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biography people April 23, 1564-April 23, 1616. Nationality: British; English. Birth Date: April 23, 1564. Death Date: April 23, 1616. Analysis? About This Essay Jump to Additional DLB Essay(s) on This Author: Henry VI, part 1, London, unknown theater (perhaps by and quran, a branch of the Queen's Men), circa 1589-1592. Henry VI, part 2, London, unknown theater (perhaps by a branch of the Queen's Men), circa 1590-1592. Henry VI, part 3, London, unknown theater (perhaps by chemistry, a branch of the for student elections, Queen's Men), circa 1590-1592. Richard III, London, unknown theater (perhaps by coursework, a branch of the poverty, Queen's Men), circa 1591-1592. The Comedy of Errors, London, unknown theater (probably by Lord Strange's Men), circa 1592-1594; London, Gray's Inn, 28 December 1594. Titus Andronicus, London, Rose or Newington Butts theater, 24 January 1594. The Taming of the Shrew, London, Newington Butts theater, 11 June 1594.
The Two Gentlemen of analysis, Verona, London, Newington Butts theater or the Theatre, 1594. Poverty In Africa Essay? Love's Labor's Lost, perhaps at the country house of a great lord, such as the Earl of Southampton, circa 1594-1595; London, at Court, Christmas 1597. Sir Thomas More, probably by chemistry coursework, Anthony Munday, revised by Thomas Dekker, Henry Chettle, Shakespeare, and possibly Thomas Heywood, evidently never produced, circa 1594-1595. King John, London, the Theatre, circa 1594-1596. Richard II, London, the Theatre, circa 1595.
Romeo and resume, Juliet, London, the Theatre, circa 1595-1596. A Midsummer Night's Dream, London, the coursework, Theatre, circa 1595-1596. The Merchant of Venice, London, the Theatre, circa 1596-1597. Henry IV, part 1, London, the Theatre, circa 1596-1597. Henry IV, part 2, London, the Theatre, circa 1597. The Merry Wives of Windsor, Windsor, Windsor Castle, 23 April 1597. Much Ado About Nothing, London, the Theatre, circa 1598-1599.
Henry V, London, Globe theater(?), between March and September 1599(?). Julius Caesar, London, Globe theater, 21 September 1599. Resume And Hy Vee? As You Like It, London, Globe theater, circa 1599-1600. Hamlet, London, Globe theater, circa 1600-1601. Twelfth Night, London, at Court(?), no earlier than 6 January 1601(?); London, Globe theater(?), circa 1601-1602(?); London, Middle Temple, 2 February 1602. Troilus and Cressida, London, Globe theater(?), circa 1601-1602(?). All's Well That Ends Well, London, Globe theater, circa 1602-1603. Measure for Measure, London, Globe theater(?), 1604(?); London, at Court, 26 December 1604. Chemistry Analysis? Othello, London, Globe theater(?), 1604(?); Westminster, Whitehall, 1 November 1604. King Lear, London, Globe theater(?), by late 1605 or early 1606; London, at Court, 26 December 1606. Timon of Athens (possibly unperformed during Shakespeare's lifetime); possibly London, Globe theater, circa 1605-1608.
Macbeth, London, Globe theater(?), 1606(?); London, at Court, probably 7 August 1606. Of Euthanasia? Antony and Cleopatra, London, Globe theater, circa 1606-1607. Pericles, possibly by Shakespeare and George Wilkins, London, at Court, between January 1606 and November 1608; London, Globe theater, probably circa 1607-1608. Coriolanus, London, Globe theater, circa 1607-1608. Cymbeline, London, Blackfriars theater or Globe theater, 1609. Chemistry Coursework Analysis? The Winter's Tale, London, Globe theater, 15 May 1611.
The Tempest, London, at Court, 1 November 1611. Cardenio, probably by essay, Shakespeare and Fletcher, London, Globe theater(?), circa 1612-1613. Henry VIII, possibly by Shakespeare and John Fletcher, London, Globe theater, 29 June 1613. The Two Noble Kinsmen, by chemistry, Shakespeare and Fletcher, London, probably Blackfriars theater (possibly Globe theater), 1613. Venus and Adonis (London: Printed by Richard Field, sold by essays council, J. Chemistry Coursework? Harrison I, 1593). The First Part of the Contention betwixt the two famous Houses of Yorke and Lancaster [abridged and corrupt text of Henry VI, part 2] (London: Printed by Thomas Creede for Thomas Millington, 1594). Lucrece (London: Printed by essay, Richard Field for coursework analysis John Harrison, 1594); republished as The Rape of Lucrece. Newly Revised (London: Printed by law degree, T. Snodham for R. Chemistry? Jackson, 1616).
The Most Lamentable Romaine Tragedie of Titus Andronicus (London: Printed by poverty essay, John Danter, sold by Edward White Thomas Middleton, 1594). A Pleasant Conceited Historie, Called The Taming of chemistry coursework analysis, a Shrew [corrupt text] (London: Printed by introduction essay, Peter Short, sold by Cuthbert Burbie, 1594). The True Tragedie of coursework analysis, Richard Duke of Yorke, and the death of good King Henrie the Sixt [abridged and corrupt text of Henry VI, part 3] (London: Printed by Peter Short for Thomas Millington, 1595). Key Terms Essay? The Tragedy of King Richard the Third (London: Printed by chemistry coursework analysis, Valentine Simmes Peter Short for Andrew Wise, 1597). The Tragedie of resume vee, King Richard the chemistry coursework, second (London: Printed by Valentine Simmes for Andrew Wise, 1597). An Excellent conceited Tragedie of Romeo and Juliet [corrupt text] (London: Printed by John Danter [ E. Allde?], 1597); The Most Excellent and lamentable Tragedie of Romeo and Juliet. Newly Corrected, Augmented, and Amended (London: Printed by Thomas Creede for law degree Cuthbert Burby, 1599).
A Pleasant Conceited Comedie Called, Loues Labors Lost (London: Printed by William White for Cuthbert Burby, 1598). Chemistry Coursework? The History of Henrie the Fourth [part 1] (London: Printed by Peter Short for Andrew Wise, 1598). Resume And Hy? A midsommer nights dreame (London: Printed by R. Bradock for Thomas Fisher, 1600). The most excellent Historie of the Merchant of Venice (London: Printed by chemistry analysis, James Roberts for in africa Thomas Heyes, 1600). The Second part of Henrie the fourth, continuing to his death, and coronation of Henrie the coursework, fift (London: Printed by Valentine Simmes for Andrew Wise William Aspley, 1600).
Much adoe about Nothing (London: Printed by council, Valentine Simmes for Andrew Wise William Aspley, 1600). The Cronicle History of Henry the chemistry coursework analysis, fift [corrupt text] (London: Printed by Thomas Creede for bible and quran essays intertextuality Thomas Mullington John Busby, 1600). The Phoenix and Turtle, appended to chemistry coursework analysis Loves Martyr: or, Rosalins Complaint, by Robert Chester (London: Printed by Richard Field for E. Blount, 1601). A Most pleasaunt and excellent conceited Comedie, of Syr John Falstaffe, and the merrie Wives of Windsor [corrupt text] (London: Printed by and quran essays, Thomas Creede for Arthur Johnson, 1602). The Tragicall Historie of Hamlet Prince of Denmark [abridged and corrupt text] (London: Printed by coursework, Valentine Simmes for Nicholas Ling John Trundell, 1603); The Tragicall Historie of Hamlet, Prince of coursework, Denmarke. Newly Imprinted and Enlarged to Almost as Much Againe as It Was, According to chemistry coursework the True and Perfect Coppie (London: Printed by James Roberts for Nicholas Ling, 1604).
M. William Shak-speare: His True Chronicle Historie of the life and death of King Lear and his three daughters (London: Printed by N. Okes for Nathaniel Butter, 1608). The Historie of Troylus and Cresseida (London: Printed by G. Eld for R. Bonian H. Walley, 1609). Shake-speares Sonnets (London: Printed by and quran in scriptural, G. Eld for chemistry coursework Thomas Thorpe, sold by W. Aspley, 1609). The Late, and Much Admired Play, Called Pericles, Prince of Tyre (London: Printed by W. White for Henry Gosson, 1609). The Tragady of Othello, The Moore of Venice (London: Printed by Nicholas Okes for Thomas Walkley, 1622).
Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, Tragedies. Published according to the True Originall Copies (London: Printed by Isaac Jaggard Edward Blount, 1623)--comprises The Tempest; The Two Gentlemen of Verona; The Merry Wives of Windsor; Measure for Measure; The Comedy of Errors; Much Ado About Nothing; Love's Labor's Lost; A Midsummer Night's Dream; The Merchant of Venice; As You Like It; The Taming of the Shrew; All's Well That Ends Well; Twelfth Night; The Winter's Tale; King John; Richard II; Henry IV, parts 1 and 2; Henry V; Henry VI, parts 1-3; Richard III; Henry VIII; Troilus and Cressida; Coriolanus; Titus Andronicus; Romeo and Juliet; Timon of Athens; Julius Caesar; Macbeth; Hamlet; King Lear; Othello; Antony and Cleopatra; Cymbeline; The Two Noble Kinsmen, by Shakespeare and John Fletcher (London: Printed by Thomas Cotes for John Waterson, 1634). Key Terms Writing? A New Variorum Edition of Shakespeare, 29 volumes to date, volumes 1-15, 18, edited by Horace Howard Furness; volumes 16-17, 19-20, edited by Horace Howard Furness, Jr. (Philadelphia London: Lippincott, 1871-1928); volumes 1-25, general editor Joseph Quincey Adams; volumes 26-27, general editor Hyder Edward Rollins (Philadelphia London: Lippincott for chemistry the Modern Language Association of America, 1936-1955); volumes 28- , general editors Robert K. Turner, Jr., and Richard Knowles (New York: Modern Language Association of America, 1977- ). The Works of Shakespeare, The New Cambridge Shakespeare, edited by J. Dover Wilson, Arthur Quiller-Couch, and others, 39 volumes (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1921-1967). The Complete Works of Shakespeare, edited by George Lyman Kittredge (Boston: Ginn, 1936); revised by Irving Ribner (Waltham, Mass.: Ginn, 1971).
Shakespeare Quarto Facsimiles, edited by W. W. Greg and Charlton Hinman, 14 volumes (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1939-1966). William Shakespeare: The Complete Works, edited by Peter Alexander (London Glasgow: Collins, 1951; New York: Random House, 1952). The Arden Shakespeare, general editors Harold F. Brooks and Harold Jenkins, 38 volumes to poverty essay date (London: Methuen, 1951- ). The Complete Works of Shakespeare, edited by Hardin Craig (Chicago: Scott Foresman, 1961); revised by Craig and David Bevington (Glenview, Ill.: Scott Foresman, 1973); revised again by Bevington (Glenview, Ill.: Scott Foresman, 1980). Coursework? The New Penguin Shakespeare, general editor T. J. Key Terms Essay Writing? B. Spencer, 33 volumes to chemistry date (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1967- ). The Norton Facsimile: The First Folio of Shakespeare, edited by Charlton Hinman (New York: Norton, 1968). William Shakespeare: The Complete Works, The Complete Pelican Shakespeare, general editor Alfred Harbage (Baltimore: Penguin, 1969). The Complete Signet Classic Shakespeare, general editor Sylvan Barnet (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1972). The Riverside Shakespeare, general editor G. Blakemore Evans (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1974). Shakespeare's Sonnets, edited, with analytic commentary, by Stephen Booth (New Haven London: Yale University Press, 1977). Shakespeare's Plays in Quarto: A Facsimile Edition of essay, Copies Primarily from the analysis, Henry E. Huntington Library, edited by Michael J. B. Allen and Kenneth Muir (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1982).
The Complete Works, general editors Stanley Wells and Gary Taylor (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1986). The Complete Works: Original-Spelling Edition, general editors Wells and Taylor (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1986). Shakespeare's words and phrases have become so familiar to us that it is sometimes with a start that we realize we have been speaking Shakespeare when we utter a cliché such as one fell swoop or not a mouse stirring. Never mind that many of the expressions we hear most often--to the manner born, or (from the same speech in Hamlet ) more honored in the breach than the observance--are misapplied at introduction of euthanasia essay least as frequently as they are employed with any awareness of their original context and implication. The fact remains that Shakespeare's vocabulary and Shakespeare's cadences are even more pervasive in our ordinary discourse today than the idiom of the King James Bible, which Bartlett lists as only the chemistry, second most plentiful source of Familiar Quotations . Law Degree? And much the chemistry coursework, same could be said of those mirrors of our nature, Shakespeare's characters. Introduction Essay? From small delights like Juliet's Nurse, or Bottom the coursework, Weaver, or the Gravedigger, to such incomparable creations as Falstaff, King Lear, and Lady Macbeth, Shakespeare has enlarged our world by key terms, imitating it. It should not surprise us, therefore, that personalities as vivid as these have gone on, as it were, to chemistry lives of their own outside the dramatic settings in which they first thought and spoke and moved. In opera alone there are enough different renderings of characters and scenes from Shakespeare's plays to assure that the devotee of Charles-François Gounod or Giuseppe Verdi, Richard Wagner or Benjamin Britten, could attend a different performance every evening for six months and never see the same work twice.
Which is not to suggest, of course, that the composers of essay, other musical forms have been remiss: Franz Schubert, Felix Mendelssohn, Robert Schumann, Franz Liszt, Hector Berlioz, Pyotr Tchaikovsky, Claude Debussy, Jean Sibelius, Sergey Prokofiev, and coursework, Aaron Copland are but a few of the major figures who have given us songs, tone poems, ballets, symphonic scores, or other compositions based on Shakespeare. Cole Porter might well have been addressing his fellow composers when he punctuated Kiss Me Kate with the advice to Brush Up Your Shakespeare. Certainly the painters have never needed such reminders. Artists of the stature of essay, George Romney, William Blake, Henry Fuseli, Eugene Delacroix, John Constable, J. M. Coursework Analysis? W. Elections? Turner, and Dante Gabriel Rossetti have drawn inspiration from Shakespeare's dramatis personae; and, thanks to such impresarios as the eighteenth-century dealer John Boydell, the rendering of scenes from Shakespeare has long been a significant subgenre of pictorial art. Illustrators of Shakespeare editions have often been notable figures in their own right: George Cruikshank, Arthur Rackham, Rockwell Kent, and Salvador Dali. Analysis? Meanwhile, the decorative arts have had their Wedgwood platters with pictures from the plays, their Shakespeare portraits carved on scrimshaw, their Anne Hathaway's Cottage tea cozies, their mulberry-wood jewelry boxes, and their Superbard T-shirts. Every nation that has a theatrical tradition is indebted to resume vee Shakespeare, and in language after language Shakespeare remains the greatest living playwright. Not merely in terms of the chemistry coursework, hundreds of productions of Shakespeare's own plays to be blazoned on introduction essay the marquees in any given year, either: no, one must also bear in mind the dozens of film and television versions of the plays, and the countless adaptations, parodies, and spinoffs that accent the repertory--from musicals such as The Boys from Syracuse (based on The Comedy of Errors ) and West Side Story (Leonard Bernstein's New York ghetto version of the chemistry, gang wars in Romeo and Juliet ), to political lampoons like Macbird (contra LBJ) and Dick Deterred (the doubly punning anti-Nixon polemic), not to mention more reflective dramatic treatments such as Edward Bond's Bingo (a biographical drama about resume, Shakespeare the man) and chemistry coursework analysis, Tom Stoppard's Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead (an absurdist re-enactment of Hamlet from the perspective of two innocents as bewildered by the court of Renaissance Elsinore as their twentieth-century counterparts would be in bible and quran, a play such as Samuel Beckett's Waiting for chemistry coursework analysis Godot ). When we broaden our survey to include the poverty, hundreds of novels, short stories, poems, critical appreciations, and other works of serious literature that derive in one way or another from Shakespeare, we partake of an even grander view of the playwright's literary and cultural primacy. Here in America, for example, we can recall Ralph Waldo Emerson's awestruck response to the Stratford seer, his exclamation that Shakespeare was inconcievably wise, all other great writers only conceivably. On the coursework analysis, other side of the coin, we can indulge in the speculation that Shakespeare may have constituted an aspect of the behemoth that obsessed Herman Melville's imagination, thus accounting for some of the echoes of Shakespearean tragedy in the form and rhetoric of council, Moby-Dick . In a lighter vein, we can chuckle at the frontier Bardolatry so hilariously exploited by the Duke and chemistry analysis, the King in Mark Twain's Huckleberry Finn . Or, moving to our own century, we can contemplate William Faulkner's The Sound and the Fury as an extended allusion to Macbeth's tomorrow and tomorrow and tomorrow soliloquy. Should we be disposed to look elsewhere, we can puzzle over the riddle of Shakespeare in poverty essay, the meditations of the Argentine novelist and essayist Jorge Luis Borges.
Or smile (with perhaps but an incomplete suspension of chemistry coursework analysis, disbelief) as the Nobel Prize-winning African poet and dramatist Wole Soyinka quips that Sheikh Zpeir must have had some Arabic blood in him, so faithfully did he capture the local color of Egypt in Antony and bible essays intertextuality, Cleopatra . Implicit in all of these manifestations of Shakespeare worship is chemistry analysis a perception best summed up, perhaps, in James Joyce's rendering of the charismatic name: Shapesphere. For in showing the resume vee, very age and body of the time his form and pressure (as Hamlet would put it), Shakespeare proved himself to be both the soul of the age his works reflected and adorned and the consummate symbol of the analysis, artist whose poetic visions transcend their local habitation and become, in some mysterious way, contemporaneous with all time (to return once more to Jonson's eulogy). If Jan Kott, a twentieth-century existentialist from eastern Europe, can marvel that Shakespeare is our contemporary, then, his testimony is but one more instance of the tendency of every age to claim Shakespeare as its own. Law Degree Coursework? Whatever else we say about Shakespeare, in other words, we are impelled to acknowledge the incontrovertible fact that, preeminent above all others, he has long stood and will no doubt long remain atop a pedestal (to recall a recent New Yorker cartoon) as a very very very very very very important writer. So important, indeed, that some of coursework analysis, his most zealous admirers have paid him the backhand compliment of key terms essay writing, doubting that works of such surpassing genius could have been written by the same William Shakespeare who lies buried and memorialized in chemistry coursework analysis, Stratford-upon-Avon. Plays such as the English histories would suggest in the writer an easy familiarity with the in africa essay, ways of kings, queens, and coursework, courtiers; hence their author must have been a member of the nobility, someone like Edward de Vere, the law degree coursework, seventeenth Earl of Oxford. Plays such as Julius Caesar , with their impressive display of classical learning, would indicate an author with more than the small Latin and less Greek that Ben Jonson attributes to Shakespeare; hence the need to seek for their true begetter in the form of a university-trained scholar such as Francis Bacon. Or so would urge those skeptics (whose numbers have included such redoubtable personages as Henry James and Sigmund Freud) who find themselves in sympathy with the chemistry coursework analysis, anti-Stratfordians. Their ranks have never been particularly numerous or disciplined, since they have often quarreled among themselves about which of the key terms essay writing, various claimants--the Earl of Derby, Christopher Marlowe, even Queen Elizabeth herself--should be upheld as the true Shakespeare. And because many of their arguments are methodologically unsophisticated, they have never attracted adherents from scholars with academic credentials in the study of English Renaissance history and dramatic literature. But, whatever their limitations, the anti-Stratfordians have at chemistry least helped keep us mindful of how frustratingly little we can say for certain about the life of the man whose works have so enriched the lives of succeeding generations.
One thing we do know is that if Shakespeare was a man for all time, he was also very much a man of law degree, his own age. Chemistry Coursework Analysis? Christened at Holy Trinity Church in Stratford-upon-Avon on 26 April 1564, he grew up as the eldest of council elections, five children reared by John Shakespeare, a tradesman who played an increasingly active role in the town's civic affairs as his business prospered, and coursework analysis, Mary Arden Shakespeare, the law degree coursework, daughter of a gentleman farmer from nearby Wilmcote. Whether Shakespeare was born on 23 April, as tradition holds, is not known; but a birth date only a few days prior to the recorded baptism seems eminently probable, particularly in analysis, view of the fear his parents must have had that William, like two sisters who had preceded him and one who followed, might die in poverty, infancy. By the coursework analysis, time young William was old enough to begin attending school, he had a younger brother (Gilbert, born in 1566) and a baby sister (Joan, born in essay, 1569). As he attained his youth, he found himself with two more brothers to help look after (Richard, born in 1574, and Edmund, born in 1580), the younger of whom eventually followed his by-then-prominent eldest brother to London and the theater, where he had a brief career as an actor before his untimely death at twenty-seven. Coursework? The house where Shakespeare spent his childhood stood adjacent to he wool shop in which his father plied a successful trade as a glover and dealer in essays elections, leather goods and coursework analysis, other commodities. Before moving to Stratford sometime prior to 1552 (when the records show that he was fined for failing to remove a dunghill from outside his house to bible essays in scriptural intertextuality the location where refuse was normally to be deposited), John Shakespeare had been a farmer in the neighboring village of Snitterfield. Whether he was able to read and chemistry coursework, write is uncertain. He executed official documents, not with his name, but with a cross signifying his glover's compasses. Some scholars interpret this as a signature that might have been considered more authentic than a full autograph; others have taken it to be an indication of illiteracy. But even if John Shakespeare was not one of the learned, he was certainly a man of bible essays in scriptural intertextuality, what a later age would call upward mobility.
By marrying Mary Arden, the daughter of his father's landlord, he acquired the benefits of chemistry coursework, a better social standing and a lucrative inheritance, much of which he invested in property (he bought several houses). And by key terms essay, involving himself in coursework, public service, he rose by sure degrees to the highest municipal positions Stratford had to offer: chamberlain (1561), alderman (1565), and bailiff (or mayor) and justice of the peace (1568). A few years after his elevation to the office of bailiff, probably around 1576, John Shakespeare approached the College of key terms writing, Heralds for chemistry coursework armorial bearings and and hy vee, the right to analysis call himself a gentleman. Before his application was acted upon, however, his fortunes took a sudden turn for the worse, and it was not until 1596, when his eldest son had attained some status and coursework, renewed the petition, that a Shakespeare coat of arms was finally granted. Analysis? This must have been a comfort to John Shakespeare in his declining years (he died in 1601), because by then he had borrowed money, disposed of property out of necessity, ceased to attend meetings of the town council, become involved in litigation and been assessed fines, and even stopped attending church services, for fear, it was said, of process for essay debt. Chemistry Analysis? Just what happened to alter John Shakespeare's financial and and hy vee, social position after the mid 1570s is not clear.
Some have seen his nonattendance at church as a sign that he had become a recusant, unwilling to conform to the practices of the newly established Church of England (his wife's family had remained loyal to Roman Catholicism despite the fact that the old faith was under vigorous attack in chemistry analysis, Warwickshire after 1577), but the scant surviving evidence is anything but definitive. The records we do have suggest that during young William's formative years he enjoyed the advantages that would have accrued to him as the son of one of the key terms essay writing, most influential citizens of coursework analysis, a bustling market town in the fertile Midlands. When he was taken to resume and hy services at Holy Trinity Church, he would have sat with his family in the front pew, in accordance with his father's civic rank. There he would have heard and felt the words and rhythms of the Bible, the sonorous phrases of the 1559 Book of Common Prayer, the exhortations of the Homilies. Chemistry Coursework? In all likelihood, after spending a year or two at a petty school to essay learn the rudiments of reading and writing, he would have proceeded, at the age of seven, to grammar school. Chemistry Coursework Analysis? Given his father's social position, young William would have been eligible to attend the King's New School, located above the Guild Hall and adjacent to the Guild Chapel (institutions that would both have been quite familiar to bible and quran in scriptural intertextuality a man with the elder Shakespeare's municipal duties), no more than a five-minute walk from the Shakespeare house on Henley Street. Though no records survive to tell us who attended the Stratford grammar school during this period, we do know that it had well-qualified and comparatively well-paid masters; and, through the painstaking research of such scholars as T. Chemistry? W. Baldwin, we now recognize that a curriculum such as the one offered at the King's New School would have equipped its pupils with what by modern standards would be a rather formidable classical education. During his many long school days there, young Shakespeare would have become thoroughly grounded in Latin, acquired some background in Greek, and developed enough linguistic facility to pick up whatever he may have wanted later from such modern languages as Italian and French. Along the way he would have become familiar with such authors as Aesop, Caesar, Cicero, Sallust, Livy, Virgil, Horace, Ovid, and Seneca. He would have studied logic and rhetoric as well as grammar, and essay writing, he would have been taught the principles of composition and oratory from the writings of chemistry coursework, such masters as Quintilian and Erasmus. In all probability, he would even have received some training in speech and drama through the performance of plays by key terms writing, Plautus and Terence.
If Shakespeare's references to schooling and schoolmasters in the plays are a reliable index of how he viewed his own years as a student, we must conclude that the experience was more tedious than pleasurable. But it is difficult to imagine a more suitable mode of instruction for the formation of a Renaissance poet's intellectual and artistic sensibility. Meanwhile, of course, young Shakespeare would have learned a great deal from merely being alert to all that went on around him. He would have paid attention to the plant and animal life in analysis, the local woods that he would later immortalize, in As You Like It , as the Forest of writing, Arden. He may have hunted from time to time; one legend, almost certainly apocryphal, has it that he eventually left Stratford because he had been caught poaching deer from the estate of a powerful squire, Sir Thomas Lucy, four miles up-stream. He probably learned to coursework analysis swim as a youth, skinny-dipping in the river Avon. He may have participated in some of the athletic pursuits that were the basis of key terms essay writing, competition in the Elizabethan equivalent of the Olympics, the nearby Cotswold Games.
He would undoubtedly have been adept at indoor recreations such as hazard (a popular dice game), or chess, or any of a number of card games. Coursework Analysis? As he grew older, he would have become accustomed to such vocations as farming, sheep-herding, tailoring, and shopkeeping. He would have acquired skills such as fishing, gardening, and cooking. And he would have gathered information about the various professions: law, medicine, religion, and teaching. Judging from the astonishing range of daily life and human endeavor reflected in his poems and plays, we can only law degree coursework, infer that Shakespeare was both a voracious reader and a keen observer, the sort of chemistry coursework analysis, polymath Henry James might have been describing when he referred to a character in law degree coursework, one of his novels as a man on whom nothing was lost.
Once his school years ended, Shakespeare married, at eighteen, a woman who was eight years his senior. Chemistry Analysis? We know that Anne Hathaway was pregnant when the marriage license was issued by the Bishop of poverty, Worcester on 27 November 1582, because a daughter, Susanna, was baptized in Holy Trinity six months later on chemistry 26 May 1583. We have good reason to believe that the marriage was hastily arranged: there was only one reading of the banns (a church announcement preceding a wedding that allowed time for any legal impediments against it to be brought forward before the ceremony took place), an essay, indication of chemistry, unusual haste. But whether the essays for student council elections, marriage was in any way forced is impossible to determine. Some biographers (most notably Anthony Burgess) have made much of an apparent clerical error whereby the bride's name was entered as Anne Whateley of chemistry, Temple Grafton in the Worcester court records; these writers speculate that Shakespeare was originally planning to marry another Anne until Anne Hathaway of Shottery (a village a mile or so from Shakespeare's home in Stratford) produced her embarrassing evidence of a prior claim. Key Terms Essay? To most scholars, including our foremost authority on Shakespeare's life, S. Coursework Analysis? Schoenbaum, this explanation of the Anne Whateley court entry seems farfetched. Such hypotheses are inevitable, however, in the absence of resume, fuller information about the married life of analysis, William and Anne Hathaway Shakespeare. What we do have to go on is certainly compatible with the key terms writing, suspicion that William and Anne were somewhat less than ardent lovers. They had only two more children--the twins, Hamnet and chemistry coursework analysis, Judith, baptized on 2 February 1585--and they lived more than a hundred miles apart, so far as we can tell, for the better part of the essay, twenty-year period during which Shakespeare was employed in the London theater.
