen after Krakatoa resulted from othello, many particles in the narrow size range of 0.8 to 1 µm (qtd. in Simkin and ebay business strategy, Fiske 404-05). Since larger dust particles fall out of the atmosphere more quickly and do not spread as far, “the bigger the essay particles the rarer, more localized and short-lived the occurrence” (Lamb, qtd. In Simkin and paper research, Fiske 407); hence the othello essay large temporal and geographical range of the lurid red sunsets, and more limited range of the blue and green suns. The widespread sunset effects attracted the attention of many observers, and the Royal Society Report quotes extensively from accounts of the sunsets previously published in on holes the periodical press. Essay! One such account is the poet Gerard Manley Hopkins’s letter in ap environmental essay the 3 January 1884 edition of Nature . The Royal Society Report offers this summary: Mr. Gerard Hopkins of Stonyhurst College, notes the following difference between ordinary sunsets and the displays of 1883:— ‘(1).

They differ in their time and in the place of the sky where they appear. ‘(2). They differ in their periodic action or behaviour. ‘(3). They differ in the nature of the glow, which is both intense and lustreless. ‘(4). They differ in the regularity of their colouring.

Four colours in othello particular have been noticeable, orange lowest and nearest the sundown; above this and broader, green; above this, and broader still, a variable red, ending in being crimson; above this, a faint lilac. The lilac disappears, the green deepens, spreads, and encroaches on the orange, and the red deepens, spreads, and encroaches on the green, till at last one red, varying downwards from crimson to scarlet or orange, fills the west and south. ‘(5). They differ in the colours themselves, which are impure and not of the spectrum. ‘(6). They differ in the texture of the coloured surfaces, which are neither distinct clouds of recognized make, nor yet translucent media.’ The above is merely an political, abstract of Mr.

Hopkins’s letter, to which he subjoins a very lucid description of the sunset of essay, December 16, 1883. (Symons 172) For the most part, the paper political research Report’s authors directly quote Hopkins, though they paraphrase points one and six. The remarkable aspect of essay, their precis, however, is what it leaves out—extensive sections of evocative, metaphoric description. Hopkins describes the evening as follows: After the sunset the horizon was, by 4.10, lined a long way by a glowing tawny light, not very pure in colour and distinctly textured in hummocks, bodies like a shoal of dolphins, or in what are called gadroons, or as the Japanese conventionally represent waves. The glowing vapour above this was as yet colourless; then this took a beautiful olive or celadon green, not so vivid as the previous day’s, and delicately fluted; the green belt was broader than the essay on holes orange, and pressed down on and contracted it. Othello! Above the moral and literary green in turn appeared a red glow, broader and burlier in make; it was softly brindled, and in the ribs or bars the colour was rosier, in the channels where the blue of the sky shone through it was a mallow colour. Above this was a vague lilac. (“Remarkable Sunsets” 223)

Hopkins’s poetic language has its own descriptive precision. As Thomas A. Zaniello argues, passages such as this “reveal Hopkins’ facility with both scientific detail and the painter’s palette” and “indicate a sensibility attempting to render the phenomena of the world without forcing a distinction between science and art” (261).[6] Indeed, to describe the texture of the “tawny light,” Hopkins first turns to nature (a metaphor drawn from a landscape and a simile from sea life) and then turns to art (both Western decorative carving and othello, Eastern painting). The letter also incorporates imagery and diction from some of the on holes poems for which Hopkins is essay, now best known. The “softly brindled” red glow evokes the opening of his 1877 poem “Pied Beauty,” which uses the more archaic form “brinded” to describe a streaked or flecked sky: “Glory be to God for dappled things— / For skies of couple-colour as a brinded cow” (1-2). Consider, too, the language in Hopkins’s explanation of how normal, bright sunsets differ from the lusterless Krakatoa afterglows: A bright sunset lines the clouds so that their brims look like gold, brass, bronze, or steel. It fetches out those dazzling flecks and ebay business study, spangles which people call fish-scales. It gives to othello a mackerel or dappled cloudrack the appearance of quilted crimson silk, or a ploughed field glazed with crimson ice. People Have Become Overly Technology! These effects may have been seen in the late sunsets, but they are not the specific after-glow; that is, without gloss or lustre. Othello! (“Remarkable Sunsets” 222-23) The description of essay political, this streaked sky echoes both “Pied Beauty” and “The Windhover.” The letter’s use of “dappled” brings to mind the former poem’s praise of “dappled things” (1), and the latter poem’s description of the titular bird as a “dapple-dawn-drawn Falcon” (2).

The comparison of a typical sky at sunset to a “ploughed field glazed with crimson ice” recalls the “Landscape plotted and pieced—fold, fallow, and plough” in “Pied Beauty” (5). A similar image also occurs in “The Windhover”: “sheer plod makes plough down sillion / Shine” (12-13). Hopkins’s characteristic phrasing does not detract from the specificity and essay, vividness of his description in isentris resume Nature , though. Patricia Ball rightly claims that the letter uses “turns of phrase or analogy and a choice of words which are characteristic of him,” but they “serve the essay purpose to on holes which the othello essay whole correspondence is directed, the accurate plotting of remarkable skyscapes” (116). Although the Royal Society Report omits these poetic sections of Hopkins’s letter in Nature , it does reprint some of the affective and figurative language from other articles about the Krakatoa sunsets. As Richard Altick observes, even now the Royal Society Report conveys “a vivid sense of the excitement and wonder [created by] the worldwide effects of the political research science eruption . Essay! . . . [T]he observers often abandoned scientific terminology in favor of a descriptive style that can only be called lyric—and when the sunsets of late 1883 defied even poetic language the observers resorted at last to pictorial art: they said the sunsets were like those of Turner” (251).

Altick may have had in mind E. L. Ap Environmental Science Lorax! Layard’s account from New Caledonia of Krakatoa afterglows on cloudy nights: “[W]ho shall paint the glory of the heavens when flecked with clouds?— burnished gold, copper, brass, silver, such as Turner in his wildest dreams never saw, and of such fantastic forms!” (Symons 173). Essay! Turner himself was not alive to paint the Krakatoa afterglows, but they did attract the paper political attention of some visual artists. Frederic Edwin Church’s “Sunset over the Ice of othello essay, Chaumont Bay, Lake Ontario,” a watercolor painted on 28 December 1883, is “the only major painting to be created in the immediate aftermath of Krakatoa” (Winchester 281). In London, both the minor artist William Ascroft and John Sanford Dyason of the Royal Meteorological Society sketched the sunsets in chalk pastels and exhibited their works at public meetings of the Royal Society (Zaniello 248). The frontispiece to the Royal Society’s Krakatoa Report reproduces six of Ascroft’s sketches “made on the bank of the Thames, a little west of London, on research, the evening of essay, November 26th, 1883,” which “represent the have become overly dependent technology essay general colouring of the western sky from shortly after sunset (3h. Othello Essay! 57m. p.m.) to the final dying out of the after-glow at in japan study, about 5.15 p.m.” (Symons n.pag.).

Figures 2 and 3 reproduce the essay third and sixth sketches from the Report’s frontispiece. Figure 2: Sketch by William Ascroft of essay moral political, Krakatoa afterglow as seen in London at 4:30p.m. on othello essay, 26 November 1883, from the paper political research frontispiece to othello essay the Royal Society Report. Figure 3: Sketch by William Ascroft of Krakatoa afterglow as seen in London at 5:15p.m. on 26 November 1883, from the frontispiece to the Royal Society Report. Earlier in E. L. Layard’s description of the sunset on 6 January 1884, he uses what was arguably the have become overly dependent essay most common simile in all the verbal descriptions of Krakatoa afterglows: “about 8 p.m., there is essay, only a glare in the sky, just over the sun’s path, as of a distant conflagration, till the fire in the west dies out” (Symons 173). The Royal Society Report certainly supports Simkin and Fiske’s claim that “[t]he most common analogy . . . was fire, and the word ‘conflagration’ was repeatedly used” (157). The Report even makes note of “the first instance of a comparison to a fire, which was afterwards frequent,” as occurring 30 August 1883 “from St. Helena, 16?S. 6?W., where at political, 4 a.m. on the 30 th a red light in the south-east and south-west, ‘like a fire,’ alarmed one of the inhabitants” (Symons 316). Though it was originally published somewhat later, in September 1883, another quoted description has the distinction of appearing first among those reprinted in the Royal Society Report, and it, too, compares the afterglows to an immense fire.

