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Maya Angelou Graduation Essay
book report forms Why do book reports strike terror in the hearts of most students? Simply, writing a book report is essay not easy. A book report challenges students to think and write critically about what they’ve read. In the and contrast essay school, early elementary grades, extra support is essay given, often with book report worksheets that prompt students to compare essay school to dictators, write about a favorite character and other book details. But as children progress through upper elementary, middle, and high school, they are expected to write book reports independently.
At Time4Writing, we work with students on angelou graduation essay an individual basis to develop their writing skills through online writing courses. We hope this roadmap helps your child navigate writing a school book report with a minimum amount of terror! How to Write a Book Report. Before you write, read. There’s no substitute for reading the book. On Free Education? Choose a book you’ll enjoy—reading should be fun, not a chore! Read with a pen and paper at your side. Jotting down page numbers and notes about graduation significant passages will be very useful when it comes time to write. Remember, unless your book is a personal copy, don’t write in the book itself.
Use a Book Report Outline. After reading the proposal in supply management, book, you are ready to start the writing process. When writing a book report, or when answering any writing prompt, you#8217;ll find writing easier if you follow the proven steps of the writing process: prewriting, writing, revising, editing, and publishing. Angelou? In the first step, prewriting, you’ll plan what you want to say. An outline is a great prewriting tool for book reports. Start your book report outline with the following five ideas. Each idea should correspond to and compulsory, a paragraph: 2. Summary of Book. 3. Book Details: Characters. 4. Book Details: Plot.
5. Angelou Graduation? Evaluation and Conclusion. In organizing your thoughts, jot down a few ideas for each of these paragraphs. Reminder: Every grade level (and teacher) has different requirements for book report content. Review your teacher’s instructions before you create your book report outline. Most book reports begin with the doctoral dissertation, basic information about the book: the angelou graduation, book’s title, author, genre, and compare and contrast essay bullies to dictators publication information (publisher, number of pages, and year published). The opening paragraph is also your opportunity to build interest by mentioning any unusual facts or circumstances about the writing of the book or noteworthy credentials of the author. Was the book a bestseller? Is the author a well-known authority on the subject? Book reports are personal, too, so it’s perfectly acceptable to state why you chose to read it.
In the body of the book report—paragraphs two, three, and four—you’ll describe what the book is graduation about. This is your chance to show you’ve read and an essay on free and compulsory understood the book. Assuming you’ve read a fiction book, below are helpful writing tips: Summary: Start this paragraph by writing an overview of the story, including its setting, time period, main characters, and plot. Specify who tells the story (point of graduation essay view) and the tone or atmosphere of the book. Is it a creepy tale of suspense or a lighthearted adventure?
Character Details: In this paragraph, describe the main characters and identify the major conflict or problem the main characters are trying to solve. You can also write another paragraph about the other characters in the book. Legal Homework? Plot Details: In writing about the angelou graduation, plot, you don’t need to tell every detail of the story. Instead, focus on the main sequence of events. You can discuss plot highlights, from the in supply management, rising action to angelou essay, the book’s climax and conflict resolution. Do My Legal? Make sure you mention the graduation, author’s use of doctoral assistance studies any literary devices you’ve been studying in angelou graduation class. Book Reports on Non-fiction. If you are writing a book report on a biography or other factual text, you’ll want to devote the body of your book report to a description of the book’s subject and the author’s points of view.
Use the chapter headings to help you present the author’s ideas and arguments in an orderly manner. On Free? As with a fictional plot, you don’t have to graduation, cover every argument made by the author. Instead, choose the position format, main ideas and the ones most interesting to you. If you read a biography, write about some of the important events in the person’s life. Personal Evaluation and Conclusion. You’ll like writing the final paragraph because it is graduation here that you’ll be able to offer your own critique of the on free and compulsory, book. What are the book’s strengths and weaknesses? Did the book hold your interest?
What did you learn from the book? If you read a work of fiction, how did the book affect you? If you read non-fiction, were you swayed by the author’s arguments? Try to angelou essay, be balanced in your opinions, and support your statements with examples from the book. Give your honest opinion of the book and whether or not you would recommend it to others. Revising, Editing, and position Publishing.
After you’ve drafted your book report, you’re ready to follow the next three steps of the writing process: revising, editing, and publishing. Begin revising by reading your book report aloud or to essay, a friend for feedback. As you edit, check your grammar and use of the correct guidelines for and contrast book quotes and writing the book title. Give enough time to revising and editing, and your published book report will be that much better. Book Reports: A Type of Expository Essay. A book report is usually written as an expository essay, although it can be written in other forms.
In some cases, a teacher will ask students to take a point of view when writing a book report. Here is an example: “Explain why Hoot by Carl Hiiassen is the best American kid’s novel of the last decade. Please use examples.” This type of writing prompt requires a persuasive style of writing. Teachers may also assign book reviews, which challenge students to persuade their classmates to read or not read a particular book. If writing a book review, don’t reveal the ending! Rely on graduation Your Writing Training to Write Book Reports. Time4Writing#8217;s online writing classes and one-to-one, teacher-led instruction help in building students’ writing skills. When students develop strong basic skills, they can succeed at phd research proposal chain, any writing assignment, including a book report.
Time4Writing offers online writing courses for angelou essay kids in elementary, middle school, and high school, and format pairs each student with a certified teacher for personalized writing instruction. Time4Writing’s eight-week, online writing courses are highly effective in helping students develop their writing skills and building confidence. Find out how Time4Writing#8217;s online writing classes can make a real difference in angelou your child’s writing.
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Maya Angelou’s The Graduation - …
lost highway essay On the Lost Highway : Lynch and Lacan, Cinema and Cultural Pathology. Other Voices , v.1, n.3 (January 1999) Copyright 1999, Bernd Herzogenrath, all rights reserved. Introduction: On Mediation. I want to begin this article on David Lynch's movie Lost Highway with a note concerning the use of Lacanian psychoanalysis in this paper. (1) Jonathan Culler has rightly argued that, since literature takes as its subject all human experience, and angelou graduation essay, particularly the ordering, interpreting, and articulating of experience, it is no accident that the most varied theoretical projects find instruction in literature and that their results are relevant to thinking about literature. (2) What is true for literature, is also true for the other arts, such as painting and - film. Taking Culler's observation as a guideline, this reading of Lynch's film partakes in the mutual informing of essays 2008 both theory and literature. Thus, the movies of angelou graduation Lynch are as 'useful' in essay illustrating Lacan's often cryptic remarks, as Lacanian theory is 'relevant' in thinking about Lynch's poetics. Lacanian psychoanalysis offers a theory of the subject that does without concepts such as unity, origin, continuity. It goes from the assumption of a fundamentally split subject and thus comes up with a model of subjectivity that grounds itself on graduation essay, a constitutive lack rather than wholeness.
Thus, this theory lends itself as a useful and relevant background for the analysis of a sample of cinema that negates the idea of the autonomous, stable individual. According to Lacan, the human being is entangled in three registers, which Lacan calls the symbolic, the imaginary, and the real. Chain Management. Whereas the imaginary constitutes the (perceptual) realm of the ego, the register that accounts for a (however illusive) notion of wholeness and autonomy, the symbolic is the field of mediation that works according to a differential logic. Whereas the imaginary constantly tries to angelou graduation essay, 'heal' the lack-of-being of the on free and compulsory education subject, the symbolic accepts castration. The human subject is thus doubly split: on the imaginary level between the ego and its mirror image, while on the symbolic level it is angelou graduation, language and the inscription into a specific socio-cultural reality and its rules that bars the subject from any unity. Thus, this forever lost unity belongs to an essay on free education, the third register: the real, which is simply that which eludes any representation, imaginary or symbolic. Because of angelou graduation essay this lack, the subject, which, according to legal homework, Lacan, is an effect of the signifier, aims at angelou graduation recreating that lost unity. The 'strategy' of bullies to dictators desire emerges as a result of the subject's separation from the real and graduation essay, the 'means' by which the subject tries to homework, catch up with this real, lost unity again. It is thus desire that accounts for the subject's trajectory through the human world, which according to Lacan isn't a world of things, it isn't a world of being, it is a world of desire as such. (3) This is true for Lynch's movies, as well for the relation of the spectator to the cinema in angelou general. For a span of more than 20 years, director David Lynch has been forcibly changing the face of popular culture.
When Lynch's movie Lost Highway came out last year, the movie was received with both excited appraisal and unsympathetic disbelief. European audiences were - and have always been - more enthusiastic in welcoming Lynch's visions. From Eraserhad onwards, through The Elephant Man , Dune , Blue Velvet , Wild at Heart and Fire walk with me , Lynch's films have been immensely popular overseas, especially in France. The quite revolutionary TV series Twin Peaks featured prominently in the States as well, since the TV format of a 'soap' (even in its weirder form) dovetailed neatly with American viewing habits. True to his visionary style and personal obsessions, Lynch has always been cautious not to cater to mass appeal. His career shows that he is indeed, in legal the literal Cahiers du Cinema sense, an auteur, willing to angelou graduation essay, make the sorts of do my legal sacrifices for essay, creative control that real auteurs have to make - choices that indicate either raging egotism or passionate dedication or a childlike desire to run the sandbox, or all three. (4) Being thus identified with what more people would accept as a European style of filmmaking, it should come as no surprise, then, that Lost Highway was financed by the French company CIBY 2000 - as was his last movie, Fire walk with me . Five years after that movie, which had been a success with neither the critics nor the audience which saw it as a mere 'rip-off' of the on free and compulsory education Twin Peaks series, Lynch's new movie still divides both: two some, it might be the best movie David Lynch has ever made, (5) other reviewers emerged from an graduation essay early screening of Lost Highway with the cry 'Garbage!' (6) So, what is the excitement all about? Although I am perfectly aware of the fact that any attempt to 'explain' Lost Highway ultimately results in an essay a 'smoothening' of graduation its complex structure into doctoral assistance a linear narrative, I will try to angelou graduation essay, give a short outline of its content.
Ostensibly, Lost Highway is the story of Fred Madison, jazz musician. His wife, Renee, is proposal chain, a strangely withdrawn beauty. A disturbing study of contemporary marital hell, the first part of the movie concentrates on Fred's anxiety and essay, insecurity, which escalates as he begins to realize that Renee may be leading a double life. Renee is the focus of proposal management Fred's paranoia: she is seen as both a precious object and the cause of her husband's nightmares. In the course of the movie, they find a series of disturbing videotapes dropped at their door.
The first merely shows their house. The second depicts the couple in bed, from an incredibly strange angle. The third and final video shows Fred screaming over Renee's mutilated and bloody corpse. Angelou Graduation. With brutal suddenness, Fred is convicted of murder and sentenced to die in the electric chair, though he can't seem to remember anything. In his death-row cell, Fred is continually haunted by visions and headaches. At this moment, Fred somehow morphs into do my legal homework Pete Dayton, a young mechanic who is suddenly sitting in graduation Fred's cell. Pete's life is situated in typical Lynchian suburbia, an almost exact replica of the doctoral assistance in women's studies small-town in Blue Velvet . Similarly to Blue Velvet 's Lumberton, Pete's life is overshadowed by his connections to graduation essay, the town's Mafia boss, Mr. Eddy. At some point, Pete meets Alice Wakefield, Mr.Eddy's babe. Within a few minutes, Pete, although he is still dating his girlfriend Sheila, finds himself entangled in a sultry love affair with the local Godfather's moll - a woman who looks like Renee to do my legal, a hair: whereas Renee was brunette, Alice is a platinum blonde (if you're thinking of angelou Hitchcock's Vertigo - double Kim Novak - here, you're right; Lynch himself had already made use of this 'double' in his Twin Peaks series).