If we can give any credence to an amusing anecdote recorded in the 1602-1603 diary of a law student named John Manningham, there was at least one occasion during those years when Shakespeare, overhearing the actor Richard Burbage make an assignation, went before, was entertained, and at his game before Burbage came; then, message being brought that Richard the Third was at the door, Shakespeare caused return to be made that William the Conqueror was before Richard the Third. If we read the sonnets as in coursework, any way autobiographical, moreover, we are shown a poet with at least one other significant liaison: a Dark Lady to whom Will's lust impels him despite the self-disgust the affair arouses in him (and despite her infidelity with the fair Young Man to whom many of the poems are addressed and for whom the poet reserves his deepest feelings). But even if there is bible and quran essays reason to speculate that Shakespeare may not have always been faithful to chemistry coursework analysis the marriage bed, there is much to suggest that he remained attached to key terms Anne as a husband. In 1597 he purchased one of the most imposing houses in Stratford--New Place, across the street from the Guild Chapel--presumably settling his wife and children there as soon as the title to the property was clear. He himself retired to that Stratford home, so far as we can determine, sometime between 1611 and 1613. And of chemistry coursework analysis, course he remembered Anne in his will, bequeathing her the notorious second-best bed--which most modern biographers regard as a generous afterthought (since a third of his estate would have gone to the wife by law even if her name never occurred in the document) rather than the slight that earlier interpreters had read into the phrasing. Naturally we would like to know more about and hy vee, what Shakespeare was like as a husband and family man. But most of us would give just as much to know what took place in his life between 1585 (when the parish register shows him to chemistry have become the father of twins) and 1592 (when we find the earliest surviving reference to him as a rising star in the London theater). Law Degree? What did he do during these so-called dark years? Did he study law, as some have suspected? Did he travel on the Continent?
Did he become an apprentice to a butcher, as one late-seventeenth-century account had it? Or--most plausibly, in the view of many modern biographers--did he teach school for a while? All we can say for certain is that by the time his children were making their own way to school in rural Stratford, William Shakespeare had become an actor and writer in what was already the largest city in Europe. Analysis? Shakespeare probably traveled the hundred miles to London by way of the spires of Oxford, as do most visitors returning from for student council Stratford to London today. But why he went, or when, history does not tell us. It has been plausibly suggested that he joined an acting troupe (the Queen's Men) that was one player short when it toured Stratford in 1587. If so, he may have migrated by way of one or two intermediary companies to a position with the troupe that became the Lord Chamberlain's Men in 1594.
The only thing we can assert with any assurance is that by 1592 Shakespeare had established himself as an actor and had written at analysis least three plays. One of these--the third part of Henry VI --was alluded to in that year in a posthumously published testament by a once-prominent poet and playwright named Robert Greene, one of the University Wits who had dominated the London theater in the late 1580s. Dissipated and on his deathbed, Greene warned his fellow playwrights to beware of an upstart crow who, not content with being a mere player, was aspiring to a share of the livelihood that had previously been the and quran essays intertextuality, exclusive province of professional writers such as himself. Whether Greene's Groatsworth of Wit accuses Shakespeare of plagiarism when it describes him as beautified with our feathers is not clear; some scholars have interpreted the phrase as a complaint that Shakespeare has borrowed freely from the scripts of coursework, others (or has merely revised existing plays, a practice quite common in the Elizabethan theater). But there can be no doubt that Greene's anxieties signal the essays elections, end of one era and coursework, the beginning of bible and quran essays intertextuality, another: a golden age, spanning two full decades, during which the dominant force on the London stage would be, not Greene or Kyd or Marlowe or even (in the later years of that period) Jonson, but Shakespeare. If we look at what Shakespeare had written by chemistry coursework analysis, the early 1590s, we see that he had already become thoroughly familiar with the daily round of one of the great capitals of Europe. Bible And Quran Essays Intertextuality? Shakespeare knew St. Paul's Cathedral, famous not only chemistry, as a house of worship but also as the marketplace where books were bought and sold. He knew the Inns of bible, Court, where aspiring young lawyers studied for the bar. He knew the river Thames, spanned by the ever-busy, ever-fascinating London Bridge. He knew the Tower, where so many of the chemistry, characters he would depict in his history plays had met their deaths, and where in his own lifetime such prominent noblemen as the Earl of Essex and in africa, Sir Walter Raleigh would be imprisoned prior to their executions.
He knew Westminster, where Parliament met when summoned by the Queen, and where the Queen herself held court at Whitehall Palace. He knew the harbor, where English ships, having won control of the seas by defeating the invincible Spanish Armada in 1588, had begun in earnest to explore the New World. Coursework Analysis? In Shakespeare's day London was a vigorous city of essays council, somewhere between 150,000 and chemistry coursework, 200,000 inhabitants. If in its more majestic aspects it was dominated by the court of Queen Elizabeth, in its everyday affairs it was accented by and hy, the hustle and bustle of getting and chemistry analysis, spending. Its Royal Exchange was one of the forerunners of today's stock exchanges. Its many market-places offered a variety of of euthanasia essay, goods for a variety of coursework analysis, tastes. Of Euthanasia Essay? Its crowded streets presented a colorful pageant of Elizabethan modes of transport and dress, ranging from coursework countrywomen in homespun to elegant ladies in apparel as decorative as their husbands' wealth--and the Queen's edicts on poverty clothing--would allow. Its inns and taverns afforded a rich diversity of vivid personalities--eating, tippling, chatting, and enjoying games and pleasures of chemistry analysis, all kinds. It was, in short, an immensely stimulating social and cultural environment, and we can be sure that Shakespeare took full advantage of the opportunity it gave him to observe humanity in all its facets. Like Prince Hal, he must have learned to drink with any tinker in his own language, and it was this as much as anything he was taught at school (or might have acquired by attendance at introduction of euthanasia university) that equipped him to create such vibrant characters as Mistress Quickly, proud Hotspur, and coursework analysis, the imperturbable Bottom.
Not that all was always well. Like any major city, London also had its problems. Preachers and moralists were constantly denouncing the essay, excessive use of cosmetics. Thus, when Hamlet speaks out against your paintings, telling Ophelia that God hath given you one face, and you make yourselves another, he would have been sounding a note familiar to everyone in coursework, Shakespeare's audience. For Student? So also with the furred gowns so roundly cursed by Lear: courtiers and their ladies were accustomed to lavishing as much pride on a single article of bejeweled finery as a modern man or woman might pay for a very expensive automobile. But luxury was only one of the evils of the age. Chemistry Coursework? London's Puritan authorities, regarding the theaters as dens of iniquity, closed them down on any available pretext, particularly when the plague was rampant. Meanwhile, even without the essays for student council, plague or the theaters to coursework analysis concern them (and one gathers that some of the authorities were anything but sure about which was the greater peril), the city fathers had to contend with gambling, drunkenness, prostitution, and council, other vices, especially in the Bankside district south of the Thames and in chemistry coursework, the other liberties outside the essays elections, city walls to coursework the west, east, and north (such as Shoreditch, where James Burbage had erected the first permanent commercial play-house, the Theatre, when Shakespeare was only twelve, and where many of Shakespeare's plays prior to 1599 were first performed). Here most blatantly, but elsewhere as well, pickpockets, vagabonds, and other members of the for student council, fraternity of urban lowlife lay in wait for conies, as they called their unsuspecting victims. Given so many notorious villainies for spokesmen like Thomas Dekker's Belman of London to chemistry analysis bring to essay light, it is hardly surprising that among the most prolific literary genres of the period were the scores of coursework, books and tracts that spewed forth from reformers incensed by the decadence of the Renaissance metropolis.
In such a setting did Shakespeare write and resume and hy vee, help perform the chemistry analysis, greatest theatrical works the world has ever experienced. And he did so in suburbs known primarily for entertainments that we would regard as totally alien from the sweet Swan of Avon's poetic grace. For if Shoreditch and, later, Bankside were to blossom into the finest theatrical centers of that or any other age, they were also, for better or worse, the seedbeds for such brutal spectator sports as bearbaiting, bullbaiting, and essays for student elections, cockfighting. This may help account for the blood and chemistry analysis, violence so frequently displayed on the Elizabethan stage, most notably in such early Shakespearean experiments as the law degree coursework, Henry VI trilogy and Titus Andronicus, but also in mature works such as Julius Caesar and King Lear . But of course there was a good deal more than murder and mayhem in the wooden O that served as amphitheatre for most of Shakespeare's dramatic productions. On a stage largely devoid of scenery but by no means lacking in spectacle, the playwright and his actors made efficient use of language, properties, and gesture to analysis establish time, locale, situation, and atmosphere. In the process, through all the essays, resources of rhetoric, symbolism, and chemistry analysis, what Hamlet in his advice to the players calls action, the artificial persons of the drama (its dramatis personae) imitated humanity in such a way as to convey whatever matter an and quran essays, author and his company envisaged for a scene, an act, or a full dramatic sequence. Chemistry? By twentieth-century standards, the means they used were relatively primitive--no spotlights, too few furnishings to achieve verisimilitude through setting and dress, only the in africa, crudest of special effects, no curtains to raise and chemistry, lower as a way of signaling the beginning and end of a scene or act--but by any standards, the of euthanasia essay, results they achieved were brilliant. It has taken us nearly four centuries to rediscover what they seem to have understood intuitively: that in analysis, some things theatrical, less is essays for student council elections more. Our best estimate is that approximately 3,000 spectators could be crammed into a ninety-nine-foot-wide, polygonal structure such as the Theatre (which opened in coursework, 1576 and was dismantled in 1598, after the owner of the land on which it stood refused to negotiate a lease acceptable to Shakespeare's acting company) or its successor the Globe (which opened in law degree, 1599, after the company transported the lumber from the Theatre across the Thames and used it as the coursework, scaffolding for an even more handsome playhouse on the Bankside). More than half of the audience stood in the yard (which measured about law degree, fifty-five feet in diameter); the remainder sat in the three galleries that encircled the chemistry coursework analysis, yard and rose to a thatched roof some thirty-six feet above the ground.
The stage was probably about forty-three feet wide, and it thrust some twenty-seven feet into essays for student council, the yard from the tiring house at the rear of the building. Chemistry Coursework Analysis? It was covered by a pillar-supported superstructure--the heavens--that protected that actors and and quran in scriptural intertextuality, their costumes from the elements and housed the equipment Elizabethan companies used for ascents, descents, and other flying effects. In the floor of the stage platform (about five feet above the chemistry, surrounding yard) was a trapdoor that could be opened for visitations from elections below or for access into chemistry coursework, what, depending on writing the context, might represent a grave or a pit or even hell itself. At the coursework, back of the stage in all likelihood, concealing the tiring house where the actors effected their costume changes and awaited their cues to enter, were three doors. The two at the corners were probably used for most of the entrances and exits of the actors; the large middle one was capable of being employed as a shallow, draped discovery space that might be drawn open for tableaux (as when Ferdinand and Miranda are disclosed playing chess in The Tempest ) or adapted to resume and hy represent small enclosures such as closets, studies, bedrooms, or shops like the Apothecary's cell in Romeo and Juliet . On the level above the tiring house, probably divided into five bays, was a balcony that accommodated a select number of the theater's highest-paying customers and functioned in many of the plays as the upper stage where brief scenes requiring a higher vantage point could be enacted. Sentinels on watch, lovers at a second-story bedroom window, seamen crying out from a ship's crow's nest: these and other situations called for the use of analysis, one or more of the upper-level bays (probably the central one in most instances) for characters to essays for student council speak their lines and render the movements called for in the script. Because the analysis, main playing area was surrounded on all four sides by spectators, the poet and the performer benefited from essays council elections a more intimate relationship with the audience than is customary in present-day theaters fitted with a curtain and a proscenium arch.
For Shakespeare, this meant that he could allow a character to confide in a nearby playgoer through asides, as does Iago in Othello , or to be overheard while he meditates in coursework analysis, solitude, as does Brutus in the soliloquy in resume and hy vee, which he talks himself into joining the chemistry, plot to key terms essay assassinate Caesar. Such devices may strike a modern viewer as less sophisticated than, say, the cinematic voice-over, but they proved eminently acceptable to an audience that was willing to piece out a performance's imperfections with [its] thoughts. And it says a great deal about the chemistry coursework analysis, intelligence and sensitivity of Elizabethan theatergoers that they attended and were capable of appreciating dramatic works which, in many respects, were both responses to and sublimations of the coarser activities that competed for attention (and people's entertainment budgets) only a short distance away from the key terms essay, magic circle defined by the walls of a Theatre or a Globe. Just who composed the audiences of analysis, these public playhouses is vee still a matter of debate, but recent research by Ann Jennalie Cook and Andrew Gurr suggest that they were a more affluent cross-section of Elizabethan society than earlier writings by such scholars as Alfred Harbage would have led us to believe. An examination of wages and prices during the period indicates, for example, that those who attended performances on weekday afternoons would have had to have more leisure, and more disposable income, than seems compatible with the view that even the groundlings (who paid the chemistry coursework, lowest admission, a penny to coursework stand in the yard and risk getting soaked in the event of rain) were predominantly working-class people and chemistry, illiterate apprentices. Because their position in bible intertextuality, the yard put their eyes on a level with the feet of the players, the groundlings were sometimes derided as understanders; it now begins to chemistry coursework analysis appear that a substantial percentage of these theatergoers were understanders in a more favorable sense. To be sure, some of them may at introduction essay times have been a bit obstreperous, and their number may well have included an coursework, assortment of men and women (including prostitutes) preoccupied with extra-theatrical pursuits. It may be, too, that the groundlings were more susceptible than other members of the audience (if merely because of their greater proximity to the stage) to manipulation by what we now call naughty actors, the overweening clowns whom Hamlet rebukes for council elections their tendency to ply the crowd for inappropriate laughter, interrupting the flow of the action and causing spectators to miss some necessary question of the play.
But even if the groundlings were not quite as cultivated, on the average, as those members of the audience who could afford to sit while they watched a play, it is difficult to reconcile the subtlety and indirection of chemistry coursework, Shakespeare's plotting and characterization, not to mention the complexity of his language and the incomparable music of his verse, with the assumption that the essay, majority of an average house at analysis the public theaters was unable to respond to anything more elevated than the broad humor of a Launce or a Dogberry. Even if we still find it valuable, then, to resume and hy preserve something of the traditional distinction between the groundlings and the more privileged spectators who sat in the three-tiered galleries encircling the yard, we should now open our minds to the possibility that there were more of what Hamlet would call judicious viewers in chemistry coursework analysis, every segment of the Elizabethan audience, including those who stood in the yard, than we have tended to in scriptural assume until very recently in our analyses of Shakespearean drama. Which is not to say, of course, that Shakespeare and his fellow dramatists were completely satisfied with any of their audiences (but then what writer ever is?). Hamlet bestows high praise on a play that he says was never acted, or if it was, not above once, for it pleased not the million, 'twas caviary to the general. Chemistry Analysis? He then exhorts the players to disregard a whole theatre of others, if necessary, in order to please those with judgments in such matters.
Whether Hamlet's creator would himself have endorsed such extreme elitism is difficult to determine, but such a view is essay certainly consonant with the epistle to the reader that prefaced the revised 1609 first quarto edition of Troilus and Cressida . Here we are assured that we have a new play, never staled with the stage, never clapper-clawed with the chemistry coursework analysis, palms of the law degree coursework, vulgar, and yet passing full of the chemistry coursework, palm comical; and we are given to believe that it is to the credit rather than the discredit of the work that it has never been sullied with the smoky breath of the multitude. Inasmuch as this preface and the title page preceding it replaced an earlier title page advertising Troilus and Cressida as it was acted by the King's Majesty's servants at the Globe, we are probably correct to assume that whoever wrote it had in mind the kind of vulgar multitude who would have seen the play at one of the outdoor public theaters. All of which is to acknowledge that even if the audiences that attended the public theaters were sophisticated enough to support the vast majority of Shakespeare's dramatic efforts, they may nevertheless have proven deficient in their response to some of the extraordinary challenges he placed before them after he arrived at his artistic maturity. This should not surprise us, given Shakespeare's continual experimentation with inherited generic forms and his ever-more-complex approaches to traditional material. Nor should we assume that by key terms essay writing, terms such as the million and the general he and his fellow playwrights referred only to the groundlings. Coursework Analysis? Writers of the period were equally acidulous in their criticism of the gallants who attended the theater to be the observed of all observers--the ostentatiously attired young men who sat not only in the galleries near the stage (where the essays for student council elections, admission price was thrice as much as for the places in the yard) and in the balconies above and behind the stage (which cost six times as much as the places in the yard), but even on the stage itself at some performances in coursework analysis, the indoor private theaters (where the least expensive seat cost six times the essays elections, price of general admission to the Theatre or the Globe, and where some of the seats cost a full thirty times as much). It is difficult to believe that Shakespeare any more than Dekker (who satirized such gallants in chemistry coursework, The Gull's Hornbook ) would have considered these foppish Osrics even slightly more judicious than their fellow spectators at the lower end of the economic scale. And one can easily imagine that after 1609, when his company began using the coursework, Blackfriars theater as its primary venue during the colder months (the London authorities having finally dropped the restrictions that had prevented James Burbage from chemistry coursework analysis operating a commercial adult theater in the old monastery he had purchased and adapted in 1596), Shakespeare felt that he had simply exchanged one kind of in africa, less-than-perfect audience for another. One gathers, nevertheless, that, like other playwrights of the period, Shakespeare was careful not to refer too overtly to deficiencies in the well-to-do members of his audiences, especially when such members might include the nobility or persons close to them.
After all, an acting company's livelihood depended upon chemistry coursework analysis, its securing and retaining favor at Court--not only because of the extra income and prestige that accrued from for student council periodic Court performances commissioned by the Master of the Revels, but even more fundamentally because a company could perform in or near London only if it were licensed to analysis do so by the Crown and enjoyed the protection of for student council, a noble or royal patron. A prudent playwright would not wish to jeopardize his company's standing with the monarch. And Shakespeare and analysis, his colleagues--the other sharers who owned stock in the company that was known as the Lord Chamberlain's Men from law degree coursework 1594 until 1603 (when Queen Elizabeth died and chemistry, was succeeded by vee, King James I) and the King's Men thereafter (having received a patent as the new monarch's own players)--must have been prudent, because theirs was by far the most prosperous and the most frequently preferred theatrical organization in the land, from its inception in the early 1590s until the chemistry coursework analysis, triumph of law degree coursework, Puritanism finally brought about the closing of the theaters half a century later in coursework, 1642. Shakespeare's position with the Lord Chamberlain's Men was a source of professional stability that probably had a great deal to do with his growth and maturation as a writer. Key Terms Essay Writing? For one thing, it freed him from some of the uncertainties and frustrations that must have been the lot of other playwrights, virtually all of chemistry coursework, whom operated as free-lancers selling their wares to impresarios such as Philip Henslowe (often for as little as five pounds), and most of whom thus forfeited any real say about law degree, how their plays were to be produced and, in time (if a given acting company so wished or if chance provided), published. From at least 1594 on chemistry analysis Shakespeare was a stockholder of the theatrical organization for which he wrote his plays. After 1598 (when the essay, sons of the recently deceased James Burbage, Cuthbert and Richard, invited four of the principal actors in the Lord Chamberlain's Men to become their partners and put up half the capital needed to rebuild the chemistry coursework, Theatre across the Thames as the Globe), Shakespeare was also a co-owner of the poverty in africa, playhouse in coursework analysis, which that company performed the plays. As such, he shared in all the profits the Lord Chamberlain's Men took in at of euthanasia the gate, and he was undoubtedly a participant in most, if not all, of the major decisions affecting the company's welfare. We know from the surviving legal records of the playwright's various business transactions that he prospered financially by chemistry, this arrangement: like his father, Shakespeare invested wisely in real estate, purchasing properties in both Stratford and London. And we can infer from the evidence of his rapidly developing sophistication as a dramatist that Shakespeare's membership in a close-knit group of theatrical entrepreneurs also helped him flourish artistically. It meant, for example, that he could envisage and write his plays with particular performers in mind: Richard Burbage for leading roles such as Richard III, Othello, and King Lear; Will Kempe for clowning parts such as Launce or Dogberry in the early years of the introduction of euthanasia essay, company, and thereafter (following Kempe's departure from the Lord Chamberlain's Men around 1599) Robert Armin, who seems to have specialized in wise fools such as Touchstone, Feste, and Lear's Fool; Shakespeare himself, perhaps, for old men such as Adam in As You Like It; hired men (adult actors who, not being shareholders in the company, were simply paid a sum of money for each job of work) for most of the lesser roles; and apprentice boy-actors for the youthful parts and chemistry, many, if not all, of the female roles (there being no actresses on the English stage until the bible essays in scriptural, theaters reopened after the Restoration).
Working as the resident playwright for a company in which he was both an actor and a business partner meant that Shakespeare could revise and rewrite his scripts in rehearsal prior to chemistry a given play's first performance, and that he could adapt and further revise them later as differing circumstances required: such as performances commissioned at Court during holiday seasons or on ceremonial occasions, or performances solicited by the great houses of the nobility, or (during sieges of plague when the London theaters were closed) performances on tour in the provinces, during which, in all likelihood, the troupe was reduced to entertaining with fewer actors and was required to make do with provisional playing areas in guild halls, inn yards, and other less-than-ideal theatrical spaces. Because the law degree coursework, conditions under which Shakespeare worked required him, above all, to be pragmatic and flexible, we would probably be correct to infer that as he composed his plays he thought of his scripts, not as fixed literary texts, but as provisional production notes--susceptible of lengthening or shortening or other modes of alteration as determined by the constraints of particular venues and chemistry coursework analysis, performance situations. He would have had to prepare each script with an eye to and hy the number of actors available for speaking parts (one recent scholar has concluded that most of Shakespeare's plays were composed with a cast of thirteen performers in mind), and he probably planned each scene with a view to the possibilities for doubling (a principle of theatrical economy whereby a given actor would alternate among two or more roles in the same play). It may well be that, in the absence of anyone else in the organization designated to function in analysis, that capacity, Shakespeare was the first director his plays had. If so, we can be sure that he approached the task with an awareness that the devising of a production was a collaborative process and that the playscript, though normative, was never to essays for student elections be revered as a monument carved in chemistry analysis, stone.
Shakespeare was, after all, a play wright (that is, a maker rather than merely a writer of plays), and introduction of euthanasia, he would have been the first to recognize that the final purpose of a dramatic text was a fully realized performance rather than a piece of literature to be read in analysis, the privacy of a patron's parlor or pondered in the lamplight of a scholar's study. For Student Council? If in analysis, his capacity as theater professional Shakespeare conceived of himself, then, as a maker of of euthanasia, plays (by definition ephemeral and chemistry, insubstantial pageants, as Prospero observes in The Tempest ) rather than as an coursework, author of literary works (the term that earned Ben Jonson the derision of his fellow playwrights when he came out with a pretentiously titled folio volume of chemistry, his collected plays in 1616), it is bible essays hardly surprising that he appears to have had little or nothing to do with the publication of any of his own dramatic scripts. Nor is it surprising that several of the texts that were published in Shakespeare's lifetime or shortly thereafter have come down to us in forms that vary from one printing to coursework analysis another. Essays For Student? Some of these variations probably result from authorial revisions or from theatrical adaptations of one kind or another. Coursework Analysis? Others undoubtedly derive from the vicissitudes of textual transmission, with the extant state of a given text or passage dependent on essays whether it was printed from the author's own manuscript (either in draft form or in a more finished version) or from a manuscript prepared by someone else (a scribe's fair copy of a manuscript owned by the author or the company, for example, or a rough compilation by one or more actors relying on faulty memories to pull together an abridged script for a reduced cast touring the provinces)--quite apart from any further complications that may have occurred in the printing house itself (where one copy editor, one compositor, or one proofreader differed from another in the accuracy with which he reproduced the analysis, manuscript before him). Whatever their origins, these variations are eloquent testimony to the difficulty--if not indeed the impossibility--of our ever arriving at an absolutely final version of a Shakespearean play. For if the conditions under which plays were written, performed, and preserved make it clear that a definitive playtext was rare, if not unknown, in Shakespeare's own time, we must recognize that any effort to produce an authoritative edition for our own time can aspire, at best, to reconstitute as accurately as possible the closest surviving approximation to a given script at some point in its compositional or theatrical history. And even this kind of edition will remain stubbornly incomplete, for the simple reason that a Shakespearean script was originally intended for the use, not of a reading audience, but of a small company of theater professionals who would employ it as a score from which to orchestrate a complex, multidimensional performance. Vee? The texts that do survive are mostly dialogue, and a sensitive analysis of them can tell us a great deal about how the words were meant to be spoken, where the emphases were to be placed, and chemistry analysis, what character motivations were to be indicated at specific points in the action.
But because we can no longer recover the context in which these scripts were first realized--a context that would have included a good deal of oral communication about gesture, movement, blocking, and other stage business--we must content ourselves with editions that will always be to and hy some degree indeterminate. Perhaps this is just as well: it teases the critic and the director with enough interpretive liberty to ensure that we will never be faced with a dearth of innovation in Shakespearean commentary and production. Chemistry? We should bear in mind, of course, that a considerable investment of additional work would have been required to transform a production script into a reading text for bible essays in scriptural the public--not altogether unlike what is required nowadays to turn a screenplay into coursework analysis, a coherent piece of narrative fiction--and that Shakespeare may never have had the time (even if we assume that he ever had the inclination) to effect such a generic adaptation. Law Degree Coursework? Still, those of us who would not object to chemistry analysis a little more detail about essays elections, some of the matter of Shakespeare's plays may perhaps be pardoned for wishing that the playwright had been able to spare more thought for the morrow--for the afterlife that most (though who is to say all?) of his plays were eventually to have as a consequence of publication. Our sentiments are echoed in the 1623 address To the chemistry coursework, Great Variety of Readers at the beginning of that posthumous edition of Shakespeare's works known as the resume and hy, First Folio: It had been a thing, we confess, worthy to have been wished, that the author himself had lived to analysis have set forth and overseen his own writings. He did set forth and essay, oversee some of his own writings, of course. But, significantly, these were not dramatic scripts. In 1593 Shakespeare published an 1194-line narrative poem that appears to coursework have been intended as his opening bid for serious attention as an author of literary works. Based on Ovid's Metamorphoses and capitalizing on a fashion for elegant romances that was being catered to essay by such writers as Thomas Lodge (whose Scilla's Metamorphoses had been published in 1589) and Christopher Marlowe (whose Hero and analysis, Leander may well have circulated in key terms essay, manuscript prior to his death in chemistry, 1593 and certainly before it appeared in print in 1598), Shakespeare's Venus and Adonis was an erotic mythological poem printed by fellow Stratfordian Richard Field and bearing a florid dedication to the Right Honorable Henry Wriothesley, Earl of Southampton. Its six-line stanzas employed an key terms, ababcc rhyming scheme whose authority had been established by such contemporary Renaissance poets as Edmund Spenser, and its ornamented, artificial style solicited a favorable reception from the wiser sort of readers to be found in coursework analysis, the Inns of law degree, Courts, at the universities, and at chemistry coursework analysis Court.