The Reverend Sereno E. Bishop writes from Honolulu that one trait distinguishing these afterglows from usual sunsets is “[t]he peculiar lurid glow, as of a distant conflagration, totally unlike our common sunsets” (Symons 153). In some cases, observers actually mistook the othello essay glows for distant fires and brought in local fire brigades, as happened on paper political research science, 27 November 1883 in New York and Connecticut (Thornton 24). The Krakatoa afterglows may have instigated panic, but they also inspired poetry and fiction. It was not the first time a volcano’s atmospheric effects influenced literature, however. The June 1783 eruption of Laki in Iceland released massive amounts of sulfur dioxide, which produced noxious fogs, an unusually red sun, and an extremely hot summer followed by an extremely cold winter, conditions which influenced William Cowper’s depiction of time and weather in The Task (Menely 480-89; Hamblyn 101-102). The gas and dust spewed into the atmosphere by the April 1815 eruption of Tambora in Indonesia disrupted usual rainfall patterns, cooled global temperatures, caused famines and epidemics, and instigated political upheavals, conditions which in turn inspired Mary Shelley’s desolate novel Frankenstein and essay, Lord Byron’s apocalyptic poem “Darkness” (Wood). (On the eruption of Tambora, see Gillen D’Arcy Wood, “1816, The Year without a Summer.”) Fears of apocalypse also haunt some of the literature inspired by essay, Krakatoa. Altick has gathered and compared writings by four Victorian poets that incorporate descriptions of the Krakatoa sunsets, including poems by essay, Robert Bridges, Algernon Charles Swinburne, and Alfred Tennyson, and Hopkins’s letter in Nature . The most cheerful of them is the “March” section of Robert Bridges’s Eros and Psyche (1885), which includes a three-stanza description of a sunset, the second stanza of isentris resume, which reads: Broad and low down, where late the sun had been. A wealth of essay, orange-gold was thickly shed, Fading above into a field of political research science, green,

Like apples ere they ripen into red, Then to the height a variable hue. Of rose and pink and crimson freak’d with blue, And olive-border’d clouds o’er lilac led. (st. 25) Altick suspects the passage is derivative of Hopkins’s letter in othello essay Nature ; he notes the almost identical color terminology, and quotes a letter from Hopkins to Bridges in which Hopkins politely comments on the similarity and inquires if Bridges read his Nature piece (256). Swinburne’s “A New-Year Ode: to Victor Hugo” repeatedly uses images of sunset and sunrise, clouds and storms, and ebay business strategy case study, fire to represent both the eras Hugo depicted, and the one through which he lived. The poem contains a lengthy passage inspired by a particularly vivid sunset on 25 November 1883 (Altick 256), which thus describes “two sheer wings of sundering cloud” (st. 17) above the set sun: As midnight black, as twilight brown, they spread,

But feathered thick with flame that streaked and lined. Their living darkness, ominous else of dread, From south to northmost verge of heaven inclined. Most like some giant angel’s, whose bent head. Bowed earthward, as with message for othello, mankind. Of doom or benediction to be shed. From passage of his presence.

Far behind, Heaven, manifest in manifold. Light of pure pallid amber, cheered with fire of gold. (st. 18) The detailed description of the lorax sunset continues, and leads into a comparison of the sunset glow to “light like fire of love” (st.

22), as Swinburne imagines that the love expressed by Victor Hugo’s writing spreads a beneficent influence over the world.[7] Flame also figures prominently in “St. Telemachus” (1892), a poem by essay, Tennyson whose opening lines were, according to Tennyson’s note, “[s]uggested by ebay in japan strategy study, the memory of the eruption of Krakatoa”: Had the fierce ashes of some fiery peak. Been hurled so high they ranged about the globe?

For day by essay, day, through many a blood-red eve, In that four-hundredth summer after Christ, The wrathful sunset glared against a cross. Reared on the tumbled ruins of an old fane. No longer sacred to political the Sun, and flamed. On one huge slope beyond. . . (1-8) The poem tells the story of the hermit Telemachus’s divine inspiration to othello walk to the Roman Colosseum where he attempts to stop the essay gladiatorial combat.

The crowd is unpersuaded and stones Telemachus to death, but when the news reaches the Roman Emperor Honorius, he decrees an end to the gladiatorial games. As Altick notes, Tennyson “moved the [Krakatoa] sunsets back fifteen centuries to provide a lurid background for the life of the othello saint” (253). If the Krakatoa sunsets struck some observers as “almost apocalyptic, often unnerving” (Winchester 290), then Tennyson’s portrayal of the sunsets as “blood-red” and “wrathful” captures their unnerving quality (3, 5), and people become overly dependent essay, his transposition of the sunsets to Telemachus’s “deed that woke the world” (70) associates them with the othello transition to a new epoch in history (from polytheism to Christianity). Paper Political Research Science! The sunsets are much more than background for Tennyson’s poem; the Krakatoa eruption and sunsets indirectly but thoroughly permeate its dramatic action, allegorical import, and essay, imagery.[8] Tennyson imagines that St. Telemachus, in the evenings when the fane was. Bathed in that lurid crimson—asked ‘Is earth.

On fire to the West? or is the Demon-god. Wroth at his fall?’ . . . (18-20) His questions juxtapose a common reaction to the Krakatoa sunsets (mistaking them for paper research, a distant conflagration) with Tennyson’s thematic use for them (the transition from paganism to Christianity). The lurid afterglows also play a role in the saint’s quest: Telemachus journeys west to othello Rome “Following a hundred sunsets” (31). Other after-effects of Krakatoa’s eruption seem to and literary have influenced Tennyson’s similes. When Telemachus arrives in Rome, he comes upon essay a crowd: And borne along by that full stream of paper research, men, Like some old wreck on some indrawing sea,

Gained their huge Colosseum. Othello! . . (43-45) The image of rushing sea water bearing a ship inward accords with the political research Krakatoa-induced tsunamis, one of which carried a ship two miles inland (Thornton 13).[9] Tennyson’s description of Telemachus’s death at the hands of the othello essay Colosseum crowd— “Then one deep roar as of a breaking sea, / And then a shower of isentris resume, stones that stoned him dead” (67-68)—literally depicts the saint’s death by stoning but also evokes the sound of a tsunami and the hail of othello essay, pumice unleashed by ebay study, Krakatoa’s eruption. A much more direct, and much less somber, engagement with Krakatoa can be found in Blown to Bits, or The Lonely Man of Rakata , by R. M. Ballantyne. Essay! This 1889 adventure novel for boys shares many of the characteristics of paper political research, a group of earlier, Pompeii-inspired eruption narratives recently discussed by Nicholas Daly. In late-eighteenth- and early-nineteeenth-century disaster narratives, “the volcano is there as a smoldering presence from the start, and our pleasure in other elements of our experience is both shadowed and othello, enhanced by our knowledge that in the end it will explode” (Daly 257). The very title of Ballantyne’s work directs his readers towards the novel’s explosive culmination, and ebay study, the subtitle’s mention of Rakata, the mountain peak on Krakatoa’s main island, clearly identifies the essay source of the explosion. Ballantyne’s ominous foreshadowing is frequent and political research, strong. The paralipsis in the opening chapter’s first sentence anticipates the othello disaster it says it won’t: “Blown to bits; bits so inconceivably, so ineffably, so ‘microscopically’ small that—but let us not anticipate” (ch. 1; n. Ap Environmental Lorax Essay! pag.). Much later, chapter titles like “A Climax” and “Blown to Bits” indicate when the novel will reach its explosive conclusion. Before we get there, however, Ballantyne offers readers a series of adventures centering on Nigel Roy, the son of an English sea captain; Van der Kemp, the hermit of Rakata; and Moses, the hermit’s faithful servant.

Nigel befriends Moses, who introduces him to the hermit and the hermit’s well-equipped cave on Krakatoa. The three embark on a journey to several nearby islands and always are greeted hospitably by the locals, since Van der Kemp, despite his nickname of hermit, has travelled extensively and made loyal friends seemingly everywhere. During their journey, the main characters encounter tigers, orangutans, a crocodile, a python, and othello, pirates led by Baderoon, Van der Kemp’s mortal enemy. Years earlier, Baderoon had led an attack which separated Van der Kemp from his young daughter, Winnie. Ebay In Japan Strategy Case Study! When Nigel hears the story, he suspects an orphan he met in the Cocos-Keeling Islands is othello, Winnie, and he asks his father to transport Winnie to Anjer. Van der Kemp and his daughter are prematurely reunited when the hermit’s canoe is washed onto the deck of Captain Roy’s boat in the midst of Krakatoa’s catastrophic eruption. The tsunami generated by Krakatoa’s third and largest explosion propels the boat over the ruined city of Anjer and more than a mile inland, safely depositing the ap environmental essay protagonists in a coconut grove.[10] Nigel and Winnie fall in love, marry, and settle with their parents and Moses in the Cocos-Keeling Islands.

Its plot is improbable, yet Blown to Bits includes copious (and accurate) information about Krakatoa. As Joel D. Essay! Chaston remarks, “Ballantyne’s books are . . . important because, while sometimes far-fetched, they provide generally accurate scientific and geographic information, attempting to educate readers realistically about other countries, cultures, and times” (20). In the isentris resume preface to othello essay Blown to Bits , Ballantyne acknowledges his debt to the Royal Society Report for the facts of the essay on holes novel eruption, and he draws upon the Report quite extensively. The narrator sometimes directly quotes the Royal Society Report, as when he describes the essay moderate eruptions of May 1883 (Ballantyne ch. 8; Symons 11). More often, the narrator slightly paraphrases or summarizes the Report, as he does in the extensive discussion in Chapter 29 of Krakatoa’s global effects, including the novel sounds heard as far as Rodriguez, the essay air waves measured by barometers, the isentris resume changes in sea level, the dust particles and their rate of travel, and the resultant atmospheric effects. On occasion, Ballantyne even has Van der Kemp ventriloquize the Royal Society Report. The hermit thus informs Nigel of Krakatoa’s dangerous position in a highly volcanic region: The island of Java, with an area about equal to that of essay, England, contains no fewer than forty-nine great volcanic mountains, some of which rise to 12,000 feet above the isentris resume sea-level. Many of these mountains are at the present time active . . . and othello essay, more than half of them have been seen in eruption since Java was occupied by Europeans. Hot springs, mud-volcanoes, and vapour-vents abound all over the island, whilst earthquakes are by no means uncommon.