Alice, like Renee, is leading a double life. Being a member of the porno underworld, Alice, in classic film- noir-femme-fatale fashion, tempts Pete to commit betrayal and murder until, finally, a strange encounter at a cabin in the desert connects the proposal management movie's two story strands full circle, or, to angelou essay, be more precise, full Moebius Strip: Pete disappears, Fred re-surfaces again. Such is the 'rough' plot. Ap Biology Essays. Already here it becomes obvious that the structure of this movie is anything but 'simple.' To this I am going to approach my subject asymptotically, that is, indirectly, in a series of excursions -- to angelou, circle my subject by way of digressions. DIGRESSION 1: ON SUTURE/ SUTURE. The enigmaticity of David Lynch's Lost Highway confronts us again with the question: What are we doing when we are watching a film? How do we read films? This very problem is and compare essay, has been at the heart of Film Studies, in connection with a related question: does the diegetic reality of the film mimetically represent reality, or does it have the status of angelou graduation a symbolic, differential structure?
As Peter Wollen has put it, [t]o what extent does film communicate by reproducing an imprint, in Bazin's term, of doctoral dissertation fellowship studies reality and of natural expressivity of the world . Or, to what extent does it mediate and deform (or transform) reality and natural expressivity by displacing it into a more or less arbitrary and non- analoguous system and thence reconstituting it, not only angelou essay, imaginatively, but in some sense symbolically? (7) Both problems collide in position the question if a movie as such is something that necessarily should be about angelou graduation something, or if the doctoral assistance fellowship studies stance against angelou, interpretation is in on free fact the more appropriate attitude in particular towards postmodern cultural productions. David Lynch himself has warned against attempts at an unequivocal reading of a filmic text, especially when asked for angelou, the 'hidden meaning' of Lost Highway : the beauty of a film that is more abstract is everybody has a different take. . When you are spoon-fed a film, people instantly know what it is . I love things that leave room to dream . (8) Being particularly vague with respect to the question of 'meaning,' Lynch on the other hand emphasizes film as an art form in its own right - It doesn't do any good . to say 'This is what it means.' Film is legal, what it means ( Cinefantastique ). In the following, I want to return to my initial question - What are we doing when we are watching a film? How do we read films? - and rephrase it slightly: what is the position of the spectator with respect to a film? Christian Metz, in his seminal study of cinema as The Imaginary Signifier (9), has tackled the angelou graduation problem from within a Lacanian framework.
His analysis starts off from the notion of perception - The cinema's signifier is perceptual (visual and auditory) ( The Imaginary Signifier 42) - and goes on to distinguish the cinema from other arts inscribed into the perceptual register (such as painting, sculpture etc.) by homework stating that the angelou graduation essay cinema is more perceptional ( The Imaginary Signifier 43) by involving more perceptional axes. Compared with other types of the 'spectacle,' such as the theater or the an essay and compulsory opera, this apparent superiority, however, is thwarted by the fact that in the cinema, the spectator and essay, the spectacle do not share the same space, since not only the do my legal diegetic reality of film is an illusion, the unfolding itself is angelou graduation essay, fictive: the actor, the 'décor,' the phd research chain management words one hears are all absent, everything is recorded ( The Imaginary Signifier 43). Thus, [t]he unique position of the cinema lies in this dual character of its signifier: unaccustomed perceptual wealth, but at the same time stamped with unreality to an unusual degree . it drums up all perception, but to switch it immediately over into its own absence, which is nonetheless the only signifier present ( The Imaginary Signifier 45). This conflation of (perceptual) wealth and simultaneous absence closely connects the cinematic, i.e. the imaginary signifier, to angelou graduation essay, Lacan's object o , the object- cause that sets desire in motion, the belated reconstruction of the forever lost object. Metz himself draws this connection when he states with respect to film, that the lack is what it wishes to fill, and at the same time what it is always careful to leave gaping, in order to survive as desire.
In the end it has no object, at any rate no real object; through real objects which are all substitutes (and all the more numerous and interchangeable for phd research proposal management, that), it pursues an imaginary object (a 'lost object') which is angelou essay, its true object, an object that has always been lost and proposal, is always desired as such. ( The Imaginary Signifier 59) In further relating film to graduation essay, (and also distinguishing it from) the dream, daydream and (conscious) fantasy (and thus relating film to and contrast, the status of a symptom, of a cultural - or, culturally sanctioned - pathology), Metz' imaginary signifier can be seen to angelou, be inscribed the Lacanian formula of desire, which is also the formula of fantasy/the phantasma, and which reads : The phantasma is defined in the most general form which it receives through an algebra constructed by us . the formula ( ), in which the romb should be read as 'desire for.' (10) The further question now arises how, in the cinematic situation, this 'desire for' the cinematic signifier is realized. According to Metz, the spectator - simultaneously all- perceiving ( The Imaginary Signifier 48), since s/he first of essays all identifies with himself . as a pure act of perception ( The Imaginary Signifier 49), but in fact 'missing' on the screen (which is angelou, why the film is a very special kind of mirror) - also identifies with what's going on on- screen. One (and in fact, the most common) way, is to identify with the 'central character' in/of the film, which is ultimately an identification with a certain camera position. Metz thus defines the position of the spectator as basically voyeuristic, a position that has been thematized in quite a lot of films ( Psycho , Peeping Tom , Halloween ), a paradigmatic example being Lynch's own Blue Velvet . Doctoral Assistance Fellowship In Women's. In semiotic film studies, the graduation relation of the spectator position to the film - which recalls the relation of the subject to its object of desire in Lacan's formula- is ap biology 2008, called 'suture.' (11) Being mainly a medical term, suture means both 'seam' and the process of angelou essay stitching a wound. Following Jacques-Alain Miller's definition of phd research proposal in supply suture, this concept denotes the procedures by means of which cinematic texts confer subjectivity upon their viewers ( Subject of graduation Semiotics 195). However, even if Miller provided an and compulsory elaboration of suture, it is first of angelou all a Lacanian term, and in the following I would like to do a cross-over of the essays 2008 cinematic reading of suture with a psychoanalytical reading of essay this concept, only fitting for position format, a medium which is constantly brought into proximity with psychic formations. According to Lacan, the angelou essay subject is an effect of the signifier, of discourse, insofar that the signifier even represents the subject for another signifier ( Écrits 316) The subject thus has to permanently re- invent and re-assure itself through its discourses - that is, through language, literature, and through film, among others. Miller defines suture as that moment where the subject fades by becoming represented - in discourse - by a signifier: Suture names the legal homework relation of the subject to the chain of graduation essay its discourse . it figures there as the element which is lacking, in the form of chain a stand-in. For, while there lacking, it is not purely and simply absent.
Suture, by extension - the general relation of lack to the structure of angelou graduation which it is an element, inasmuch as it implies the in supply chain position of taking-the-place-of. (12) This definition not accidentally recalls Metz' observation that the spectator is as such missing from the cinematic discourse, and that the angelou viewing subject might identify with the camera position as its stand-in. This has lead some theorists, such as Jean-Pierre Oudart, to identify the operation of suture with certain filmic techniques, especially the shot/reverse shot which facilitates (and directs) the spectator's identification with a certain gaze. Stephen Heath has expanded the an essay on free concept of suture, arguing against its equation with such formalized techniques and strategies. Angelou Graduation Essay. Since the imaginary and the symbolic are always simultaneously present - an image having no value in itself, but always with reference to a cultural background, to a set of rules or genre-conventions - suture in Heath's account refers to format, the play of presence and graduation essay, absence as a mode of position format subject production in which the identification with the image always has to be read against the background of a symbolic system: the spectator is essay, always already in the symbolic . Position Essay Format. No discourse without suture . , but equally, no suture which is not from the beginning specifically defined within a particular system which gives it form . (13) With Lacan, the term suture denotes the conjunction of the imaginary and the symbolic. (14) With respect to the Lacanian registers of the angelou graduation essay imaginary, the symbolic, and the real, suture thus refers to the stitching of the representational registers, with the seam closing off the real from reality, closing off the unconscious from position essay conscious discourse. Suture thus prevents the subject from losing its status as a subject, prevents it from falling into the void of the real, from falling into graduation essay psychosis. Thus, the subject's identification with the movie fundamentally relies on phd research management, this conjunction of the imaginary and the symbolic levels within the graduation cinematic discourse itself. Normally , that is, in most of the essay format examples of the classical Hollywood movie, this junction is well balanced: the means of graduation essay representation parallel the narrative itself, in a mutual and constant comment. If suture, then, ultimately ties the spectator into the movie by mapping the visual/aural (i.e. perceptual, and thus imaginary) means of representation onto do my, the narrative (and the graduation essay structure of the narrative), the ripping open of that seam consequently has to result in a problematization, if not complete undermining of identification. This de-suturing then draws attention to the fabrication of the illusion of whole-ness of both the spectator and the movie.
The 1993 film Suture by Scott McGehee and format, David Siegel provides a good example for such a de- suturing . (15) Suture begins with the attempt of Vincent Towers, a millionaire who has killed his father, to kill his identical half-brother Clay Arlington in a planned car explosion and to pass him off as himself to escape prosecution. The plan goes awry, and Clay survives - a mass of bruises and broken bones, having lost his memory. The movie follows Clay who slowly starts to take on his brother's identity. Still, Clay severely suffers from memory flashbacks which he cannot accept as his own.
However, the end of the film - which indeed is its starting image as well, since the movie as such is a long flashback - shows Clay, who has by now fully accepted his new identity as Vincent Towers, shooting his brother who has returned to bring his plan to graduation essay, a successful close. After his brother's death, Clay decides to remain the other rather than himself, leading a happy life with his beautiful cosmetic surgeon Renée Descartes. No problem so far. But, on the level of representation, the spectator is constantly held in the process of position de-suturing. The movie constantly emphasizes the physical similarity of the two brothers (on the blurb on the video jacket, they are actually referred to as 'twin brothers'), which is in fact a prerequisite for the film to function in graduation the first place. Ap Biology Essays. Our physical resemblance, remarks Vincent at one point, is striking. Angelou Graduation Essay. However, the and contrast to dictators two brothers could not be more different: Vincent is white, whereas Clay is an African-American. Essay. This perverse logic is consequently reflected in the title of the film: the movie Suture ultimately withholds suture. An Essay And Compulsory. (16) Lost Highway , I argue, functions in graduation quite a similar manner. In order to slowly approach this problem, I will in the following comment on doctoral, certain aspects of the film which I think are most important for an understanding . First, there is the angelou graduation essay structure of the film. After the credit titles that flicker over the screen - fittingly accompanied by David Bowie's song I'm deranged, a track that sets the tone for what's to on free education, come - the movie begins with Fred sitting alone in front of a window, smoking, his image mirrored in the pane of glass, when suddenly a message comes in through the intercom: Dick Laurent is dead! (29K .wav file) Fred does not - yet - know who this mysterious Dick Laurent is (or better: was), nor who it was who brought the angelou message.
Neither does the spectator. Shortly before the end of the movie, Fred rushes to his house and delivers exactly this message - Dick Laurent is an essay, dead! - into his own intercom. Whereas most reviewers have failed to take notice of this strange structure, in favor of a more straightforward telling of the tale, even the one article that has mentioned it fails to acknowledge its real impact: at the angelou graduation essay conclusion of Lost Highway , when Fred returns to his home to deliver the phd research in supply message that will set the whole narrative in motion again, a new element has entered . the graduation essay script that was not there the first time around in the form of the ap biology 2008 cop cars waiting outside the home. Graduation. This illustrates well that repetition is never identical, and that at the core of sameness is difference. (17) If we have a look - or much more importantly - a careful LISTEN - to these two scenes again . right after the Dick Laurant is phd research in supply chain management, dead message, you can hear sirens, and a car speeding off . in essay fact, they're the same sirens (and car speeding off) that occur at proposal chain the end of the essay movie. An Essay On Free And Compulsory. So, the reviewer quoted before was right, it is about repetition with a difference, there is a new element, but it's not the cop cars, it is the position of Fred.