Although Shakespeare decorously apologized for in africa the poem as the first heir of my invention, he must have done so in full confidence that Venus and Adonis was an achievement worthy of coursework analysis, his talent. And it proved to be an immediate and sustained success, with nine reprints by bible in scriptural intertextuality, 1616 and six more by 1640. The large number of references to it during the late 1590s and early 1600s suggest that it was the work for which Shakespeare was most widely recognized during his own lifetime. Within a year of the chemistry, publication of Venus and Adonis , Shakespeare was back to press with another long narrative poem. This time he chose a seven-line stanza rhyming ababbcc (rhyme royal, a verse form whose tradition in introduction of euthanasia, English poetry extended all the way back to Chaucer), and once again he drew on Ovid for a work dedicated (this time even more warmly) to the Earl of Southampton. Chemistry Analysis? If Venus and Adonis is most aptly approached as a quasi-comic treatment of love (depicting the resume vee, frustrations of an insatiate goddess who falls all over herself as she fumbles to seduce an unresponsive youth), despite the fact that it ends with the death of the innocent young mortal, Lucrece is analysis more properly described as a tragic complaint, a moving exploration of the personal and social consequences of a noble Roman's surrender to lust, against poverty his better nature and at the cost, ultimately, of both his victim's life and his own. In his foreword to Venus and Adonis , Shakespeare had promised the dedicatee a graver labor if his first offering pleased its would-be patron; in all likelihood, then, Lucrece was under way as a companion piece to Venus and Adonis at least a year before its eventual publication in 1594. It may be, as some have suggested, that Shakespeare's narrative of Tarquin's rape of Lucrece and coursework, her suicide was motivated by a desire to persuade anyone who might have considered the earlier work frivolous that the poet's muse was equally capable of a more serious subject. Coursework? In any case it is clear that once again he struck a responsive chord: Lucrece went through eight editions prior to 1640, and it seems to chemistry coursework have been exceeded in popularity only by Venus and Adonis . Both poems were printed during what has been called Shakespeare's apprenticeship--the period preceding his emergence as a member of the Lord Chamberlain's Men in 1594--and they share a number of stylistic characteristics with the plays that appear to have been completed during those same early years.
As with such youthful dramatic efforts as the three parts of Henry VI , Titus Andronicus , The Two Gentlemen of Verona , The Comedy of Errors , and The Taming of the Shrew, the writing in Venus and Adonis and introduction of euthanasia, Lucrece is chemistry coursework analysis generically imitative (closely adhering to received poetic and dramatic forms), structurally and verbally derivative (echoing the poet's sources almost slavishly at times), and rhetorically formal (with a rigidly patterned verse containing far more rhymes, end-stopped lines, syntactic balances, and key terms essay writing, allusions to the classics than are to be observed in Shakespeare's writing after the chemistry coursework analysis, mid 1590s). Law Degree? One feels immediately that Venus and Adonis and Lucrece are artistically of a piece with Shakespeare's first tentative experiments as a dramatist. The two poems were probably written during the analysis, two-year period from June 1592 to June 1594 when the London theaters were closed owing to the plague. But whether they indicate an inclination to leave the theater altogether and essay a career as a traditional poet (as Shakespeare's quest for the patronage of the young Earl of Southampton would seem to imply), or merely demonstrate that Shakespeare was resourceful enough to turn his pen to other uses while he waited for the theaters to reopen, is poverty more than we can say. The only thing that seems beyond doubt is that Shakespeare regarded what he was doing when he wrote Venus and chemistry coursework, Adonis and Lucrece as something fundamentally different from what he was doing, prior to that and key terms essay, subsequent to it, in his capacity as a playwright and theater professional. Like his fellow playwrights when they donned personae as men of letters, Shakespeare was addressing his efforts, first of all, to a noble patron and, second, to chemistry analysis a cultivated readership.
He was therefore concerned that his compositions be published as he had written them, and he took pains to assure that they were accompanied by a graceful appeal for the approval of an audience presumed to embody the highest standards of in africa essay, literary taste and judgment. It may be that during the same period when he was seeing Venus and Adonis and Lucrece through the press in carefully proofed editions he was also writing other nondramatic poetry. Many scholars believe that this was when he composed most if not all of the 154 sonnets that bear his name. And if he was in fact the author of coursework, A Lover's Complaint (a narrative poem in rhyme royal that was attributed to Shakespeare when it was published, along with the Sonnets , in an unauthorized edition in 1609), he probably wrote that labored lyric during his years in the workshop too. But we have no evidence that he ever took any steps himself to publish either A Lover's Complaint or the bible and quran essays in scriptural intertextuality, Sonnets . Chemistry Coursework? Apart from Venus and Adonis and Lucrece , the key terms writing, only other literary work that Shakespeare may have had anything to do with publishing on his own behalf was a curious poem called The Phoenix and chemistry coursework, Turtle , which appeared in 1601 as part of a collection Shadowing the Truth of resume, Love and appended to Robert Chester's Love's Martyr . The Phoenix and Turtle is a sixty-seven-line lyric, probably allegorical, about chemistry, one bird (the phoenix) legendary for its rarity and beauty and key terms essay, another (the turtledove) proverbial for chemistry coursework analysis its constancy. Its scholastic imagery--reminiscent in some ways of the in africa, highly technical language to be found in writing of the same literary climate by such metaphysical poets as John Donne--suggests that, if indeed it is by Shakespeare (which many have questioned), it was probably written expressly for the Chester volume at about the time that Shakespeare was at work on such philosophical plays as Hamlet and Troilus and Cressida . If we except The Phoenix and Turtle, then, and assume that the Sonnets and A Lover's Complaint were published without Shakespeare's active participation, we are left with the conclusion that Shakespeare's literary career, narrowly defined, was more or less limited to the two-year interruption in his activities as a theater professional when the chemistry analysis, London playhouses were closed because of the plague. This does not require us to presume, of course, that he ceased to have literary aspirations after 1594.
He may have allowed his sugared sonnets to circulate in manuscript among his private friends (as Francis Meres asserted in Palladis Tamia in 1598, a year prior to William Jaggard's surreptitious printing of poverty in africa, two of the sonnets in chemistry analysis, a volume called The Passionate Pilgrim ) while he continued to revise and augment them in the expectation that he would publish an anthology at a later time. And it is not inconceivable that he would have published a collected edition of his plays had he lived (Jonson having braved the critical tempest that such audacity was bound to and quran intertextuality generate when he came out with his works in 1616, the year of Shakespeare's death). But the fact is coursework that Shakespeare did not himself publish any of the compositions we now value the most, and we can only infer that doing so was of coursework, less importance to him than what he did choose to devote his professional life to: the wrighting of plays. If so, he must at times have had his doubts about the choice he made. In Sonnet 110 (if we may be permitted to assume that the poet was either speaking in his own voice or echoing sentiments that he himself had felt), he allows that he has made himself a motley to analysis the view and sold cheap what is resume vee most dear. He then goes on in Sonnet 111 to coursework analysis lament that he did not better for [his] life provide/Than public means which public manners breeds. Law Degree? Wordsworth believed the Sonnets to be the key whereby Shakespeare unlocked his heart, and it may be that these intriguing poems are to some degree a spiritual testament--imitating, as was traditional with lyric verse, the analysis, thought processes and shifts in sensibility of law degree coursework, a person responding to the vicissitudes of chemistry coursework, private life. That granted, we may be correct to interpret Sonnets 110 and of euthanasia essay, 111 as expressions of Shakespeare's own dissatisfaction with the lot of an actor and playwright.
But it is risky to inquire too curiously into the supposedly confessional aspects of the Sonnets . Like Shakespeare's other writings, they employ the artifice of fictions, and they may have been but another form of story telling--different in kind from the chemistry analysis, plays and in africa essay, narrative poems, to be sure, but similar to them in being about something quite other than (or in addition to) the poet's own experience. If we examine them in the context of earlier sonnet sequences--Petrarch's lyrics of Laura in fifteenth-century Italy, for instance, or such late-sixteenth-century English sequences as those by chemistry analysis, Philip Sidney, Edmund Spenser, Samuel Daniel, and Michael Drayton--we discover that they are quite conventional in many respects. They display the speaker's wit and attest to his originality; they imply a deeply felt personal situation and key terms, hint at a coherent narrative, but they usually stop short of connecting their emotional peaks and valleys into a fully textured autobiographical landscape; they assert the chemistry coursework, immortality of verse and claim its sovereignty over vee, the ravages of time and analysis, change; and usually they deal with themes of in africa essay, truth and beauty in the context of coursework, love and poverty essay, friendship and all the coursework analysis, circumstances that life arrays in key terms, opposition to such values. To a far greater degree than with most sonnet sequences, Shakespeare's Sonnets have the chemistry, ring of truth. This is partly because, like all his works (from his earliest plays onward), they portray humanity so convincingly. But it is essays intertextuality also a consequence of the extent to which they seem to coursework go beyond, or even to disregard, convention. Thus, instead of praising a lady by key terms essay writing, cataloging all the attributes that make her lovely, Shakespeare turns Petrarchan tradition on coursework analysis its head by denying his dark lady any of the expected beauties and virtues. My mistress' eyes are nothing like the essays in scriptural intertextuality, sun, he says in Sonnet 130; and far from being ethereal and inaccessible in her idealized spirituality, the woman described in chemistry coursework, Shakespeare's Sonnets is essay sensual, coarse, and promiscuous. Petrarch's Laura may have inspired that earlier poet to Platonic transcendence, but Shakespeare's mistress leaves only the bitter aftertaste of Th' expense of coursework analysis, spirit in a waste of shame, A bliss in introduction, proof, and chemistry, prov'd, a very woe (Sonnet 129). And what is more, she alienates the affection of the coursework, fair young man to whom most of the first 127 sonnets in the sequence are addressed: the friend who occasions some of the deepest verses in English on chemistry coursework analysis such themes as fidelity, stewardship (Shakespeare seems to have been preoccupied with the key terms essay writing, Parable of the Talents, as rendered in chemistry, Matthew 25: 14-30), and man's struggle against never-resting time.
As one reads the sonnets directed to the young man, one detects a descent from unquestioned devotion (This thou perceiv'st, which makes thy love more strong,/To love that well, which thou must leave ere long--Sonnet 73) to council a fear that the older man's love may be unrequited or at chemistry least taken for granted by the young friend to council whom he has given so much of himself (For sweetest things turn sourest by their deeds;/Lilies that fester smell far worse than weeds--Sonnet 94) to a courageous but probably quixotic determination to remain true to his convictions despite his doubts about the young man's worthiness of such absolute faith (love is not love/Which alters when it alteration finds/Or bends with the remover to remove--Sonnet 116). Chemistry Analysis? The intensity of feeling expressed in these sonnets has led many interpreters to council infer that they must have been based on a homoerotic passion. But Sonnet 20 suggests that the relationship Shakespeare describes is not sexual. Chemistry Coursework? Nature, he says, has given the young man one thing to my purpose nothing. And since she prick'd thee out for women's pleasure,/Mine be thy love, and thy love's use their treasure. Several of the coursework, sonnets addressed to the friend refer to a rival poet who is also bidding for his favors and analysis, affection (Sonnets 79, 80, 83, and 86, for example), and others (Sonnets 78, 82, 84, and 85) imply that the young aristocrat is the subject of praise by a great many poetic suitors. Council Elections? As he reflects upon his own position vis-à-vis his many competitors for the friend's love, the speaker in Shakespeare's sonnets is analysis subject to a depth of insecurity that sometimes borders on despair: Wishing me like to key terms essay writing one more rich in coursework, hope,/Featur'd like him, like him with friends possess'd,/Desiring this man's art, and that man's scope (Sonnet 29). And many of the law degree coursework, greatest sonnets in coursework analysis, the sequence derive their peculiar power from what Robert Frost has termed a sense of difficulty overcome--the poet working through the and hy, tensions and conflicts described in the first three quatrains (linked by an abab cdcd efef rhyme scheme) to some kind of hard-won (though perhaps not completely convincing) resolution in the concluding couplet (rhymed gg ): For thy sweet love rememb'red such wealth brings,/That then I scorn to change my state with kings (again Sonnet 29). Because the other personalities who figure in the psychodrama of the coursework analysis, Sonnets seem so vivid, at of euthanasia least as they impinge upon the personality of the speaker, interpreters of the sequence have been inexorably drawn toward speculation about real-life identities for the Dark Lady, the chemistry coursework analysis, Young Man, and the Rival Poet.
Some commentators (such as Oxford historian A. L. Rowse) have persuaded themselves, if not everyone else, that these characters can be positively linked with such contemporaries of Shakespeare as Emilia Lanier, the Earl of Southampton (or, alternatively, the Earl of Pembroke), and Christopher Marlowe (or possibly George Chapman). Unless further information should come to essays elections light, however, we are probably best advised to content ourselves with a position of agnosticism on such questions. Until we can be sure about how the Sonnets came to be published, and just what kind of debt the chemistry analysis, publisher Thomas Thorpe refers to when he dedicates the essays for student council, 1609 quarto to the only begetter of these poems Never before Imprinted--the mysterious Mr. W. H.--we are unlikely to be able to pin down the real names of any of the persons who inhabit the world of the Sonnets . Until then, indeed, we cannot even be certain that the Sonnets have any autobiographical basis in the first place. Turning from Shakespeare's nondramatic poetry to the fruits of his two decades as a playwright, we should probably begin where scholars now think he himself began: as the chemistry analysis, principal practitioner, if not in many ways the council, originator, of chemistry analysis, a new kind of drama that sprang from essays native patriotism. The most immediate source of the English history play appears to have been the heightened sense of national destiny that came in the wake of the royal navy's seemingly providential victory over the Spanish Armada in 1588. Proud of the new eminence their nation had achieved, and immensely relieved that the threat of invasion by analysis, a Catholic power had been averted, many of Shakespeare's contemporaries were disposed to view England's deliverance as a sign of law degree coursework, heaven's favor. Chemistry? As such, it seemed to be a vindication of the reign of resume vee, Queen Elizabeth and a substantiation of the Tudor order's claim to divine sanction--a claim that had been asserted by a succession of Renaissance chroniclers from Polydore Vergil (circa 1470-1555) through Edward Hall (circa 1498-1547) to Raphael Holinshed (circa 1529-1580), and a claim that was implicit in such government documents as the Exhortation concerning Good Order and chemistry analysis, Obedience to Rulers and Magistrates, a 1547 homily read in churches throughout England. Given this context, it must have seemed entirely fitting that sometime in the late 1580s or early 1590s an coursework, enterprising young playwright began dramatizing a sequence of historical developments that were almost universally regarded as the chemistry analysis, roots of England's current greatness. Most of the material for the four history plays with which Shakespeare began his career as playwright he drew from Edward Hall's Union of the Two Noble and Illustre Families of Lancaster and York (1548) and Raphael Holinshed's Chronicles of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1587 edition).
Here he found narratives of late-medieval English history that began with the reign of King Richard II (1377-1399), focused on Richard's deposition and execution by Henry Bolingbroke (Henry IV), described the Wars of the Roses (1455-1485) that were the eventual consequence of Bolingbroke's usurpation, and concluded with the restoration of right rule when Henry Richmond defeated the tyrannical Richard III (1483-1485) and acceded to the crown as Henry VII, inaugurating a Tudor dynasty that was to and quran in scriptural last until the death of Queen Elizabeth in 1603. Here he also found a theological reading of political history that treated England as a collective Everyman--falling into sin, undergoing a terrifyingly bloody punishment for its disobedience, and eventually finding its way back to redemption through the emergence of Henry VII. The chances are that as Shakespeare matured in his craft he came to coursework view the Tudor myth (as E. Essay Writing? M. W. Chemistry Coursework? Tillyard has termed this official dogma) with a degree of coursework, skeptical detachment; but even so, he seems to have found in its clear, broad sweep a pattern that served quite well as a way of organizing the disparate materials he chose to dramatize. It gave him a theme of epic proportions, not altogether unlike the matter of Greece and Rome that had inspired such classical authors as Homer and Virgil in narrative genres and Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, and chemistry coursework analysis, Seneca in dramatic genres. It accorded with the biblical treatment of human destiny that Shakespeare's age had inherited from earlier generations, an approach to historical interpretation that had been embedded in such didactic entertainments as the Morality Play (allegorizing the sin, suffering, repentance, and salvation of a typical member of mankind) and the Mystery Play (broadening the cycle to resume and hy vee a dramatization of the whole of coursework, human history, from man's fall in the Garden of key terms essay, Eden to man's redemption in the Garden of Gethsemane to man's bliss in chemistry coursework analysis, the Paradise of the New Jerusalem). And it provided a rationale for Shakespeare's use of such powerful dramatic devices as the riddling prophecy and the curse--projecting retribution for present crimes, as the and quran essays, Old Testament would put it, to the third and fourth generations. When we approach the four plays known as Shakespeare's first tetralogy (the three parts of Henry VI and Richard III , all written, so far as we can tell, by 1592) from the perspective of his second tetralogy ( Richard II , Henry IV , parts 1 and 2, and Henry V , all of chemistry coursework, which appear to have been written between 1595 and 1597), the earlier plays seem comparatively crude. Like their sources, they place more emphasis on providential design and less on human agency. Their verse is more declamatory and poverty in africa, less supple. And they provide less individuation of character.
Still, they have their virtues, and successful recent productions by the Royal Shakespeare Company and chemistry coursework, the British Broadcasting Corporation have proven that they can be surprisingly effective in performance. In Africa Essay? Henry VI , part 1 did not achieve print until the 1623 First Folio, but it is chemistry coursework analysis now generally thought to bible and quran intertextuality have been written prior to parts 2 and 3, which first appeared in bad texts, respectively, in a 1594 quarto edition titled The First Part of the Contention betwixt the two famous Houses of Yorke and Lancaster and in chemistry analysis, a 1595 octavo entitled The True Tragedie of Richard Duke of poverty essay, Yorke. Henry VI, part 1, begins with the funeral of King Henry V (which occurred in chemistry coursework, 1422), details the dissension at essay home and the loss of life and territory abroad that result from the accession of chemistry, a new monarch too young and weak to rule, and concludes with King Henry VI's foolish decision to marry Margaret of introduction, Anjou--a step that places the saintly King in the very unsaintly hands of an ambitious woman and a lustful nobleman (the Earl of Suffolk, who plans to enjoy Margaret as his own mistress and thereby rule both her, the King, and realm) and virtually assures the further degradation of a kingdom that has been in decline since the death of Henry VI's famous warrior-king father. Henry VI , part 2, covers a ten-year span from Margaret of Anjou's arrival in England (1445) to the Duke of York's victory over chemistry, his Lancastrian enemies at St. Albans in the first major battle of the introduction of euthanasia essay, Wars of the Roses (1455). The same kind of internecine strife that has left the noble Talbot exposed to the forces of the strumpet-witch Joan of chemistry analysis, Arc in Henry VI , part 1, works here to undo Henry VI's protector, Duke Humphrey of Gloucester, topple two of the good Duke's enemies (Cardinal Beaufort and Suffolk), unleash the anarchic rebellion of the resume vee, peasant Jack Cade, and further divide the warring factions (the Yorkists, who have chosen the red rose as their symbol in the famous Temple Garden scene, II.iv, of part 1, and the Lancastrians, who have rallied behind the white rose) that seem hell-bent to tear the kingdom asunder. In Henry VI , part 3, the war is at analysis full pitch. As the law degree coursework, feeble Henry VI withdraws into a private realm of pastoral longing, his brutal Queen and her allies exchange outrages with one Yorkist enemy after another, father killing son and son killing father in a nightmarish world that has degenerated into a spectacle of unmitigated cruelty. By the time the dust settles, Henry VI and a number of other would-be claimants to the throne are dead or on their way to the grave, and the ominously crookbacked figure of Richard, Duke of analysis, Gloucester is slouching his rough way to the crown he will don in the blood-drenched final movement of this hitherto unprecedented cycle of historical tragedies. Richard III was first published in a 1597 quarto edition that many scholars believe to have been reconstructed from memory by actors plagued out of and quran essays in scriptural intertextuality, London theaters between July and October of that year.
The play was evidently quite popular, because it went through at least five more printings before it appeared in the 1623 First Folio edition based largely on the third and sixth quartos. And it has remained popular ever since, with a stage tradition highlighted by Richard Burbage in Shakespeare's own theater, David Garrick in the eighteenth century, Edmund Kean in the nineteenth, and coursework analysis, Laurence Olivier in essay, the twentieth. Nor is the reason hard to find. For despite the bold strokes with which he is chemistry coursework analysis portrayed, Richard III is in scriptural a character of sufficient complexity to sustain a great deal of chemistry analysis, dramatic interest. However much we find ourselves repelled by essay, his ruthless treachery, we cannot help admiring the eloquence, resourcefulness, and virtuosity with which he confides and then proceeds to execute his wicked intentions. His wooing of the grieving Lady Anne in the first act is a case in point: having set himself the seemingly impossible task of seducing a woman whose husband and father-in-law he has recently murdered, Richard is just as astonished as we are by the ease with which he accomplishes it.
In many ways Richard seems, and would have seemed to chemistry coursework Shakespeare's first audiences, a conventional, even old-fashioned stage villain: the quick-witted, clever, self-disclosing Vice of the and hy, late-medieval Morality Play, the dissimulating Devil familiar from the scriptures. In other, more important, ways he seems, and would have seemed, disturbingly modern: the Machiavellian politician who acknowledges no law, human or divine, in restraint of his foxlike cunning and leonine rapacity; the chemistry, totalitarian dictator who subverts every social and religious institution in pursuit of his psychopathic grand designs; the existentialist cosmic rebel whose radical alienation is a challenge to every form of order. But if Richard seems in many ways a relentlessly twentieth-century figure, we learn by the end of the play that his vaulting ambition (so proleptic of Macbeth's) is ultimately but an instrument of the same providential scheme that he scorns and seeks to circumvent. Richard may be a dreadful minister of hell, as Lady Anne calls him, but members of law degree, Shakespeare's audience (familiar with the story through such earlier renderings of it as the coursework analysis, portrait painted by Thomas More) would have seen him simultaneously as a scourge of introduction of euthanasia essay, God, unleashed to punish England for her sins of the chemistry coursework, past. Prophetic Margaret reminds us over and over that had there not been strife in the kingdom prior to and quran in scriptural the advent of Richard, there would have been no ripe occasion for this poisonous bunch-backed toad to ascend the throne in the first instance. And as the play ends, an action that has drawn our attention again and again to the past looks optimistically to the future. By God's fair ordinance, the bloody dog is dead, and Richmond and Elizabeth (the forebears of Shakespeare's sovereign Elizabeth) are ushering in smooth-faced peace,/With smiling plenty, and fair prosperous days. One other English history play is now commonly believed to have been written during Shakespeare's apprenticeship, though scholars differ about whether to coursework analysis date it in the early 1590s or (more probably, in the opinion of most) in the transition years 1594-1595.
The earliest surviving text of King John is the version printed in the 1623 First Folio, and it offers a drama about a king of doubtful title whose reign (1199-1216) had been viewed in widely divergent ways. Key Terms Essay? Medieval Catholics, focusing on King John's presumed complicity in the death of his nephew Arthur (whose claim to the throne was stronger than John's) and on his feud with Pope Innocent III (which had resulted in the King's excommunication before he finally capitulated five years later and returned his kingdom to the Church), had seen him as a usurper, a murderer, and a heretic. Sixteenth-century Protestants, on the other hand, had rehabilitated him as a proto-Tudor martyr and champion of English nationalism. Chemistry Coursework Analysis? In many respects, Shakespeare's own portrayal is closer to for student council elections the medieval view of King John: he does away with any ambiguity about John's role in the removal of Arthur, for example, presents the saintlike Arthur and his impassioned mother, Constance, as thoroughly engaging characters, and endows John with few if any sympathetic traits. At the analysis, same time, however, Shakespeare's King John continues to and hy receive the loyalty of characters who are portrayed sympathetically--most notably the bastard son of Richard the Lion-hearted, Philip Faulconbridge--and by the end of the play it seems evident that a higher cause, the good of England, is to take precedence over such lesser concerns as John's weak title, his execution of a potential rival, and his inadequacies as a leader. Chemistry Coursework? The Bastard, a political realist who seems quite Machiavellian at first--particularly in his analysis of the all-pervasiveness of commodity (self-interest) in human affairs--eventually becomes a virtual emblem of patriotism. To him is given the concluding speech of essays, King John , and it is analysis frequently cited as Shakespeare's most eloquent summary of the moral implicit in all his early history plays: If Shakespeare's earliest efforts in the dramatization of history derived from for student elections his response to the political climate of his day, his first experiments in chemistry analysis, comedy seem to have evolved from his reading in school and from his familiarity with the plays of and hy, such predecessors on the English stage as John Lyly, George Peele, Robert Greene, and Thomas Nashe.
Shakespeare's apprentice comedies are quite inventive in many respects, particularly in the degree to which they overgo the conventions and devices the young playwright drew upon. But because they have more precedent behind them than the English history plays, they strike us now as less stunningly original--though arguably more successfully executed--than the tetralogy on analysis the Wars of the Roses. Poverty In Africa Essay? Which of them came first we do not know, but most scholars incline toward The Comedy of Errors , a play so openly scaffolded upon chemistry analysis, Plautus's Menaechmi and Amphitruo (two farces that Shakespeare probably knew in Latin from his days in grammar school) that one modern critic has summed it up as a kind of essay, diploma piece. Set, ostensibly, in the Mediterranean city familiar from analysis St. Paul's Epistle to poverty in africa essay the Ephesians, the play begins with a sentence on the life of a luckless Syracusan merchant, Aegeon, who has stumbled into Ephesus in coursework, search of his son Antipholus. Key Terms? After narrating a tale of woe that wins the sympathy of the Duke of chemistry coursework analysis, Ephesus, Aegeon is given till five in the afternoon to come up with a seemingly impossible ransom for his breach of an arbitrary law against Syracusans. Meanwhile, unknown to Aegeon, the object of resume and hy, his search is in Ephesus too, having arrived only chemistry coursework analysis, hours before him; Antipholus had set out writing, some two years earlier to find a twin brother by chemistry, the same name who was separated from the coursework, rest of the family in a stormy shipwreck more than twenty years in the past. By happy coincidence, the other Antipholus has long since settled in Ephesus, and coursework analysis, so (without either's knowledge) has their mother, Aegeon's long-lost wife, Aemilia, who is now an abbess.
To complicate matters further, both Antipholuses have slaves named Dromio, also twins long separated, and of course both sets of twins are indistinguishably appareled. Into this mix Shakespeare throws a goldsmith, a set of merchants, a courtesan, a wife and council elections, a sister-in-law for the Ephesian Antipholus, and a conjuring schoolmaster. The result is a swirling brew of analysis, misunderstandings, accusations, and identity crises--all leading, finally, to a series of revelations that reunite a family, save Aegeon's life, and bring order to a city that had begun to seem bewitched by sorcerers. The Comedy of Errors reached print for the first time in the 1623 First Folio. We know that it was written prior to 28 December 1594, however, because there is law degree coursework record of a performance on chemistry coursework analysis that date at one of the four Inns of Court.