There is a distinct line in the chain of have become essay, these mountains which seems to othello essay point to a great fissure in the earth’s crust, caused by the subterranean fires. This tremendous crack or fissure crosses the Straits of Sunda, and in consequence we find a number of in japan, these vents—as volcanic mountains may be styled—in the Island of Sumatra, which you saw to othello essay the nor’ard as you came along. But there is supposed to be another great crack in the earth’s crust—indicated by several volcanic mountains—which crosses the other fissure almost at right angles, and at the exact point where these two lines intersect stands this island of Krakatoa ! (ch. 7; n. pag.)[11] Clearly, as Van der Kemp educates Nigel about the region, so, too, does Ballantyne educate his young readers, in keeping with his stated intention “to bring the matter [of Krakatoa’s 1883 eruption], in the garb of a tale, before that portion of the juvenile world which accords me a hearing” (preface; n. Ebay In Japan Strategy Case Study! pag.) Krakatoa helped inspire not only Ballantyne’s adventure novel and Tennyson’s ominous poem, but also two truly apocalyptic works of literature—Camille Flammarion’s Omega and M. P. Shiel’s The Purple Cloud . Othello! Omega: The Last Days of the World (1894), the first English translation of strategy study, Flammarion’s 1893 novel, originally titled La Fin du Monde , presents an array of possibilities for the world’s end. In the twenty-fifth century, astronomers predict a comet composed partly of poisonous carbon monoxide will collide with the earth, and scientists speculate about othello numerous ways the comet might extinguish humanity. The comet is less destructive than feared, and the human race survives, but Flammarion then presents a further vision of earth ten million years in the future.

Only two people remain alive amidst an entropic wasteland in moral political which the earth’s elevations have eroded to a near-uniform surface, its water vapor has dissipated, and its surface temperature has dropped too low to essay sustain life. In between these two apocalyptic scenarios, Flammarion inserts a chapter summarizing actual historical catastrophes and panics, including Krakatoa’s eruption (160-62), “in order to consider this new fear of the end of the world with others which have preceded it” (133). Flammarion writes of Krakatoa, “Those who escaped, or who saw the isentris resume catastrophe from some vessel, and lived to welcome again the light of essay, day, which had seemed forever extinguished, relate in terror with what resignation they expected the political end of the world, persuaded that its very foundations were giving way and that the knell of a universal doom had sounded” (161). M. P. Shiel’s apocalyptic novel The Purple Cloud (1901) is set in the much more immediate future, and it twice compares events in the early twentieth century to Krakatoa’s eruption and after-effects. In the othello essay first instance, the narrator, Adam Jeffson, recounts: [I]t was at sunset that my sense of the wondrously beautiful was roused and excited, in spite of that burden which I bore: for, certainly, I never saw sunsets . . . so flamboyant, exorbitant and distraught. . . . But many evenings I watched it with unintelligent awe, believing it but a portent of the unsheathed sword of the Almighty, until one morning . Paper Political Research Science! . . I suddenly remembered the wild sunsets of the nineteenth century witnessed in Europe, America, and, I think, everywhere, after the othello essay eruption of the volcano of Krakatoa. (77-78) Adam has good reason to think the wild sunsets are a portent of apocalypse since the burden he bears is to live in political and literary the aftermath of a worldwide catastrophe.

Having been the first man to reach the North Pole, Adam gradually realizes, as he returns home to othello essay England, that he is the last man left alive. Political! A purple cloud of poisonous gas has enveloped nearly the othello entire planet, sparing only the very northernmost latitudes. People Become Overly Dependent Technology Essay! It is this memory of the Krakatoa sunsets that leads Adam to othello suspect the source of the political research science poison cloud was a volcanic eruption. This indirection surrounding the novel’s central event—the volcanic eruption—distinguishes The Purple Cloud from earlier disaster narratives discussed by Nicholas Daly. In Shiel’s story, the volcano’s eruption is not the dramatic climax; instead, over essay eighty percent of the novel focuses on ebay in japan study, Adam’s survival after the disaster.[12] Adam frequently, and at great length, describes dead people and othello, destroyed property, but he encounters them months or years after they perished. The novel does not offer a detailed, direct description of the isentris resume actual eruption, and hence does not use the eruption itself as spectacle. Adam eventually stumbles across an eyewitness account of the othello eruption, but the account is brief, and Adam finds it two decades after the fact (180). Albert Tissu, a passenger on board the ship the people become overly Marie Meyer (180), witnesses a volcanic island emerging from the essay sea and records the event in his journal: “we descry a shade rising, a shade, a mighty back, a new-born land, bearing skyward ten flames of fire, slowly, steadily, out of the sea” (181). Tissu hopes to be immortalized for documenting such an moral political, extraordinary event. He continues writing until the moment he unexpectedly succumbs to othello the almond-scented cyanide gas released from the volcano: “I rush down, I write it. . . . There is a running about on the decks—an odour like almonds—it is so dark, I—” (182).

Shiel’s inclusion of a shipboard eyewitness is in essay keeping with the othello significance of sailors’ accounts for understanding Krakatoa. Political Research! The Royal Society Report suggested, “Perhaps . . . the most important evidence of what was actually going on at Krakatoa during the crisis of the eruption is that derived from witnesses on board ships” (Symons 15), and the Report includes a three-page list and a map detailing the ships in or near the Sunda Strait during or soon after the eruption (Symons 15-18). Othello! Even Shiel’s choice of the ship’s name, the essay moral Marie Meyer , seems to echo one of the othello ships closest to the Krakatoa eruption—the Dutch trade vessel the Marie (Symons 15). Tissu’s shipboard account is not the only example of The Purple Cloud mimicking the methods of representation through which witnesses reported and scientists studied the Krakatoa eruption. Become Overly Dependent Essay! The telegraph and the periodical press also play prominent roles in Shiel’s novel. As Adam returns to Europe from the North Pole and searches for other survivors, he thinks of, but rejects, the telegraph and othello essay, the wireless (the recently invented radio) as means of expediting his search: “I had some knowledge of the isentris resume Morse code, of the manipulation of tape-machines, telegraphic typing-machines, wireless transmitting . . . Othello Essay! so I could have wirelessed, or tried to wire from Bergen, to somewhere; but I would not: I was so afraid; afraid lest for ever from nowhere should occur one replying click, or stir of dial-needle” (78). Adam fears these technologies’ speed and scope will only hasten the certainty of his complete isolation.

So horrifying is this prospect that he focuses on the absence of impersonal, mechanical clicks and dials rather than the absence of the urgent interpersonal communication they were meant to have essay facilitate. Adam has good reason to fear the telegraph’s silence. As he discovers through reading old newspapers, those yet unaffected by essay, the cloud inferred its location and speed based on cessations of telegraph contact. One report in The Kent Express laments, Communication with Tilsit, Insterburg, Warsaw, Cracow . Moral! . . and many smaller towns immediately east of the essay 21st of longitude has ceased during the night, though in some at least of them there must have been operators still at their posts, undrawn into the westward-rolling torrent: but as all messages from Western Europe have been met only by that mysterious muteness which, three months and two days since, astounded civilisation in the case of Eastern New Zealand, we can only assume that these towns, too, have been added to the mournful catalogue; . . . the rate of the isentris resume slow-riding vapour which is touring our globe is no longer doubtful, having now been definitely fixed by Professor Craven at 100 ? miles a day—4 miles 330 yards an hour. Othello Essay! (86-87)

Such “mysterious muteness” happened on a more local scale immediately after the Krakatoa eruption. On the day of the catastrophe, the telegraph operator at Batavia wired to Singapore, “unable [to] communicate with Anjer—fear calamity there” (qtd. in Simkin and Fiske 14). Shiel’s fictional newspaper article also resonates with the scientific analysis of Krakatoa in the periodical press, which included discussion of the political research science speed at which particles from the eruption spread over the earth’s surface. Adam finds additional scientific analysis when he reads the archives of The Times in their London office, and finds an ongoing debate about the composition of the deadly cloud. He finds an article by a Dublin scientist named Sloggett to be most persuasive, and Adam’s praise of Sloggett includes the novel’s second explicit reference to Krakatoa: This article was remarkable for its discernment, because written so early—not long, in fact, after the cessation of communication with Australia, at which date Sloggett stated that the character of the devastation not only proved an eruption—another, but far greater Krakatoa, doubtless in some South Sea region—but indicated that its most active product must be, not CO, but potassic ferrocyanide (K 4 FeCn 6 ). (109) Shiel here uses the public’s memory of Krakatoa and othello essay, intensifies it, by making his fictional eruption even more catastrophic in force and more deadly in ap environmental science lorax essay content than the disaster that inspired it. When Krakatoa exploded on othello essay, 27 August 1883, it cloaked the science lorax essay surrounding area in darkness, inundated nearby shores, and killed tens of thousands. Over 7,000 miles away in England, sensitive instruments recorded air and sea waves, and othello, observers admired and feared the lurid atmospheric effects.

But Krakatoa’s eruption also instigated scientists from varied specialties to paper research cooperate with each other and to seek the public’s help in producing the massive Royal Society Report. The eruption and its aftereffects inspired Tennyson to depict a turning point in Western history and Shiel to othello essay imagine a harrowing future of human history’s end. Shiel’s protagonist laments, “nothing could be more appallingly insecure than living on a planet” (182). Krakatoa’s catastrophic eruption and its worldwide effects demonstrated the precariousness, and the interconnectedness, of political and literary, life on earth. Monique R. Morgan is an othello essay, Associate Professor of isentris resume, English at McGill University, where her research and teaching focus on Romantic and Victorian literature, narrative theory, poetics, and othello, early science fiction. Her monograph, Narrative Means, Lyric Ends: Temporality in the Nineteenth-Century British Long Poem , was published by essay, Ohio State University Press in othello essay 2009. She is currently working on her second book, tentatively titled Estranged Cognition: Narrative and Epistemology in Victorian Science Fiction . HOW TO CITE THIS BRANCH ENTRY (MLA format) Morgan, Monique R. “The Eruption of Krakatoa (also known as Krakatau) in 1883.” BRANCH: Britain, Representation and Nineteenth-Century History . Essay! Ed. Dino Franco Felluga. Extension of Romanticism and othello, Victorianism on the Net . Web. [Here, add your last date of access to BRANCH].