It is not, however, that he has simply changed from receiver to sender: he is both sender and receiver, AND AT THE SAME TIME . AND SPACE! In order to approach this mystery, a different topology is needed, a topology accounting for a time-space that differs markedly from Euclidean space and teleological time concepts. A topological figure that makes such things possible is the Moebius Strip, and both Lynch and Barry Gifford, with whom Lynch collaborated on the screenplay, have mentioned this figure in interviews. Angelou Graduation. (18) So, what is a Moebius Strip? DIGRESSION 2: HOW TO MAKE A MOEBIUS STRIP. Take a strip of paper Make sure that it has two sides Take one end of the strip, make a 180 degree twist, and put it to the other end. Tape - or, better, with respect to suture, which is important, as we will see - stitch the two ends together. An Essay On Free Education. As a result, you now have a one-sided figure instead of a two- sided figure. Ill 1: The Moebius Strip. The Moebius Strip subverts the essay normal, i.e. Euclidean way of on free spatial (and, ultimately: temporal) representation, seemingly having two sides, but in fact having only angelou graduation essay, one.
At one point the two sides can be clearly distinguished, but when you traverse the to dictators strip as a whole, the angelou essay two sides are experienced as being continuous. Do My Homework. This figure is one of the topological figures studied and graduation, put to use by Lacan. (19) On the one hand, Lacan employs the Moebius Strip as a model to conceptualize the return of the repressed, an issue important in Lost Highway as well. On the other hand, it can illustrate the way psychoanalysis conceptualizes certain binary oppositions, such as inside/outside, before/after, signifier/signified etc. - and can, with respect to Lost Highway , characterize Fred/Pete. These oppositions are normally seen as completely distinct; the Moebius Strip, however, enables us to see them as continuous with each other: the one, as it is, is the truth of the other, and vice versa. Reni Celeste invokes a similar topology, when she comments on Lynch's rewriting of American metaphysics, a rewriting that emphasizes the position where violence meets tenderness, waking meets dream, blond meets brunette, lipstick meets blood, where something very sweet and innocuous becomes something very sick and degrading, at the very border where opposites becomes both discrete and indistinguishable (Celeste).
In Lost Highway , the merging of opposites is crucial, and the problematization of the inside/outside opposition is a most important issue. In fact, it is an important issue in Lynch's oeuvre as such - it suffices to legal, refer to the scene in Blue Velvet , when the camera intrudes the severed ear that Jeffrey finds, and at the end of the movie, the camera virtually seems to come out of Jeffrey's ear again. In Lost Highway , the question of inside and outside and their conflation is repeatedly posed. On a general level, the diegetic reality of the movie - that what we actually see on the screen, as it were, INSIDE the movie - is composed out of bits and pieces from other movies: Lynch uses the different genres of angelou essay Hollywood as a kind of quarry. And not only the Hollywood genres: he almost violently exploits his own wealth of images, almost every shot initiates the shock of compare essay school bullies to dictators recognition. One might call this repetitiveness, but, after all, language in general - and especially a distinct film-language such as Lynch's - relies on angelou graduation essay, repetition in order to function. Another specific example of the merging of inside and outside apart from the frame-tale (Dick Laurent is dead) already mentioned, is, most important, the scene in which Fred meets the Mystery Man for the first time.
In fact, the Mystery Man - simultaneously being inside and outside - can be read at the place where these (and in essays 2008 fact: all) opposites meet, he is - so to speak - the twist in the Moebius strip. In Lacan's use of the Moebius Strip, the place denoting the suture of the imaginary and graduation essay, symbolic in a way hides the primordial cut that instigated this topological figure in the first place, the do my legal homework cut that is the unconscious (or, in angelou graduation essay Lacanian terminology: the real). It is by suturing off the dissertation assistance real that reality for the subject remains a coherent illusion , that prevents the subject from falling prey to the real, that is, falling into psychosis. It is no wonder, then, that the Mystery Man always appears when a change in personality is angelou graduation essay, close. Reni Celeste is correct when she observes that in Lost Highway , there are three important fissures: that which exists between one discrete individual and another, that which exists between the individual and itself, and that which exists between the thing and its representation . Th[e] Nameless Man [Celeste's name for the Mystery Man] . stands between doubles, between passages from one realm to the next, and between each individual and itself (Celeste). However, it is important to note that the structure of the Moebius Strip re-conceptualizes these fissures, allowing them to be seen not so much as fissures, or ruptures, but as places of proposal transition. Graduation. Lost Highway 's moebial structure disallows the essays 2008 suture of the subject into the narrative.
In contrast to essay, the traditional Hollywood diegesis, in which the narrative unfolds in a straightforwardly telelogical manner - even in spite of displacing strategies such as flashbacks, or the format film within the film-motif - Lost Highway in fact presents a multiple diegesis. The more so, since both stories - the story of Fred and essay, the story of compare school to dictators Pete - are not simply related to each other as prequel, and/or the solution of the other. Although there are definite anchoring points that clearly connect the two stories: the one does not subsume the other without remainder. It might even be argued that with every identity shift, the narrative produces yet another author/narrator. Keeping to the Script. I now want to refer to the attempts of categorization of the graduation movie undertaken by its script writers. Essays 2008. The movie has been dubbed by angelou graduation essay Lynch and Gifford (e.g., in the published version of the screenplay) as A 21st Century Noir Horror Film. A graphic investigation into parallel identity crises.
A world where time is dangerously out of on free control. A terrifying ride down the lost highway. Whereas the graduation time dangerously out of control has already been hinted at in the section on doctoral dissertation assistance fellowship in women's studies, the Moebius Strip, I want to angelou graduation essay, use the an essay on free and compulsory education remaining markers in graduation the following as a kind of guideline. A 21st Century Noir Horror Film. I don't like pictures that are one genre only, so this is a combination of things, (20) Lynch has said in phd research in supply chain management a recent interview. Elsewhere, Lynch has articulated his fascination with the noir genre: There's a human condition there - people in trouble, people led into angelou graduation situations that become increasingly dangerous. And it's also about mood and those kinds of things that can only happen at night (Press Kit). I want to focus on the noir genre, not with its foregrounding of amnesia, mistaken and/or changed identities (as, e.g., in Dark Passage ), of which there are obvious references in Lost Highway . I would like to concentrate on the genre's disturbed and disturbing urban environment, on the figures of mobsters and femme fatales , with respect to the Oedipal constellation that underlies the genre, and I think it is mainly in this connection that Lost Highway (and here especially the do my legal homework second part, Pete's story) can be regarded as a noir movie. (21) In the essay '10 Shades of Noir,' the e-zine Images states that [u]nlike other forms of cinema, the film noir has no paraphernalia that it can truly call its own.
The film noir borrows its paraphernalia from other forms, usually from the crime and detective genres, but often overlapping into thrillers, horror, and even science fiction. (22) Hence Slavoj Zizek's observation that noir might not be a genre of its own kind . [, but] a kind of logical operator introducing the same anamorphic distortion in every genre to which it is essay, applied. (23) Zizek relates this anamorphic distortion to questions of identity which are more often than not played out in an Oedipal scenario. The first part of Lost Highway presents a marital scenario of uncertainty, anxiety, and unspoken suspicion. Doctoral Dissertation In Women's Studies. It takes place in a house which more resembles a fortress than a cosy home. From the angelou graduation essay film's beginning, we have the feeling of tension and fear: home, the family unit is the an essay and compulsory education place of trouble and terror. This feeling is emphasized by Lynch's masterly employment of the soundtrack. For Lynch, [h]alf of [a] film is picture . the other half is graduation, sound. They've got to work together ( Press Kit ). So, in Lynch's work, the soundtrack is phd research in supply chain management, a most important factor to enhance the mood of a scene. For example, during the dialogues between Fred and Renee there is no resonance to their voices. It is as if the works are spoken in a sound-absorbing environment, the graduation whole spectrum of overtones, all those features that make a human voice seem alive, seems to phd research proposal in supply chain management, have been cut. In its dryness, the voices of Renee and Fred almost seem to graduation essay, enact an absence of sound, or better - an and compulsory education absence of room, of the acoustics of space: it's as if they are living in a recording studio covered in angelou essay acoustic tile.
This soundscape underlines the similarity of this scenario with Lacan's subject being entangled in the register of the phd research proposal in supply imaginary, most powerful symbolized in the child's symbiotic relationship with the Other, its mother. The incestuous two-ness is underlined by angelou graduation essay various devices. The strange lights in the Madison living-room, e.g., those lamps that somehow seem to be throwing their light in strange angles on no object but themselves (24) might indeed be read as a hint at this incestuous relationship: all there is is ourselves. As Steven Shaviro has noted, the Madison house in itself is a closed space, folded back upon itself. (25) Similarly, when Fred has sex with his wife, she lies there, showing no emotions - only after the act, she strokes Fred's back, gently, like a mother soothes her child. In such a dyadic world, the child wants to be everything for its mother, and it wants the mother to be there just for it. (26) Here, in the Madison marriage, we have a routine-version of this symbiosis. All distance has gone, and, since desire can be said to be exactly relying on bullies to dictators, this distance between subject and object, desire has gone, as well. Being too near to angelou graduation, the object of desire causes anxiety. And indeed, there are also disturbing signs of something that threatens to undo this imaginary wholeness. First, there are those strange videotapes.
In addition, both Fred and Renee have an uncanny feeling of being observed; note for essay, example Renee's facial expression when she finds the first video, which might be both explained by the fact that she fears that it might be one of those porn videos she is starring in, and of which Fred does not know anything, or by graduation essay the general feeling of being observed, a feeling that takes shape in the fact that they live close to the observatory. The outside literally starts to intrude the inside, and proposal chain management, the threat is emphasized by the deep droning sounds (in a cinema with a good sound system, the spectators actually can feel this threat as a uncomfortable feeling in angelou graduation their stomachs . already in and contrast Eraserhead , Lynch had made use of this device, the constant droning of a ship's engine underlying the angelou whole movie). (27) Fred also feels that he is not everything to his wife. Like the child, he feels that his mother desires something that is beyond him. Fred remembers/dreams of a night when he was playing saxophone in his club, and he saw Renee disappearing with another guy, Andy . one can see the neon EXIT sign there, and that's exactly how it is: Renee is looking for an exit/escape out of that prison-like symbiosis. On Free And Compulsory Education. So, after he had sex with Renee, Fred's face expresses not only angelou essay, horror, but also the burning question: What am I for you? What am I for the Other? So, somehow, Fred is precisely dependent on the desire of the Other, and therefore it is necessary for him that the Other, Renee, exactly remains in her position as love-giving, complete Mother, unspoiled by any lack - and it is such a lack that the mother reveals in her desire for essay bullies to dictators, someone else, and also the lack in the child, Fred, since he is seen as incapable of angelou graduation filling the lack. Thus, the imaginary scenario is an in supply chain management attempt of essay Fred's to disavow castration by all means.
In the second part of the movie, Fred's story, the do my legal Oedipal scenario is brought to the fore even stronger. Graduation. Here, now, we have Fred, the an essay and compulsory young man; Alice, the femme fatale ; and Mr. Eddy, the father-like mobster. Father, because both of his age, and because he treats Pete with a kind of paternal attitude. In Lacanian terminology, the angelou essay father-figure is format, accepted by the subject as its ideal-ego, and as such serves for the internalization of the laws of society. However, the angelou graduation essay flip-side of this benevolent figure of the ideal-ego is the super-ego, the father as perverse father, the exception at the origin of the law. The Master, the Father, he who gives the Law is an phd research proposal chain obscene, ferocious figure ( Écrits 256) that imposes a senseless, destructive . almost always anti-legal morality. (28) To imagine what is at stake, it suffices to recall Freud's notion of the Urhorde . The primal father enjoyed all the women of the tribe, he was the chieftain, the law-giver, and when his sons killed him, out of shame the forbid themselves to have all the graduation essay women.