Some scholars believe that the play was written for that holiday Gray's Inn presentation, but most tend to the view that it had been performed previously, possibly as early as 1589 but more likely in the years 1592-1594. Most critics now seem agreed, moreover, that for all its farcical elements, the play is a comedy of some sophistication and depth, with a sensitivity to love that anticipates Shakespeare's great comedies later in the decade: when Luciana advises her sister Adriana about how she should treat her husband Antipholus, for example, she echoes Paul's exhortations on Christian marriage in Ephesians. And with its use of the devices of literary romance (the frame story of Aegeon comes from Apollonius of Tyre), The Comedy of Errors also looks forward to the wanderings, confusions of identity, and miraculous reunions so fundamental to the structure of late plays such as Pericles and The Tempest . In Africa Essay? What may have been Shakespeare's next comedy has also been deprecated as farce, and chemistry, it is frequently produced today with staging techniques that link it with the commedia del l'arte popular in Renaissance Italy. But for all its knockabout slapstick, The Taming of the Shrew is essays too penetrating in its psychology and too subtle in its handling of the analysis, nuances of courtship to be dismissed as a play deficient in feeling. Law Degree? Its main event is chemistry a battle of the sexes in and quran essays intertextuality, which Petruchio, who has come to wive it wealthily in Padua, takes on a dare no other potential suitor would even consider: to win both dowry and coursework analysis, docility from bible and quran intertextuality a sharp-tongued shrew avoided as Katherine the curst. Apparently recognizing that Katherine's willfulness is a product of the favoritism her father has long bestowed upon her younger sister, and having the chemistry analysis, further good sense to resume vee realize that the chemistry analysis, fiery Kate is capable of becoming a much more attractive wife than the much-sought-after but rather devious Bianca, Petruchio mounts a brilliant campaign to gain Kate's love and make her his. First, he insists that Kate is fair and gentle, notwithstanding all her efforts to essays elections disabuse him of that notion. Second, he kills her in her own humour, with a display of arbitrary behavior--tantrums, scoldings, peremptory refusals--that both wears her down and shows her how unpleasant shrewishness can be.
At the end of the play Petruchio shocks his skeptical fellow husbands by wagering that his bride will prove more obedient than theirs. When Kate not only heeds his commands but reproaches her sister and the other wives for sullen, sour rebellion against their husbands, it becomes manifest that Petruchio has succeeded in his quest: Kate freely and joyfully acknowledges him to be her loving lord. Coursework Analysis? If we have doubts about whether Kate's transformation can be accepted as a happy ending today--and alterations of the final scene in many recent productions would suggest that it may be too offensive to current sensibilities to be played straight--we should perhaps ask ourselves whether the Kate who seems to resume and hy wink conspiratorially at Petruchio as she puts her hands beneath his foot to win a marital wager is any less spirited or fulfilled a woman than the Kate who drives all her wouldbe wooers away in coursework, the play's opening scene. Whether or not The Taming of the Shrew is the and hy, mysterious Love's Labor's Won referred to by Francis Meres in 1598, it seems to have been written in the early 1590s, because what is now generally believed to be a bad quarto of chemistry, it appeared in 1594. The Taming of a Shrew differs significantly from the version of Shakespeare's play that was first published in the 1623 Folio--most notably in the fact that the drunken tinker Christopher Sly, who appears only in the induction to the later printing of the play, remains on stage throughout The Taming of a Shrew , repeatedly interrupting the elections, action of what is presented as a play for his entertainment and resolving at chemistry coursework analysis the end to go off and try Petruchio's wife-taming techniques on his own recalcitrant woman.
Some directors retain the later Sly scenes, but no one seriously questions that the Folio text is in general the more authoritative of the two versions of the play. The Folio provides the only surviving text of The Two Gentlemen of Verona , a comedy so tentative in its dramaturgy (for example, its ineptitude in the few scenes where the playwright attempts to manage more than two characters on the stage at once), and so awkward in its efforts to pit the claims of love and friendship against each other, that many scholars now think it to be the first play Shakespeare ever wrote. Based largely on a 1542 chivalric romance ( Diana Enamorada ) by Portuguese writer Jorge de Montemayor, The Two Gentlemen of Verona depicts a potential rivalry between two friends--Valentine and Proteus--who fall in love with the same Milanese woman (Silvia) despite the fact that Proteus has vowed his devotion to a woman (Julia) back home in Verona. Proteus engineers Valentine's banishment from and hy Milan so that he can woo Silvia away from him. But Silvia remains faithful to Valentine, just as Julia (who has followed her loved one disguised as his page) holds true to Proteus, notwithstanding the character he discloses as a man who lives up to his name. Analysis? In the concluding forest scene Valentine intervenes to save Silvia from being raped by Proteus; but, when Proteus exhibits remorse, Valentine offers him Silvia anyway, as a token of coursework, friendship restored. Fortunately, circumstances conspire to forestall such an unhappy consummation, and the play ends with the two couples properly reunited. Unlike The Comedy of Errors and The Taming of the Shrew , The Two Gentlemen of Verona has never been popular in the theater, even though it offers two resourceful women (whose promise will be fulfilled more amply in such later heroines as Rosalind and Viola), a pair of amusing clowns (Launce and Speed), and one of the coursework analysis, most engaging dogs (Crab) who ever stole a stage. In its mixture of prose and poverty in africa essay, verse, nevertheless, and in its suggestion that the green world of the woods is where pretensions fall and would be evildoers find their truer selves, The Two Gentlemen of Verona looks forward to the first fruits of Shakespeare's maturity: the romantic comedies of chemistry analysis, which it proves to key terms essay be a prototype. The one remaining play that most critics now locate in the period known as Shakespeare's apprenticeship is analysis a Grand Guignol melodrama that seems to have been the young playwright's attempt to key terms essay outdo Thomas Kyd's Spanish Tragedy (produced circa 1589) in its exploitation of the analysis, horrors of madness and revenge.
The composition of poverty essay, Titus Andronicus is usually dated 1590-1592, and it seems to have been drawn from a ballad and chemistry coursework analysis, History of Titus Andronicus that only survives today in law degree, an eighteenth-century reprint now deposited in the Folger Shakespeare Library. (The Folger also holds the analysis, sole extant copy of the 1594 first quarto of Shakespeare's play, the authoritative text for all but the one scene, III.ii, that first appeared in the 1623 Folio.) If Shakespeare did take most of his plot from the History of Titus Andronicus , it is clear that he also went to Ovid's Metamorphoses (for the account of Tereus's rape of Philomena, to law degree which the tongueless Lavinia points to analysis explain what has been done to her) and to Seneca's Thyestes (for Titus's fiendish revenge on Tamora and her sons at the end of the play). Although Titus Andronicus is not a history play, it does make an resume, effort to evoke the social and political climate of fourth-century Rome; and in its depiction of a stern general who has just sacrificed more than twenty of coursework analysis, his own sons to conquer the Goths, it anticipates certain characteristics of Shakespeare's later Roman plays: Julius Caesar , Antony and Cleopatra , and Coriolanus . But it is primarily as an antecedent of bible and quran in scriptural, Hamlet (influenced, perhaps, by the so-called lost Ur-Hamlet ) that Titus holds interest for us today. Because whatever else it is, Titus Andronicus is Shakespeare's first experiment with revenge tragedy. Its primary focus is the title character, whose political misjudgments and fiery temper put him at the mercy of the Queen of the Goths, Tamora, and her two sons (Demetrius and Chiron). They ravish and mutilate Titus's daughter Lavinia, manipulate the Emperor into executing two of Titus's sons (Martius and Quintus) as perpetrators of the crime, and get Titus's third son (Lucius) banished for trying to rescue his brothers. Along the way, Tamora's Moorish lover Aaron tricks Titus into having his right hand chopped off in a futile gesture to save Martius and Lucius. After Lavinia writes the names of her assailants in the sand with her grotesque stumps, Titus works out analysis, a plan for revenge: he slits the throats of Demetrius and Chiron, invites Tamora to resume vee a banquet, and serves her the analysis, flesh of her sons baked in a pie. He then kills Tamora and dies at the hands of Emperor Saturninus. At this point Lucius returns heading a Gothic army and takes over as the new Emperor, condemning Aaron to essay be half-buried and coursework analysis, left to starve and throwing Tamora's corpse to the scavenging birds and beasts. As Fredson Bowers has pointed out, Titus Andronicus incorporates a number of devices characteristic of other revenge tragedies: the protagonist's feigned madness, his delay in the execution of his purpose, his awareness that in essay, seeking vengeance he is taking on a judicial function that properly rests in chemistry, God's hands, and his death at the end in a bloody holocaust that leaves the throne open for seizure by the first opportunist to arrive upon the scene. Law Degree? Revenge is also a significant motif in Shakespeare's other early tragedy, Romeo and Juliet , usually dated around 1595-1596.
It is a blood feud between their two Veronan families that forces the lovers to woo and wed in secret, thereby creating the chemistry, misunderstanding that leads Mercutio to defend Romeo's honor in council elections, act three when the just-married protagonist declines his new kinsman Tybalt's challenge to duel. Coursework Analysis? And it is and quran in scriptural intertextuality both to chemistry coursework analysis avenge Mercutio's death and to restore his own now-sullied name that Romeo then slays Tybalt and becomes fortune's fool--initiating a falling action that leads eventually to a pair of suicides and a belated recognition by the Capulets and the Montagues that their children have become poor sacrifices of our enmity. But it is not for its revenge elements that most of us remember Romeo and Juliet . No, it is for the lyricism with which Shakespeare portrays the beauty and resume and hy vee, idealism of love at first sight--all the more transcendent for coursework the ways in which the playwright sets it off from the essay, calculations of Juliet's parents (intent on arranging their daughter's marriage to advance their own status) or contrasts it with the coursework analysis, earthy bawdiness of Juliet's Nurse or the worldly-wise cynicism of Romeo's friend Mercutio. The spontaneous sonnet of Romeo and Juliet's initial meeting at Capulet's ball, their betrothal vows in the balcony scene later that evening, the ominous parting that concludes their one night together and foreshadows their final meeting in the Capulet tomb--these are the moments we carry with us from a performance or a reading of what may well be history's most famous love story. Romeo and Juliet may strike us as an early tragedy in its formal versification and in its patterned structure. It has been faulted for its dependence on coincidence and on causes external to the protagonists for the conditions that bring about the tragic outcome--an emphasis implicit in the play's repeated references to Fortune and the stars. And critics have encountered difficulty in their attempts to reconcile the purity of introduction essay, Romeo and Juliet's devotion to each other (for earth too dear) with the play's equal insistence that their relationship is a form of idolatry--ultimately leading both lovers to acts of desperation that audiences in Shakespeare's time would have considered far more consequential than do most modern audiences.
But whatever its supposed limitations and interpretive problems, Romeo and Juliet seems likely to hold its position as one of the classics of the dramatic repertory. Romeo and Juliet first appeared in a 1597 quarto edition that most scholars believe to be a memorial reconstruction, though one with isolated passages (such as Mercutio's celebrated Queen Mab speech) printed in a form that some scholars believe superior to their rendering in the text today's editors accept as the best authority: the 1599 second quarto, newly corrected, augmented, and amended, and apparently derived primarily from Shakespeare's own foul papers. Two more printings appeared before the coursework analysis, 1623 Folio, whose text--essentially a reprint of the third quarto edition (1609)--has no independent authority. The principal source for the play was a 1562 narrative, The Tragical History of Romeus and in africa essay, Juliet , by Arthur Brooke, a didactic poem urging children to be obedient to their parents. By telescoping three months into four days and by dramatizing the story in a manner more sympathetic to the young lovers, Shakespeare transformed a sermon into a tragedy whose urgency must have been just as moving in the Elizabethan theater as we know it to be in our own. If Romeo and Juliet is a play that has lost none of chemistry coursework, its freshness in the four centuries since its first appearance, Love's Labor's Lost now strikes us as so thoroughly Elizabethan in its rhetoric and topicality as to be nearly inaccessible to modern audiences. Evidently another product of the transition years when Shakespeare was working his way back into vee, the theater after a two-year hiatus due to the plague, Love's Labor's Lost appears to have been written in 1594-1595 for chemistry analysis private performance and may well have been revised in 1597 for a performance before the Queen during the Christmas revels. Essay Writing? Its earliest known printing was a 1598 quarto announcing itself as newly corrected and augmented and probably set from Shakespeare's foul papers. The Folio text was essentially a reprint of this first quarto, which has the distinction of being the chemistry, first play to bear Shakespeare's name on its title page.
Until recently no literary source had been found for the plot of essays council elections, Love's Labor's Lost , but Glynne Wickham has now turned up a 1581 analogue, The Four Foster Children of coursework analysis, Desire , that helps account for much of the coursework, play's structure and several of its themes. Analysis? What emerges for bible and quran in scriptural intertextuality a theatergoer or reader of the play today is a highly artificial comedy about a company of coursework, men whose well-intended but ill-conceived attempt to outwit nature makes them all look foolish and lands them in a pickle. No sooner have King Ferdinand of Navarre and his friends Longaville, Dumaine, and Berowne--hoping to bible intertextuality conquer the chemistry analysis, frailties of the poverty, flesh and find an antidote to cormorant devouring time--forsworn the chemistry coursework analysis, company of women and withdrawn to their quasi-monastic Academe than they find their fortress besieged by four beautiful ladies--the Princess of France and resume and hy, her attendants Maria, Katherine, and Rosaline--who camp in the park outside and watch with amusement as each of the scholars falls in love, forsakes his vows, and coursework, gets caught by the others. Eventually the men surrender and propose marriage, but by law degree coursework, this time it has become clear that they are so far gone in artifice that they need at least a year of penance--and time in real-world settings such as the hospital to which Berowne is consigned--before their protestations of devotion can be given any credit. Love's labor is lost, then, in chemistry coursework, the sense that this is resume and hy vee a comedy without the analysis, traditional happy consummation in law degree, wedding, feasting, and dancing. Its concluding lyrics move from spring (When daisies pied) to chemistry coursework winter (When icicles hang), and the year of penance to come is resume vee one that requires all of the chemistry, men to reevaluate their aspirations with a renewed awareness of the omnipresence of disease and the inevitability of writing, death. Love's Labor's Lost is one of Shakespeare's most self-conscious plays generically, and it is also one of his most demanding plays linguistically. Much is made of the literary artifice of the four men's rhetoric, and it is shown to be detrimental to normal human feeling. It is also shown to be an infection that touches such lesser characters as the bombastic braggart soldier Don Adriano de Armado, the pedant schoolmaster Holofernes, and the clown Costard, all of whom, like the poor curate Nathaniel in the Pageant of the Nine Worthies, prove a little o'erparted.
It is one of the ironies of the play that the four major male characters, who laugh so cruelly at chemistry analysis the participants in the pageant, also prove o'erparted in the end. Such are the wages of affectation. Affectation of another kind is bible and quran essays in scriptural intertextuality depicted in a delightful scene from what many regard as Shakespeare's most charming comedy, A Midsummer Night's Dream . As the chemistry analysis, Athenian courtiers are quick to bible and quran intertextuality observe in their critiques of the tragical mirth of Pyramus and Thisby in V.i, the mechanicals who display their dramatic wares at the nuptial feast of Theseus and Hippolyta are even more fundamentally o'erparted than the hapless supernumeraries of Love's Labor's Lost . But there is chemistry something deeply affectionate about Shakespeare's portrayal of the affectations of Bottom and his earnest company of hempen home-spuns, and vee, the simpleness and duty with which they tender their devotion is the analysis, playwright's way of reminding us that out introduction essay, of the chemistry coursework analysis, mouths of babes and fools can sometimes issue a loving wisdom that hath no bottom. Like Bottom's Dream, the playlet brings a refreshingly naive perspective to essays council elections issues addressed more seriously elsewhere. And, by burlesquing the struggles and chemistry analysis, conflicts through which the and quran, lovers in the woods circumvent the arbitrariness of their elders, Pyramus and Thisby comments not only upon the fortunes of Demetrius and chemistry analysis, Helena, Lysander and Hermia, but also upon the misfortunes of Romeo and essay writing, Juliet. After all, both stories derive ultimately from the same source in Ovid's Metamorphoses , and Shakespeare's parallel renderings of the chemistry coursework analysis, course of true love in Romeo and Juliet and A Midsummer Night's Dream are so closely linked in time and for student council, treatment that it is chemistry tempting to regard the essays elections, two plays as companion pieces--tragic and comic masks, as it were, for the same phase (1595-1596) of analysis, Shakespearean dramaturgy. Resume And Hy? Whether or not A Midsummer Night's Dream was commissioned for a wedding ceremony at chemistry Whitehall, as some scholars have speculated, the play is in fact a remarkable welding of disparate materials: the fairy lore of Oberon and Titania and and quran intertextuality, their impish minister Puck, the chemistry coursework, classical narrative of council, Theseus's conquest of the Amazons and their queen Hippolyta, the confused comings and goings of the young Athenian lovers who must flee to the woods to evade their tyrannical parents, and the rehearsals for a crude craft play by a band of well-meaning peasants.
It is in some ways the most original work in chemistry analysis, the entire Shakespearean canon, and one is anything but surprised that its something of great constancy has inspired the best efforts of such later artists as composer Felix Mendelssohn, painters Henry Fuseli and and quran, William Blake, director Peter Brook, and filmmakers Max Reinhardt and Woody Allen. A Midsummer Night's Dream is in many respects the epitome of festive comedy, an evocation of the folk rituals associated with such occasions as May Day and Midsummer Eve, and its final mood is one of unalloyed romantic fulfillment. Romance is also a key ingredient in the concluding arias of Shakespeare's next comedy, The Merchant of chemistry coursework, Venice , where Bassanio and Portia, Lorenzo and Jessica, and Gratiano and Nerissa celebrate the happy consummation of three love quests and law degree coursework, contemplate the music of the spheres from a magical estate known symbolically as Belmont. But the sweet harmony the lovers have achieved by the end of The Merchant of Venice has been purchased very dearly, and it is hard for a modern audience to accept the serenity of Belmont without at least a twinge of guilt over what has happened in far-off Venice to bring it about. Coursework Analysis? Whether The Merchant of Venice is best categorized as an and hy vee, anti-Semitic play (capitalizing on prejudices that contemporaries such as Marlowe had catered to in plays like The Jew of Malta ) or as a play about the evils of anti-Semitism (as critical of the coursework analysis, Christian society that has persecuted the Jew as it is poverty in africa of the vengeance he vents in chemistry, response), its central trial scene is profoundly disturbing for an audience that has difficulty viewing Shylock's forced conversion as a manifestation of mercy. Shylock's hath not a Jew eyes speech impels us to see him as a fellow human being--notwithstanding the rapacious demand for and hy justice that all but yields him Antonio's life before Portia's clever manipulations of the law strip the chemistry, usurer of his own life's fortune--so that even if we feel that the Jew's punishment is essay less severe than what strict justice might have meted out to him, his grim exit nevertheless casts a pall over the festivities of the final act in Belmont. By contrast with A Midsummer Night's Dream , a play in which the disparate components of the action are resolved in a brilliantly satisfying synthesis, The Merchant of Venice remains, for many of us, a prototype of those later Shakespearean works that twentieth-century critics have labeled problem comedies. Even its fairy-tale elements, such as the casket scenes in which three would-be husbands try to divine the chemistry, will of Portia's father, seem discordant to a modern audience that is asked to admire a heroine who dismisses one of law degree, her suitors with a slur on his Moroccan complexion. Though it seems to chemistry analysis have been written in late 1596 or early 1597 and, like A Midsummer Night's Dream , was first published in a good quarto in 1600, The Merchant of Venice feels closer in mood to Measure for Measure --which also pivots on a conflict between justice and mercy--than to most of the coursework, other romantic comedies of the mid to late 1590s. But if The Merchant of Venice strikes us now as a play that looks forward to a later phase of Shakespearean dramaturgy, the plays he worked on next were a return to his beginnings. Possibly as early as 1595, and certainly no later than 1597, Shakespeare began a fresh exploration of the matter of English history with a play focusing on the events that precipitated the Wars of the Roses.
It is impossible to say whether Shakespeare knew, when he began composing Richard II , that he would go on to write the two parts of Henry IV and the drama on Henry V that would furnish the link between Richard II and coursework, the Henry VI trilogy with which he had begun his career as a playwright. But complete the resume vee, cycle he did, and the four English history plays Shakespeare wrote between 1595 and 1599 were even more impressive in their epic sweep than the four plays he had completed prior to the theatrical hiatus of chemistry coursework analysis, 1593-1594. Richard II was, among other things, a major advance in key terms writing, Shakespeare's development as a poetic dramatist. Chemistry Coursework? Not only poverty, does the play contain the dying John of Gaunt's paean to This royal throne of kings, this sceptred isle, . This other Eden, demi-paradise, it also affords us a telling contrast between the laconic bluntness of Henry Bolingbroke, a man of coursework analysis, action who is not quick to speak, and the self-indulgent lyricism of Richard II, a man of words who is, finally and fatally, not quick to act. At the beginning of the play Richard's security in and quran essays in scriptural intertextuality, his presumption that God's deputy is above the law leads him to disregard the chemistry, principles of primogeniture that are the basis of the King's own position as head of law degree coursework, state. He disregards the counsel of his elders, seizes the estates of John of coursework, Gaunt and resume and hy, other nobles, banishes in coursework, Bolingbroke a former ally who has maintained a discreet silence about crimes that would taint the monarch himself, and sets in motion the rebellion that will eventually render his throne untenable. By the coursework, climax of the play Richard is forced to surrender his crown in a deposition scene that neatly counterpoises the declining King's complicity for his own downfall with the rising King's usurpation of a throne to which he has no legitimate title. And by the end of the play Richard's pastoral musings in the Tower transform him into a quasi-martyr whose meditations on the death of kings are as deeply moving as anything that Shakespeare had written up to this point in his career. As Richard prophesies, his murder at the hands of Henry IV's henchmen releases a tide of bloodshed that will not be stemmed until another legitimate monarch ascends the throne nearly a century in the future.
When Richard II was published in a good quarto in 1597 it lacked the crucial deposition scene, owing almost certainly to coursework the censor's awareness that it would seem threatening to the aging Queen Elizabeth. That such apprehensions were justified was borne out in scriptural intertextuality, four years later when the play was performed on the eve of the abortive rebellion of the Earl of Essex. The deposition scene's first appearance in print was in coursework analysis, the fourth quarto of 1608. As with the earlier English history plays, Richard II and the three Henry plays that followed derived in large measure from the 1587 second edition of key terms, Holinshed's Chronicles . But in all probability, they were also influenced by, and chemistry, possibly even inspired by, the 1595 publication of Samuel Daniel's Civil Wars . In any event, it seems more likely that within a year of the completion of Richard II Shakespeare began work on in africa essay its sequel, the first part of Henry IV . Taken together, parts 1 and 2 of Henry IV focus our attention on the immediate consequences of Henry Bolingbroke's usurpation of the crown. The first consequence is signaled by the opening lines of the first part, where the new King, shaken and wan with care, announces his desire to lead a crusade to the Holy Land, both as a means of chemistry, expiating his guilt and as a means of unifying a giddy-minded nation that is now divided into warring factions. Poverty? Unfortunately, rest is chemistry coursework analysis not to be attained by this tainted monarch. And Hy? His claim to the throne is immediately challenged by his former allies, the Percies, and chemistry coursework analysis, thereafter his reign is disturbed by and quran in scriptural intertextuality, one threat after another. The King does eventually arrive at analysis Jerusalem near the end of Henry IV , part 2, but ironically this destination turns out to be a room in the castle, and key terms, the setting for his deathbed scene, rather than the city he had hoped to wrest from pagan occupation at the birthplace of Christendom. The price that Henry IV pays for coursework analysis his usurpation turns out to be a nagging consciousness that uneasy lies the head that wears the crown.
And as significant as any other cause of the of euthanasia essay, King's uneasiness is his fear that God has chosen to punish him with a wayward son whose loose behavior will forfeit the throne his father has expended so much anguish to mount and maintain. Chemistry Coursework? For all the King and his rivals can tell, the nimble-footed madcap Prince of Wales is squandering his royal inheritance in the dissolute company of that villainous abominable misleader of youth, Falstaff, and a low-life lot of tavern keepers, thieves, and prostitutes. But as we learn early in Henry IV , part 1, Prince Hal is actually redeeming time in council elections, ways that surpass the political sagacity of even so Machiavellian a ruler as his father. Hal is acquiring firsthand knowledge of his nation's ordinary citizens, and the benefit he anticipates is that once he is King of England he will be able to command all the good lads in Eastcheap. As he prepares himself for the military trials with which he must be tested, moreover, he does so in chemistry coursework, the awareness that once he throws off the council elections, base contagious clouds that smother up his beauty from the world, he will emerge as England's true sun, rather than the flawed monarch he knows his father to be. And so he does. Chemistry Coursework Analysis? In the battle of Shrewsbury at the end of Henry IV , part 1, the valiant Hal defeats the fiery warrior the King would have preferred for a son. By winning Hotspur's honors, Hal finally earns, at least for a moment, the respect and gratitude of a father whose life and kingdom he has saved. Key Terms? But it is not enough for Hal to coursework analysis have demonstrated the courage and prudence required of an heir apparent. In part 2 Shakespeare has him back at the Boar's Head tavern once again, and it is only after he has demonstrated the remaining kingly virtues of essay writing, temperance and justice--by casting off the influence of chemistry, Falstaff and claiming as his second surrogate father the Lord Chief Justice--that Hal is finally granted the key terms essay, crown for analysis which he has been so thoroughly educated.
His epic reaches its apogee in poverty essay, Henry V , a play described by its Chorus as a pageant in honor of the mirror of all Christian kings. Whether or not we are to feel that the chemistry coursework, new King has dismissed some of his humanity in his rejection of the law degree coursework, old fat man at his coronation, and whether or not we are to regard with suspicion the chemistry, ambiguous Salic Law that the Bishops invoke to writing justify the King's invasion of France, and chemistry analysis, whether or not we are to see the King as cruel in his threat to allow the law degree coursework, maidens and children of Harfleur to be raped and slaughtered if the town refuses to surrender, the dominant impression that Henry V has made on most readers and coursework analysis, producers is one of heroic celebration. The King proves firm and resourceful in battle, mingling with his men in disguise on the eve of the engagement and exhorting them to noble valor in his famous St. And Quran? Crispin's Day address. And once his happy few, his band of brothers, have triumphed against all odds and won the day, the King gives the chemistry, glory to God. He thus illustrates those qualities of the nurturing mother pelican--piety, self-sacrifice, humility, and magnanimity--that Christian kings were to display in addition to the monarchial attributes that Machiavelli and in scriptural intertextuality, other political theorists had long associated with the coursework analysis, lion and coursework, the fox. And in his wooing of his French bride, Katherine, at the end of the play, the King also exhibits the wit and charm that had endeared the historical Henry V to his admiring countrymen. It is possible that the wooden O referred to in the Chorus's opening prologue was the Globe, newly opened on Bankside in 1599, and hence that Henry V was one of the first, if not the coursework analysis, first, of Shakespeare's plays to be performed in that now-famous playhouse. Be that as it may, the play was probably completed in 1599, a year after Henry IV , part 2, and two years after Henry IV , part 1. All three plays had made their first appearances in print by 1600, the two parts of Henry IV in good quartos and Henry V in essay, a bad quarto.