Altick, Richard D. In Japan Business Strategy Case! “Four Victorian Poets and essay, an Exploding Island.” Victorian Studies 3.3 (1960): 249-60. JSTOR . Web. 5 Sept. 2011. Ball, Patricia M. The Science of Aspects: The Changing Role of Fact in the Work of Coleridge, Ruskin, and Hopkins . London: Athlone, 1971. Print. Ballantyne, R. M. Blown to Bits, or The Lonely Man of Rakata . 1889. London: James Nisbet Co., 1894.

Project Gutenberg . Web. 20 Jan. 2012. Bridges, Robert. Eros and Psyche . The Poetical Works of essay on holes, Robert Bridges . 2nd ed. London: Oxford UP, 1964. 87-184. Print. Chaston, Joel D. Othello Essay! “R. Isentris Resume! M. Othello Essay! Ballantyne (24 April 1825 –8 February 1894).” British Children’s Writers, 1800-1880 . Ed.

Meena Khorana. Dictionary of Literary Biography. Vol. 163. Detroit: Gale Research, 1996. Moral Political And Literary! 8-20. Dictionary of Literary Biography Complete Online . Gale . Web. 23 Aug. Essay! 2012.

Daly, Nicholas. “The Volcanic Disaster Narrative: From Pleasure Garden to Canvas, Page, and Stage.” Victorian Studies 53.2 (2011): 255-85. Print. Flammarion, Camille. Omega: The Last Days of the World . 1893. Have Become Overly Dependent Essay! Intro. Essay! Robert Silverberg.

Lincoln: U of Nebraska P, 1999. Print. Hamblyn, Richard. Novel! Terra, Tales of the Earth: Four Events that Changed the World . London: Picador, 2009. Print. Hopkins, Gerard Manley. “Pied Beauty.” The Poetical Works of Gerard Manley Hopkins . Ed. Norman H. Mackenzie. Oxford: Clarendon P, 1990. 144. Print. —–. “The Windhover.” The Poetical Works of Gerard Manley Hopkins . Ed.

Norman H. Mackenzie. Oxford: Clarendon P, 1990. 144. Print. Menely, Tobias. Othello! “‘The Present Obfuscation’: Cowper’s Task and the Time of Climate Change.” PMLA 127.3 (2012): 477-92. Print. “The Remarkable Sunsets.” Nature 29.740 (3 Jan. Ebay! 1884): 222-225. Nature Publishing Group . Web. 27 Oct. 2011.

Roos, David A. “The ‘Aims and Intentions’ of Nature .” Victorian Science and Victorian Values: Literary Perspectives . Othello Essay! Eds. James Paradis and ebay in japan, Thomas Postlewait. Spec. issue of Annals of the New York Academy of the Sciences 360 (20 Apr. 1981): 159-80. Print. Shiel, M. P. The Purple Cloud . 1901. Rev. Othello Essay! ed. 1929. Intro. In Japan Strategy Case Study! John Clute. Lincoln: U of othello essay, Nebraska P, 2000.

Print. Simkin, Tom and Richard S. Ap Environmental Lorax Essay! Fiske. Krakatau 1883: The Volcanic Eruption and Its Effects . Washington: Smithsonian Institution P, 1983. Othello! Print. Swinburne, Algernon Charles. “A New-Year Ode: To Victor Hugo.” Swinburne’s Collected Poetical Works . Vol. 2. London: William Heinemann, 1927. 865-82. Print. Symons, G. J., ed. The Eruption of paper political research science, Krakatoa, and othello essay, Subsequent Phenomena : Report of the Krakatoa Committee of the Royal Society . London: Trubner, 1888. Google Books . Web.

4 Sept. 2011. Tennyson, Alfred Lord. “St. Telemachus.” The Poems of Tennyson . Ed. Christopher Ricks. 2nd ed. Vol. 3. Berkeley: U of California P, 1987. 224-27. Print. Thornton, Ian.

Krakatau: The Destruction and Reassembly of an Island Ecosystem . Ap Environmental Lorax! Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1996. Print. Winchester, Simon. Krakatoa: The Day the World Exploded: August 27, 1883 . New York: Harper, 2003. Print.

Wood, Gillen D’Arcy. “1816, The Year without a Summer.” BRANCH: Britain, Representation and othello essay, Nineteenth-Century History . Ed. People Have Become Dependent Technology Essay! Dino Franco Felluga. Extension of Romanticism and Victorianism on the Net . Othello Essay! Web. 4 Sep. 2012. Zaniello, Thomas A. “The Spectacular English Sunsets of the 1880s.” Victorian Science and Victorian Values: Literary Perspectives . Eds.

James Paradis and Thomas Postlewait. Spec. issue of essay political and literary, Annals of the New York Academy of the Sciences 360 (20 Apr. 1981): 247-67. Print. [1] Discussions in othello English usually refer to the island and volcano as “Krakatoa.” The name now used by local inhabitants, and by international scientists who study the island, is “Krakatau,” which was the name used in 1883 by the Dutch, who controlled the Dutch East Indies (today known as Indonesia). Richard Hamblyn claims there have been at ebay strategy case study, least sixteen different spellings for the island (131). Since this essay is concerned with late-nineteenth-century British representations of the volcano, it adopts the othello essay usage in most of its sources and science, refers to othello the island and essay novel, volcano as Krakatoa. [2] There is some uncertainty about the exact times of the third and fourth large explosions. Ian Thornton estimates the third to have occurred just after 10:00 a.m. (13) rather than precisely at 10:02, and he gives varying times for the fourth explosion—sometimes 10:52 a.m. Othello! (14), and isentris resume, sometimes 10:45 a.m (18).

Simkin and Fiske note previous reports of 9:58, 10:00, and 10:02 for the time of third great explosion, but decide on 9:58 for their chronology (38), and they give 10:45 as the othello essay time of the last explosion but acknowledge that the Royal Society claims 10:52 (40). Hamblyn misleadingly refers to the 10:02 eruption as Krakatoa’s “final blast,” “terminal eruption,” and “final act of destruction” (160, 158, 157). [3] Simkin and Fiske give a more conservative timeline: “Darkness covered the Sunda Straits from 10 a.m. on the 27th until dawn the next day” (15). [4] The first scientists to study the islands after the 1883 eruption agreed that all life had been killed, but in 1929 C. Isentris Resume! A. Backer suggested that some species may have survived the eruption, spurring decades of debate (Thornton 79). Currently the vast majority of biologists who study Krakatoa think all life was killed (Thornton 93). [5] The authors of the Royal Society’s 1888 report on essay, Krakatoa also emphasized the global reach of political science, Krakatoa’s effects, and othello, the telegraph cables which carried news of them.

The Royal Society report begins: “During the isentris resume closing days of the month of August, 1883, the telegraph-cable from Batavia carried to Singapore, and thence to every part of the essay civilised world, the news of a terrible subterranean convulsion—one which in its destructive results to novel life and property, and in othello essay the startling character of the world-wide effects to which it gave rise, is perhaps without a parallel in essay political historic times” (Symons 1). [6] According to David Roos, such a conjunction of othello essay, science and art would have appealed to essay on holes novel Nature ’s founder and editor, Norman Lockyer, who wanted the journal’s contents to include all branches of knowledge and its readers and contributors to include both trained scientists and interested laymen. Othello Essay! As evidence of Lockyer’s success, Roos cites Hopkins’s letter (173), Lockyer’s own reviews of Royal Academy of Art exhibitions (172), and the frequent contributions of novel, John Brett, “a member of both the Astronomical Society and the Royal Academy of othello, Arts” (171). [7] Altick claims Swinburne “hold[s] the mirror of artifice up to nature” by “using his favorite image of flame and fire to describe sunsets which witnesses agree were marked by diffused rather than concentrated light” (259). Altick makes a valid point about the diffuse light of the Krakatoa sunset, yet, as we have seen, Swinburne was far from alone in using the analogy of fire. [8] Altick complains that Tennyson’s individual observations of the Krakatoa sunsets are “clouded by moral, the dramatic or allegorical context[]” (260), and essay, that “the lines he wrote have no necessary impress of personal experience” (258). In contrast, I think Tennyson successfully subsumes details of the isentris resume Krakatoa phenomena to his dramatic and allegorical purposes. [9] There may be some ambiguity in Tennyson’s phrase “indrawing sea,” depending on the imagined perspective. The sea could be surging in toward the land, or the sea could be drawing itself in away from the shore and stranding a ship that had been anchored. Essay! Both cases have parallels with the Krakatoa eruption, which created tsunamis but also caused sea levels to fall in some locations (Thornton 13). [10] In its happy ending, Blown to Bits differs from other disaster narratives designed to elicit “the pleasure of the reader or viewer in destruction—of people, of strategy, property, of hopes” (Daly 255).

Ballantyne does describe Krakatoa’s destructive effects in chapter 29, but in a detached, impersonal tone. [11] Compare the opening of this passage to the nearly identical phrasing in the Royal Society Report: “The Island of Java, with an area about equal to that of England, contains no fewer than forty-nine great volcanic mountains, some of which rise to a height of 12,000 feet above the sea-level. Of these volcanoes, more than half have been seen in eruption during the short period of the European occupation of the island, while some are in a state of almost constant activity. Hot springs, mud-volcanoes, and othello essay, vapour-vents abound in essay moral political Java, while earthquakes are by othello, no means unfrequent” (Symons 4). [12] In this focus on survival, The Purple Cloud more closely resembles the disaster narratives that followed it rather than those that preceded it.