So, at and contrast bullies to dictators the bottom of the law, of the incest taboo, there is the graduation essay figure of the One who had been the exception to the rule. In Lost Highway , this becomes clear in the scene when Mr. Eddy beats and humilates a driver for tail-gating (85K .wav file). Mr. Eddy explicitly takes recourse to the law in his perverse pleasure, and with Slavoj Zizek it can be argued that it is exactly in the law, in the hyper-correct following of it, that the pervert finds pleasure. (29) In terms of the Moebius Strip, then, in Lost Highway there is a switch from the desire of the (M)Other to the Name-of-the Father (Lacan's nom/non de pere , which can also mean the No!-of-the-father, as in Mr. Eddy's warning that Alice is his babe). (30) It is important to compare essay school to dictators, note that here the spectator learns that Mr. Eddy is Dick Laurent (the name Dick clearly associating phallic, paternal power), and that Dick Laurent is dead, that the dead father is already from the word go lurking there in the background, representing the angelou graduation essay symbolic agency that thwarts the symbiotic relationship of Renee and doctoral assistance in women's studies, Fred. This twist parallels the switch from the realm of the pre-oedipal drives, closely related to the mother, to angelou essay, the realm of desire proper, and desire here inextricably related to lack, to and contrast essay school bullies to dictators, the never-receding distance to the object, as can clearly be seen in the sexy love-scene between Fred and angelou graduation, Alice - You'll never have me! (79K .wav file)
A graphic investigation into parallel identity crises It is the phrase parallel identity crises that interests me the most here. It is usually read in terms of essay to dictators 'double identity,' mostly using the term schizophrenia . There has been quite some misunderstanding about graduation essay this very term. In 1911, the Swiss psychiatrist Paul Eugen Bleuler replaced Kraepelin's term for a group of psychoses, dementia praecox , with the term schizophrenia . Dementia praecox meant a psychosis of early onset, which Bleuler wanted to doctoral dissertation assistance, capture with the term schizophrenia, meaning literally split mind, since he thought the graduation essay splitting of ap biology psychic functions to be the structuring element of these psychoses. Colin Ross, in his study on Dissociative Identity Disorders, a term including pathologies such as Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD) and the Borderline Syndrome, states that, dementia praecox is actually a better name for graduation essay, this group of disorders [described by Kraeplin] than schizophrenia , while schizophrenia is a better name for [Dissociative Identity Disorder] than multiple persona disorder. (31) Hence the popular notion of schizophrenia as split personality, a misconception that does not account for the fact that schizophrenia is an organic disorder of the brain, and phd research, not actually a personality disorder.
In addition to this reading of parallel identity crises in terms of split personality, I want to suggest some further thoughts that account for this split with reference to graduation essay, the structure of the Moebius Strip. Position. Thus, it is not that simple that Pete's story is only the reverse of angelou graduation Fred's story (remember, a Moebius Strip has no such thing as a reverse side - it is one- sided!). Parallel, in the moebial sense of the word , does not mean double or reverse here, but mutual . Pete's story is not only the dissertation assistance reverse side of Fred's story, simultaneously Fred's story has to be the reverse side of Pete's story . otherwise the constant references to that night (the film's lacunae) would not make sense. True to the logic of the graduation Moebius Strip, what on a very local level seem to be two sides of the story is on free education, actually one. In this moebial twist, the truth of the one is the graduation truth of the other, in that they are the same. On the level of the images of the movie, this complicity can be shown by a comparison of two scenes that occur more than once in Lost Highway.
These two scenes of Fred in the dark hallway (Renee calling Fred!) and Pete in front of his parents' house (Sheila calling Pete!), viewed in parallel, function like a kind of worm-hole which traverses the essays 2008 different event-levels of the movie - I would even argue that if you mirrored those two scenes onto two screens put next to each other, it would have the effect of the one character changing over to the realm/screen of the other. Another 'perspective' of this simultaneous immersion can be seen in the transformation scene. Here again, the moebial twist of inside and outside, one and other, is brought to angelou graduation essay, the fore, this time effected by do my legal homework shots intruding the angelou graduation inside of the body. A last reference I want to make use of is the term psychogenic fugue that the position French Production Company of Lost Highway , CIBY 2000, used as a kind of short- hand plot-synopsis in their pre-publicity campaign for the movie. Graduation. In an interview with David Lynch, Chris Rodley asked Lynch if he was ever aware that such a mental condition, a form of amnesia which is essay format, a flight from essay reality, actually existed ( Lynch on on free and compulsory, Lynch 238-9). Lynch answered that. the unit publicist on the picture, happened to find it in some medical journal or something. She showed it to us, and it was like Lost Highway . Not literally, but an interior thing can happen that's very similar. A certain mental disturbance. Graduation. But it sounds like such a beautiful thing - 'psychogenic fugue.' It has music and it has a certain force and dreamlike quality I think it's beautiful, even if it didn't mean anything. ( Lynch on Lynch 239)
Yet it does mean something, and in this last section of compare and contrast essay school bullies this article, I want to situate Lost Highway in the context of human pathology. First of all, I want to return to Lacanian psychoanalysis and to the road metaphor in one and the same gesture. I have shown elsewhere that in a Heideggerian and Lacanian context, the metaphor of the road can serve as a trope not so much for freedom and graduation, rebellion, but as a trope for life as such as detour. Essay Format. (32) Lacan employs the metaphor of the road in his account of the death drive, (33) but he makes it unmistakably clear that such a notion of the drive is far from representing an imaginary and narcissistic freedom from any law whatsoever. Even this drive for freedom depends for its existence on laws, on graduation essay, barriers . freedom needs barriers for their transgression. In his seminar on the psychoses, Lacan explores the factors that trigger off a psychosis. And again, he takes recourse to the metaphor of the road. In a chapter appropriately named The highway and the signifier 'being a father,' he writes: a succession of minor roads and a highway are not at all the same thing. . The highway isn't something that extends from one road to another, it's a dimension spread out in space, the presencing of an original reality. Ap Biology Essays 2008. If I take the highway as an example, it's because . Graduation. it's a path of communication. . the highway is an undeniable signifier in human experience. (34) What Lacan is alluding here to is his notion of the an essay point de capiton , the quilting point, which is that point which makes sure that some temporary notion of angelou essay meaning can be created in language. Again, as in the concept of suture, the metaphor of stitching and position, sewing comes to the fore, since a quilting point designates an upholstery button, a place where the angelou graduation mattress-makers needle has worked hard to prevent a shapeless mass of stuffing from moving to freely about. (35) So a point de capiton is a place where signified and signifier are literally stitched together - this is suture in the register of the symbolic.
Like a highway with respect to a system of smaller streets, the quilting point holds that system of discourse together, and a minimal number of these points are necessary for a human being to be called normal, and do my homework, which, when they are not established, or when they give way, make a psychotic ( Seminar III 268-9). According to angelou graduation essay, Lacan, the most important points de capiton , the highway amongst some minor roads, so to speak, is the name of the father , the paternal metaphor, which is quite important in Lynch's post-patriarchal project. (36) The answer to Lacan's rhetorical question - [w]hat happens when we don't have a highway . ( Seminar III 292), or, in other words, what happens when the highway is lost - is: psychosis. The foreclosure, what Freud called Verwerfung , of the essay school to dictators primordial signifier, the name of the father , is a strategy for essay, evading castration: the subject is castrated by its entry into the symbolic, into language and society. Management. Thus, the denial of this castration leads to psychosis. This rejection of the symbolic Other that results in the disappearance of the phallic function leads to the subject's distortion of angelou its relation to the social order as well to its loss of sexual identity. As in Freud's case of Judge Schreber, Fred Madison tries to escape the threat of castration, but he experiences a return of the repressed in the real instead of in the symbolic, in position essay format his hallucinations (that is, in his second identity as Pete), because he does not accept the name of the father , the agency that might disturb his symbiotic relationship with Renee and/or Alice: Dick Laurent is dead! So, the Highway of the title is graduation, exactly this quilting point, this suture, that would be necessary for the subject to be inscribed into and contrast essay school bullies to dictators reality, into angelou essay a state of normality.
Once this point is lost, once this seam is doctoral dissertation assistance fellowship in women's, undone, the angelou graduation subject falls prey to the real, becomes psychotic. With respect to the delusional aspects of psychosis, Lacan comments on this buzzing that people who are hallucinating so often depict . this continuous murmur . is nothing other than the infinity of these minor paths ( Seminar III 294), these minor paths that have lost their central highway. What is the deep droning sound underlying most of the movie but this continuous murmur? The dissolution of reality is alarmingly hinted at when Fred, being asked to comment on the fact that he does not like video cameras, remarks - I like to remember things my own way. . How I remember them, not necessarily the in supply way they happened. (117K .wav file) (37) Seen in this light, the videos might represent the truth the way it happened, that is: the angelou repressed truth of Fred (and it is to dictators, here that the graduation sequence of the burning cabin shot in reverse gains special significance as a recurring image of that repression). Lost Highway treats its topic performatively, not just representationally (Wallace). Thus, taken as metaphor, what is at stake here is the notion of the decentered or split subject. One image in the movie which makes it clear is the image of the highway itself. There are two variants of this specific shot that are important here. Phd Research. On the one hand, there is a kind of double-exposure of this particular image, which indeed hints at the split in the subject, at the dissociation. (38) On another level, the dotted line can also be read as the subject's attempt at suture, at the stitching of reality and closing off the real again, of which the symptom itself is a way of dealing with. The very term psychogenic fugue in Lynch's statement connects Lost Highway to a pathology that has gained prominence particularly during the few last years - the before mentioned Dissociative Disorders, such as the Borderline Syndrom and angelou graduation, MPD - Multiple Persona Disorder. The term psychogenic fugue in particular is essays, closely connected to the latter.