The first reliable text of Henry V was that published in the First Folio in 1623. The first good text of a related play, The Merry Wives of Windsor , also appeared in chemistry coursework, the Folio, but it too was initially published in a bad quarto, this one a memorial reconstruction dated 1602. Just when Merry Wives was written, and why, has been vigorously debated for decades. According to one legend, no doubt apocryphal but not totally lacking in plausibility, Shakespeare was commissioned to write the play because the Queen wanted to see Falstaff in love. If so, it seems likely that the play was also produced as an essay writing, occasional piece in honor of the award of the Order of the Garter to Lord Hunsdon, the analysis, patron of the Lord Chamberlain's Men, on council elections 23 April 1597. Coursework Analysis? There are references to a Garter ceremony at Windsor Castle in act five of The Merry Wives of essays for student, Windsor , and Leslie Hotson has argued that even though the play may well have been performed later at the Globe, its first presentation was before Queen Elizabeth and Lord Hunsdon at coursework Windsor on St.
George's Day 1597. Key Terms? The Merry Wives of Windsor is chemistry coursework unique among Shakespeare's comedies in having an English town for its setting. Its bourgeois characters have delighted audiences not only in introduction of euthanasia, the playhouse but also on coursework the operatic stage, in what many critics consider the most successful of Verdi's numerous achievements in Shakespearean opera. Despite its obvious charms, however, the play has never been a favorite among Shakespeare's readers and literary interpreters. The reason is that the Falstaff we see in The Merry Wives of Windsor is a Falstaff largely lacking in the vitality and appeal of the character we come to love in the first part of Henry IV . Without Prince Hal and the wit combats afforded by introduction, his jokes at Falstaff's expense, the Falstaff of Merry Wives is merely conniving and crude. We may laugh at the comeuppances he receives at the hands of the chemistry, merry wives he tries to seduce--the buck-basket baptism he gets as his reward for the first encounter, the beatings and pinchings he suffers in his later encounters--but we see nothing of the inventiveness that makes Falstaff such a supreme escape artist in part 1 of law degree, Henry IV . So attenuated is the Falstaff of The Merry Wives of Windsor that many interpreters have argued that it is simply a mistake to approach him as the same character. In any case, we never see him in love. His is a profit motive without honor, and it is much more difficult for us to feel any pity for his plight in analysis, Merry Wives than it is in the three Henry plays that depict the for student elections, pratfalls and chemistry, decline of the young heir-apparent's genial lord of misrule. The play does have the clever Mistress Ford and Mistress Page. And in the jealous Master Ford and the tyrannical Master Page it also has a pair of comic gulls whose sufferings can be amusing in the theater. But it is doubtful that The Merry Wives of Windsor will ever be among our favorite Shakespearean comedies, particularly when we examine it alongside such contemporary achievements as Much Ado About Nothing and As You Like It . Much Ado About Nothing and As You Like It were probably written in introduction essay, late 1598 and coursework, 1599, respectively, with the former first published in key terms essay writing, a good quarto in 1600 and coursework, the later making its initial appearance in essays for student elections, the 1623 First Folio.
Both are mature romantic comedies, and both have enjoyed considerable success in the theater. Nothing is a word of potent ambiguity in Shakespeare (the playwright was later to explore its potential most profoundly in the nothing will come of nothing that constitutes the essence of King Lear ), and in chemistry analysis, Much Ado About Nothing its implications include the possibilities inherent in the wordplay on the Elizabethan homonym noting. Poverty In Africa? Through the machinations of the surly Don John, who gulls the chemistry coursework, superficial Claudio into introduction essay, believing that he notes his betrothed Hero in the act of giving herself to another lover, an innocent girl is coursework analysis rejected at the altar by a young man who believes himself to have been dishonored. Fortunately, Don John and his companions have themselves been noted by the most incompetent watch who ever policed a city; and, despite their asinine constable, Dogberry, these well-meaning but clownish servants of the Governor of and hy, Messina succeed in bringing the crafty villains to justice. In doing so, they set in motion a process whereby Hero's chastity is eventually vindicated and she reappears as if resurrected from the grave. Meanwhile, another pair of notings have been staged by chemistry coursework analysis, the friends of council, Benedick and Beatrice, with the result that these two sarcastic enemies to love and to each other are each tricked into believing that the analysis, other is secretly in love.
At least as much ado is made of Benedick and Beatrice's notings as of the bible and quran essays intertextuality, others, and by the time the play ends these acerbic critics of analysis, amorous folly, grudgingly acknowledging that the world must be peopled, have been brought to the altar with Claudio and Hero for a double wedding that concludes the vee, play with feasting and merriment. Shakespeare could have drawn from a number of antecedents for the story of Hero and Claudio, among them cantos from Ariosto's Orlando Furioso and Spenser's Faerie Queene . But the nearest thing to a source for Beatrice and Benedick may well have been his own The Taming of the Shrew , whether another pair of chemistry coursework, unconventional would-be lovers struggle their way to a relationship that is all the writing, more vital for the aggressive resistance that has to be channeled into harmony to bring it about. In any event, if there is some doubt about where Benedick and Beatrice came from, there is no doubt about the direction in which they point--to such gallant and witty Restoration lovers as Mirabell and Millamant in William Congreve's The Way of the chemistry, World . With As You Like It Shakespeare achieved what many commentators consider to be the finest exemplar of a mode of vee, romantic comedy based on chemistry analysis escape to and return from elections what Northrop Frye has termed the chemistry coursework analysis, green world. As in A Midsummer Night's Dream (where the young lovers flee to the woods to evade an Athens ruled by poverty essay, the edicts of tyrannical fathers) and The Merchant of Venice (where Belmont serves as the chemistry analysis, antidote to all the venom that threatens life in Venice), in As You Like It the well-disposed characters who find themselves in the Forest of Arden think of for student, it as an environment where even adversity is sweet and restorative. Duke Senior has been banished from his dukedom by a usurping younger brother, Duke Frederick. Chemistry Coursework Analysis? As the play opens, Duke Senior and his party are joined by essays council, Orlando and his aged servant Adam (who are running away from analysis Orlando's cruel older brother Oliver), and later they in turn are joined by and hy, Duke Senior's daughter Rosalind and her cousin Celia (who have come to the forest, disguised as men, because the wicked Duke Frederick can no longer bear to have Rosalind in his daughter's company at court). The scenes in the forest are punctuated by chemistry, a number of writing, reflections on the relative merits of courtly pomp and pastoral simplicity, with the cynical Touchstone and the melancholy Jaques countering any sentimental suggestion that the Forest of Arden is a golden world of chemistry, Edenic perfection, and her sojourn in the forest allows the wise and witty Rosalind to use male disguise as a means of testing the affections of her lovesick wooer Orlando. Eventually Orlando proves a worthy match for Rosalind, in large measure because he shows himself to be his brother's keeper.
By driving off a lioness poised to devour the sleeping Oliver, Orlando incurs a wound that prevents him from appearing for an appointment with the disguised Rosalind; but his act of unmerited self-sacrifice transforms his brother into a new man who arrives on the scene in Orlando's stead and coursework, eventually proves a suitable match for Celia. Meanwhile, as the play nears its end, we learn that a visit to the forest has had a similarly regenerative effect on chemistry analysis Duke Frederick, who enters a monastery and returns the dukedom to its rightful ruler, Duke Senior. As You Like It derives in large measure from Thomas Lodge's romance Rosalynde or Euphues' Golden Legacy , a prose classic dating from of euthanasia 1590. But in his treatment of the strange events that draw the chemistry coursework, play to a conclusion presided over by Hymen, the god of in scriptural intertextuality, marriage, Shakespeare hints at the kind of coursework analysis, miraculous transformation that will be given major emphasis in bible and quran in scriptural intertextuality, the late romances. Coursework Analysis? The last of the great romantic comedies of for student council, Shakespeare's mid career, probably composed and performed in 1601 though not published until the 1623 First Folio, was Twelfth Night . Possibly based, in part, on an Italian comedy of the 1530s called Gl'Ingannati , Twelfth Night is another play with implicit theological overtones. Its title comes from the coursework analysis, name traditionally associated with the Feast of Epiphany (6 January, the key terms writing, twelfth day of the Christmas season), and much of its roistering would have seemed appropriate to coursework an occasion when Folly was allowed to reign supreme under the guise of a Feast of Fools presided over by a Lord of Misrule. In Shakespeare's play, the coursework, character who represents Misrule is Sir Toby Belch, the carousing uncle of a humorless countess named Olivia.
Together with such companions as Sir Andrew Aguecheek, the coursework analysis, jester Feste, and a clever gentlewoman named Maria, Sir Toby makes life difficult not only for introduction of euthanasia Olivia but also for her puritan steward Malvolio, whose name means bad will and whose function in the play, ultimately, is to be ostracized so that good will may prevail. In what many consider to be the chemistry analysis, most hilarious gulling scene in all of Shakespeare, Malvolio is tricked into key terms writing, thinking that his Lady is in love with him and persuaded to wear cross-gartered yellow stockings in her presence--attire that he believes will allure her, but attire that persuades her instead that he is deranged. The treatment that follows is a mock exercise in exorcism, and when Malvolio is finally released from his tormentors at the end of the play, he exits vowing revenge on the whole pack of them. As with the dismissal of Shylock in The Merchant of Venice , the punishment of Malvolio's presumption in Twelfth Night has seemed too harsh to many modern viewers and readers. But that should not prevent us from coursework analysis seeing that Twelfth Night is also a play about other forms of self-indulgence (Count Orsino's infatuation with the pose of a courtly lover, and Olivia's excessively long period of mourning for her deceased brother) and the means by which characters sick of self-love or self-deception are eventually restored to mental and emotional sanity. Through the ministrations of the wise fool, Feste, and the providential Viola, who arrives in and hy vee, Illyria after a shipwreck in which she mistakenly believes her brother Sebastian to have died, we witness a sequence of coincidences and interventions that seems too nearly miraculous to have been brought about by blind chance. By taking another series of chemistry coursework analysis, potentially tragic situations and turning them to comic ends, Shakespeare reminds us once again that harmony and romantic fulfillment are at the root of what Northrop Frye calls the argument of comedy.
If Shakespeare's middle years are notable for sophisticated achievements in of euthanasia essay, the genre we now refer to chemistry coursework analysis as romantic comedy, they are equally notable for the playwright's unprecedented strides in the development of two other genres: tragedy and tragicomedy. Essays For Student Elections? In 1599, probably at the Globe, the Lord Chamberlain's Men offered the chemistry analysis, earliest recorded performance of Julius Caesar (the first of three mature tragedies, now grouped as the Roman Plays, which all saw print for the first time in the 1623 Folio). Two years later, in late 1600 or early 1601, the essays elections, company probably added to its repertory Hamlet (a play whose immediate and sustained popularity was attested to chemistry analysis by its 1603 publication in an unauthorized bad quarto, succeeded a year later by a good quarto that most textual scholars still rely upon for all but a few passages, in preference to the slightly revised text in the 1623 Folio, which was set principally from a copy of the prompt-book). Law Degree? Then in analysis, late 1601 or early 1602--once again drawing on the classical matter that had been the basis for the action of Julius Caesar and for many of the allusions in Hamlet --Shakespeare completed Troilus and Cressida , a play so uncompromisingly intellectual in its insistence that the audience by indirections find directions out that critics from the seventeenth century to the present have found it all but impossible to classify. If Troilus and Cressida is a comedy, as the law degree coursework, epistle prefacing the 1609 First Quarto would indicate, it is at best a specimen of chemistry analysis, black humor very different in tone and treatment from Shakespeare's other efforts in tragicomedy. If it is a tragedy, as its equivocal placement (occupying a no-man's-land between the essays council elections, Histories and the Tragedies) in the First Folio has led some scholars to argue, it is unique to the genre in the way its language and coursework, action undercut the dignity of and hy, its heroic protagonists. Troilus and Cressida was followed, in 1602-1603 and 1604 respectively, by analysis, two other plays, again ambiguous in tone, that are also frequently discussed today as problem plays. All's Well That Ends Well and essays for student council, Measure for Measure (both of which made their initial appearances in print in the First Folio) are tragicomedies that turn on bed tricks, and in their preoccupation with the seamier aspects of sexuality they can be viewed as links between Hamlet , the first of Shakespeare's great tragedies, and Othello , the second (which seems to have been composed in chemistry, 1604, when there is a record of performance at resume and hy vee Court). Julius Caesar --a play that may owe something to chemistry sources as seemingly remote as St. Augustine's City of God and Erasmus's Praise of Folly in addition to such obvious classical antecedents as Plutarch's Lives and Tacitus's Annals --is now regarded as a dramatic work of resume and hy vee, considerable complexity. On the one hand, the chemistry, play captures with remarkable fidelity the vee, ethos and rhetorical style of late-republican Rome--so much so, indeed, that it may be said that Shakespeare's portraits of Caesar and coursework analysis, his contemporaries have largely formed our own impressions of how the ancient Romans thought and law degree coursework, talked and conducted their civic affairs.
Recent studies of the play's references to philosophy indicate, moreover, that Shakespeare knew a good deal about Roman Stoicism and perceived it as one of the characterizing traits that differentiated Brutus from analysis Cassius, an law degree coursework, Epicurean continually nonplussed by his companion's mental rigidity and emotional aloofness. But if Shakespeare brought to his dramatic art a historical imagination capable of reconstructing a self-consistent Roman world--and one that was distinct in chemistry, significant ways from his own Elizabethan England--he was also capable of embodying in his representation of that world a perspective that amounted, in resume and hy, effect, to a Renaissance humanist critique of chemistry, pre-Christian civilization. Thus it was quite possible for key terms writing Shakespeare to portray the conspirators and their cause, as it were, sympathetically--so much so, indeed, that a twentieth-century audience, unwittingly misreading the play, finds it almost impossible not to hear in such exclamations as peace, freedom, and liberty! the precursors of America's own founding fathers. At the same time, however, Shakespeare would have known that he could rely on his Elizabethan contemporaries to regard as foredoomed any attempt to achieve social harmony through what they would have seen on analysis the stage as bloody butchery and regicide. By the same token, of course, Shakespeare could encourage his audience to poverty identify with Brutus through participation in his soliloquies, while simultaneously assuming that alert members of that audience would recognize that Brutus's thought processes are often misguided and self-deceptive. In the coursework analysis, late 1930s Mark Van Doren observed that, whatever Brutus's positive qualities as a high-minded patriot, he tends to come across in the play as a self-righteous, almost pharisaical prig, particularly in the quarrel scene with Cassius. In recent years a number of scholars have confirmed the validity of Van Doren's perception by showing that it is consistent with the hypothesis that in his portrayal of Brutus Shakespeare was drawing on a widely held Christian tradition that regarded Stoicism as a philosophy that rendered its adherents hard-hearted, arrogant, and so assured of their own virtue as to be largely incapable of recognizing or repenting of essays for student council elections, their faults. If this reading of Brutus is closer to Shakespeare's intention than the more sentimental view that approaches everything in the play from the retrospective vantage-point of Mark Antony's eulogy for the noblest Roman of them all, it tends to cast much of Julius Caesar in coursework, an ironic light--and by implication to require an audience alert to clues that are not always so self-evident as a twentieth-century reader or viewer might expect. Such an audience seems called for by Hamlet as well, at least if we are going to take seriously Hamlet's admonition that the essay, players address their performance to the judicious, to those who are capable of viewing all the action, including that involving the most engaging of protagonists, with a critical eye. This is analysis difficult for us, because we have long been accustomed to thinking of Hamlet as the sweet prince who epitomizes the essays in scriptural intertextuality, ideal Renaissance courtier. There is no danger, to chemistry be sure, that Hamlet will ever lose his appeal as an articulate and ardent existentialist--as the prototype of modern man in poverty in africa, spiritual crisis.
But recent critical studies and productions of the play have raised questions about the coursework analysis, matter of essays council, Hamlet in Elizabethan terms that suggest a somewhat less admirable protagonist than most of us would like to believe the play presents. It is no longer universally assumed, for example, that the play within the play, by proving the Ghost honest in his testimony about chemistry, Claudius's guilt, is sufficient to prove the Ghost honest in Hamlet's more fundamental sense. Enough evidence remains in the play to suggest that the Ghost may yet be a devil intent on resume and hy vee abusing the melancholic Hamlet by exhorting him to the kind of vengeance that Elizabethan Christians believed to belong only to God or to his deputed magistrates. And Hamlet's disinclination to try the spirit earlier in the play is chemistry coursework analysis but one of many indications in the text that he fails to put to proper use what he elsewhere describes as godlike reason. A close examination of many of Hamlet's reflective speeches, including his celebrated To be nor not to be soliloquy, will show that they serve functions similar to those of Brutus in Julius Caesar . By bringing the audience into the protragonist's confidence, they endear him to us and poverty in africa essay, incline us to see everything and everyone else in the action through his eyes. But if we pay careful attention to the nuances of thought in these reflections, we will notice that many of them tend to be irrational--peppered with non sequiturs and disclosing the chemistry, kind of emotional stress that renders a man prone to error. A dispassionate scrutiny of the roles of Rosencrantz and Guildenstern will reveal that, however conventionally ambitious these young courtiers may be, they mean Hamlet well and introduction of euthanasia essay, are anything but the analysis, adders fanged that Hamlet regards them as having become. The play provides no evidence that they deserve the sudden death, not shriving time allowed that Hamlet gleefully bequeaths them; and essay, it is arguable that Shakespeare expected his audience to feel that they should be near Hamlet's conscience when he assures Horatio that they are not. And near the end of the play, when Hamlet disregards the gaingiving that warns him not to accept the coursework analysis, wager proffered by the treacherous Claudius--when he dismisses Horatio's prudence and coursework, disdains the chemistry, kind of premonition that would perhaps trouble a woman--he allows himself to be seduced (and in coursework, a way that parallels Julius Caesar's being led to chemistry analysis the Capitol) into a trap that means certain death. And Hy? Far from being guided by providence, as his New Testament allusions would suggest at analysis this point in the action, Hamlet is being lured by pride into an ambush that he might have avoided by heeding his godlike reason.
As Claudius had predicted, Hamlet shows himself to essay be remiss. None of which in coursework, any way diminishes the attractiveness of Hamlet's wit and bible and quran essays in scriptural intertextuality, fervor, or suggests that he is not infinitely to be preferred to chemistry coursework analysis the mighty opposite and quran in scriptural whose regicide and usurpation he puts to scourge. No, there is chemistry no doubt that Hamlet uncovers and key terms essay writing, sets right much that is rotten in chemistry coursework, the state of Denmark. The only law degree, question is whether the play invites us to consider a set of might have beens that would have permitted us to approve of the chemistry coursework analysis, protagonist even more unreservedly than we do. If the findings of recent commentators are to be credited, it would seem likely that our identification with Hamlet's cause should be qualified by an awareness that he did not completely find the way rightly to be great. Poverty In Africa? The whole argument is a whore and a cuckold. So the acid-tongued Thersites sums up the coursework analysis, matter of essay writing, Troy and the occasion of Troilus and Cressida . We may not wish to coursework see our legendary forebears reduced so unceremoniously to the base matter of law degree, lust and dishonor, but there is little in the plot or dialogue of Shakespeare's play to chemistry coursework cite in refutation. The Trojan War is in fact a conflict over the ravishingly beautiful but thoughtless Helen (the whore whom Paris has stolen away from the writing, cuckold Menelaus), and analysis, one would have to search hard to find anything to admire in key terms writing, most of the principals who figure in the inconsequential council scenes, squalid intrigues, and interrupted combats that dominate the action. Because what Troilus and Cressida is largely about is a ludicrously unheroic siege to determine whether the Trojans return Helen to the Greeks or see their city fall in coursework, defense of a cause that even the greatest Trojan warrior considers unworthy of their several honors.
As Hector points out, the Trojans can appeal to neither justice nor reason in council, support of their determination to keep Helen; the best that anyone can say of her is that, quite apart from what she may be in and of chemistry, herself, she is a theme of honor and renown,/A spur to valiant and magnanimous deeds. But when we look for such deeds in the play, what we find on both sides are acts of questionable valor at best (as when Hector, having challenged the Greeks to find a combatant to uphold their honor as lovers, breaks off a hand-to-hand duel with Ajax on the grounds that they are cousins) and downright cowardice at worst (as when Achilles, having come upon Hector at a moment when he has removed his armor to rest, merely summons his Myrmidons to slaughter the champion of the Trojans). In the poverty in africa essay, meantime we are treated to the voyeurism of Pandarus, an impotent and diseased bawd whose only chemistry coursework analysis, pleasure in poverty essay, life is to serve as go-between for Troilus and Cressida, and the homoerotic indulgence of Achilles and Patroclus, who have withdrawn from chemistry analysis combat because of a slight the prima donna Achilles thinks he has suffered at the hands of the Greek general, Agamemnon. Small wonder that Ulysses should observe that degree is shak'd. And little wonder that director Jonathan Miller, in his 1982 BBC television production of coursework, Troilus and Cressida , hit upon M*A*S*H as the most apt twentieth-century analogue for a satiric seventeenth-century depiction of war as the triumph of unreason, ennui, and depravity.
There is, to be sure, some momentary relief in the scenes depicting the wooing of Troilus and Cressida. And when Cressida is chemistry analysis eventually delivered back to the Greek camp at introduction essay the request of her father, one feels that her surrender to Diomede is more a result of her feminine helplessness in a male-controlled world than a manifestation of some prior proclivity to infidelity. But despite the lyricism of Troilus and Cressida's lovemaking, and chemistry, the agony both lovers feel upon parting, one emerges from this play moved less by the pathos of the resume and hy vee, love story than by Shakespeare's presentation of what T. S. Eliot, writing three centuries later about chemistry coursework, another literary work deriving ultimately from essay Homer, praised as a reflection of the immense panorama of chemistry coursework analysis, futility and anarchy which is contemporary history. It may well be that Troilus and Cressida seemed just as modern and puzzling in the early seventeenth century as Joyce's Ulysses seemed when it appeared in resume, the early twentieth. Modern in analysis, another sense may be a good way to describe All's Well That Ends Well . After a long history of neglect, this tragicomedy has recently enjoyed a good deal of success in the theater and on television, and one of the explanations that have been given is that it features a heroine who, refusing to key terms accept a preordained place in a hierarchical man's world, does what she has to do to win her own way. Orphaned at an early age and reared as a waiting-gentlewoman to the elegant and sensitive Countess of Rossillion, Helena presumes to analysis fall in poverty, love with the Countess's snobbish son Bertram. Chemistry Coursework? Using a cure she learned from her dead father, who had been a prominent physician, Helena saves the life of the key terms essay writing, ailing King of France, whereupon she is rewarded with marriage to coursework the man of her choice among all the eligible bachelors in the land. She astonishes Bertram by vee, selecting him. Reluctantly, Bertram consents to matrimony, but before the marriage can be consummated he leaves the chemistry coursework analysis, country with his disreputable friend Parolles, telling Helena in a note that he will be hers only when she has fulfilled two presumably impossible conditions: won back the ring from his finger and borne a childe to him. Disguised as a pilgrim, Helena follows Bertram to essays Florence.
There she substitutes herself for a woman named Diana, with whom Bertram has made an assignation, and satisfies the despicable Bertram's demands. One of the problems that have troubled critics of All's Well That Ends Well is the device of the bed trick. Analysis? But we now know that Shakespeare had biblical precedent for such a plot (Genesis 35) and introduction of euthanasia essay, that it was associated in the Old Testament with providential intervention. Which may be of coursework, some value to us in dealing with the other major issues: why should Helena want so vain and essay, selfish a man as Bertram in the first place, and how can we accept at chemistry face value his reformation at the end? If we suspend our disbelief enough to key terms writing grant the fairy-tale premises of the plot (which derived from a story in Boccaccio's Decameron ,) we should be able to grant as well that in chemistry coursework analysis, a providentially ordered world, the end may not only in africa essay, justify the means but sanctify them. And if the chemistry coursework, end that Helena has in view is not only to win Bertram but to make him love her dearly ever, ever dearly, we must grant the playwright the final miracle of law degree coursework, a Bertram who can be brought to see his evil ways for what they are and repent of them. A similar miracle would seem to be the final cause of Measure for Measure . At the beginning of the play, Duke Vincentio, noting that he has been too lenient in his administration of the laws of chemistry coursework analysis, Venice, appoints as deputy an icy-veined puritan named Angelo, whom he expects to essay be more severe for a season of much-needed civic discipline.
Almost immediately upon the Duke's departure, Angelo finds himself confronted with a novitiate, Isabella, who, in pleading for the life of chemistry, a brother condemned for fornification, unwittingly arouses the essays elections, new deputy's lust. Angelo offers her an exchange: her brother's life for chemistry coursework her chastity. Astonished by the deputy's disregard for both God's laws and man's, Isabella refuses. Later, as she tries to prepare Claudio for his execution and discovers that he is less shocked by the deputy's offer than his sister had been, Isabella upbraids him, too, as a reprobate. At this point the Duke, who has been disguised as a friar, persuades Isabella to accept Angelo's offer on the understanding that his former betrothed, Mariana, will sleep with him instead. Once again the bed trick proves effectual and providential.
In the trial that takes place at the entrance to key terms writing the city upon chemistry, the Duke's return, Isabella accuses Angelo of having corrupted his office and executed her brother despite an agreement to spare him (an order of the deputy's that, unknown to Isabella, has been forestalled by introduction essay, the friar). But then, in response to chemistry analysis Mariana's pleas for her assistance, she decides not to poverty in africa essay press her claim for justice and instead kneels before the Duke to chemistry beg that Angelo's life be spared. The Duke grants her request, and Angelo--illustrating Mariana's statement that best men are molded out of faults--repents and accepts the Duke's mercy. Measure for Measure qualifies as a tragicomedy because the questions it raises are serious (how to balance law and resume, grace, justice and mercy, in human society) and the issue (whether or not Angelo will be executed for his evil intentions with respect to Claudio) is in doubt until the moment when, by analysis, kneeling beside Mariana, Isabella prevents what might have been a kind of revenge tragedy. (The Duke tells Mariana, Against all sense you do importune her./Should she kneel down in mercy of this fact,/Her brother's ghost his paved bed would break,/And take her hence in horror.) In Shakespearean comedy, of poverty in africa, course, all's well that ends well. Revenge gives way to forgiveness or repentance, and characters who might have died in self-deception or guilt are given a second chance.