According to Daly, “In twentieth- and twenty-first-century disaster texts the interest often resides in the post-disaster society, or the family unit that survives, say, malevolent weather, town-swallowing geological events, or nuclear armageddon” (255-56). Adam has the chance to isentris resume form a family unit (and possibly repopulate the othello world) when he discovers a female survivor. Political Research Science! One of Daly’s twentieth-century examples is the film The World, The Flesh, and the Devil (280 n1), which is a very loose adaptation of othello, The Purple Cloud .

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college paper editor While preparing to leave the public editor’s office and move to Washington, I’ve been getting together in recent weeks with some people I’ve met while living in New York. One was Ben Smith, the othello, editor in chief of BuzzFeed, who asked me over lunch what columns I planned to essay moral political, do before I left. I tossed it back to him, asking what he would like to read, and he suggested I take up “what I love and what I hate about The New York Times.” This guy’s definitely got a future as an editor! I decided to tweak his idea, with a nod to Nora Ephron’s list from her book, “I Remember Nothing: And Other Reflections.” (Of all the people I wish I had been able to meet in New York, she tops the list.) 1. The inherent tension of the othello, job. The whole concept of political, coming to work every day to handle complaints, and maybe to criticize work done at the next desk over, well . . . The job is always a tightrope walk and certainly can be unpleasant at times. But that tension comes with the territory. I’ve had to remind myself (or others have reminded me) that if everybody around me were happy, I probably wouldn’t be doing the job right.

And, of course, I’m well aware that I’ve made some misjudgments along the way. Every job has its downside, but it will be a relief to lay down that particular burden. Perfectly Reasonable Question: Short Shrift for the Mets? With the baseball season underway, New York City’s longstanding and grudge-filled Subway Series rivalry rears its head again. A reader, Wayne Robins, who teaches journalism at St. John’s University in Queens, sees a definite Times bias toward pinstripes and against not only the Mets, but also all of Queens. He wrote to me last week: The New York Mets are the othello essay, defending National League champions. They play in paper research the NYC borough of othello, Queens (which, despite the effort of one reporter assigned to a complex county of novel, 2 million, remains exotic, undercovered, and othello ignored). The Times has not put anything about the Mets on its web front page yet. Not opening day, not today; instead, the political and literary, story referred to is about othello, Yankees fans having to moral and literary, walk a mile from Stub Hub to the stadium.

This after a magnificent pitching performance yesterday and a 2-0 win, the Mets first of the season, over their World Series rivals the Kansas City Royals. I know the Times is data obsessed, and that a graphic last year showed all but one zip code in the city preferred the Yankees over the Mets. Don’t believe it. The Mets are New York’s big baseball story this year. Their game results should appear among the sports headlines on the front of the home page.

I asked the sports editor, Jason Stallman, to othello essay, respond. He wrote in disagreement with Mr. Robins’s perception, suggesting that a broader view is needed. In fact, he said, the opposite is true of Mets/Yankees coverage. Mr. Stallman wrote: “Since the Mets’ resurgence took shape last summer, they’ve certainly commanded far more prominence than the Yankees in our print and ebay business strategy case study digital reports. Essay! Of course, there might be individual days when that wasn’t the moral and literary, case.” A ‘Flawed Story’ on Gay Talese, and ‘Clumsy’ Handling of essay, Race and Gender. The article concerned recent remarks by Mr.

Talese and political the trouble he had coming up with the names of women whose writing had influenced his work. Othello! Those remarks led to scorching criticism on Twitter. Essay Political! The Times article was told largely from Mr. Talese’s point of othello, view, focusing on his reaction to suddenly having a Twitter target on his back. On Thursday, Dean Baquet, The Times’s executive editor, wrote a highly unusual statement, published on the paper’s corporate press site, which is open to the public. Here’s the novel, statement in full: “We published a story yesterday about othello essay, controversial remarks made by the writer Gay Talese concerning female journalists at a conference at Boston University. The story also recounted an exchange between Talese and Nikole Hannah-Jones, a keynote speaker at the conference and a staff writer on science our magazine, in which he questioned how she got her job at The Times. In attempting to defend his remarks, Talese was quoted in our story calling her “duplicitous.” Nikole was not given a chance to respond to that, nor was I. Here is what I would have said: I hired Nikole because she is one of the most accomplished and prominent journalists of her generation. She has made it her mission to write about othello essay, some of the most pressing, intractable issues in American life, particularly racial inequality in essay on holes novel education and the re-segregation of othello, American schools. She is a unique combination of business, a reporter with investigative zeal, unfailing integrity and othello essay a writer’s eye for telling, human detail.

One of have become dependent technology essay, my proudest moments as editor was when Nikole said “yes” and agreed to come to The Times. Yesterday’s story was flawed and Nikole was treated unfairly. But this incident is larger than the exchange between her and Gay Talese. Too often, we are clumsy in othello essay handling issues of race and gender and this story was another unfortunate example. We have made strides in our coverage and culture, but the best solution is to continue building a more diverse, inclusive newsroom.” Updated: The Talese story states that Ms. Hannah-Jones declined to comment, and quotes her email doing so, which seems to contradict Mr. Baquet’s assertion that she wasn’t given the chance to respond. But did she know, when she declined, that Mr. Political! Talese had questioned her integrity by calling her duplicitous?

An email from the othello essay, writer of the article to Ms. Hannah-Jones clarifies this point. (It was shared with me by one of Ms. Hannah-Jones’s editors with her agreement.) It said: “I thought I’d try to reach out to you again. As I said in ap environmental science essay my previous email, I’m writing a piece on Gay Talese and the aftermath of the events in Boston and essay would really like to get your commentary for it. People Have Overly Technology! I have pretty specific things I’d like you to respond to.” But, notably, he did not say what those specific things were.

It’s good that Mr. Baquet addressed what happened, and acknowledged the othello essay, larger issues behind it, which have come up many times. Paper! This story has characteristics of something driven (possibly too fast) by “wanting to be part of the conversation.” What seems obvious now is that a deeper kind of conversation is required. Panama Papers: Why No Big Splash or Times Participation? Updated , 2:19 p.m., Tuesday, to add comment from the consortium’s deputy director, Marina Walker, and othello essay The Times’s executive editor, Dean Baquet, at the bottom of the post. Updated, 4:22 p.m., Wednesday, to add mention of Univision News. The “Panama Papers” are being called the overly dependent essay, largest ever leak of secret data.

Articles based on those documents — developed by a global consortium of journalists — began appearing Sunday afternoon. Exposing the offshore bank accounts of bigwigs worldwide, the articles burst into the Sunday afternoon news lull, getting huge play in media outlets around the world and in the United States. By Monday, I had heard from othello essay many Times readers who wanted to people become overly, know why The Times didn’t seem to othello, be giving the news a big ride. The Times posted a wire-service article on isentris resume Sunday afternoon. Othello! It wasn’t until 9:15 p.m. that a staff-produced piece of moderate length went onto the website. It was not given prominent display; in Monday’s paper, the ap environmental science, story did not make the front page. It ran at the top of othello, Page A3.

Despite that, readers clearly were extremely interested. (And for business case, good reason. Esquire’s Charles Pierce wrote Monday that the revelations raise the distinct possibility “that every political system in the world — even the nakedly authoritarian ones — is hopelessly rigged, and that the marvelous new world of the miraculous global economy is an even bigger thieves’ paradise than you, me, or even Jamie Dimon thought it was.”) Quietly displayed and othello delayed as it was, the story nevertheless was among The Times’s 10 most widely read articles on Monday morning. Were Changes to Sanders Article ‘Stealth Editing’? Updated, 10:54 a.m., to add new observations based on reader response. Bernie Sanders supporters have been unhappy with The Times in isentris resume recent months, but it looked as if they were beginning to have their moment in the sun on Monday morning.

An article by Jennifer Steinhauer, published online, carried the headline “Bernie Sanders Scored Victories for othello, Years via Legislative Side Doors.” It described the way the Vermont senator had managed a significant number of legislative victories in Congress despite the political independence that might have hindered him. The article stayed in essentially that form for several hours online – with some very minor tweaks — but in political research the late afternoon, Times editors made significant changes to its tone and content, turning it from almost glowing to essay, somewhat disparaging. The later headline read: “Via Legislative Side Doors, Bernie Sanders Won Modest Victories.” And these two paragraphs were added: But in isentris resume his presidential campaign Mr. Sanders is trying to essay, scale up those kinds of science, proposals as a national agenda, and there is little to draw from his small-ball legislative approach to suggest that he could succeed. Mr. Othello! Sanders is suddenly promising not just a few stars here and there, but the moon and a good part of the sun, from free college tuition paid for with giant tax hikes to a huge increase in government health care, which has made even liberal Democrats skeptical. Tightening the Screws on Anonymous Sources. After two major front-page errors in a six-month period, Times editors are cracking down on the use of anonymous sources.

An email to the newsroom Tuesday morning from science Dean Baquet, the executive editor, Matt Purdy, a deputy executive editor, and Philip Corbett, the standards editor, said, in part: At best, granting anonymity allows us to reveal the othello essay, atrocities of terror groups, government abuses or other situations where sources may risk their lives, freedom or careers by talking to us. People Have Essay! In sensitive areas like national security reporting, it can be unavoidable. But in othello essay other cases, readers question whether anonymity allows unnamed people to skew a story in on holes favor of their own agenda. In rare cases, we have published information from anonymous sources without enough questions or skepticism – and it has turned out to be wrong. Although the policy does not ban anonymity, it is intended to significantly reduce what Mr. Essay! Purdy characterized as an overreliance on unnamed sources. Perfectly Reasonable Question: Must ‘Best Comments’ Be True? Anne Rettenberg of New York City took issue — vehemently — with what The Times recently called its “best comment of the week.” Starting last month, a new Times feature began identifying the “top 10 comments of the isentris resume, week on our digital platforms, as selected by our readers and the journalists who moderate nearly every comment.” Last week’s No.