The symptom called psychogenic fugue involves a sudden, unexpected travel away from angelou one's home or customary place of work, with an inability to recall the past, that occurs in the absence of an homework organic mental disorder . Angelou Graduation Essay. There is often the dissertation assistance fellowship in women's studies assumption of a new identity. Graduation. . Typically, individuals in doctoral dissertation studies a fugue state have no memory of their primary identity. When they recover their primary identity, they often have a reciprocal amnesia for graduation essay, the events of the fugue state. Do My Legal. (39) It is widely acknowledged that this symptom, closely connected to a kind of essay time-loss in the patient's memory, is a common feature of MPD, a disorder having entered mass consciousness through the biography, case study and movie The 3 Faces of Eve , starring Joanne Woodward. (40) Like the Borderline Syndrome, MPD is a type of narcissistic personality organization, (41) that is, basically, a disorder of the phd research proposal in supply ego-functions. Whereas in the Borderline Syndrome, the angelou essay subject is unable to create a coherent ego, that is, to school to dictators, create the illusion of autonomy, MPD refers to the splitting of the subject's ego into several compartmentalized personae. The revised third edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders [ DSM-III-R ] gives the following criteria for MPD: The existence within the angelou graduation essay individual of doctoral assistance in women's two or more distinct personalities or personality states (each with its own relatively enduring pattern of angelou essay perceiving, relating to and thinking about the environment and one's self). Each of these personality states at some time, and recurrently, takes full control of the individual's behavior. (42) The main reason for the onset of MPD is to be found in traumatic experiences, one of the most common of which is continuous sexual abuse, mostly in early childhood. MPD thus is a strategy invented by the subject to cope with unmanageable stressors, (43) a strategy to escape the stress of an unbearable traumatic event - such as, e.g., the murder of one's own wife. [or that night]
Both the Borderline Syndrom and MPD are almost exclusively American pathologies. Do My Homework. The question has already been raised, what might be the reasons for graduation essay, this being so. Varma, Bouri and Vig, three Indian psychiatrists, have argued that twentieth-century Western man, especially in North America, has shown a special fascination with role playing. The role is legal, adopted with some gain or favourable outcome in mind. The fulfillment of the role may make him act even in a manner contrary to his usual self . The role adopted, like in multiple personality . represents an expedient or expected behaviour conceived for a particular setting. Graduation. (44) While there are similar kinds of possession states in other cultures, e.g. Voodoo (Haiti), Latah (Malaysia) or Whitigo (Cree Indians), in the United States the doctoral dissertation assistance in women's equivalent would have to be looked for essay, in media culture. No wonder, then, that in the literature dealing with MPD, cultural and media influences rate highly. Ray Aldridge-Morris refers to the fact that North America is inextricably associated with show business . and the film industry in particular (Aldridge-Morris 108), and Ian Hacking has observed that the different personae tend to be stock television characters, often assuming even names from sitcoms or crime serials . Indeed the rapid changes of character remind one of essay nothing else than 'zapping.' (45) With regard to postmodern American consumer culture, Hanjo Berressem has rightly argued that a somewhat cynical case might be made for the idea that multiple or fractal selfs are once more good consumers, because each role, or alter, can be inserted into a separate market. (46) With respect to Lost Highway , it has to angelou, be noted that the narrative of the movie is located in Los Angeles, the film metropole. Another point which I think might be worth-wile analyzing is the function of the abundance of references to means of media and communication in this movie: videotapes, camcorders, cell phones, phones, the intercom. The whole movie, as it seems, is penetrated by a kind of communicational electro-smog , and somehow all of these devices are related to very strange and mysterious powers.
Another point that in my eyes makes MPD an especially American cultural pathology is a fact that relates it to legal homework, American History itself. Commenting on Lost Highway , David Lynch highlighted the angelou graduation essay initial idea that started the whole thing. What if one person woke up one day and was another person? ( Cinefantastique ). A review of the movie rendered this basic premise in more direct terms - What if I had a second chance? (Review by Steve Biodrowski in Cinefantastique ). This initial question, I argue, reminds one of one the most basic truths of American History. John T. Irwin, in his study American Hieroglyphics , has commented on do my legal, the American desire for a limitless possibility, . an infinite 'second chance' or new beginning, one of whose historical manifestations was the idea of the expanding frontier. (47) Another of graduation essay these manifestitions, it has to be added, was the essay idea of the open road . This especially American preoccupation with an angelou ever new beginning, with a second chance, also nicely ties in with the cultural pathology of MPD. The clinical picture of 2008 MPD, I argue, is put to use in Lost Highway as a metaphor for the split, decentered subject, in a similar way of Allucquere Rosanna Stone's and graduation, Sherry Turkle's treatment of this parallel. Turkle writes: Through contemporary psychoanalytic theory which stresses the decentered subject and through the phd research chain fragmented selves presented by patients (and most dramatically by graduation essay patients who present with multiple personality) psychology confronts the ways in which any unitary notion of identity is problematic and illusory. What is the doctoral assistance fellowship studies self when it functions as a society? What is the self when it divides its labor among its constituent 'alters' or 'avatars'? (48)
I would like to add a final comment on the term psychogenic fugue, not as a clinical phenomenon, but as a term. In his interview with Lynch, Chris Rodley also mentioned the connection with the musical term fugue , describing it as one theme starts and is then taken up by a second theme in answer. Graduation. But the compare to dictators first continues to supply an accompaniment or counter-theme . You could therefore describe Lost Highway uniquely as a film which truly echoes a musical term. Angelou Graduation. . Did you and Angelo Badalamenti discuss the score in terms of a fugue? ( Lynch on compare and contrast school, Lynch 239). Angelou. After giving you the additional information that in a fugue, not only one theme is taken up by ap biology a second theme, but also by another instrument, another voice, I want to give you Lynch's answer, which I think is quite revealing. He said, Fugues make me feel insane. I can only listen to a certain amount of a fugue, and then I feel like I'm gonna blow up from the inside out essay, ( Lynch on Lynch 239). (49) And here we are back again, full circle, where we started - Lynch's fascination with the mystery: To me, a mystery is like a magnet. On Free Education. Whenever there is graduation essay, something that's unknown, it has a certain pull to it ( Lynch on an essay on free and compulsory, Lynch 231).
Lacan, in his evaluation of the mystery, of that which cannot by angelou symbolized, but which nevertheless has immense effects in symbolization, goes even further: The tip of meaning, one can sense it, is the enigma, (50) insofar as meaning as such is an essay on free and compulsory education, something that can never be halted, never be fixed - there is always a remainder. This remainder, I argue, that which cannot be symbolized, is on the one hand given in the movie as a kind of excess of the angelou essay images, a kind of surplus-value of the imaginary which manifests itself in moments of jouissance . On the essays other hand, the enigma in Lost Highway takes on its most concrete form in the gaps and voids, in graduation essay the long sequences of darkness that permeate the whole movie. These so-to-speak materialized cuts (sometimes almost 30 seconds of pure dark screen) provide the space where a) suture is wilfully withheld, and b) where the mystery/enigma somehow can be both felt and filled by the spectator . finally, there is - or: can be - a certain strange version of suture that functions by alining the gaps in the cinematic discourse with the desire of the spectator: in filling the gaps with his own interpretations/obsessions / images, he becomes an important part of the diegetic reality of the movie, a kind of lynchian version of unconscious interactivity. So, what happens to Fred in homework the end? The very last shot shows him in the process of angelou graduation transformation again.
Lynch had used almost the essay format same scene in his second movie, The Elephant Man , where it denoted the effect of a traumatic experience on the process of giving birth to graduation essay, a new subject. Doctoral Studies. What will be the result of graduation essay Fred's transformation? Yet another persona? Or, will he re-transform into Pete, thus adding another temporal twist to dissertation in women's, the narrative - remember that Pete had been imprisoned once, not for murder, but for car-theft, and what the police will eventually find after Fred has transformed into Pete again, will simply be Pete, in a stolen car . only that now, since the graduation cops had found Pete's fingerprints all over Andy's place, Pete will be charged for murder . but, does that explain things? Do we now understand ? In the do my legal homework recent remake of the angelou graduation essay thriller Nightwatch , now called Freeze , the police inspector turned serial-killer, played by Nick Nolte, philosophizes: Explanations are just fictions to do my legal, make us feel safe. Graduation Essay. Otherwise, we would have to admit the unexplained, and that would leave us prey to essay, the chaos around us. Which is essay, exactly what it is. Position Essay. Or, in terms of Lost Highway : identity is anything but simple, stable, whole. In the angelou graduation essay end, we can see what it really is: a terrible collection of fragments, fragments like the parts of Renee's mutilated body.
My attempt at ap biology essays 2008 making sense of Lost Highway has tried to add another such fiction to make one feel safe (even if it in fact might have added even more confusion). (51) As Lacan would have it, [d]esire, in fact, is interpretation itself ( Fundamental Concepts 176). My reading of Lynch's movie, then, necessarily and inescapably partakes in this desire. Graduation. It is ap biology 2008, entangled between ultimate failure and the jouissance that does not serve anything (52) - There is angelou, no Truth . But one runs after it all the same ( Fundamental Concepts vii). 1 This paper is 2008, a slightly revised version of graduation a talk I gave at the American Studies Colloquium 1998 in Olomouc, Czech Republic. 2 Jonathan Culler. On Deconstruction. Theory and Criticism after Structuralism . Ithaka, New York, 1982, 10. 3 Jacques Lacan.
The Seminar of Jacques Lacan Book II: The Ego in Freud's Theory and in position essay the Technique of Psychoanalysis 1954-55 . Angelou Essay. Trans. Proposal In Supply Chain Management. S. Tomaselli. Cambridge, 1988, 222. Subsequently quoted as ( Seminar II ). 4 David Foster Wallace. Article on Lost Highway in Premiere , Sept. 1996. http://www.m ikedunn.com/lynch/lh/lhpremiere.html Subsequently quoted as (Wallace). 5 Mikal Gilmore.
Article on Lost Highway and Interview with David Lynch. Rolling Stone , March 6, 1997. http://www.mikedu nn.com/lynch/lh/lhrs1.html. 6 Richard Corliss. 'Mild at Heart.' TIME , April 7, 1997, 77. 7 Peter Wollen. Readings and Writings: Semiotic Counter-Strategies . London, 1982, 2. 8 Frederick Szebin and Steve Biodrowski. Essay. 'A surreal meditation on love, jealousy, identity and reality.' Cinefantastique , April 1997. http://www.miked unn.com/lynch/lh/cinelh.html Subsequently quoted as ( Cinefantastique ). 9 Christian Metz. The Imaginary Signifier. Psychoanalysis and the Cinema . Trans. C. Britton, A. Williams, B. And Contrast Essay School. Brewster and A Guzzetti. Bloomington, 1982.
Subsequently quoted as ( The Imaginary Signifier ). 10 Jacques Lacan. crits . French Edition. Paris, 1966, 774. Subsequently quoted as ( crits ), referring to the English translation crits . A Selection , by A. Sheridan, New York 1977. 11 Cp. Kaja Silverman's account of angelou graduation essay this concept in her study The Subject of Semiotics. New York, 1983, 194-236, subsequently quoted as ( Subject of Semiotics ).
12 Jacques-Alain Miller. 'Suture (elements of the logic of the signifier).' Screen 18:4, (1977/78), 24- 34, 25-6. 13 Cp. Stephen Heath. Questions of Cinema . Bloomington, 1981, 'On Suture,' 76-112, 100-1. Cp. also the chapter entitled 'On Screen, in Frame: Film and Ideology' (1-18).
14 Jacques Lacan. The Four Fundamental Concepts of Psychoanalysis . Trans. A. Sheridan. New York, London, 1978, 118. Subsequently quoted as ( Fundamental Concepts ). 15 For another comparative reading of the concept of suture and the movie Suture , cp.
Hanjo Berressem. Twisted and Traumatized: Spatial and Temporal Loops in American Literature, Art, and Culture . Compare And Contrast To Dictators. Habilitationsschrift, Aachen 1997. 16 Another short reference to yet another movie: John Woo's Face/Off . In this movie, two men exchange identities; that is, they change faces. Suture , Face/Off , and Lost Highway - they all tackle the question of identity and of suture . in a way, all three movies are about graduation identity and its vicissitudes, about the construction of both the subject in the diegetic reality of the movie, and of the spectator. Suture thematizes the concept of identity as an effect of (illusory) identification, and ultimately withholds the comfort of suture, of a stable position both within diegetic reality and off-screen. John Woo's Face/Off comments on the Aristotelean truth that physiognomy mirrors character. This truth is countered with an compare essay school to dictators almost metaphysical sense of self beyond mere looks, a self, however, that most prominently reveals itself in a language of the body , in small gestures. The suture that holds the movie together is quite literally the seam which stitches Nicholas Cage's face onto angelou, John Travolta's head (and vice versa) and 'functions' in fact only if the compare and contrast essay spectator is willing to accept this improbability.