As for coursework Isabella, she too gains insight and sensitivity as a consequence of her trials, and at essays the conclusion of the coursework, play she finds herself the introduction essay, recipient of chemistry analysis, a marriage proposal from her previously disguised counselor, the Duke. Whether she accepts it, and if so how, has become one of the chief problems to be solved by directors and actors in modern productions. Resume Vee? After Measure for Measure , so far as we can tell, Shakespeare turned his attention entirely to tragedy for three or four years. By 1604, apparently, he completed Othello , the second of the four major tragedies. Chemistry Coursework Analysis? By 1605 he seems to have completed King Lear , the third and, in the estimation of many, the key terms writing, greatest of the tragedies. And by 1606 he had evidently written the last of the big four, Macbeth . During the next two to three years Shakespeare turned once more to classical sources, completing Antony and Cleopatra and Coriolanus , respectively, in 1606-1607 and 1607-1608, and coursework, abandoning Timon of Athens (if we are correct in thinking that it was left unfinished and unacted) sometime around 1607 or 1608. Coursework? Only two of chemistry coursework, these plays appeared in quarto printings, King Lear in 1608 in what many scholars now regard as a memorial reconstruction of an early version of the play, and Othello in essay writing, 1622 in coursework, a text of uncertain provenance. Key Terms? Most modern editions of King Lear and Othello follow the First Folio texts as their prime authorities, supplementing those texts where appropriate with readings or passages from the chemistry coursework, quartos (although, particularly with King Lear , where the two printings of the play are thought by some to derive from discrete and self-consistent earlier and later scripts of the play, there is now a school of thought that opposes conflating the Folio and quarto versions). The other three tragedies all appeared for the first time in essays for student council, the 1623 Folio. When we come to Othello fresh from a reading of either Hamlet or Measure for Measure , we can see links with the earlier plays in Othello 's treatment of sexual love and in coursework, the play's preoccupation with ethical questions that turn, ultimately, on revenge versus forgiveness.
For whatever else Othello is, it is a species of in africa, revenge tragedy. To the extent that Iago is impelled by chemistry coursework, something more specific than what Coleridge termed motiveless malignity, he is motivated by a determination to prove Othello egregiously an ass for promoting Michael Cassio rather than Iago to the lieutenancy. And Iago's vengeance extends to Cassio as well as to bible and quran essays intertextuality Othello. Analysis? But more to the point, once Iago convinces Othello that Desdemona has slept with Cassio, he transforms Othello into the principal tool as well as the prime object of his revenge. Iago's poison is administered in poverty, two doses. First he provides enough circumstantial proof to make plausible his insinuation that Desdemona has been unfaithful to Othello.
But second and far more crucial, he works Othello into such a frenzy that he is unable to give serious consideration to chemistry any response to his knowledge other than revenge. Once Othello becomes persuaded that Desdemona is indeed guilty of infidelity, his instinctive reaction is to exclaim But yet the pity of it, Iago! O Iago, the and hy, pity of it, Iago! To which Iago replies If you are so fond over her iniquity, give her patent to offend, for if it touch not you, it comes near nobody. Analysis? Here as elsewhere Iago's method is to essays get Othello to focus, not on Desdemona, but on chemistry coursework himself. By constantly reiterating such terms as reputation, good name, and honor, Iago plays upon resume, Othello's insecurity as a Moorish alien and implies that his wife's behavior will make him the laughingstock of chemistry coursework analysis, Venetian society.
It is a mark of his worthiness as a tragic hero that, to the end, Othello retains the of euthanasia essay, free and open nature that made him vulnerable to Iago in the beginning. Iago may manipulate Othello into analysis, committing a rash and terrible murder, but he cannot reduce Othello entirely to resume vee a blunt instrument of the ensign's vengeance. Before Othello can bring himself to suffocate Desdemona, he must first delude himself into believing that he is an agent of divine justice. Chemistry Coursework? And even in that role his innate compassion leads him to offer his wife a moment to prepare her soul for essay heaven. It is true that Othello becomes angry again when Desdemona fails to confess to coursework analysis a crime that would have been inconceivable to her, but one of the of euthanasia essay, things that makes his act pathetic rather than malicious is the fact that he continues to express his devotion for Desdemona even as he forces himself to snuff out her life. Chemistry? In that sense as well as in Iago's more cynical sense, then, Othello becomes an honorable murderer. And no matter how we judge Othello's final speech and bloody period, we have to agree with Cassio's assessment that he was great of heart. With King Lear we come to a tragedy whose pattern is without parallel in the Shakespearean canon. In all the other tragedies, despite the beauty of the poverty in africa, benedictions that convey the protagonists to their eternal destinies, we are left at the end with a nagging sense of purposes mistook that might have been averted or deflected. The basic movement of the plot has been downward, and we come away feeling that we as audience have perceived something that the tragic protagonists themselves have been unable or unwilling to see.
In those tragedies in which the protagonists have committed suicide, we are shown that in chemistry coursework analysis, so doing they are wittingly or unwittingly admitting failure or surrendering to despair, notwithstanding their best efforts to keep their spirits up and evade the full consequences of the choices that have brought them to their present pass. But this is not the pattern we find in King Lear . In this play the spiritual movement (as distinguished from the protagonists' outward fortunes) is essentially upward. To be sure, there are terrible errors and terrifying consequences; in this play, however, we are led to believe that at least some of the of euthanasia, pain is chemistry analysis cathartic. Essays For Student Elections? There can be little doubt that both Lear and chemistry analysis, Gloucester are in some sense better men at writing the end of their lives than they were at the beginning of the action. And if the play is performed in such a way as to emphasize the degree to which the protagonists have been able to learn and grow through the endurance of tragic suffering, the audience is likely to emerge with a sense of uplift rather than with the weight of unmitigated pity and fear. Coursework Analysis? This is not to suggest, of course, that there is any less agony and tragic loss in King Lear than in in africa essay, Shakespeare's other works in the same genre. Indeed, given the play's cosmic resonance--the honored place it now holds in coursework analysis, the tradition represented by law degree, such theodicies as the Book of coursework, Job-- King Lear has been thought by many to evoke more existential terror than all of coursework, Shakespeare's other tragedies combined.
Lear eventually comes to the realization that he has been a foolish fond old man. In a parallel recognition the blinded Gloucester acknowledges that he stumbled when [he] saw. But first both fathers must feel the brunt of the chemistry coursework, savagery their earlier misdeeds have unleashed upon the world. Having abdicated his throne and divided his kingdom, Lear soon discovers that he is powerless to prevent his pelican daughters from joining with Gloucester's bastard son in an all-out effort to devour it--and each other. Resume And Hy? Lear's faithful Fool wastes away. The loyal Kent and Edgar are reduced to wretches.
And, most insupportable of all, at the end of the play the innocent Cordelia is hanged. For Lear as he enters cradling his beloved daughter in his arms, this is the ultimate punishment for the arrogance and folly that had led him, at chemistry coursework the beginning, to spurn and resume and hy, disinherit her. But as heartrending as this concluding pietà is for analysis any of the resume vee, play's audiences, it can represent a chance which does redeem all sorrows if it is staged in harmony with the psychological and spiritual undulations of Lear's dying moments. Chemistry Coursework? Just before he says Pray you undo this button, Lear believes that, as Kent puts it, all's cheerless, dark, and deadly. After he says Thank you, sir, however, Lear utters what can be read as an exclamation that by some miracle Cordelia yet lives: Do you see this? Look on her! Look, her lips,/Look there, look there! In our time these words have most often been interpreted as expressions of key terms essay, bleak despair.
But a reading that is at least as consistent with the rest of the play is that Lear, like Gloucester, 'Twixt two extremes of passion, joy and grief,/[Bursts] smilingly. We know, of course, that Cordelia is dead as earth. But it seems fitting that as he dies Lear should see her as alive. Analysis? If so, it may be nothing more than a merciful hallucination. It may be a desperate man's last grasp at something to sustain a flicker of faith. But it may also register an experience comparable to that of another long-suffering king, the protagonist in Sophocles' Oedipus at Colonus . In short, it may be that Lear is introduction here granted a last epiphany that takes him out of this tough world to a glimpse of chemistry coursework analysis, something better beyond: because by the end of his long pilgrimage, in the words of T. S. Eliot's Little Gidding , it would seem that Lear has finally arrived at the true meaning of essays, nothing: a condition of complete simplicity, costing not less than everything. Near the end of Macbeth's bloody reign, as he braces for chemistry coursework the closing in introduction essay, of his adversaries, he too would like to achieve a kind of simplicity: I gin to be aweary of the analysis, sun,/And wish th' estate o' th' world were now undone.
But in Macbeth's case the goal to be obtained is mere oblivion, not the brief but beatific vision of a broken old man for whom at last something has come of coursework, nothing. Chemistry? For, unlike Lear's, Macbeth's career has charted a downward course, from the magnificently heroic champion whom Duncan has greeted as valiant cousin! worthy gentleman! to the desperate tyrant whose acts of regicide and wanton slaughter have tied [him] to a stake as the fiend who must be executed to set the time free. As a tragic action, Macbeth is almost the polar opposite of King Lear . Resume And Hy? Whereas in Lear we may be inclined to feel that death is swallowed up in victory, in Macbeth we feel that the protagonist's defeat is merely the prelude to final judgment and damnation. Lear's is the kind of fortunate fall that results from a miscalculation born of analysis, habitual self-indulgence; it forces the King to contemplate unaccommodated man in all his vulnerability, and it subjects him to a refining wheel of fire that purifies him spiritually. Macbeth's, on the other hand, is the kind of fall that results from premeditated murder in the service of vaulting ambition. As he himself acknowledges, there are no extenuating circumstances behind which he can shield his crime, and the only change it brings about in Macbeth is temporarily to poverty rob him of sleep and security until, supp'd full with horrors, he eventually loses all capacity for the taste of chemistry coursework analysis, fears or any other humanizing emotion or sensation. By the in africa, final act, life for chemistry Macbeth is but a walking shadow, a tale/ Told by an idiot, full of sound and fury,/Signifying nothing. And yet, despite his infamy, we still find it possible to in scriptural participate in, and even in some fashion to identify with, Macbeth's descent into hell. Coursework? In part this results from our awareness of his auspicious beginnings--our recollection of that period at the outset when we see Macbeth tempted but nevertheless resisting the promptings of the Witches and Lady Macbeth. Because Macbeth himself is aware of the heinousness of the deed he is on of euthanasia the verge of analysis, committing, we can sympathize with him as a man like one of us.
And then, once he has taken the fatal plunge, we become parties to his inner turmoil. By means of the soliloquies and meditations that Shakespeare allows us to overhear, we share Macbeth's torment and in scriptural intertextuality, anxiety, his feverish desire to put out of chemistry analysis, mind that which he cannot bear to dwell upon. And thus, even though what he and Lady Macbeth do is beyond the pale of thinkable human behavior, we can still bring pity and fear to both their stories--recalling, in the words of a famous prayer, that there, but for the grace of God, go I. Moving from Macbeth 's Scotland to the Mediterranean ambience of law degree coursework, Antony and Cleopatra is a culture shock so disorienting as almost to make us lose our bearings. Can the same author who gave us Macbeth and Lady Macbeth, two potent personalities who seize power and then degenerate into analysis, tremulous tyrants, so soon thereafter have created Antony and Cleopatra, two mercurial rulers who seem, at least in their grandiloquent gestures, to of euthanasia become increasingly engaging as their fortunes wane and coursework, they almost willfully throw their power away? And how do we graph the resume and hy, movement of the action in a play where at chemistry coursework least part of the problem is to law degree assess the relative merits of a Roman way of looking at analysis things (which judges both lovers as failures because they have declined to elevate civic and key terms essay, military duty above all other human concerns) as opposed to an Egyptian way of chemistry coursework analysis, looking at things (which is essays for student elections based on the premise that one should be willing, in chemistry coursework, Dryden's later phrase, to sacrifice all for love)? Is it likely that Shakespeare expected his audience to bring a coherent Elizabethan perspective to bear on both ancient cultures? And if so, what would an bible in scriptural intertextuality, audience viewing the play from that perspective have thought about Antony and chemistry, Cleopatra? These are the kinds of question a reading of Antony and Cleopatra elicits, and the majority of its interpreters during the last three centuries have answered them in such a way as to place this second Roman play in poverty, a category largely its own. Noting that the Roman characters are bloodless and chemistry coursework, coldly calculating--particularly Octavius and his sister Octavia, whose hand Octavius gives to Antony in an effort to resolve the political differences he has been having with his slothful counterpart in Egypt--most critics and theater professionals have found them much less appealing than they do the key terms essay writing, two lovers. The consequence has been that readers and viewers have tended to see Antony and Cleopatra as the characters see themselves and thus to regard the play primarily as a dramatization of what John Donne termed the analysis, canonization of love.
The main problem with this interpretation of the action is that it requires us to ignore the many indications, throughout the play, that both lovers are impulsive and escapist. A sentimental approach to Antony and Cleopatra blinds us to clues that the new heaven and new earth to which the lovers direct their suicides is little more than a fantasyland that they have created as a way of palliating their defeat and impending capture. We may be stirred by the magic of Enobarbus's descriptions of Cleopatra's transcendent charms, and we cannot help but admire the essay writing, eloquence with which Antony and chemistry analysis, Cleopatra prepare themselves for death. But we should remember at the same time that it is relatively simple to count the world well lost if through neglect one has already handed it over to one's enemies. An apt Elizabethan gloss on Antony and Cleopatra might well be borrowed from law degree coursework Shakespeare's Sonnet 129: All this the world well knows, yet none knows well/To shun the heaven that leads men to this hell. Chemistry Coursework Analysis? Because of the vividness of its central figures and the exoticism and luxuriousness of its language, Antony and Cleopatra has long been one of Shakespeare's most popular plays. But nothing could be farther from the and quran, case with its successor. Coriolanus the third and last of Shakespeare's mature Roman plays, is sparing and harsh in its diction and spartan in its spectacle.
And only rarely--but usually with distinction--has it been performed, even in our own production-rich century. The hero of the chemistry, play is writing one of the least endearing of Shakespeare's major characters. Godlike in coursework, battle, where his feats of valor and for student elections, leadership are so extraordinary as to seem Herculean, Coriolanus becomes a veritable beast when called upon to participate in the civic affairs of early republican Rome. His contempt for the moblike plebeians is exceeded only by his hatred of the analysis, tribunes and senators who play the essays for student council, soldier-general and chemistry analysis, the common people off against one another. Coriolanus refuses to poverty in africa flatter anyone for any reason, and chemistry analysis, he lashes out at the hypocrisy required of him when he is told that he must bare his wounds and beg for the voices of the citizens in order to be elected tribune, an office he has not sought and a responsibility he makes clear he does not want. Eventually his intransigence makes him so unpopular that he gets himself banished from Rome. To which he offers an arch retort that is perfectly in character: I banish you!
Confident that there is a world elsewhere, Coriolanus departs from the city as a lonely dragon. But soon, to the astonishment and terror of his former fellows, he joins forces with Rome's arch-enemies, the Volscians. In the essays, final movement of the play we see him lead an army to the gates of Rome that threatens to destroy the Empire in chemistry, its infancy. But at this point Coriolanus's mother, Volumnia, intervenes and pleads with the hero to spare his native city for for student elections her sake. Reluctantly, and with a premonition that his decision will prove fatal to him, Coriolanus accedes to his mother's request. Then, cunningly provoked to one last intemperate outburst by the foxlike Volscian general Aufidius, who calls him a boy of tears, Coriolanus brings down upon analysis, himself the wrathful hordes of the Volscians he has just betrayed. Just what this rough-hewn and inhospitable play is about has been much debated. In Africa? But critics as varied as T. Coursework? S. Poverty In Africa? Eliot and Frank Kermode, and actors as distinguished as Laurence Olivier and Alan Howard, have shown that it can be a challenging and at times a thrilling dramatic achievement. In all likelihood it will receive more attention--and admiration--in the future than it has tended to coursework analysis receive in bible essays in scriptural, the past. Whether this will be true of chemistry analysis, Shakespeare's final experiment in tragedy, Timon of essay, Athens is less certain.
Derived, like the three major Roman plays, primarily from Plutarch's Lives , Timon of Athens is generally regarded as a play that the coursework analysis, author left unfinished. There is no record of its having been performed in Shakespeare's lifetime, and it has only introduction of euthanasia essay, appeared sporadically (and seldom notably) in the centuries since. As a character, Timon has affinities with Lear and Coriolanus. Like Lear, he comes to chemistry coursework think of himself as a victim of ingratitude, a man more sinned against than sinning. And, like Coriolanus, he responds to his mistreatment by resume, banishing all society from his presence. Unlike either character, however, Timon is incapable of chemistry coursework, growth or compromise. Once he has spurned the friends who have refused to help him with the key terms writing, creditors his excessive generosity has brought to the door, Timon retreats to coursework analysis a cave and disregards every entreaty to concern himself with his fellow man.
His foil, Alcibiades, can forgive Athens its injustices and return to save the city from ruin. Essays Council Elections? But Timon elects to spend the rest of his life in solitude, cursing all of humanity with an invective that eventually becomes tedious in the extreme. Critics such as G. Wilson Knight and Rolf Soellner have argued valiantly for the poetic and theatrical merits of Timon of Athens . Chemistry? But thus far their adherents have proven only slightly more numerous than the followers of Timon himself. Original the play may be; but few have come to praise it as a fully realized work of resume and hy, dramatic art. After Coriolanus and Timon of analysis, Athens , Shakespeare seems to have shifted his focus again. He wrote no more tragedies, so far as we know, and the single history play that appeared was so different from poverty in africa essay his previous efforts in that genre that it seems to belong to the realm of analysis, romance rather than to the world of ordinary political and social interaction. And indeed romance is now the generic term most frequently applied to the mature tragicomedies that critics once referred to somewhat loosely as the Late Plays. If we include Henry VIII in council elections, their number, there are six surviving works that qualify as late romances.
One of them, The Two Noble Kinsmen , we know to have been written by Shakespeare in collaboration with his fellow dramatist John Fletcher. Chemistry Coursework Analysis? Two others, Pericles and Henry VIII , are also regarded by introduction of euthanasia, many scholars as likely to have resulted from joint authorship--as was evidently the case, too, with the lost Cardenio , attributed to Shakespeare and Fletcher in a Stationers' Register entry of 1753. Which leaves us with three plays-- Cymbeline , The Winter's Tale , and The Tempest --that are unanimously accepted as works entirely by Shakespeare. Since all but one of the Late Plays ( Pericles , which seems to chemistry coursework analysis have been completed in law degree coursework, 1606-1608) appeared after Shakespeare's company added the Blackfriars as a venue for performance--and since even that work may have been written with indoor staging in view (we know that Pericles was presented at Court sometime between January 1606 and November 1608)--it seems eminently possible, as Gerald Eades Bentley has suggested, that Shakespeare's modifications in dramaturigcal style resulted, at least in part, from changes in emphasis by the King's Men. If Shakespeare and his colleagues were easing away from total dependence on the comparatively broad-based audiences they had long attracted to the Globe and were beginning to cast their fortunes more confidently with the aristocratic clientele they served at Court or would be able to cultivate at the private Blackfriars theater, they may well have begun to rethink their dramatic repertory.
Under these circumstances, Shakespeare and his fellow shareholders could readily have arrived at a determination to concentrate on offerings such as their more well-to-do audiences had grown accustomed to seeing: masquelike entertainments of the sort that Court patronage encouraged, and mythological and coursework analysis, fanciful diversions of the type that the vee, children's companies had made their specialty in indoor halls like the chemistry, Blackfriars. In any event, the sequence of dramatic works initiated by Pericles is strikingly different in resume, many respects from the sequence that preceded it. Relying as many of them do on such devices as a choral presenter (Gower in Pericles , or Time in The Winter's Tale ) to narrate background incidents, the chemistry analysis, romances tend to be rambling and panoramic by comparison with the vee, earlier plays (the salient exception being The Tempest, which is unusually focused in time, place, and coursework, action). Frequently, they contain incidents that are wildly implausible (as when Antigonus exits pursued by bible, a bear in The Winter's Tale ), and most of them draw heavily on chemistry coursework analysis storms, shipwrecks, and poverty essay, other violently disruptive acts of God to move the action forward. Families are separated at chemistry coursework sea, left to wander for years in adversity, and then miraculously reunited at the close. Symbolically named children (Marina in of euthanasia, Pericles , Perdita in The Winter's Tale , Miranda in The Tempest ) function dramatically as instruments of special grace, restoring faith and coursework, vision to parents who have temporarily lost their way. Coursework? Terrible calamities are but narrowly averted, and then only because of sudden reversals that depend either upon some character's astonishing change of heart or upon an inexplicable visitation from above. Rather than conceal their artifice, the chemistry, romances tend to display it openly, on the one hand reminding the audience that what it is witnessing is only make-believe, on the other hand manipulating viewers' responses so as to prepare the audience for law degree some climactic wonder toward which the entire sequence has been directed. The first three acts of Pericles seem so naive dramaturgically that many scholars consider them to be by a playwright other than Shakespeare.
Among the contemporaries whose names have been proposed for the dubious honor of collaborator in accordance with this hypothesis is George Wilkins, whose novel The Painful Adventures of Pericles Prince of analysis, Tyre appeared in the same year (1608) as the resume and hy vee, entry for Pericles in chemistry coursework analysis, the Stationers' Register. All we know for certain is that the play was first published in 1609 in a relatively crude quarto that was reprinted several times before Pericles made its initial folio entry when it was added to the second issue of the Third Folio in 1664. Just why Pericles was not included in essay writing, the First Folio has never been determined. Its omission may have had something to do with the poor condition of the only available text. Or it may have stemmed from the assumption that the play was not completely by Shakespeare. The second of these hypotheses would also explain the exclusion of The Two Noble Kinsmen (though of course it would not explain the in chemistry, clusion of Henry VIII if, as many scholars believe, that too was a play that Shakespeare wrote in collaboration with another playwright). Key Terms? Whatever the case, Pericles is immediately recognizable as a point of departure.
Drawing from a fifth-century romantic narrative by Apollonius of Tyre as retold in the Confessio Amantis of the fourteenth-century English poet John Gower, the play is studiously antique in its apparently unsophisticated presentational style. Old Gower himself is resurrected to serve as the barnacled chorus, and the singsong tetrameters that serve as the metrical vehicle for his medieval diction remove the coursework analysis, play's events from the present to a dreamlike past more suited to fairy lore than to realistic fiction. In Africa Essay? In such an atmosphere the audience is analysis more readily induced to in africa essay suspend its disbelief--with the consequence that we become vicarious participants in coursework analysis, episode after episode as the hero's adventures convey him from youth (when he solves the and hy vee, riddle of Antiochus and is immediately forced to flee for his life upon disclosing his knowledge of the wicked King's incestuous relationship with his daughter) through old age (when, having been reduced almost to coursework analysis despair by decades of wandering and loss, Pericles is miraculously rejoined with his radiant daughter, Marina). As we allow ourselves to be hypnotized into accepting the premises of such a providential universe, we fall under the spell of a moldy tale peopled by such characters as a wicked stepmother (Dionyza), a Bawd, and a Governor (Lysimachus) who becomes so enraptured by Marina's innocence that he forswears a life bedimmed by vice. Bible And Quran In Scriptural Intertextuality? Pericles' final awakening has often been compared to chemistry Lear's reunion with Cordelia. And a lovely lyric (Marina) by T. S. Eliot is eloquent in its testimony that twentieth-century audiences can still be moved by a beloved child's power to regenerate her father and renew his faith in life. Until recently Pericles has rarely been performed, but as the magic of its marvels becomes more widely appreciated it may one day find its way to a more secure footing in the repertory.
Such may also be the case with Cymbeline . First printed in the 1623 Folio, it probably enjoyed its initial performances in 1609-1610, either at Blackfriars or at bible and quran essays the Globe (where the physician Dr. Simon Forman saw it, probably in 1611). Its historical frame, featuring a pre-Christian monarch from chemistry approximately the same era as King Lear, Shakespeare derived primarily from Holinshed's Chronicles . In this portion of the play, wherein Cymbeline at first refuses and then later volunteers Britain's annual tribute to Emperor Augustus Caesar, Shakespeare adumbrates the commingling of British and Roman traits that Renaissance Englishmen believed to be at the root of their nation's greatness. Shakespeare combined with this theme a number of other romantic motifs, his sources varying from Boccaccio's Decameron to a pair of resume vee, anonymous plays of the 1580s, The Rare Triumphs of Love and Fortune and Sir Clyomon and Sir Clamydes . The result is a romantic tragicomedy unusually episodic in structure and coursework analysis, so bewildering in essays for student council, the rapidity and complexity of its concluding disclosures as to leave an audience wondering how any agency other than providence could possibly have untangled the various strands of the plot. Chemistry Coursework? At the heart of the play is Imogen, a woman of exemplary chastity whose foolhardy husband Posthumus allows himself to be tricked into thinking that she has been seduced by bible essays, a braggart named Iachimo. Like the resourceful heroines in Shakespeare's earlier tragicomedies, Imogen assumes a disguise in her efforts to win her husband back. Coursework Analysis? In time her circumstances bring her to the cave where Cymbeline's long-lost sons, Guiderius and Arviragus, have been reared in rustic exile by an old lord, Belarius, whom the King had unjustly banished. She casts her lot with them and becomes a participant in Britain's war against Rome. In Scriptural Intertextuality? Once the conflict is chemistry analysis over, the King and his sons are reunited in the same denouement in for student council elections, which Posthumus recognizes Imogen as his most constant wife. And in a reconciliation scene that carries overtones of the Augustan pax Romana under which Christ was born, Cymbeline announces that Pardon's the word to all. Evil has been exorcised (Cymbeline's bad angels, his wicked Queen and her doltish son Cloten, have died), and the way-ward characters who survive have all experienced enlightenment and contrition.
Enlightenment and contrition are prerequisite to chemistry the happy ending of The Winter's Tale , too. Here again a husband falls victim to vengeful jealousy, and here again the plot builds up to the moment when he can be forgiven the folly that, so far as he knows, has brought about his innocent wife's death. Based primarily on Robert Greene's Pandosto: The Triumph of Time , a prose romance first published in essay, 1588 and reprinted under a new title in 1607, The Winter's Tale was probably completed in 1610 or 1611. Its initial appearance in print was in the 1623 Folio. The action begins when Leontes, King of Sicilia, is chemistry seized with the humour that his wife Hermione has committed adultery with his childhood friend Polixenes. It is introduction of euthanasia abundantly clear to everyone else, most notably Hermione's lady-in-waiting Paulina, that Leontes' suspicions are irrational. But he refuses to coursework listen either to the counsel of his advisers or to resume vee the oracle at Delphi--persisting with this trial of Hermione until he has completely devastated his court. Chemistry? He drives Polixenes away with the faithful Sicilian lord Camillo; he frightens to essays council elections death his son Mamilius; and he pursues Hermione so unrelentingly that she finally wilts into what Paulina declares to be a fatal swoon. At this point, suddenly recognizing that he has been acting like a madman, Leontes vows to do penance for chemistry analysis the remainder of his life. Years later, after Perdita (the lost child whom the raging Leontes has instructed Paulina's husband Antigonus to expose to the elements) has grown up and essay, fallen in love with Florizel, the heir to Polixenes' throne in Bohemia, the major characters are providentially regathered in chemistry, Leontes' court.
Leontes is reunited with his daughter. And then, in one of the most stirring and unexpected moments in all of Shakespeare's works, a statue of Hermione that Paulina unveils turns out to be the living--and forgiving--Queen whom Leontes had killed some sixteen years previously. In a speech that might well serve to of euthanasia essay epitomize the import of all the late romances, Paulina tells the King It is requir'd/You do awake your faith. The regenerated Leontes embraces his long-lamented wife, bestows the widowed Paulina on chemistry coursework the newly returned Camillo, and blesses the forthcoming marriage of Perdita to the son of introduction essay, his old friend Polixenes, the object of the jealousy with which the whole agonizing story has begun. The circle that is completed in The Winter's Tale has its counterpart in The Tempest , which concludes with the chemistry analysis, marriage of Prospero's daughter Miranda to Ferdinand, the son of the Neapolitan king who had helped Prospero's wicked brother Antonio remove Prospero from key terms essay writing his dukedom in Milan a dozen years previously.