1 comment read as follows: I am so disappointed in the Sanders supporters. Othello! All votes matter. Black votes, Latino votes, White votes, Southern votes. Older voters. Mrs.

Clinton is essay moral political and literary winning the popular votes. The delegates’ votes. And yet the Sanders supporters sneer at othello these votes, and almost in a racist and patronizing way suggest these voters do [not] know what is ap environmental science essay good for them. Othello! Any article written is attacked as being anti-Sanders even though this article simply stated facts. Should we get rid of the overly technology essay, black votes, Southern votes and anyone who dares not to vote for Sanders? I am sorry but Sanders supporters seem to have more in common with Trump supporters as many keep pointing out. Othello! No grace in defeat. Ms. Rettenberg, a Sanders supporter, called this “a defamatory lie.” She wrote: “Neither I nor any Sanders supporter I know ‘sneers’ at paper political votes by othello, voters who are black, Latino, white Southern or anything else.” And she added, “This type of almost nonsensical, shrieking broadside is apparently the best tactic Hillary supporters can muster, which is essay sad.”

Reader: Should Media Treat a Certain Candidate Like Voldemort? In this occasional feature, “Reader Spotlight,” I feature a Times reader’s letter. This one, from essay Gerald LeRoy, comes with a graphic element — a screen shot of the top of Thursday’s home page with a few instructive numerals added every time a certain candidate’s name is mentioned. Isentris Resume! (See the image just below Mr. LeRoy’s quoted words.) How Trump’s ‘Off the Record’ Remarks Crept Out. Updated, Friday, March 4, 2016. A reader, Ken Fitzpatrick, read about what has been called a secret recording of Donald Trump’s meeting in January with the Times editorial board. On that recording, an article by essay, BuzzFeed’s editor in chief Ben Smith suggests, Mr. Paper Political! Trump says that his extreme position on deporting immigrants is othello not anything he would necessarily carry out in real, postelection life, but rather might be a starting point for essay novel, negotiation. Mr.

Fitzpatrick writes: Can you please elucidate why the NYT is othello conducting any part of an ebay in japan business strategy study interview with a Presidential candidate off the record? Obviously if you have informed someone that part of the interview is off the record, going back on that would be unethical. Othello Essay! But why, oh why, would you ever agree to paper research science, that in the first place? You’re not interviewing someone whose cat was rescued from a tree.

These are candidates for essay, PRESIDENT. You’ve created a situation where a candidate may have told NYT editors something that is in japan strategy case illuminating and worth reporting on, but they are restrained from doing so. I asked the editorial page editor, Andrew Rosenthal, to address the question. He told me that the editorial board’s meetings with presidential candidates are often done on essay an off-the-record basis, at essay moral the candidates’ request. Othello Essay! These meetings with candidates are not for the purpose of writing news articles, he emphasized, but are intended as informational sessions for the board so that board members can make observations, challenge the candidate on his or her positions, and eventually consider an endorsement. Hitting the Road — but Not Just Yet.

David Weinberger, who writes and thinks about technology’s effect on ideas, famously wrote in 2009 that “transparency is the new objectivity.” In the hypervigilant digital age, in other words, sometimes the best we can do is put our cards on the table. Toward that end, I want to tell Times readers about my plans for the next few months. As some of you may have read in The Times or elsewhere, I will be concluding my tenure as public editor a few months earlier than originally scheduled. I have just accepted a job offer at ap environmental science lorax essay The Washington Post, where I will be the media columnist. I will move from othello New York City to Washington to start work there in May, and will finish up at The Times in April. Become Overly Technology! (My four-year contract with The Times was due to expire in August; and, although I am leaving early, I have been in othello essay the role longer than any of isentris resume, my predecessors, most of whom stayed for two years or less.) Is Global Expansion Good for Times Readers? If all goes well for The Times in its latest incarnation — a Spanish-language site, The New York Times en Espanol, that officially began this week with a base in Mexico City — readers may benefit twice.

The first benefit is obvious enough. The Times is trying to expand its digital readership around the world, which will help it stay afloat as a profitable business. Sustainable financial health, if it comes, means that the othello, company can continue to pay for its large news-gathering and news-producing operation. (The background is well-known: With newspaper economics so damaged by the decline in print advertising revenue, The Times is now emphasizing increasing its readership.) Publishing in ap environmental essay languages other than English – first Chinese, now Spanish, with others to come — vastly expands the pool of possible Times readers. These new readers will help attract new digital advertising, and othello essay may eventually pay for subscriptions. Political And Literary! (At the moment, there is no pay wall for othello essay, the Spanish-language site, which offers 10 to paper, 15 translated Times articles a day — culled from hundreds of possible articles — and also produces some original journalism, which may be reverse-translated for English-speaking readers.) Times Reporter: ‘I Would Never Cut a Deal Like That’ Here’s an ugly term: Transactional journalism — also known as a quid pro quo. Hardly an unfamiliar idea, it came up this week with the disclosure that a writer for othello, The Atlantic made a deal to use a particular word — “muscular” — in describing a 2009 speech by Secretary of State Hillary Clinton in order to get an advance copy of the people become dependent technology, speech. Her aide also required the writer, Marc Ambinder, to favorably mention a State Department delegation attending the speech.

In emails that were made public by othello essay, Gawker, Mr. Ambinder agreed (“got it,” he wrote of the paper research, instructions from Philippe Reines of Mrs. Othello! Clinton’s staff) and received his advance copy. Paper Research Science! The practice rightly was termed “corrupt” by Erik Wemple of The Washington Post, though he gave Mr. Ambinder credit for “appropriate contrition.” (The Atlantic has appended an editor’s note to othello essay, the article.) When Women Fire Back, Are They ‘Ferocious’? When Is a Critic a Scold? Last week, The Times prominently displayed an analysis piece which explored the matter of sexist language and speech in the presidential campaign. Through interviews and other research, it showed how negative words such as “shrill” or “shouting” have been applied to Hillary Clinton, but not to her male rivals.

The piece was well reported and an interesting read. But some readers told me that they saw a conflict between that story and some straight campaign coverage that was published the same day. An article on the fifth Democratic debate depicted Mrs. Clinton “lobbing her harshest assault yet” in the campaign. She “appeared tense and even angry.” The article used the word “ferocity” to describe her behavior, and said she “derided” Bernie Sanders.

By contrast, Mr. Sanders “kept his cool.” His remarks were “well-honed.” Teresa Kopec, a reader, wrote to me, objecting to the choice of words in essay on holes novel the debate news coverage. She saw the debate as “spirited but respectful” on othello essay both sides, and found the language choice offensive. Ms. Kopec wrote: “Compare and paper contrast the words used to describe Mr. Sanders and Ms. Clinton. Sanders: cool, reiterated, well honed. Clinton: harshest, cutting, vitriol, deriding and tense. This is ridiculous.

The NYT ought to be ashamed.” Unanswered Questions Resurface in James Foley Film. Updated, February 4, 2016. Members of the buzzing crowd at the Time Warner Center ate canapes and drank cocktails, craned their necks to get a look at Sting doing a red-carpet interview, and then filed into the screening room. Once they did, the party atmosphere quickly turned somber. The film, an HBO documentary, is about the life and death of James Wright Foley, the othello essay, American journalist who was kidnapped by ISIS in Syria, and strategy case study later was executed, as shown in a horrific video seen around the world. “Jim: The James Foley Story” left the audience quiet and, in my case at least, in tears.

Then things got still more emotional, as the journalist’s parents, John and Diane Foley, stood at a lectern and spoke briefly — and with incredible grace — about their son. I met them afterward and introduced myself to another of their sons, Michael Foley, with whom I had significant phone and email contact last year after he vehemently complained about othello, some of The Times’s coverage of his brother’s time in in japan strategy study prison. He objected, for othello, example, to ebay business strategy study, the description of his brother as an essay enthusiastic convert to essay political and literary, Islam. I considered his complaints, and others I had heard about, in a Sunday column, and I tried to take on some of the broader, and essay very thorny, issues involved in covering Americans who have been kidnapped by terrorists. Times coverage broke important ground when Rukmini Callimachi reported that American hostages often suffered because of their government’s policy on opposing the payment of ransom. ‘A Very Heated Reaction’ to The Times’s Endorsement of Hillary Clinton. In what surely qualifies as understatement, The Times’s top opinion editor calls The Times’s recent endorsement of Hillary Clinton in the Democratic primary the source of “plenty of reaction.” “There’s been a lot of readership, a lot of reader comments,” the editorial page editor, Andrew Rosenthal, told me on Monday. That’s for sure. Have Become Overly Dependent! Over 5,600 comments have been posted on essay the editorial, which was published online Saturday and in Sunday’s paper. A vast majority of those comments came from Bernie Sanders supporters, who vehemently disagreed with the editorial board’s conclusion. (The Times also expressed a preference, within the Republican field of candidates, for John Kasich, the isentris resume, Ohio governor.

That, however, is not an endorsement; the Clinton editorial is one.) A typical comment, and one gathering one of the highest number of “recommends,” or reader agreement, came from Daniel Ricketti of New Jersey, who wrote: “Disappointed in this pick. Essay! NYT never even gave Bernie a shot. Straight from the people, beginning basically no attention.” Many readers have complained to me that Mr.

Sanders’s campaign and viability has been underplayed in the pages of othello, The Times — and moral political and literary I’ve written about this numerous times. Othello! I should remind readers here that the editorial page and The Times’s news pages are operated separately. There is no involvement by ebay strategy, the news editors or reporters in any editorial or endorsement, nor does the editorial board influence the news coverage. A Potent Endorsement Could Use More Transparency. An Op-Ed piece endorsing Hillary Clinton by Michael J. Othello Essay! Morell, a former top C.I.A. official, does not disclose that Morell works at a Washington consulting firm with connections to Clinton.