In Lost Highway finally, the identity of the angelou graduation essay on-screen subject is related to an essay on free and compulsory education, different positions it takes with respect to different levels of reality, and, ultimately, to its desire. Since this is a never-ending process, suture, for the spectator, is forever displaced and deferred. 17 Reni Celeste. 'Lost Highway: Unveiling Cinema's Yellow Brick Road.' Cineaction 43 (Summer 1997). http://www.mailbase.ac.uk/lists /film-philosophy/files/paper.celeste.html. Subsequently quoted as (Celeste). 18 see e.g. Lynch in the Official Press Kit for Lost Highway , http://www.mike dunn.com/lynch/lh/lhpress.html, subsequently quoted as (Press Kit), and Gifford in his interview for Film Threat , http://www.mi kedunn.com/lynch/lh/lhgifford.html.
19 Cp. e.g. Lacan's discussion of the figure of the interior eight in his article on 'Science et Verit' (crits, French edition, 855-77), or his 1966 lecture 'Of Structure as an Inmixing of an Otherness Prerequisite to Any Subject Whatever,' published in: The Structuralist Controversy: The Languages of Criticism and the Sciences of Man . Ed. R. Macksey and E. Donato. Essay. Baltimore, 1970, 186-200. Ap Biology. The illustration was taken from this article. 20 Chris Rodley (ed.). Lynch on graduation essay, Lynch . London, Boston, 1997, 231.
Subsequently quoted as ( Lynch on Lynch ). 21 On yet another level, Lost Highway is obviously a noir film in a very literal sense: noir /black is the prevailing color in this movie, especially in the long dark sequences that seem to structure the homework narrative . 23 Slavoj ZiZek. Tarrying with the Negative . Angelou Graduation Essay. Durham 1993, 9-10. 24 Georg See?len has made similar observation, but has related this observation in his conclusions to the concept of self-reflexivity in Lynch's filmic language. See Georg See?len. David Lynch und seine Filme . Marburg und Berlin, 3. erw. Phd Research Chain. Auflage 1997, 187. 25 Steven Shaviro. Stranded in graduation essay the Jungle . (forthcoming book; excerpts can already be found on Steven Shaviro's homepage; see his chapter 'Intrusion' on Lost Highway : http://www.dhalgren.com/Stranded/18.html. 26 Or, when Fred asks Renee if she will come to the club, she answers that she wants to read, and Fred asks, in disbelief, Read?
Read what? Apart from dissertation fellowship studies this articulation of an graduation otherwise unspoken suspicion that Renee might actually be an unfaithful wife, this remark of Fred's also shows his inability (or: unwillingness) to accept the need for something that goes beyond this symbiosis . Essay Format. maybe, one has to read Read very literally as a hint towards the symbolic, the agency that in the end very violently disturbs this dual relationship. 27 Michael Chion has already noted in his seminal study Audio-Vision. Sound on Screen . Trans. Claudia Gorbman. New York, 1994, that Lynch is one of the directors that have liberated film sound from its long sleep of simply accompanying the images on-screen. Chion points out that Lynch is angelou graduation, one of those who have developed the soundtrack into the direction of a Sound Film - Worthy of the Name (141). 28 Jacques Lacan.
The Seminar of Jacques Lacan Book I: Freud's Paper on do my legal homework, Technique 1953-54 . Graduation. Transl. by J. Forrester. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988, 102. 29 see Slavoj Zizek. Compare Essay Bullies. The Plague of Fantasies . New York, London, 1997. 30 see Slavoj Zizek's interpretation of Hitchcock's Psycho with respect to angelou, this moebial twist in Slavoj Zizek (ed.). Everything you always wanted to proposal management, know about angelou Lacan (but were afraid to ask Hitchcock) . New York, London, 1992.
31 Colin Ross. Dissociative Identity Disorder. Diagnosis, Clinical Features, and Treatment of Multiple Personality . New York, 1997. 32 See Chapter 7, ' On the dissertation in women's road : The Road Novel and essay, the Road Movie,' of my book An Art of Desire. Reading Paul Auster . Amsterdam and Atlanta, 1999, 159-72. 33 Cp. Jacques Lacan.
The Seminar of Jacques Lacan Book II: The Ego in on free and compulsory education Freud's Theory and in angelou graduation essay the Technique of Psychoanalysis 1954-55 . Trans. S. Tomaselli. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988, where he comments on the roads of life (81) and describes life as a dogged detour (232) towards death. 34 Jacques Lacan. The Seminar of Jacques Lacan. Book III: The Psychoses, 1955-56 . Transl. by R. Grigg. New York, 1993, 290-1. Subsequently quoted as ( Seminar III ). An example might clarify what is at stake here. Kafka, in his Letter to the Father , takes recourse to phd research proposal, another topographical metaphor, referring to graduation, his father in terms of a dimension spread out in space : Sometimes I imagine the map of the world spread out and you stretched diagonally across it. Franz Kafka.
Letter to assistance, the Father . Prague, 1998, 65. 35 Malcolm Bowie. Angelou. Lacan . London, 1991, 74. 36 This term is Anne Jerslev's. See her study David Lynch i vore jne. Copenhagen, 1991. 37 Thus, the whole second part of the movie (Pete's story), can be read as Fred's attempt to position format, remember things his own way, even to re-member, in angelou essay the literal sense of the word, both his fragmented sense of self and Renee's dis-membered body . 38 A more hypermaterialistic rendition of the split subject is the scene in compare and contrast school bullies to dictators which Andy's head is virtually split by the glass table . it's as literal as you can get. 39 Frank W. Putnam. Diagnosis and angelou graduation essay, Treatment of Multiple Persona Disorder . Do My. New York, 1989. 13-4. Angelou Essay. Subsequently quoted as (Putnam).
40 The case of Eve has just recently been found out to doctoral, have been faked by the analysts. 41 Clary, W.F., Burstin, K.J., Carpenter, J.S. 'Multiple personality and borderline personality disorder.' Psychiatric Clinics of North America , 7 (1984), 89-100. 42 American Psychiatric Association. Angelou Graduation Essay. DSM-III-R . Washington, 1987, 106. 43 Ray Aldridge-Morris.
Multiple Personality. An Exercise in Deception . Hove, 1989, 107. Subsequently quoted as (Aldridge- Morris). 44 Varma, V.K., Bouri, M., Wig, N.N. 'Multiple personality in compare essay bullies India: Comparison with hysterical possession states.' American Journal of Psychotherapy 35 (1981), 1. 45 Ian Hacking. 'Multiple Personality Disorder and Its Hosts.' History of the Human Sciences 5.2 (1992), 3-31, 11. 46 Hanjo Berressem. 'Emotions Flattened and angelou graduation, Scattered: Borderline Syndromes and Multiple Persona Disorders in Contemporary American Fiction.' in: G. Hoffmann, A. Hornung (ed.). Emotion in Postmodernism . Heidelberg, 1997, 271-307, 293. 47 John T. Irwin. American Hieroglyphics . Doctoral Dissertation Assistance In Women's Studies. The Symbol of the Egyptian Hieroglyphics in the American Renaissance . New Haven and London, 1980, 112. 48 Sherry Turkle. Constructions and Reconstructions of the Self in Virtual Reality . Quoted in Allucquere Rosanne Stone. 'Identity in Oshkosh.' J. Halberstam, I. Livingston (ed.).
Posthuman Bodies . Bloomington, 1995, 23-37, 34. 49 Another, I think, most revealing information with respect to angelou graduation essay, the fugue: Douglas R. Hofstadter, in his book Gdel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid , comments on the compositions of Johann Sebastian Bach, which, in on free education his time, were judged as quite notorious. Like Lynch's works, they were either thought to be pompous and graduation essay, confused, whereas others hailed them as masterpieces. For Hofstadter, Bach's fugues in general, and especially his highly complex fugue Ein Musikalisches Opfer/A Musical Offering , are of special importance for his study because of their structure, which is the structure of what Hofstadter calls strange loops. Phd Research Proposal. A most prominent example of such a strange loop is . yes, it's the Moebius Strip again. And, finally, believe it or not, the original term for graduation essay, the fugue was the Latin term Ricercar , which means - enigma, mystery. Cp. Douglas R. Hofstadter. Gdel, Escher Bach. An Eternal Golden Braid . New York, 1979.
50 Jacques Lacan. 'Vorwort zur dt. Compare And Contrast Essay Bullies To Dictators. Ausgabe meiner Schriften.' in: Schriften II . Weinheim, 1991, 7. 51 Only after I finished this article (and the talk on angelou, which this article is based), Troels Degn Johansson, Department of Film Media Studies of the University of Copenhagen, pointed out an article to me in cinetext by Robert Blanchet: ' Circulus Vitiosus : Spurensuche auf David Lynchs Lost Highway mit Slavoj ?i?ek.' This article only mentions in do my legal passim some of the aspects I have tried to discuss in more detail in essay this paper, so, both articles somehow respond to each other like the two sides of a Moebius Strip as well . cp. http://st1hobel.phl.univie.ac.at/cinetext/magazine/circvit.html. 52 Le Sminaire Livre XX: Encore . Paris, 1975, 10. My translation. American Psychiatric Association. DSM-III- R . Do My. Washington, 1987. Ray Aldridge-Morris. Multiple Personality. An Exercise in Deception . Hove, 1989. Hanjo Berressem.
Twisted and Traumatized: Spatial and Temporal Loops in American Literature, Art, and Culture . Habilitationsschrift, Aachen 1997. ---- . 'Emotions Flattened and angelou graduation essay, Scattered: Borderline Syndromes and Multiple Persona Disorders in Contemporary American Fiction.' in: G. Hoffmann, A. Hornung (ed.). Emotion in an essay on free and compulsory Postmodernism . Angelou Essay. Heidelberg, 1997, 271-307. Robert Blanchet: ' Circulus Vitiosus : Spurensuche auf David Lynchs Lost Highway mit Slavoj Zizek.' http://st1hobel.phl.univie.ac.at/cinetext/magazine/circvit.html. Malcolm Bowie. Lacan . London, 1991. Michael Chion. Audio-Vision. An Essay And Compulsory. Sound on Screen . Trans. Claudia Gorbman.
New York, 1994. Clary, W.F., Burstin, K.J., Carpenter, J.S. 'Multiple personality and borderline personality disorder.' Psychiatric Clinics of North America , 7 (1984), 89-100. Richard Corliss. 'Mild at Heart.' TIME , April 7, 1997, 77. Mikal Gilmore. Article on Lost Highway and Interview with David Lynch. Rolling Stone , March 6, 1997. http://www.mikedu nn.com/lynch/lh/lhrs1.html. Ian Hacking. 'Multiple Personality Disorder and essay, Its Hosts.' History of the Human Sciences 5.2 (1992), 3-31. J. Halberstam, I. Livingston (ed.). Posthuman Bodies . Bloomington, 1995. Stephen Heath. Doctoral Dissertation Assistance Fellowship Studies. Questions of Cinema . Bloomington, 1981.
Bernd Herzogenrath. An Art of Desire. Reading Paul Auster . Amsterdam and Atlanta, 1999. Douglas R. Hofstadter. Gdel, Escher Bach. An Eternal Golden Braid . New York, 1979. John T. Irwin. American Hieroglyphics.
The Symbol of the Egyptian Hieroglyphics in the American Renaissance . New Haven and London, 1980. Anne Jerslev. David Lynch i vore jne . Copenhagen, 1991. Franz Kafka. Letter to the Father . Prague, 1998. Jacques Lacan. crits . Paris, 1966. -----. crits . A Selection.
Trans. A. Essay. Sheridan, New York 1977. -----. Le Sminaire Livre XX: Encore . Paris, 1975. -----. 'Vorwort zur dt. Ap Biology 2008. Ausgabe meiner Schriften.' in: Schriften II . Weinheim, 1991. -----. The Four Fundamental Concepts of Psychoanalysis . Trans. A. Sheridan. Angelou Graduation. New York, London, 1978. -----.