Like The Winter's Tale , The Tempest was completed by 1611 and chemistry analysis, printed for the first time in the 1623 Folio. Because it refers to the still-vext Bermoothes and derives in introduction, part from three accounts of the 1609 wreck of a Virginia-bound ship called the chemistry coursework, Sea Adventure , the play has long been scrutinized for resume vee its supposed commentary on the colonial exploitation of the New World. But if the brute Caliban is not the noble savage of Montaigne's essay on cannibals, he is probably not intended to be an instance of Third World victimization by chemistry coursework analysis, European imperalism either. And Prospero's island is at law degree coursework least as Mediterranean as it is Caribbean. More plausible, but also too speculative for uncritical acceptance, is the time-honored supposition that the magician's staff with which Prospero wields his power is meant to be interpreted as an analogy for Shakespeare's own magical gifts--with the coursework analysis, corollary that the protagonist's abjuration of his potent art is the dramatist's own way of saying farewell to the theater. Were it not that at least two plays were almost certainly completed later than The Tempest , this latter hypothesis might win more credence. But be that as it may, there can be no doubt that Prospero cuts a magnificent figure on the Shakespearean stage. At times, when he is recalling the usurpation that has placed him and his daughter on the island they have shared with Caliban for a dozen lonely years, Prospero is reminiscent of Lear, another angry ruler who, despite his earlier indiscretions, has cause to feel more sinned against than sinning. At other times, when Prospero is using the spirit Ariel to manipulate the law degree, comings and goings of the enemies whose ship he has brought aground in a tempest, the once and future Duke of Milan reminds us of the Duke of Vienna in Measure for Measure . But though his influence on the lives of others turns out in the end to have been providential, Prospero arrives at that beneficent consummation only through a psychological and spiritual process that turns on his forswearing vengeance in favor of the rarer action of forgiveness.
Such dramatic tension as the play possesses is to be found in the audience's suspense over whether the protagonist will use his Neoplatonic magic for good or for ill. And when in fact Prospero has brought the chemistry, men of sin to a point where they must confront themselves as they are and beg forgiveness for coursework their crimes, it is paradoxically Ariel who reminds his master that to be truly human is finally to chemistry analysis be humane. Uniquely among the late tragicomic romances, The Tempest has long been a favorite with both readers and audiences. Its ardent young lovers have always held their charm, as has the effervescent Ariel, and its treatment of the temptations afforded by and quran in scriptural intertextuality, access to chemistry coursework analysis transcendent power gives it a political and religious resonance commensurate with the profundity of its exploration of the bible and quran intertextuality, depths of poetic and dramatic art. In the end its burden seems to be that an acknowledgment of the limits imposed by the human condition is the beginning of wisdom. Chemistry Analysis? The last of the plays attributed wholly to Shakespeare by its inclusion in the First Folio, where it first achieved print, is essays council Henry VIII . Modern stylistic analyses have called Shakespeare's sole authorship into question, of course, but since the case for collaboration has never been definitively proven we may do just as well to proceed on the assumption that Henry VIII was mostly if not entirely a play for which the playwright was responsible. Its theatrical history has had more ups and downs than is true of many of Shakespeare's other dramatic works (the most notable occurrence on the down side being the accident during its earliest recorded performance, on 29 June 1613, that burned the Globe to coursework analysis the ground), and its critical reception, like that of Troilus and Cressida , has been complicated by debates about the play's genre. In many respects Henry VIII seems to be the capstone to Shakespeare's nine earlier English history plays.
It focuses on council kingship as the key to chemistry a nation's political and vee, social stability, and chemistry coursework analysis, it glorifies the Tudor dynasty as God's means of bringing peace, prosperity, and law degree, empire to an England whose greatness had reached new heights during the reigns of the two monarchs under whom Shakespeare had served. Fittingly, the play's final cause is the birth of Elizabeth, the royal infant whose advent, according to the prophecy uttered by Archbishop Cranmer at coursework analysis the end of the play, promises/Upon this land a thousand thousand blessings. But, as is so often true in Shakespeare, it also offers the audience a topical glance at law degree an event of contemporary significance, the February 1613 wedding of analysis, Princess Elizabeth, daughter of King James I and for student elections, his Queen, to Frederick, the Elector of Palatine. Like the earlier English history plays, Henry VIII is epic in its scope and in its patriotic impulse. Coursework? And like them, it reflects Shakespeare's interest in the grand themes of English historiography, as derived not only from the 1587 second edition of Holinshed's Chronicles but also from other sources as varied as John Foxe's Acts and Monuments (1563) and John Speed's History of and hy, Great Britain (1611).
In its earliest performances the play even seems to have had an alternate title, All is True , to chemistry coursework assert its fidelity to the essence of its historical subject matter. But a close examination of law degree, its way of treating that matter will indicate that Henry VIII is more cosmic than the history plays that preceded it--a play that presents the events it dramatizes almost solely in the light of eternity. Though the coursework, King is not without his faults, he is and quran intertextuality portrayed more positively in Shakespeare than he had usually been depicted by historians prior to Henry VIII . During the first half of the play the bluff Henry may be misled by his bad angel Cardinal Wolsey; but the King's intentions are noble, and chemistry, after Wolsey's discomfiture he evolves into a creditable exemplar of God's deputy. In Africa? Meanwhile, there is an unmistakable emphasis on providential design throughout the play. The action is chemistry coursework analysis structured around a succession of trials, each of which serves to test a character's mettle and to induce in him or her a new degree of self-knowledge, humility, faith, and coursework, compassion.
Buckingham is framed by chemistry, Wolsey's machinations, but as he proceeds to his execution he forgives his enemies and blesses the King who has condemned him. Katherine, another of essays for student elections, Wolsey's victims, pleads eloquently and forcibly in her own defense; but once her fate is settled, she resigns herself with patience to the destiny prepared for her and goes so far as to express pity for her archenemy Wolsey. And once he recognizes that there is no escape from the noose he has unwittingly prepared for himself, Wolsey himself dies penitent and never so happy. Coursework Analysis? In each instance death is introduction essay swallowed up in a victory of sorts, and the sequence as a whole reinforces the audience's sense that even in the often-brutal arena of analysis, English history all's well that ends well. Perhaps the best way to describe Henry VIII is to call it a tragicomic historical romance. Bible In Scriptural Intertextuality? But whatever it is chemistry coursework analysis generically, it is for student council a play that offers a plenitude of majestic pageantry. Chemistry Analysis? As the 1979 BBC television production reminded us, it is Shakespeare's version of Masterpiece Theatre . Whether or not it is the last play in which Shakespeare had a hand, The Two Noble Kinsmen is the last surviving instance of his dramaturgy. Bible Intertextuality? With but a handful of exceptions, modern scholars regard the chemistry coursework analysis, play as a collaborative effort in and quran intertextuality, which the guiding hand may have been John Fletcher's rather than William Shakespeare's. It was probably completed in 1613, and its first appearance in chemistry, print was in essays council elections, a quarto edition of 1634 that attributed it to both playwrights. It was reprinted in the Beaumont and coursework, Fletcher second folio of 1679, but it never appeared in any of the seventeenth-century folios of Shakespeare's dramatic works.
The play is and quran essays in scriptural intertextuality a dramatization of Geoffrey Chaucer's Knight's Tale about two cousins, Palamon and Arcite, who come to blows as a consequence of their both having fallen in love with the same damsel, Emilia. Like the other late romances of Shakespeare, it has a remote Mediterranean setting (ancient Thebes and Athens), it invokes the gods for intervention in human affairs, and it depends for chemistry coursework analysis its effects on scenes of grand pageantry such as the wedding procession of Theseus and Hippolyta. It is not a great work, but it has probably received less attention than it should as a play that deserves, at key terms essay writing least as much as does The Tempest , to analysis be considered as Shakespeare's epilogue to the theater. Tradition holds that Shakespeare returned to Stratford for his declining years, and three years after the key terms essay, burning of the Globe his own flame went out. Chemistry Coursework? Following his death on 23 April 1616, he was laid to rest where fifty-two years earlier he had been christened. Shortly thereafter, a monument to his memory was erected above the tomb in Holy Trinity, and introduction essay, that monument is still in place for coursework Shakespeare admirers to see today.
But an even greater monument to his memory appeared seven years later, when his theatrical colleagues, John Heminge and Henry Condell (both of whom had been mentioned in the playwright's will) assembled a large volume of his collected plays. The 1623 First Folio was a labor of for student council elections, love, compiled as an chemistry coursework analysis, office to the dead, to procure his orphans guardians and to keep the memory of so worthy a friend and poverty, fellow alive as was our Shakespeare. Chemistry Coursework? Our Shakespeare. It is of euthanasia essay not without exaggeration that the chemistry coursework analysis, book that preserves what is probably his most reliable portrait and the most authoritative versions of the majority of his dramatic texts (indeed the only surviving versions of law degree, half of them) has been called incomparably the most important work in the English language. In the coursework, words and actions that fill his poems and plays, in resume vee, the performances that enrich our theaters and silver screens, in the countless off-shoots to be found in other works of chemistry coursework, art, and in essays council elections, the influence the playwright continues to have on virtually every aspect of popular culture throughout the world, now as much as in the age of chemistry, Elizabeth and James, Shakespeare lives. William Jaggard, Shakespeare Bibliography: A Dictionary of Every Known Issue of the Writings of Our National Poet and of Recorded Opinion Thereon in the English Language (Stratford-upon-Avon: Shakespeare Press, 1911). Walter Ebish and vee, Levin L. Schucking, A Shakespeare Bibliography (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1931). Analysis? Gordon Ross Smith, A Classified Shakespeare Bibliography, 1936-1958 (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1963). Ronald Berman, A Reader's Guide to Shakespeare's Plays, revised edition (Glenview, Ill.: Scott Foresman, 1973). David Bevington, Shakespeare (Arlington Heights, Ill.: AHM Publishing, 1978).
Larry S. Champion, The Essential Shakespeare: An Annotated Bibliography of Major Modern Studies (Boston: G. K. In Africa? Hall, 1986). Alfred Harbage, William Shakespeare: A Reader's Guide (New York: Noonday, 1963). F. E. Halliday, A Shakespeare Companion, 1564-1964 (London: Duckworth/Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1964). O. J. Coursework? Campbell and Edward G. Law Degree Coursework? Quinn, The Reader's Encyclopedia of chemistry, Shakespeare (New York: Crowell, 1966). John W. Velz, Shakespeare and the Classical Tradition: A Critical Guide to Commentary, 1660-1960 (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1968). Kenneth Muir and of euthanasia, S. Schoenbaum, eds., A New Companion to Shakespeare Studies (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1971). David M. Bergeron, Shakespeare: A Study and Research Guide (New York: St. Martin's, 1975). David M. Coursework? Zesmer, Guide to Shakespeare (New York: Barnes Noble, 1976). Poverty? Stanley Wells and Gary Taylor, William Shakespeare: A Textual Companion [to the Complete Oxford Shakespeare] (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1987).
E. K. Chambers, William Shakespeare: A Study of Facts and Problems, 2 volumes (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1930). Coursework Analysis? M. M. Reese, Shakespeare: His World and His Work (London: Arnold, 1953). Gerald Eades Bentley, Shakespeare: A Biographical Handbook (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1961). A. Poverty? L. Chemistry Coursework? Rowse, William Shakespeare: A Biography (London: Macmillan, 1963). Anthony Burgess, Shakespeare (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1970). Resume? S. Chemistry Coursework Analysis? Schoenbaum, Shakespeare's Lives (New York: Oxford University Press, 1970). Schoenbaum, William Shakespeare: A Documentary Life (London: Oxford University Press/Scolar Press, 1975). Schoenbaum, William Shakespeare: Records and bible and quran in scriptural intertextuality, Images (London: Oxford University Press/Scolar Press, 1981). David George, Shakespeare and Pembroke's Men, Shakespeare Quarterly, 32 (1981): 305-323. Shakespeare Jahrbuch: Jahrbuch der Deutschen Shakespeare-Gesellschaft (1865-1964).
Shakespeare Jahrbuch (Heidelberg and Bochum), edited by Werner Habicht (1965- ). Shakespeare Jahrbuch (Weimar), edited by Anselm Schlusser and Armin-Gerd Kuckoff (1965- ). Shakespeare Newsletter, edited by Louis Marder (1951- ). Shakespeare Quarterly, edited by James G. McManaway, Richard J. Coursework Analysis? Schoeck, John F. Andrews, Barbara A. Mowat (1950- ). Shakespeare Studies, edited by J. Leeds Barroll (1965- ). Shakespeare Studies (Tokyo), edited by Jiro Ozu (1962- ). Shakespeare Survey, edited by Allardyce Nicoll, Kenneth Muir, Stanley Wells (1948- ). E. A. Abbott, A Shakespearean Grammar, revised and enlarged edition (London: Macmillan, 1870). John Cranford Adams, The Globe Playhouse (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1942). John F. Andrews, William Shakespeare: His World His Work, His Influence, 3 volumes (New York: Scribners,1985). T. W. Key Terms? Baldwin, William Shakespeare's Small Latine Lesse Greeke (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1943). Chemistry Analysis? Bernard Beckerman, Shakespeare at the Globe, 1599-1609 (New York: Macmillan, 1962). Gerald Eades Bentley, The Profession of Dramatist in Shakespeare's Time, 1590-1642 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1971).
Bentley, The Profession of and quran in scriptural intertextuality, Player in Shakespeare's Time (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984). Bentley, Shakespeare and the Blackfriars Theatre, Shakespeare Survey, 1 (1948): 38-50. Fredson Bowers, Bibliography and Textual Criticism (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1964). Bowers, On Editing Shakespeare (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1966). John Russell Brown, Shakespeare's Plays in Performance (London: Arnold, 1966). Geoffrey Bullough, ed., Narrative and Dramatic Sources of Shakespeare, 8 volumes (London: Routledge Kegan Paul, 1957-1975). Fausto Cercignani, Shakespeare's Works and Elizabethan Pronunciation (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1981). E. K. Chambers, The Elizabethan Stage, 4 volumes (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1923), III: 479-490. Wolfgang Clemen, The Development of Shakespeare's Imagery (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1951).
Ruby Cohn, Modern Shakespeare Offshoots (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1976). Ann Jennalie Cook, The Privileged Playgoers of Shakespeare's London: 1576-1642 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1981). Richard David, Shakespeare in the Theatre (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1978). Madeleine Doran, Endeavors of coursework, Art: A Study of Form in in africa essay, Elizabethan Drama (Madison: University of chemistry coursework analysis, Wisconsin Press, 1954). G. R. Elton, The Tudor Revolution in Government (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1953). Roland M. Frye, Shakespeare and coursework, Christian Doctrine (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1963). W. W. Greg, The Editorial Problem in Shakespeare: A Survey of the Foundations of the Text (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1954). Greg, ed., Dramatic Documents from the Elizabethan Playhouses: Stage Plots; Actors' Parts; Prompt Books, 2 volumes (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1931). Andrew Gurr, Playgoing in coursework analysis, Shakespeare's London (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987). Gurr, The Shakespearean Stage, 1574-1642 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1970).
Alfred Harbage, Shakespeare's Audience, (New York: Columbia University Press, 1941). And Quran Intertextuality? Christopher Hill, The Century of Revolution, 1603-1714 (New York: Norton, 1961). Charlton Hinman, The Printing and Proof-Reading of the First Folio of Shakespeare, 2 volumes (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1963). C. Walter Hodges, Shakespeare's Second Globe: The Missing Monument (London: Oxford University Press, 1973). Richard Hosley, The Discovery-Space in Shakespeare's Globe, Shakespeare Survey, 12 (1959): 35-46. Hosley, The Gallery over the Stage in the Public Playhouses of Shakespeare's Time, Shakespeare Quarterly, 8 (Winter 1957): 15-31. Hosley, ed., Shakespeare's Holinshed (New York: Putnam's, 1968).
Jack Jorgens, Shakespeare on Film (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1977). Bertram Joseph, Elizabethan Acting (London: Oxford University Press, 1951). George R. Kernodle, From Art to Theatre: Form and Convention in the Renaissance (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1944). Helge Kökeritz, Shakespeare's Pronunciation (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1953). Wallace T. MacCaffrey, The Shaping of the Elizabethan Regime (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1968). Scott McMillin, The Elizabethan Theatre The Book of Sir Thomas More (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1987). W. Coursework Analysis? Moelwyn Merchant, Shakespeare and the Artist (London: Oxford University Press, 1959). Sister Miriam Joseph, Shakespeare's Use of the Arts of for student, Language (New York: Columbia University Press, 1947).
Kenneth Muir, Shakespeare's Sources, 2 volumes (London: Methuen, 1961). Richmond Noble, Shakespeare's Biblical Knowledge and Use of the Book of Common Prayer (New York: Macmillan, 1935). C. T. Onions, A Shakespeare Glossary, revised edition (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1919). John Orrell, The Quest for Shakespeare's Globe (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983). Eric Partridge, Shakespeare's Bawdy, revised edition (London: Routledge Kegan Paul, 1969). Alfred W. Pollard, Shakespeare's Folios and coursework analysis, Quartos: A Study in the Bibliography of Shakespeare's Plays, 1594-1685 (London: Methuen, 1909). Poverty In Africa? Alexander Schmidt, Shakespeare-Lexicon, revised and enlarged by chemistry coursework, Gregor Sarrazin, 2 volumes (Berlin: de Gruyter, 1962). Writing? S. Chemistry? Schoenbaum, Shakespeare: The Globe and the World (New York: Oxford University Press, 1979). Peter J. Seng, The Vocal Songs in the Plays of Shakespeare: A Critical History (London: Oxford University Press, 1967) Charles H. Shattuck, Shakespeare on the American Stage: From the council elections, Hallams to chemistry coursework analysis Edwin Booth (Washington: Folger Shakespeare Library, 1976). Irwin Smith, Shakespeare's Blackfriars Playhouse: Its History and Its Design (New York: New York University Press, 1964). Irwin Smith, Shakespeare's Blackfriars Playhouse: Its History and Its Design (New York: New York University Press, 1964).
Robert Speaight, Shakespeare on the Stage: An Illustrated History of Shakespearian Performance (London: Collins, 1973). T. J. B. Spencer, ed., Shakespeare's Plutarch (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1964). Marvin Spevack, The Harvard Concordance to Shakespeare (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1973). Arthur Colby Sprague, Shakespearian Players and bible intertextuality, Performances (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1954). Lawrence Stone, The Crisis of the Aristocracy, 1558-1641 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1965). Stone, The Family, Sex, and Marriage in chemistry analysis, England, 1500-1800 (New York: Harper Row, 1977). Bible And Quran In Scriptural Intertextuality? J. L. Styan, The Shakespeare Revolution: Criticism and Performance in the Twentieth Century (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979).
J. A. K. Thomson, Shakespeare and the Classics (London: Allen Unwin, 1952). E. M. W. Chemistry Analysis? Tillyard, The Elizabethan World Picture (London: Chatto Windus, 1943). J. Essays Council? C. Chemistry Analysis? Trewin, Shakespeare on the English Stage, 1900-1964: A Survey of Productions (London: Barrie Rockliff, 1964). Virgil K. Whitaker, Shakespeare's Use of Learning (San Marino, Cal.: Huntington Library, 1953). Glynne Wickham, Early English Stages, 1300-1600, 2 volumes (London: Routledge Kegan Paul, 1959-1972) W. H. Auden, The Shakespearian City, in his The Dyer's Hand and Other Essays (New York: Random House, 1948), pp. 171-172. Gerald Eades Bentley, Shakespeare and Jonson: Their Reputations in the Seventeenth Century Compared, 2 volumes (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1945). David Bevington, and Jay L. Halio, eds., Shakespeare: Pattern of Excelling Nature, essays from the 1976 Washington Congress of the International Shakespeare Association (Newark: University of Delaware Press, 1978). M. C. Bradbrook, The Living Monument: Shakespeare and key terms essay, the Theatre of His Time (New York: Barnes Noble, 1969). Analysis? Philip Brockbank, ed., Players of Shakespeare (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985). Sigurd Burkhardt, Shakespearean Meanings (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1968).
James L. Calderwood, Shakespearean Metadrama (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1971). Nevill Coghill, Shakespeare's Professional Skills (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1964). Walter Clyde Curry, Shakespeare's Philosophical Patterns (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1937). Leonard F. Dean, ed., Shakespeare: Modern Essays in essays elections, Criticism, revised edition (New York: Oxford University Press, 1967). Alan C. Dessen, Elizabethan Drama and the Viewer's Eye (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1977). Dessen, Elizabethan Stage Conventions and Modern Interpreters (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984).
John Drakakis, Alternative Shakespeares (London: Methuen, 1985). Juliet Dusinberre, Shakespeare and the Nature of Women (London: Macmillan, 1975). Arthur M. Eastman, A Short History of Shakespearean Criticism (New York: Random House, 1968). Philip Edwards, Shakespeare and the Confines of Art (London: Methuen, 1968). G. Chemistry Coursework? Blakemore Evans, Shakespeare: Aspects of Influence (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1976). Introduction Of Euthanasia Essay? Michael Goldman, Shakespeare and the Energies of Drama (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1972). Harley Granville-Barker, Prefaces to Shakespeare, 2 volumes (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1946-1947). Alfred Harbage, Shakespeare and the Rival Traditions (New York: Macmillan, 1952). Terence Hawkes, That Shakespeaherean Rag (London: Methuen, 1986).
Norman Holland, Psychoanalysis and Shakespeare (New York: Octagon Books, 1976). Robert G. Chemistry Analysis? Hunter, Shakespeare and the Mystery of law degree, God's Judgments (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1976). Emrys Jones, The Origins of Shakespeare (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1977). Jones, Scenic Form in Shakespeare (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1971). Jones, Scenic Form in Shakespeare (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1971). Coppelia Kahn, Man's Estate: Masculine Identity in Shakespeare (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1981). Alvin B. Kernan, ed., Modern Shakespearean Criticism: Essays on Style, Dramaturgy, and the Major Plays (New York: Harcourt, Brace World, 1970).
Arnold Kettle, ed., Shakespeare in a Changing World: Essays on His Times and His Plays (London: Lawrence Wishart, 1964). Arthur C. Kirsch, Shakespeare and chemistry coursework, the Experience of Love (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981). G. Wilson Knight, Shakespeare and introduction of euthanasia, Religion: Essays of chemistry, Forty Years (London: Routledge Kegan Paul, 1967). L. C. Knights, Some Shakespearean Themes (London: Chatto Windus, 1959). Jan Kott, Shakespeare Our Contemporary, translated by Boleslaw Taborski (Garden City: Doubleday, 1964). Clifford Leech and for student council, J. M. R. Margeson, eds., Shakespeare 1971: Proceedings of the World Shakespeare Congress, Vancouver, August 1971 (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1972). Harry Levin, The Primacy of analysis, Shakespeare, Shakespeare Quarterly, 26 (Spring 1975): 99-112. Key Terms Essay? Richard Levin, New Readings vs.
Old Plays: Recent Trends in the Reinterpretation of English Renaissance Drama (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1979). James G. McManaway, ed., Shakespeare 400: Essays by coursework analysis, American Scholars on the Anniversary of the Poet's Birth (New York: Holt, Rinehart Winston, 1964). Essays Council Elections? John Munro, ed., The Shakespeare Allusion Book: A Collection of Allusions to chemistry Shakespeare from 1591 to 1700, 2 volumes (London: Chatto Windus, 1909). Patricia Parker and vee, Geoffrey Hartman, Shakespeare and the Question of Theory (London: Methuen, 1985). Hereward T. Price, Construction in Shakespeare (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1951). Chemistry Analysis? Norman Rabkin, Shakespeare and the Common Understanding (New York: Free Press, 1967). Rabkin, Shakespeare and and quran essays, the Problem of Meaning (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981).
Rabkin, ed., Approaches to Shakespeare (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964). Thomas M. Raysor, ed., Coleridge's Shakespearean Criticism, 2 volumes (London: Constable, 1930). Anne Righter, Shakespeare and the Idea of the Play (London: Chatto Windus, 1962). A. P. Rossiter, Angel with Horns and Other Shakespeare Lectures (London: Longmans, Green, 1961). Chemistry? Wilbur Sanders, The Dramatist and the Received Idea (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1968).
Murray M. Schwartz and Coppelia Kahn, eds., Representing Shakespeare: New Psychoanalytic Essays (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1980). Arthur Sherbo, ed., Johnson on Shakespeare, volumes 7 and bible essays in scriptural intertextuality, 8 of The Yale Edition of the Works of analysis, Samuel Johnson (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1968). Theodore Spencer, Shakespeare and the Nature of Man (New York: Macmillan, 1942). Derek Traversi, An Approach to Shakespeare, revised and poverty essay, enlarged edition (Garden City: Doubleday, 1956). Robert Y. Turner, Shakespeare's Apprenticeship (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1974). Mark Van Doren, Shakespeare (New York: Holt, 1939). Brian Vickers, ed., Shakespeare: The Critical Heritage, 6 volumes (London: Routledge Kegan Paul, 1973-1981).
Enid Welsford, The Fool: His Social and Literary History (London: Faber Faber, 1935). Robert H. West, Shakespeare and chemistry analysis, the Outer Mystery (Lexington: University of essay, Kentucky Press, 1968). Stephen Booth, An Essay on chemistry coursework Shakespeare's Sonnets (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1969). Essay? Edward Hubler, The Sense of Shakespeare's Sonnets (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1952). Chemistry? Hubler, Northrop Frye, Stephen Spender, and R. P. Blackmur, The Riddle of Shakespeare's Sonnets (New York: Basic Books, 1962).
Murray Krieger, A Window to Criticism: Shakespeare's Sonnets and Modern Poetics (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1964). J. B. Leishman, Themes and Variations in Shakespeare's Sonnets (London: Hutchinson, 1961). Essays For Student Council Elections? J. W. Lever, The Elizabethan Love Sonnet (London: Methuen, 1956). Giorgio Melchiori, Shakespeare's Dramatic Meditations: An Experiment in Criticism (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1976). Hallett Smith, Elizabethan Poetry (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1952). C. L. Barber, Shakespeare's Festive Comedy: A Study of Dramatic Form and Its Relation to Social Custom (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1959). Sylvan Barnet, 'Strange Events': Improbability in As You Like It, Shakespeare Studies, 4 (1968): 119-131. Harry Berger, Miraculous Harp: A Reading of Shakespeare's Tempest, Shakespeare Studies, 5 (1969): 253-283. Ralph Berry, Shakespeare's Comedies: Explorations in Form (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1972). M. Chemistry? C. Bradbrook, The Growth and Structure of Elizabethan Comedy, revised edition (London: Chatto Windus, 1973). John Russell Brown, Shakespeare and His Comedies, revised edition (London: Methuen, 1962).
O. J. Resume? Campbell, Comicall Satyre and Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida (San Marino, Cal.: Huntington Library, 1938). H. B. Charlton, Shakespearian Comedy (London: Methuen, 1938). Nevill Coghill, The Basis of Shakespearian Comedy: A Study in Medieval Affinities, Essays Studies, new series 3 (1950): 1-28. Jackson I. Cope, The Theater and the Dream: From Metaphor to chemistry analysis Form in Renaissance Drama (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1973). Bertrand Evans, Shakespeare's Comedies (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1960).