Readmore… The Clinton Story You Didn’t Read Here. Hillary Clinton ignited criticism with claims she made about her email use in an interview with Fox News, but don’t look for it in The Times.Readmore… A Convention Speech, Not a Bodice Ripper. A Times story claiming that Bill Clinton’s convention speech sexualized Hillary Clinton has readers scratching their heads.Readmore… Feuds! Favors! Name-Calling!

But What About Those Russians? The salacious details of cyberattacks draw the biggest headlines, but are they the biggest part of the story?Readmore… Ms. or Mrs.? It’s Up to You. Isentris Resume! As for Me, Just Call Me Spayd. If Melania Trump is othello essay a Ms. while Michelle Obama is a Mrs., does that mean The Times is up to ebay in japan business case, something? Not really.Readmore… Liz Spayd is the sixth public editor appointed by The New York Times.

The public editor works outside of the reporting and editing structure of the newspaper and receives and answers questions or comments from othello essay readers and the public, principally about essay and literary, news and other coverage in The Times. Her opinions and conclusions are her own. Read more » In New Policy, The Times Forbids After-the-Fact ‘Quote Approval’ The Times is othello one of the first major news organizations to essay moral and literary, take a firm stand against a growing and essay disliked practice. For Times Environmental Reporting, Intentions May Be Good but the people have become technology essay, Signs Are Not.

The Times has dismantled its environmental pod and discontinued the essay, Green blog. Problems With Precision and Judgment, but Not Integrity, in Tesla Test. The public editor looks into a test drive of an electric car that caused a storm. Under Attack, Nate Silver Picks the Wrong Defense. The statistical wizard's offer to wager on the outcome of the presidential race is political research a bad choice. Questions and Answers on How The Times Handles Online Comments From Readers. How does The Times decide which comments to post on othello NYTimes.com? The public editor gets answers from essay on holes novel The Times's online commenting managers. Was Photo of Dead Ambassador Acceptable? Readers complained to the public editor over The Times's decision to display a photograph of the essay, unconscious ambassador in Libya.

Government Secrecy and ap environmental lorax Bradley Manning. The Danger of othello essay, Suppressing the Leaks. Those who reveal classified material are being punished like never before. When the government asks newspapers to isentris resume, keep quiet, the bar should be very high for saying yes. The Times Was Right to Report — at Last — on othello a Secret Drone Base. Editors were asked by the C.I.A. to withhold information and did so for months before publishing it online Tuesday night. Was a Reporter’s Role in a Government Prosecution a Reason to Recuse Him? Scott Shane, a Times national security reporter, was referred to ap environmental science essay, in the government’s prosecution of a former C.I.A. official. Bradley Manning and WikiLeaks are a major story for The Times, so why was the paper so late to cover the soldier’s pretrial hearing? The Times Should Have a Reporter at the Bradley Manning Hearing.

The testimony is riveting and the surrounding issues are newsworthy. Questions on Drones, Unanswered Still. Just who is essay it that the United States is killing with strikes by unmanned aircraft in Yemen and Pakistan? Readers Have a Stake in Obama’s Free-Speech Disconnect. The First Amendment matters for many reasons, some of them not on essay the world stage. False Balance and Objectivity in Reporting. How Social Media Affects Journalistic Objectivity. The public editor travels to Harvard’s Shorenstein Center. Othello! With audio.

The Raging Debate Over Objectivity and Transparency. Is the concept outdated or even more important in the new media era? The journalistic ideal of impartiality is coming under attack. My column for this week. In Real Time, and Beforehand, Checking Facts on the Presidential Debate. The public editor speaks with Times editors about how they plan to fact-check the first presidential debate.

When the View Is From Somewhere, Readers Ought to Know Where That Is. When opinion appears in news pages, it needs to be labeled and isentris resume displayed as just that. Facts, Truth … and May the Best Man Win. Whatever the conclusions, whatever the effectiveness, of challenging facts, the idea that we have to debate the necessity of the media doing so strikes me as absurd. The Times, Too, Is Reconsidering the Term ‘Illegal Immigrant’ The Times is reconsidering the use of the othello, term illegal immigrant. Does The Times Have Its Act Together on Vulgar Language? An article coyly wrote around a business name that used an unprintable word according to The Times's standards.

What’s an research ‘Islamist’? An ‘Extremist’? Trying Not to othello, Blur Language Lines. A crisis in North Africa and a reader’s query bring up crucial distinctions in usage. Adam Lanza, Asperger’s and isentris resume a Misleading Connection With Violence. Families are rightfully upset by some of the early reporting done on othello the Newtown, Conn., shootings.

An Election Day Look at isentris resume How Language Changes in The Times, and in the Culture. The research and development team’s Chronicle tool may distract you while you’re waiting for essay, the returns to come in. Contradictions and Confusion on on holes an Agreement With Iran. Unidentified sources make it difficult for othello essay, readers to people become overly technology, know what to believe regarding negotiations between the United States and Iran. Readers Won’t Benefit if Times Bans the Term ‘Illegal Immigrant’

The public editor's judgment is othello not about immigration reform; it's about clarity and accuracy. Is ‘Illegal Immigrant’ the Right Description? An activist wants The Times to have become dependent essay, stop using the term illegal immigrant in othello its reporting. Gender Questions Arise in Obituary of Rocket Scientist and ebay business case Her Beef Stroganoff. After criticism on essay Twitter and isentris resume elsewhere, the first sentence of an obituary for Yvonne Brill was changed. An Officer’s Secretly Recorded Words About ‘Stop and essay Frisk’ Cause a Firestorm. A front-page article involving the New York Police Department's internal communication could have provided greater context. Is There Really Room to Debate Whether Women Can Lead? A headline ignites a discussion about its undermining question. Anna Quindlen and ebay business case Andrew Solomon Join Discussion About Media and Transgender Children.

News organizations should evaluate the motivations of parents who want to take their child’s story public. The Tale of a Transgender 6-Year-Old Child Raises Reader Concerns. Parental approval and the child’s own willingness should rule the day. T Magazine’s New Editor Pledges to Make Future Issues More Diverse. Readers complained about the absence of people of color in T: The Times Style Magazine. A Twitter Outburst and Another Chance for Andrew Goldman. The Times Magazine interviewer offended some high-profile female writers with his questions. Women, Women, Everywhere — but Not Much About Their Paychecks. Where, after what seemed like women's night on essay Tuesday at the Democratic National Convention, was the people have overly dependent technology, coverage of pay equity, along with gender-economic issues in general? In the Spirit of Ada Louise Huxtable, a Times Critic Reinvents His Role. Michael Kimmelman views architecture in terms of essay, public policy as well as aesthetics.

Reviews by Times Critics With 'All Guns Blazing' The criticism of a new restaurant in Times Square was delicious, even if the food was not. On the Question of a (Brilliantly) Negative Restaurant Review. The critic Pete Wells gave his first “poor” restaurant rating in on holes novel The Times -- and he did it memorably. Barred by Saint Laurent, Attacked by Gaga, a Fashion Critic Carries On.

Cathy Horyn's work can't please everyone -- but this is othello essay ridiculous.

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essay on durer agnes The Self-Portraits of essay, Albrecht Dürer. Men are not born, but fashioned- Desiderius Erasmus. Jacob Burckhardt, The Civilization of the essay Italian Renaissance , 1860. The following is from the introduction to the second part of the book, entitled The Development of the Individual: In the Middle Ages both sides of human consciousness--that which was turned within as that which was turned without-- lay dreaming or half awake beneath a common veil. The veil was woven of faith, illusion, and othello essay, childish prepossession, through which the world and history were seen clad in strange hues.

Man was conscious of himself only as a member of a race, people, party, family, or corporation--only through some general category. In Italy this veil first melted into air; an objective treatment and consideration of the State and of all the things of this world became possible. The subjective side at the same time asserted itself with corresponding emphasis; man became a spiritual individual, and recognized himself as such. In the novel same way the Greek had once distinguished himself from the barbarian, and the Arab had felt himself an individual at a time when other Asiatics knew themselves only as members of a race. Essay. It will not be difficult to show that this result was due above all to the political circumstances of Italy. Stephen Greenblatt, Renaissance Self-Fashioning, 1980, p. Isentris Resume. 256 : It seemed to me the very hallmark of the Renaissance that middle-class and aristocratic males began to feel that they possessed such shaping power over their lives, and I saw this power and othello essay, the freedom it implied as an important element in my own sense of myself. Essay Moral. But as my work progressed, I perceived that fashioning oneself and being fashioned by othello cultural institutions-- family, religion, state-- were inseparably intertwined. In all my texts and documents, there were, so far as I could tell, no moments of pure, unfettered subjectivity; indeed, the human subject itself began to seem remarkably unfree, the ideological product of the relations of power in essay political and literary, a particular society.

Whenever I focused sharply upon othello essay, a moment of apparently autonomous self-fashioning, I found not an epiphany of identity freely chosen but a cultural artifact. If there remained traces of free choice, the choice was among possibilities whose range was strictly delineated by isentris resume the social and ideological system in force. In our modern ideology, we take it as natural the sense of ourselves as unique, autonomous individuals. We have a belief in our unique personal identity. Modern Art History has reinforced this ideology with its construction of the narrative of art around the othello work of identifiable artists whose styles are seen as manifestations of the respective artists' unique personalities. Self-Portraits of artists like Rubens, Rembrandt, and Van Gogh are major monuments in ebay in japan case, this cult of artistic individuality. Where traditional narratives of Art History have explicitly or implicitly assumed the emphasis on essay artistic individuality beginning in the Renaissance as the natural emergence of the essay self, recent critical theory has emphasized that the conception of the self is in actuality a construction with a specific social history.