The Seminar of Jacques Lacan Book I: Freud's Paper on Technique 1953-54 . Transl. by J. Forrester. Cambridge, 1988. -----. The Seminar of Jacques Lacan. Position Format. Book III: The Psychoses, 1955-56 . Transl. by R. Angelou. Grigg. New York, 1993. Christian Metz. The Imaginary Signifier.
Psychoanalysis and the Cinema . Trans. Compare And Contrast School Bullies To Dictators. C. Britton, A. Williams, B. Brewster and A Guzzetti. Graduation Essay. Bloomington, 1982. Jacques-Alain Miller. 'Suture (elements of the phd research management logic of the signifier).' Screen 18:4, (1977/78), 24-34. Frank W. Graduation. Putnam. Essay. Diagnosis and Treatment of essay Multiple Persona Disorder . New York, 1989. Chris Rodley (ed.). Position Format. Lynch on graduation, Lynch . London, Boston, 1997. Colin Ross.
Dissociative Identity Disorder. Diagnosis, Clinical Features, and Treatment of Multiple Personality . New York 1997. Georg See?len. David Lynch und seine Filme. Marburg und Berlin, 3. erw. Auflage 1997. Steven Shaviro. Stranded in the Jungle . (forthcoming book; excerpts can already be found on format, Steven Shaviro's homepage; see his chapter 'Intrusion:' http://www.dhalgren. com/Stranded/18.html. Kaja Silverman.
The Subject of Semiotics . New York, 1983. Frederick Szebin and Steve Biodrowski. 'A surreal meditation on angelou essay, love, jealousy, identity and reality.' Cinefantastique , April 1997. http://www.miked unn.com/lynch/lh/cinelh.html. Varma, V.K., Bouri, M., Wig, N.N. 'Multiple personality in India: Comparison with hysterical possession states.' American Journal of Psychotherapy 35 (1981). Peter Wollen. Readings and Writings: Semiotic Counter-Strategies . London, 1982. Slavoj Zizek (ed.). Everything you always wanted to know about an essay on free and compulsory Lacan (but were afraid to ask Hitchcock) . New York, London, 1992.
Slavoj Zizek. Tarrying with the Negative . Durham 1993. Slavoj Zizek. The Plague of Fantasies . Angelou Essay. New York, London, 1997.
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Power Management S3 Tricks and Tips. This document is intended to explain how S3 (suspend/resume) works and has some tricks and essay, tips to help debug and diagnose S3 issues. S3 is the ACPI sleep state that is known as sleep or suspend to RAM. It essentially turns off most power of the system but keeps memory powered. When the user hits the sleep key, this generates a hardware interrupt which is phd research proposal in supply chain caught and handled by the embedded controller (EC). ACPI defines two approaches to handle power buttons - fixed hardware or generic hardware. In the fixed hardware scheme, EC triggers a low-pulse to the PWRBTN# pin and Southbridge (SB) sets PWRBTN_STS bit in PM1_STS register to indicate to the operating system that a power button event occurs. In the generic hardware scheme, EC triggers a change to a GPIO pin to generate a general-purpose event to BIOS, and angelou graduation essay, BIOS issues a Notify(PWRB, 0x80) to the operating system. You can observe which GPE is triggered by examining the phd research proposal files in /sys/firmware/acpi/interrupts and see which one increments when the angelou graduation event occurs. The kernel handles the assistance fellowship GPE and based on which GPE gets triggered it then executes the appropriate handler in angelou essay, the ACPI DSDT table (the DSDT, Differentiated System Description Table, contains AML bytecode that is executed in the kernel context by the kernel's ACPI driver.
For example, if GPE 0x1e is legal homework triggered then AML bytecode method _GPE._L1E() or _GPE._E1E() is executed depending on it being Level or Edge triggered (the method name has a L or E prefix corresponds to Level or Edge triggered events). Typically the method just creates a Notify() event which gets passed over to essay user space via the /proc/acpi/event interface and handled by do my homework acpid and ultimately this calls /etc/acpi/sleep.sh which in turn calls pm-suspend. Note: Level-triggered or edge-triggered depends on the design and the configuration of the SB, and angelou essay, firmware (BIOS) must implement it correctly. The pm-suspend script prepares the machine for suspend, typically this involves unloading broken modules that don't suspend well and then finally writing the text mem to /sys/power/state. Writing to /sys/power/state initiates the kernel side of the suspend. First it suspends all user space tasks (freezing them). Next the kernel traverses the device tree and for education each driver it calls the registered suspend method. Angelou Graduation? It is the responsibility of each driver to dissertation assistance fellowship ensure the correct state is saved to allow the graduation essay hardware to resume correctly and essay format, this is angelou graduation where a lot of bugs can occur. The kernel then executes the ACPI methods _PTS() (Prepare to sleep) and/or _GTS() (Going to Sleep) which are again in school, then DSDT. Essay? This byte code generally does platform specific magic, such as writing magic values to the embedded controller and even calling System Management Mode (SMM) code in the BIOS via the use of System Management Interrupts (SMI). The kernel has no knowledge of what is happening while these methods are executing - the byte code controlling the doctoral fellowship in women's BIOS and Embedded Controller interactions are out of the kernel's control.
Obviously if the AML byte code or BIOS code being executed in SMI is buggy it can cause S3 issues and angelou graduation essay, there is little can be done to easily fix this in the kernel. When the methods return control back to the kernel the system is almost ready to suspend. The kernel writes the address of the resume wakeup code into a data structure and the address is written into the Firmware Waking Vector (as specified by the Fixed ACPI Description Table (FADT)). The kernel fetches the addresses of the PM1a/PM1b control registers from the FADT and writes the sleep type (SLP_TYP) and sleep enable (SLP_EN) bits to the registers and this triggers the sleep. The kernel will sit in a wait loop until it gets put to sleep by the pending action of writing to the PM control registers.
After kernel writes SLP_TYP and SLP_EN, it is common a SMI is do my homework generated by angelou graduation SB (called Sleep SMI as it is invoked after the kernel considers that the legal system is in S3). Note that it is up to the BIOS to save specific BIOS and Embedded Controller state. This is normally done in the _PTS/_GTS Method calls and in Sleep SMI. Sometimes this is were weird BIOS or EC state issues cause suspend/resume to essay fail. A break down of the format calls in angelou graduation, the kernel is proposal in supply chain management as follows: Eventually the user wants to wake their machine up from S3 suspend. The user presses a power button which wakes up the CPU and it jumps to a known BIOS start address. The BIOS does some setup to get the memory controller, restore some device states, and angelou graduation, then reads the ACPI status register to tell it if it was in a suspended state. The BIOS then jumps to the wakeup address saved in the Firmware Waking Vector.
The kernel resume code pointed to by the do my legal Firmware Waking Vector is some real mode x86 code that sets the CPU back into normal kernel protected mode and angelou, then restores CPU register state and pops back down the call suspend call chain to do the resume. At this point the kernel calls the ACPI _WAK() method, it then resumes drivers, unfreezes threads and user space processes and we return back to assistance fellowship studies point where mem was just written to /sys/power/state. To user space, nothing has really changed, apart from graduation a jump forward in time by the clock. The first bit of magic to school bullies to dictators be aware of graduation is in arch/x86/kernel/acpi/realmode/wakeup.S. this directly maps to the wakeup_header defined in arch/x86/kernel/acpi/realmode/wakeup.h: during suspend, header-pmode_entry is set to wakeup_pmode_return() in function acpi_save_state_mem() and kernel state is saved into a wakeup header which is a real mode copy (to acpi_realmode) of a chunk of code and data in wakeup_code_start..wakeup_code_end. acpi_wakeup_address points to the real mode code + data and acpi_sleep_prepare() uses this to set the waking vector before suspending. To understand resume, we need to examine the final phase of suspend. Assembler function do_suspend_lowlevel in position essay format, arch/x86/kernel/acpi/wakeup_32.S performs the graduation final phase of ap biology essays 2008 suspend, it basically does the following: saves cpu state + registers calls acpi_enter_sleep_state() which ultimately ends end suspending and graduation, CPU halts. If this fails, the registers + cpu state are restored and we return from do_suspend_lowlevel().
The wakeup from S3 works as follows: BIOS (realmode) inspects the ACPI waking vector and jumps out of and contrast essay school bullies to dictators BIOS real mode into wakeup_code() in arch/x86/kernel/acpi/realmode/wakeup.S. Essay? Recall that this code is a copy in real mode memory - this code then ljmpl's to wakeup_pmode_return(). wakeup_pmode_return() in arch/x86/kernel/acpi/wakeup_32.S restores registers, the gdt, idt and ltd (hence comes out of real mode), and restores the stack pointer does a final sanity check to see if a saved magic value is as expected and if all is essay format OK resturns back to pop the stack and return from do_suspend_lowlevel() as if nothing has happened. As you can now see, suspending and resuming is rather non-trivial. The following sections explain how where to look for angelou graduation essay S3 bugs: We rely on drivers behaving correctly in their suspend/resume methods, if state is not saved/restored correctly then broken drivers can break in subtle and mysterious ways. Drivers may oops during suspend or resume, which causes headache for debugging since these normally happen while the console is suspended. The first thing to homework try is to boot the kernel with kernel parameter: no_console_suspend. Angelou Graduation Essay? Next switch to VT1 and suspend/resume using Ctrl-Alt-F1 or: login on VT1 and suspend using:
Repeat several times to see if you can capture a kernel oops. Use a digial camera to photo graph the oops message or if it scrolls too quickly off the screen limit the ap biology essays kernel oops message by graduation hacking dump_stack() (arch/x86/kernel/dumpstack.c) to dump out less off a stack trace. If you know the bug exists in a driver but you cannot get an oops and you have no console then things get tricky. The PC does can only dissertation, save state in the real time clock (RTC) over reboots, so we have to result to graduation saving a hashed state of the compare and contrast school bullies to dictators device suspend details in angelou graduation, the RTC. We use the /sys/power/pm_trace interface to enable PM debugging as follows: If resume fails, quickly reboot the machine as you have. 3 minutes before the updates to the RTC corrupt the saved hashed state.
Once rebooted, look for the Magic numbers: text in compare school bullies, the kernel log, use dmesg, and look for something like: You may even get lucky and get a device being mentioned as the problematic driver, e.g.: Device numbers sometimes are show, use lspci to graduation essay track down the problematic device. The next trick is to remove the module and do my legal homework, repeat the suspend/resume to see if this was the problem driver or not. If a driver is not suspending/resuming correctly one workaround is to then add the name of the modules to the MODULES= list in angelou graduation essay, /etc/default/acpi-support. However, the best approach is to do my legal find out why the essay driver is breaking suspend/resume and fixing it. However, /sys/power/pm_trace is known to be a little temperamental and may yield false positives.
An alternative approach is to remove all modules and do a suspend/resume cycle. If this works, then start loading modules one by one until you find one that causes the hang. As you may now be aware, we are very reliant on the BIOS + ACPI for suspend/resume and more often than not these cause the bugs. The issues fall into several categories: In this scenario, the kernel passes control over to BIOS, and we BIOS never returns control back to the kernel. This can occur when the ACPI _PTS() or _GTS() methods call into the BIOS via SMIs - these are rare, but possible.
In this case, one needs to enable ACPI AML code execution tracing and see if these methods are being executed at the time of the hang. One may also want to check whether the system hangs after kernel writes SLP_TYP and SLP_EN. If so, BIOS may hang in Sleep SMI. More likely though BIOS either never jumps back to the Firmware Waking Vector or it jumps to the wrong location, or has really screwed up the processor state and returns to the kernel via the Firmware Waking Vector but does not execute in phd research proposal in supply chain, the kernel correctly. At this point one should sanity check to see if the BIOS actually made it back into the kernel. One of a handful tricks can be used: 1. Write some code in wakeup_pmode_return() (arch/x86/kernel/acpi/wakeup_32.S) to flash the LEDs on to indicate the angelou graduation BIOS jumped back to the kernel. Example code below:
unfortunately a lot of the newer machines don't seem to an essay and compulsory even have the luxury of a keyboard LED, so you may need to graduation try the following strategies: 2. Ap Biology Essays? Write some code in wakeup_pmode_return() (arch/x86/kernel/acpi/wakeup_32.S) to dump state in angelou graduation essay, port $80 and use a port $80 debug card. You need to boot with io_delay=udelay or io_delay=0xed so not to clobber port $80 on port I/O delay operations. 3. Write some code in wakeup_pmode_return() (arch/x86/kernel/acpi/wakeup_32.S) to zap the CMOS settings on education, resume. When the machine hangs, reboot. Your BIOS may beep and complain about the CMOS being cleared, and/or you may need to go into the BIOS set up to re-set the angelou essay BIOS config back to a sane state. If this happens you at least know that the BIOS transitioned from a S3 wakeup and jumped back into the kernel. We are very reliant on ACPI to do things right, sometimes it just does not.
A few things worth checking are: Method _PTS(). This ACPI Method needs to exist and is required to transition the machine to the suspend state correctly. Unfortunately we rely in the ACPI AML code and the underlying BIOS code (if used) to do the dissertation fellowship in women's right thing. Method _GTS(). This ACPI Method is not required, but needs to work correctly if it does exist. Like _PTS() it is platform specific and angelou graduation essay, may interact with the BIOS/Emebedded Controller in a closed and proprietary way.
PM1a/b register settings from fellowship studies FADT. These are tweaked to angelou set the PM power type and suspend enable at S3 suspend time, so if the addresses are incorrect the kernel may be just twiddling the wrong registers. These can be dumped out using one of the following: and the edit FACP.dsl and do my legal homework, check that the PM1A/PM1B event and control blocks look sane. Graduation Essay? You need to essays 2008 consult the chipset specific data sheet to sanity check these register addresses. Pressing the angelou graduation suspend hot key should in theory trigger a suspend. The easiest thing to check is that the ACPI events are being passed down to acpid to kick off the suspend.
Use the following to spy on ACPI events: If this fails, then next thing to check is for any GPEs occurring. If you don't observe any GPEs then there could be a problem with the key waking up the Embedded Controller and the Embedded Controller poking the Southbridge which in turn causes the assistance in women's studies GPE. To observe the GPEs, use: then press the button and see if any of the angelou GPE event counters increment. If not, you have a button + Embedded Controller issue. Finally, if acpi_events to occur then make sure pm_suspend is being run. This is a shell script, so you can add in debug and write it to a log file to dissertation assistance in women's studies observe if it's being called.
If it's not, then there is angelou graduation a problem with acpid calling the sleep script which calls pm-suspend. If pm-suspend is being called, then the final issue is most probably the kernel attempting to suspend by fails because of broken ACPI Methods such as _PTS(). These need to be debugged by compare essay school bullies to dictators enabling the ACPI driver debug and observing the AML byte code being executed for these methods. The following power management kernel messages are a little terse and it's instructive to know what they really mean: Usually means dpm_suspend_noirq failed because some devices did not power down. dpm_prepare() failed to prepare all non-sys devices for a system PM transition. The device should be listed in the error message. sysdev_suspend failed because some system devices did not power down. It has been known for machines to sit in resume for 300+ seconds before finally completing resume.
Normally this means that during resume the kernel is reconfiguring some hardware, for example, the PCI configuration spaces and needs to do a short delay. Sometimes the CPU can pop into graduation essay a very low C state and in supply chain, the HPET cannot wake it up - the timer interrupt gets lost. For example, the AMD C1E idle wait can sometimes produce long delays on resume. Graduation Essay? This is a known issue with the failed delivery of interrupts while in ap biology, deep C states. If you have a BIOS option to disable C1E then first disable this and retry. Angelou Graduation? Alternatively, re-test with the kernel parameter idle=mwait - this will disable the more power optimal C1E idle, so it's not energy star friendly.
If this is successfully then you should look at more optimal workarounds such as disabling the local APIC or disabling the on free education APIC completely, so boot with nolapic or nolapic_timer kernel parameters. Finally, it may be worth exploring the graduation essay kernel HPET parameters to see if this helps stop or work around the delay. Kernel/Reference/S3 ( alexhung 2011-09-15 10:12:23) The material on this wiki is available under a free license, see Copyright / License for details.
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analize essay How to angelou, develop and write an analytic essay. Argument : Writing an do my legal analytic essay requires that you make some sort of argument. The core of angelou, this argument is do my legal homework called a thesis. Essay. It is your claim, succinctly stated in a single sentence. What do budding literary critics such as yourselves argue about? You make a pervasive, persistent case that a certain thing is true about a piece of literature. This thing should not be readily obvious to the casual reader of the literature in question. It is position what you draw out of the book or essay, how you interpret it. It is a claim that must be supported by specific evidence from the angelou graduation, text.
Thesis statement: At least once during the course of writing your essay, isolate what you consider to be your thesis. Is your proposition both arguable and reasonable? If it is obvious (i.e. Mary Rowlandson used the position format, Bible for graduation, comfort during her captivity) you don’t have an argument. Argument requires analysis (i.e. taking things apart and and compulsory education, explaining them). One test that may help is asking yourself what the opposite side of your argument would be. A good, complicated thesis (which was proposed by one of angelou graduation, your classmates) is that Although Mary Rowlandson says she often used the Bible as a source of proposal management, comfort during her captivity, a closer reading of her narrative suggests her faith may have been more troubled by her experience than she lets on.
One useful structure for angelou essay, writing thesis statements is the position essay format, although form used above: Although x seems to be true about this piece of literature, y is in fact more true (or makes our thinking about x more complex). Graduation. In this form you present both sides of your argument at once and show which side you’re on. Your job in the paper is to convince your reader to join you. Another way to write an effective thesis statement is to use the form If we look closely at essay x (e.g. how Bradford defines freedom) we discover y (that ). In order to find something to argue: Look for angelou, images or metaphors that the author uses consistently. What other sort of pattern can you identify in the text? How do you interpret this pattern so that your reader will understand the book, essay, poem, speech, etc. better? What philosophical, moral, ethical, etc. ideas is the author advocating or opposing?
What are the consequences of do my legal, accepting the author's argument? Explain how the work functions as a piece of rhetoric-- how does the author attempt to convince his or her reader of something? For instance, what widely held beliefs do they use to support their argument? How do they appeal to emotions, logic… Re-examine something that the graduation essay, text or most readers take for granted (that Thoreau’s book Walden represents his attempt to escape from society). Question this major premise and see where it takes you. Ask yourself if an on free and compulsory author’s literary argument is inconsistent with itself or is in angelou essay, some way philosophically dangerous, inadequate, unethical, or misleading.
Examine how characters are presented in do my homework, a story. How do they help the main character to develop? Which characters are trustworthy? Which are not? Why are they presented this way? What counts as evidence: Structure : How the parts of the book or essay follow one another; how the angelou essay, parts are assembled to make a whole? Why does the author start where they start, end where they end? What is the logical progression of format, thought? How might that progression be intended to affect the reader What effect might this progression of ideas have on a generic reader or on a reader from the graduation essay, time period in which the work was written? Does the piece move from the general to the specific or vice versa? If you could divide the book/essay into sections, units of meaning, what would those sections be?
How are they related to each other? Note that chapters, while they form obvious sections can themselves be grouped. Referring to the text : In writing analytic papers that address any kind of literature, it is ap biology essays necessary to essay, refer to the text (the specific words on compare and contrast essay school bullies the page of the book) in order to support your argument. Graduation Essay. This means that you must quote and interpret passages that demonstrate or support your argument. Quotation is usually stronger than paraphrase. Remember also that your purpose in writing an essay is not merely to paraphrase or summarize (repeat) what the author has said, but to make an argument about how the make their point, or how they have said what they have said.
Language : includes the way an author phrases his or her sentences, the key metaphors used (it’s up to an essay education, you to explain how these metaphors are used, why these metaphors are appropriate, effective, ineffective, or ambiguous). Is the way a sentence is phrased particularly revealing of the author’s meaning? Practical Essay-writing Hints: Please title your paper and graduation, make the title apt and in supply management, enticing--I LOVE a good title. It puts me in graduation, a good mood before I start reading. Be clear about whether you’re writing about a book, an essay (non-fiction, short prose), a story (short fiction) a poem, a novel (book-length fiction), an autobiography, a narrative (as in Captivity Narratives) etc. Walden is a book comprised of chapters.
Each of these chapters could also be called an essay. Within these essays, Thoreau sometimes tells stories. Dissertation Assistance Fellowship. The book itself is not a story, but closer to a narrative, which is non-fiction. Always go through at least two drafts of angelou graduation essay, you paper . Let your paper sit, preferably for 24 hours between drafts sometime during the process of your writing. Eliminate first person pronoun (I) in your final draft (it’s OK for rough drafts and on free and compulsory, may help you write). If your paragraphs are more a full page or more in length it is more than likely that they are tooooooo long . Probably you have too many ideas in the air at angelou essay once. Consider breaking the ap biology, paragraph in half--into two smaller, but related arguments. Your reader needs a break, needs more structure in angelou graduation, order to be able to follow your meaning. Essay School Bullies. If several of your paragraphs are exceedingly short (4-5 lines), it is likely that you are not developing your ideas thoroughly enough--that you are writing notes rather than analysis. Short paragraphs are usually used as transitional paragraphs, not as content paragraphs. (Short paragraphs can be used in graduation, the rhetorical devise of reversal where you lead your reader down a certain path (to show them one side of the argument, the one you are going to an essay on free education, oppose) and then turn away from that argument to state the essay, true argument of your paper.) Employ quotation often.
One quotation per argumentative paragraph is usually necessary. Depending upon doctoral fellowship in women's studies the length and angelou essay, complexity of the passage or topic you're dealing with, more quotations may be useful to do my legal homework, prevent you from angelou getting too far away from the text. Your quotations combined with your interpretations are your proof. Be sure that you show your reader how they should interpret these quotations in compare essay school bullies to dictators, order to follow your argument. (Almost every quotation should be followed by an interpretation, a deeper reading of what is being said and angelou, how its being said. This interpretation demonstrates how the quotation supports the claim you're making about it).
Pay attention to metaphor, phrasing, tone, alliteration, etc. How is the author saying what they are saying--what does that teach us about the text? Remember to write directive (sometimes called topic) sentences for your paragraphs . The first sentence of any paragraph should give your reader an idea of what the paragraph is dissertation assistance studies going to angelou graduation, say and how the paragraph will connect to the larger argument. It should have more to do with what you have to say about the materials than what the essays, author him or herself has said. Transitions between paragraphs : try to get away from using The next, First of all Another thing. to connect your paragraphs. This is the list method of structuring a paper--not an integrated, logical approach. A really strong transition makes the logical connection between paragraphs or sections of angelou graduation essay, a paper and gives the reader a sense that you’re building an argument.
To make sure you are making a well-connected argument, ask yourself how the last sentence of each paragraph and the first sentence of the next are connected. Each of the chain, sentences within your paragraphs should be related somehow (follow from, refer to, etc.) the one that precedes it, and angelou, the one which follows it. This will help the reader follow the flow of your ideas. An Essay On Free And Compulsory Education. The order of your paragraphs should reveal a developing argument. On the most basic level, you should be able to consciously justify the presence and placement of every word in every sentence, every sentence in every paragraph, every paragraph in every essay . To repeat: in revising your papers after the first draft (which is always, inevitably to some degree confused because you are involved in the process of working your ideas out), you should be highly conscious of what you are doing and why you are doing it.
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