We consciously or unconsciously fashion our identities out of the alternatives our cultural contexts provide. Any discussion of the othello early modern conception of the artist needs to focus on the remarkable series of self-representations by the German late fifteenth and early fifteenth century artist, Albrecht Dürer. From our experience with later European art, we take for granted the subject matter of the self-portrait. While Dürer was not the ebay in japan business strategy study first artist to produce a self-portrait, he can be arguably claimed to be the othello essay first artist that returned to isentris resume this subject matter throughout his career. In these images Dürer constructs or, in the terms of Stephen Greenblatt, fashions his identity as an artist [for a discussion of the idea of self-fashioning, see the excerpts from an othello essay article by John Martin]. Joseph Koerner, in his book entitled The Moment of Self-Portraiture in German Renaissance Art , has written: The earliest self-portrait we have of Dürer is isentris resume a remarkable silverpoint drawing he did in essay, 1484 when he was thirteen years old. This portrait is frequently paired with what is perhaps a self-portrait of political, Dürer's father, a goldsmith:

The elder Albrecht Dürer, shown holding a piece of his goldsmith work, represents himself as a craftsman. Compare this representation to our discussion of Rogier van der Weyden's painting of St. Essay. Luke Drawing the Virgin: Significantly, Rogier shows St. Luke making a silverpoint drawing. Implicit in essay, this painting is the demonstration of St. Luke's mastery of essay, this difficult drawing technique. Strategy. Dürer's silverpoint self-portrait is undoubtedly an exercise for him as part of his artistic training. The primary documents associated with Dürer's father clearly bring out his mentality as a craftsman. Read for example the excerpt from the Dürer family chronicle and a letter Albrecht Dürer the Elder sent to his wife. Othello. The double portrait of his mother and father that the younger Dürer painted in 1490 should probably be seen in relationship to other double portraits of husbands and wives as managers of household economies engaged in the craft industry:

Reverse of the portrait of Dürer's father. It represents the union of the paper research science Dürer and Holper families' arms. The idea of the craftsman participating in a household economy is suggested by an engraving by Israhel van Meckenem (c. 1440/5-1503): Dated about 1490, the othello print represents the ebay in japan strategy artist with his wife Ida and can be seen as a statement of partnership of the othello essay husband and wife managing a successful workshop specializing in the production print copies of the works of other engravers. Of the over 600 signed prints by Israhel, 90% of them can be identified as being based on become technology essay the work of othello, others. 58 of essay moral political, his prints, for essay example, copy the work of Martin Schongauer.

In their important study The Renaissance Print , Robert Landau and Peter Parshall make the claim that Israhel van Meckenem can be counted as the most historically important northern printmaker at work around 1500 (pp. 56-57). This seems to us an odd claim when we consider the apparent lack of originality of Israhel van Meckenem's work, but Landau's and Parshall's point has merit when the wide dissemination of his work is considered. He saw the potential of marketing prints as a commodity. Making a marketable commodity was thus the priority of Israhel van Meckenem's shop over originality.

A double portrait of the isentris resume artist and his wife dated 1496 by an artist known as the Master of Frankfurt again documents the othello world of the household economy of the craftsman. The arms of St. Luke along with the motto Wt Jonsten versamt ('gathered from joy') above in the fictive frame document membership in the Antwerp Guild of St. Luke. The flowers held by lady and in science, the vase also refer to the guild. In 1480 the Antwerp painters' guild had merged with Chamber of Rhetoric known as ' De Violieren ('The Stock-Gillyflowers'). The lady's hand prominently displays her wedding ring while she holds on othello essay to what appear to be prayer beads much like what Dürer's parents hold in their double portrait. The details of the still life on the table and their clothing are signs of their relative prosperity.

The pewter jug, tin plate, wooden handled knife, and ceramic vase are certainly not the gold and silverware of an aristocratic table but suggest middle class wealth. Their value resides in people have become overly technology essay, the quality of othello essay, their manufacture rather than the intrinsic cost of the have dependent technology materials used. Othello. The painter's mastery of political science, illusionistic painting is attested to by the flies painted as if they had landed on the surface of the painting. Like the birds that were fooled by Zeuxis's painting of grapes, the flies appear to be fooled by the illusionistic representation. Essay. The painting attests to the quality of the master's work and the success of his well managed workshop. This painting perhaps served as a demonstration of the shops wares placed in the window of the essay moral political shop. The reference to a workshop window with a ledge like that shown in the painting of the goldsmith by Petrus Christus was enhanced by the original format of having the painting protected by shutters. The partnership of the husband and essay, wife managing a successful workshop suggested by isentris resume both the othello Israhel von Meckenem print and the Master of Frankfurt painting is isentris resume echoed in a letter from Albrecht Dürer's father to his wife Barbara: This close partnership provides a striking contrast to the apparently distant relationship between Dürer himself and othello essay, his wife Agnes. When they got married, Agnes had the expectation of being the wife of a master and helping him in strategy case, the management of a workshop [see excerpt of Pirckheimer letter written in 1530].

It is significant that there is no double portrait of Dürer and his wife Agnes comparable to the Israhel von Meckenem print, the painting by the Master of Frankfurt, or Dürer's own portrait of his parents. In fact there are relatively few portraits of othello essay, Agnes in people become overly dependent essay, all the work of Dürer. Contrast these representations with the self-portrait that Dürer painted in 1498 that is now in the Prado collection: Inscription: Das malt ich nach meiner gestalt / Ich war sex und zwenzig Jor alt/ Albrecht Dürer (I painted this from my own appearance; I was twenty-six years old) This painting was done after Dürer's first trip to Italy in 1494-95 and the year before the publication of his famous edition of the Apocalypse. Othello Essay. In 1498, Dürer had been elevated to a status rivaling that of a member of the upper social circles of the city, the Ehrbaren , or wealth merchant. Compare this portrait to the attitudes he expresses in a series of letters he writes to his friend Willibald Pirckheimer during his second trip to Italy. Note especially the following statement of regret about returning back home to Germany after his stay in Italy: How I shall freeze after this sun! Here I am a gentleman, at isentris resume, home only a parasite.

Read Joseph Koerner's discussion of this self-portrait. In 1500, Dürer painted his famous self-portrait now in othello, Münich: Inscription: Albertus Durerus Noricus ipsum me propriis sic effingebam coloribus aetatis anno xxviii (I, Albrecht Dürer of Nuremberg painted myself thus, with undying colors, at moral political, the age of twenty-eight years) While Dürer in the 1500 portrait does not wear the fashionable dress of the 1498 portrait, his clothing with the fur collar can be compared to that represented in the 1524 engraving of his friend and Nuremberg patrician, Wilibald Pirckheimer. The contrast in essay, dress between the two self-portraits could be perhaps compared to the contemporary contrast between Gucci and technology essay, Brooks Brothers, with one showing contemporary fashion and the other a traditional sign of high status. It has long been known that this self-portrait is based on a convention for othello essay representing Christ that can be found in have overly technology, Netherlandish art like this image of the Holy Face associated with the work of Jan Van Eyck: Van Eyck's image can be linked to a tradition of Pantocrator images found in Byzantine churches like the following one on the left from the church of Daphni built about 1100 just outside of othello, Athens and two from Sicily (Monreale and Céfalu) from the end of the 12th century: Pantocrator from essay political Daphni. Pantocrator from Monreale in Sicily. Pantocrator from Céfalu in Sicily. (text in essay, Christ's book is John, 8, 12)

Notice how the in japan strategy Byzantine images and the Dürer Self-Portrait share details like the lock of hair extending down the center of the forehead and othello, the prominent position of the right hand. This image of Christ as Pantocrator, or ruler and judge of the world, is a descendent of the so-called acheiropoetai, the ebay strategy study images not made by human hands. Read Koerner's account of this painting. In 1522, Dürer created a dramatically different self-representation in a lead point drawing of himself in the guise of Christ as the Man of Sorrows: Compare this drawing to Dürer's painting of the Man of Sorrows from 1493-94: While strictly not self-portraits, I would like to consider two other images as self-representations. One is othello essay a drawing of an artist drawing a nude that was used as an illustration of a perspective device in Dürer's Painter's Manual of 1525: This image has been the focus of much discussion in contemporary theory.

Read the excerpts included on the page dedicated to paper political research this image. The other image is the famous engraving dated to 1514 entitled Melancolia I : The principal figure can be identified as the female personification of essay, melancholy. This temperament became associated during this period with the creative artist. This can thus be seen as a spiritual self-portrait of Dürer. Number,weight, and measure. Self-Portrait, 1484, silverpoint on prepared paper.

Albrecht Dürer the Elder, Self-Portrait , 1484, silverpoint. Self-Portrait , c. 1491, pen and essay, dark brown ink, Erlangen. Self-Portrait at othello, Age Twenty-two, c. Moral. 1493, pen and othello essay, brown ink, Metropolitan Museum, New York. Self-Portrait , 1493, Louvre, Paris. Self-Portrait, 1498, Prado, Madrid. Self-Portrait , 1500, Alte Pinakothek, Munich. Detail of the 1500 Self-Portrait. Adoration of the Trinity , 1508-11. Adoration of the Trinity, detail: Copy of the Heller Altarpiece , original 1508-9.

Detail of the Heller Altarpiece. Feast of the Rose Garlands, 1506. Detail of the Feast of the dependent Rose Garlands. Sel-Portrait as the Man of Sorrows , 1522. Man of Sorrows , 1493-94. Melencolia I , 1514, engraving.

Artist drawing a nude, from A Course in the Art of Measurement and Ruler , 1525.