Howard Felperin, Shakespearean Romance (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1972). Northrop Frye, The Argument of Comedy, in English Institute Essays 1948 (New York: Columbia University Press, 1949), pp. 58-73. Frye, A Natural Perspective: The Development of Shakespearean Comedy and Romance (New York: Columbia University Press, 1965). Frye, The Secular Scripture: A Study of the Structure of essays council, Romance (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1976). Darryl J. Gless, Measure for chemistry Measure, the Law, and the Covenant (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1979). William Green, Shakespeare's Merry Wives of Windsor (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1962). Joan Hartwig, Shakespeare's Tragicomic Vision (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1972). Sherman H. Hawkins, The Two Worlds of Shakespearean Comedy, Shakespeare Studies, 3 (1967): 62-80. John Hollander, Twelfth Night and the Morality of Indulgence, Sewanee Review, 67 (April-June 1959): 220-238.
G. K. Hunter, William Shakespeare: The Late Comedies (London: Longmans, Green, 1962). Robert G. Hunter, Shakespeare and the Comedy of vee, Forgiveness (New York: Columbia University Press, 1965). Frank Kermode, What is Shakespeare's Henry VIII About?, Durham University Journal, 40 (Spring 1948): 48-55. Kermode, William Shakespeare: The Final Plays (London: Longmans, Green, 1963). Alvin B. Kernan, The Cankered Muse: Satire of the English Renaissance (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1959). Arthur C. Kirsch, The Integrity of Measure for coursework analysis Measure, Shakespeare Survey, 28 (1975): 89-105. G. Wilson Knight, The Crown of essay, Life: Essays in Interpretation of Shakespeare's Final Plays (London: Oxford University Press, 1947).
W. Coursework? W. Lawrence, Shakespeare's Problem Comedies (New York: Macmillan, 1931). Of Euthanasia Essay? Clifford Leech, Twelfth Night and Shakespearian Comedy (Toronto: University of chemistry, Toronto Press, 1965). Alexander Leggatt, Citizen Comedy in the Age of in africa essay, Shakespeare (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1973). Leggatt, Shakespeare's Comedy of Love (London: Methuen, 1974). Barbara Lewalski, Biblical Allusion and Allegory in The Merchant of Venice, Shakespeare Quarterly, 13 (Summer 1962): 327-343. Barbara Mowat, The Dramaturgy of Shakespeare's Romances (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1976). Kenneth Muir, ed., Shakespeare, The Comedies: A Collection of Critical Essays (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1965). A. D. Nuttall, Two Concepts of Allegory: A Study of Shakespeare's The Tempest and the Logic of chemistry, Allegorical Expression (London: Routledge Kegan Paul, 1967). And Hy Vee? Stephen Orgel, The Illusion of Power: Political Theater in coursework analysis, the English Renaissance (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1975).
Douglas L. Peterson, Time, Tide, and and hy, Tempest: A Study of Shakespeare's Romances (San Marino, Cal.: Huntington Library, 1973). E. C. Pettet, Shakespeare and the Romance Tradition (London: Staples, 1949). Hugh M. Richmond, Shakespeare's Henry VIII: Romance Redeemed by History, Shakespeare Studies, 4 (1968): 334-349. Jeanne Addison Roberts, Shakespeare's English Comedy: The Merry Wives of Windsor in Context (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1979). Leo Salinger, Shakespeare and coursework, the Traditions of Comedy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1974).
Ernest Schanzer, The Problem Plays of Shakespeare: A Study of Julius Caesar, Measure for Measure, and Antony and Cleopatra (London: Routledge Kegan Paul, 1963). David L. Bible Essays In Scriptural? Stevenson, The Achievement of Shakespeare's Measure for analysis Measure (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1966). Joseph H. Summers, The Masks of Twelfth Night, University of Kansas City Review, 22 (Autumn 1955): 25-32. E. M. W. Tillyard, Shakespeare's Last Plays (London: Chatto Windus, 1938). Tillyard, Shakespeare's Problem Plays (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1949). Derek Traversi, Shakespeare: The Last Phase (London: Hollis Carter, 1954). Glynne Wickham, Love's Labor's Lost and coursework, The Four Foster Children of Desire, 1581, Shakespeare Quarterly, 36 (Spring 1985): 49-55.
David Young, The Heart's Forest: A Study of coursework analysis, Shakespeare's Pastoral Plays (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1972). Young, Something of Great Constancy: The Art of A Midsummer Night's Dream (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1966). Edward I. Berry, Patterns of Decay: Shakespeare's Early Histories (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1975). Lily B. Campbell, Shakespeare's Histories: Mirrors of Elizabethan Policy (San Marino, Cal.: Huntington Library, 1947). Resume Vee? Larry S. Champion, The Function of Mowbray: Shakespeare's Maturing Artistry in chemistry, Richard II, Shakespeare Quarterly, 26 (Winter 1975): 3-7. Alan C. Dessen, The Intemperate Knight and the Politic Prince: Late Morality Structure in introduction of euthanasia essay, 1 Henry IV, Shakespeare Studies, 7 (1974): 147-171. Chemistry? Donna B. Hamilton, The State of Law in Richard II, Shakespeare Quarterly, 34 (Spring 1983): 5-17. Sherman H. Hawkins, Henry IV: The Structural Problem Revisited, Shakespeare Quarterly, 33 (Autumn 1982): 278-301. Hawkins, Virtue and for student elections, Kingship in analysis, Shakespeare's Henry IV, English Literary Renaissance, 5 (Autumn 1975): 313-343.
G. K. Hunter, Shakespeare's Politics and the Rejection of Falstaff, Critical Quarterly, 1 (Autumn 1959): 229-236. Harold Jenkins, The Structural Problem in Shakespeare's Henry the Fourth (London: Methuen, 1956). Ernst H. Kantorowicz, The King's Two Bodies: A Study in Mediaeval Political Theology (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1957). Robert Ornstein, A Kingdom for a Stage: The Achievement of Shakespeare's History Plays (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1972). Robert B. Pierce, Shakespeare's History Plays: The Family and the State (Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1971). Moody E. Prior, The Drama of Power: Studies in Shakespeare's History Plays (Evanston: North-western University Press, 1973). M. Key Terms? M. Reese, The Cease of Majesty: A Study of Shakespeare's History Plays (London: Arnold, 1961).
Irving Ribner, The English History Play in the Age of Shakespeare (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1965). David Riggs, Shakespeare's Heroical Histories: Henry VI and Its Literary Tradition (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1971). Peter Saccio, Shakespeare's English Kings: History, Chronicle, and Drama (New York: Oxford University Press, 1977). E. M. W. Tillyard, Shakespeare's History Plays (London: Chatto Windus, 1944). Harold E. Toliver, Falstaff, the Prince, and the History Play, Shakespeare Quarterly, 16 (Winter 1965): 63-80. Chemistry Coursework Analysis? Eugene M. For Student Council Elections? Waith, ed., Shakespeare, The Histories: A Collection of Critical Essays (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1965). Karl P. Wentersdorf, The Conspiracy of Silence in coursework analysis, Henry V, Shakespeare Quarterly, 27 (Summer 1976): 264-287. Richard P. Wheeler, Shakespeare's Development and the Problem Comedies (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1979).
J. Dover Wilson, The Fortunes of Falstaff (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1943). Janet Adelman, The Common Liar: An Essay on essays council Antony and Cleopatra (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1973). Coursework Analysis? John F. Andrews, The Catharsis of Romeo and essays for student council elections, Juliet, in Contributi dell' Istituto di filologia moderna, Serie inglesi, 1, edited by Sergio Rossi (Milan: Unversita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, 1974), pp. 142-175. Andrews, 'Dearly Bought Revenge,': Hamlet, Samson Agonistes, and Elizabethan Revenge Tragedy, Milton Studies, 13 (1979): 81-108. Chemistry Coursework Analysis? John S. Anson, Julius Caesar : The Politics of the Hardened Heart, Shakespeare Studies, 2 (1966): 11-33. Bible In Scriptural? Howard Baker, Induction to Tragedy: A Study in a Development of Form in Gorboduc, The Spanish Tragedy, and Titus Andronicus (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1939). J. Leeds Barroll, Artificial Persons: The Formation of Character in the Tragedies of Shakespeare (Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1974). Barroll, Shakespeare and Roman History, Modern Language Review, 53 (July 1958): 327-343.
Roy W. Battenhouse, Shakespearean Tragedy: Its Art and Its Christian Premises (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1969). Adrien Bonjour, The Structure of Julius Caesar (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1958). Coursework Analysis? Stephen Booth, King Lear, Macbeth, Indefinition, and Tragedy (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1983). Fredson Bowers, Elizabethan Revenge Tragedy, 1587-1642 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1940). Bowers, Hamlet as Minister and Scourge, PMLA, 70 (September 1955): 740-749. M. C. Bradbrook, Themes and essays for student, Conventions of Elizabethan Tragedy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1935). A. C. Bradley, Shakespearean Tragedy: Lectures on Hamlet, Othello, King Lear, and Macbeth (London: Macmillan, 1904). Nicholas Brooke, Shakespeare's Early Tragedies (London: Methuen, 1968). Cleanth Brooks, The Naked Babe and the Cloak of chemistry coursework analysis, Manliness, in bible and quran essays in scriptural intertextuality, his The Well-Wrought Urn (New York: Reynal Hitchcock, 1947), pp. 21-46.
Reuben A. Brower, Hero and Saint: Shakespeare and the Graeco-Roman Heroic Tradition (New York: Oxford University Press, 1971). Lily B. Campbell, Shakespeare's Tragic Heroes: Slaves of coursework, Passion (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1930). Paul A. Cantor, Shakespeare's Rome: Republic and Empire (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1976). Larry S. Champion, Shakespeare's Tragic Perspective: The Development of His Dramatic Technique (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1976). H. Resume And Hy? B. Charlton, Shakespearian Tragedy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1948). Maurice Charney, Shakespeare's Roman Plays: The Function of coursework analysis, Imagery in the Drama (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1961). Resume? Charney, Style in Hamlet (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1969). Dolora G. Cunningham, Macbeth: The Tragedy of the Hardened Heart, Shakespeare Quarterly, 14 (Winter 1963): 39-47. J. V. Chemistry Coursework? Cunningham, Woe or Wonder: The Emotional Effect of Shakespearean Tragedy (Denver: University of Denver Press, 1951).
John F. Danby, Shakespeare's Doctrine of vee, Nature: A Study of King Lear (London: Faber Faber, 1949). Alan C. Dessen, Hamlet's Poisoned Sword: A Study in Dramatic Imagery, Shakespeare Studies, 5 (1969): 53-69. Franklin M. Dickey, Not Wisely But Too Well: Shakespeare's Love Tragedies (San Marino, Cal.: Huntington Library, 1957). T. S. Eliot, Hamlet and His Problems, in his The Sacred Wood (London: Methuen, 1920).
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Glory Movie Essays and Research Papers. Glory is a movie about the 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry (during the chemistry analysis, Civil War), directed by key terms essay, Edward Zwick. It stars . Matthew Broderick, Denzel Washington, Cary Elwes and Morgan Freeman and chemistry coursework analysis, it was produced in 1989. The movie is based on Robert Gould Shaw’s personal letters, This Laurel by Lincoln Kirstein, and One Gallant Rush by Peter Burchard. Resume And Hy Vee. I watched this movie over winter break with my friends.
The movie was released on February 16th 1990 and it made about $26,828,365. Chemistry Coursework. The movie. 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry , African American , American Civil War 1537 Words | 4 Pages. Atish Shrestha APUSH January 8, 2013 Glory Glory is both an essays in scriptural intertextuality, awe inspiring and heart wrenching movie about . the first all black volunteer company to fight in the civil war. The movie starts off with Col. Robert Gould Shaw leading a company of soldiers in Antietam which suffers heavy losses. Soon he is promoted to Colonel and given command to chemistry analysis the 54th Massachusetts volunteer infantry; the resume and hy, first all black regiment. The first volunteer to coursework analysis sign up is an educated black man named Thomas Searles. 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry , 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Regiment , African American 843 Words | 3 Pages. Glory The film “ Glory ” shows the achievements towards equality that African Americans made during the council, Civil War. Hundreds of . Chemistry Coursework. black men enlist to of euthanasia essay fight in the civil war for the pride and respect they felt they deserved.
Glory is defined as “High renown honor won by notable achievements.” It is coursework analysis, adoration, praise, and prosperity. Glory is perfect happiness. This film shows many examples of resume vee how the analysis, first army consisting of key terms writing black men was able to experienced glory . The men in the 54th Regiment were. 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry , African American , American Civil War 980 Words | 3 Pages. ? Glory : Hollywood vs. History Glory is a movie about the 54th Massachusetts Infantry Regiment, one of the first . official all black units in the United States during the Civil War. It’s an inspirational story of how a young Union soldier, Robert Gould Shaw, is chemistry coursework, offered the essay, chance to lead an army unit that will change not only his life, but the lives of many other Americans. Glory does a great job of capturing many of the feelings towards the chemistry coursework analysis, black soldiers during the Civil War. The film is writing, based.
54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry , Darien, Georgia , Edward Needles Hallowell 1644 Words | 4 Pages. HIST 151 sec. 20 Prof. W.M. Sarf Term Paper: Glory 1989 Glory was a film directed by Edward Zwick.
The movie . Analysis. showed the first full black regiment under the command of historic hero of the Federal Union Army, Robert Gould Shaw, from how it was created and how it achieved fame. The setting of the film is the beginning of the Civil War in 1862. Robert Gould Shaw twenty three years old is a son of a wealthy Boston Abolitionist. Shaw registered to fight for the Federal government during the writing, Civil. 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry , American Civil War , Black people 1599 Words | 4 Pages.
Glory: Robert Gould Shaw and 54th Massachusetts Volunteer. Character, Dignity and Respect “ Glory ” Let’s begin by identifying the word’s Character, dignity and respect. Character is defined as the coursework analysis, . Law Degree Coursework. way someone thinks feels and behaves; it’s an individual’s personality. Dignity is defined as the appearance of self-control. Lastly respect is chemistry, defined as a feeling of admiring or something that is good, valuable and important. (Webster2013) All three of these traits are very important to essay have in chemistry coursework, individual’s life.
I choose to Watch “ Glory ”. In the key terms essay, film there are several. 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry , 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Regiment , Denzel Washington 1125 Words | 3 Pages. ?HMXP Mr. Stokes November 3, 2013 Glory For many Americans, the Civil War is but a distant event in our nation’s past, remembered only chemistry coursework analysis, . for the sake of passing an exam or impressing your peers at a dinner party. While this pivotal war may have taken place generations before us, its significance reverberates even today. Resume Vee. Within this war fueled by racial disagreements and political issues, one platoon stood up against the waves of injustice to boldly fight for their inalienable rights. When filmmaker. 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry , African American , Fort Wagner 1078 Words | 3 Pages.
The movie glory focuses on the 54th massachusetts regiment of all black soldiers during the civil war. It is based on letters . sent by coursework analysis, Robert Gould Shaw, who was born in Boston on October 10, 1837, to his parents. He was born to wealthy abolitionist parents, who had been aquainted with such people as Ralph Waldo Emerson, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Harriet Beecher Stowe and and hy, the famous abolitionist leader Frederick Douglass. The movie starts off with a war scene where Robert Gould Shaw (played by Mathew. 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry , Abolitionism , American Civil War 513 Words | 2 Pages. ? ” GLORY ” The movie “ Glory ” is . Chemistry Coursework Analysis. set around in the 19th century, and it captures the heroism of Colonel Robert Gould Shaw and the first black regiment in the Civil War, 54th Massachusetts. For Student Elections. An extremely talented cast comprising of Morgan freeman, Denzel Washington and crew. The movie earned five nominations in chemistry coursework analysis, the Academy awards for their work, out of which they bagged three, one for each cinematography, sound and supporting.
54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry , Academy Award , Academy Award for essays for student council, Best Actor 525 Words | 2 Pages. Dignity and Self-Respect Linda Muse Ethics PHI2000 – u05a1 Summer 2012 LMUSE@CAPELLAUNIVERSITY.EDU Professor Wentz Running Header: CHARACTER, . DIGNITY and SELF-RESPECT 2 Introduction The movie I chose to chemistry analysis watch was Glory (1989). Glory is the in africa essay, story of the 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry, the analysis, first formal unit of African American men, led by Colonel Robert Shaw, whom I have chosen to compare. The Colonel is a white man who fights the poverty in africa essay, bigotry of the enemy. 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry , Abraham Lincoln , Confederate States of chemistry America 987 Words | 3 Pages.
African-American Troops in the Civil War: the 54th Massachusetts. remained in the Department of the South, fighting in resume and hy, a number of actions before Charleston and analysis, Savannah. Law Degree Coursework. More than a century after the war the Fifty-fourth . Chemistry Coursework. remains the key terms, most famous black regiment of the war, due largely to the popularity of the movie Glory , which recounts the chemistry, story of the introduction, regiment prior to coursework and including the attack on Battery Wagner. To better show how the 54th felt underfire, here is a letter home from Orderly Sergeant W.N. Vee. Collins of the 54th Massachusetts Infantry accounting. 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry , Battle of coursework analysis Olustee , Frederick Douglass 1692 Words | 5 Pages. In the for student council, novel The Power and the Glory , Graham Greene sets up his readers to search for the power and glory represented in chemistry analysis, the . novel. The title’s main words connect not only many of the characters and their chronicles, but to the teachings of the Sermon on the Mount. The Priest unknowingly lives out a life comparable to one of bible and quran essays in scriptural intertextuality which is encouraged throughout the chemistry coursework analysis, Sermon on the Mount. He pursues his calling through acts in kindness rather than running away, when persecution is vee, near. The Lieutenant yearns.
Christian terms , Jimi Hendrix , Love 1730 Words | 4 Pages. Textual Evidence For Definition Essay. home after loosing his leg in Afghanistan “I didn’t do anything special, but if the coursework, progress I have made motivates another wounded veteran to and hy vee keep going, . then that’s great.” I chose this quote because it shows that a hero isn’t just in it for the glory or fame. A hero is coursework analysis, a hero because of their efforts to help. (SpringBoard 58). Where I Find My Heroes “We have a lot of for student corruption in chemistry coursework, our society. Essay. But we mustn’t assume that everything is always basely motivated. We should allow for the heroic. Abolitionism , Abraham Lincoln , Courage 452 Words | 2 Pages. ?“Hometown Glory ” Home is a dwelling place where one’s feelings are placed. It is chemistry, a place where one feels comfortable and and quran essays intertextuality, happy, but not . Chemistry Coursework. everyone has the same definition of home. Others may express home in different ways like in essays elections, a song, like artists who relate their music to personal experiences.
Adele’s “Hometown Glory ” expresses the definition of coursework home as a country that is united, diverse, and a place to appreciate. Essay Writing. This artist uses various literary items in her song to allow listeners to appreciate. Adele , Audience , Chasing Pavements 1187 Words | 3 Pages. ? Character, Self-respect and Dignity Analysis of The movie Glory Glory , a 1989 film based on the personal . letters of Colonel Robert Gould Shaw, the novel One Gallant Rush and chemistry analysis, Lay This Laurel. Robert Shaw trained and led the first black volunteer infantry in history during the civil war. Essays For Student Council Elections. The story line is full of racism, politics, corruption, loyalty, perseverance and chemistry analysis, identity. It is written as seen through the eyes of Officer Robert Gould Shaw and shows the valor and courage of and quran intertextuality a group. 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry , Fort Wagner , Frederick Douglass 1221 Words | 6 Pages.
The Power and the Glory by Graham Greene. The Power and the Glory by Graham Greene Book report by Allen Rabinovich It is the story-teller's task to elicit sympathy and a measure of . understanding for chemistry coursework, those who lie outside the law degree coursework, boundaries of State Approval. I. One day I gave The Power and the Glory to. a native of Mexico who had lived through the worst persecutions. Chemistry. She confessed that your descriptions were so vivid, your priest so real, that she found herself praying for him at Mass. I understand how she felt. Last year, on bible in scriptural a trip. Clergy , Curate , Graham Greene 1769 Words | 5 Pages. Trip and Shaw's Relationship in chemistry analysis, Glory. The film “ Glory ” has the law degree coursework, brilliance of a complex, interesting, and rounded character known as Trip.
Every so often, Trip displays the harsh . Coursework. racial issues during the Civil War. Trip is law degree, a runaway slave who has immense anger toward his country and white men. Because of the anger, he speaks time after time with bitterness toward blacks and whites. Throughout the coursework analysis, movie , Trip feeds off Robert Gould Shaw to become a man as well as to release all his anger toward the whites and the country. Trip has clashes. African American , Black people , Glory 702 Words | 2 Pages. High School Movie Genres: Fact or Fiction? The events that high school movies portray hardly seem real when compared to poverty our own encounters. . Most of us are not acquainted with half of the incidents shown in these films.
Surprisingly enough, the majority of high school students actually have a rather normal experience throughout their glory years. David Denby, a movie critic for the New Yorker proclaims, “Genre films dramatize not what happens but how things feel—the emotional coloring of memory”. Documentary film , Emotion , Film 1396 Words | 4 Pages. focuses on movie piracy. Chemistry Coursework. Movie Piracy by definition is the illegal copying of movies for key terms writing, personal or commercial use. This is a . new epidemic that is chemistry coursework, affecting the film industry financially on a global level. What are the necessary steps that can be taken on behalf of the film industry that can stop this illegal practice from occurring?
Once you walk down the city streets of New York, you can easily find vendors selling their bootleg DVD copies of new released movies for half the price of a movie ticket. Copyright , Copyright infringement , DVD 1330 Words | 4 Pages. Philosophy 101 10-11-10 Dr. Anderson Movie magic We have all gone to the movies and are taken away by a movie . experience, some movies can even be life changing. The whole experience of it boggles our mind, some times we want that movie to law degree be our life or get the oppertunity to view life in chemistry analysis, a different prospect because of a certain film. Movies can take us through an emotional rollercoaster. And Quran Essays In Scriptural Intertextuality. It not a coincidence that when a car race movie come out, like “Fast and the Furious” speeding.
Actor , Art , Film 917 Words | 3 Pages. What is in your movie ? ENG 225 Hannah Judson March 15, 2010 What is in your movie ? How does one analysis a . movie ? How does one watch a movie ? What are you looking for in the movie ? When you watch the chemistry analysis, movie , does the movie tell you a story or do you learn any life lessons from it? Movie making is considered an industry and an art form; as an artist media, it can come in poverty in africa essay, a form of expression. A movie has so many components intertwined into it to make it overall and complete. Chemistry. Therefore, is. Charlie Chaplin , Feature film , Film 2707 Words | 7 Pages.
Even though you might not see it at bible essays, first, The Movie Star seems to do a lot to coursework capture its readers from more then what they might initially . think. No matter what Simmons is saying by of euthanasia, his sport analogies, movie stats or bold statements about reader’s favorite actors, he seems to be able to easily intrigue you. Simmons clearly seems to know what his audience, from the people that fallow him from his fame in the sports world or if it’s the more pop-culture crowd enjoying the Grantland website. Reading. Actor , Celebrity , Character actor 1010 Words | 3 Pages. The facts and details about chemistry analysis, movie theatres compared to home theatres.
The facts and law degree coursework, details about movie theatres that are getting . out of the house, the movie theatre experience, and seen the newest movie out to date compared to the facts and details about chemistry analysis, home theatres that are staying in, no cost for anything, and no noisy children. Getting out bible and quran, of the house to drive to a movie is always an excited trip. Chemistry Analysis. Driving from introduction, your house to the theatre is a trip in it is on. Coursework Analysis. Maybe picking up some snacks. 2008 singles , Film , Home cinema 1509 Words | 4 Pages. The Bee Movie The bee movie is an animated fiction created by Dreamworks who have famously produced many other films such as . shrek 2, Antz, and many other animated films, however they are also well known for films such as the ring and coursework, transformers. The aim of chemistry analysis this poster is to for student council initially attract the target audience to watch it in cinemas.
This movie poster stands out of the normal everyday posters seen around. The colors, the chemistry, images and the writing all suggest ideologies and values that are tried. Bee Movie , Color , DreamWorks 1298 Words | 3 Pages. of historical films have been become one of the most popular concern not only among historians, film makers, but also us- normal people- society. Marnie . Hughes-Warrington analyses the relationship between history and law degree, media through “History goes to analysis movie ”. With some significant characteristic of resume and hy historical films: popularity and seriousness, persuasion and audience’s ambivalence, their role is neither entertainment nor education. Historical films are said to “reflect global interest in chemistry analysis, and uses of the.
Art , Culture , Entertainment 1164 Words | 4 Pages. Reassessment of the Movie Theaters Ashley Daniel Professor Hinds Principle of Marketing 100 November 6, 2012 The References These are . the resources I used to research my essay on repositioning The Movie Theater. I mostly used different websites and articles to and quran essays intertextuality help support my ideals of bringing back Movie Theater revenue and chemistry coursework, repositioned the theaters as well. Here are some of the author’s names: Continuum, Susan Lee: WWW.FASTCODESIGN.COM/…/HOW-DESIGN-THINKING.CAN-HELP-SAVE- MOVIE … Patricia Heriard. Box office , Film , Middle class 1264 Words | 4 Pages. Batman versus Superman movie set to come out in the upcoming years, movies are on essays for student the rise. Movie marketers flood the media with . different forms of advertisements to attract audiences to the films. Television commercials and movie previews are a huge marketing technique, but one form that has been around for much longer than commercials are movie posters. Coursework. Movie posters, if they are made correctly, are used to peak the essay, viewer’s interest and analysis, get an audience to attend the movie . In recent years, the. Audience theory , Box office , Coming out essays for student council elections, 947 Words | 3 Pages.
and to use cheaper, casual labour where possible. This could include lighting the glory hole, warming the ovens, cold production time and . Coursework. shipping . |Sunday |Monday |Tuesday |Wednesday |Thursday |Friday |Saturday | |Melting |Fining |2 hr Glory |2 hr Glory |2 hr Glory |2 hr Glory |2 hr Glory | | | |6 hr blowing |6 hr blowing . Cash , Cash flow , Drug prohibition law 956 Words | 5 Pages. “The Movie Theatre Industry” 1. Describe the five competitive forces in this industry. There are many things that the bible and quran essays intertextuality, movie . industry competes with. However, most extracurricular or leisure activity such as college or professional sports is considered a competitor in the movie industry. Interesting enough, research has found that people who rent and/or buy DVD’s and videos are more likely to attend movies at the theatre than those who don’t rent or purchase. DVD and video rental stores are still. Box office , Film , Film distributor 832 Words | 3 Pages. Joyce Simmons 802 Words Monday/Wednesday 2-3:15 Primary . Chemistry Analysis. Focus Film Evaluation Radio Years ago I watched a movie for the first time that honestly changed the resume vee, way I think. The movie Radio is based on the true story of James “Radio” Kennedy and analysis, T.L. Hanna High School football coach Harold Jones.
It tells the story of a young mentally challenged man who is essay, taken under the wing of a high school football. Actor , American film actors , Film 813 Words | 3 Pages. secondary research on movie theaters. visit was a movie theater in Woodbridge called Colossus. This is one of the highest traffic movie theaters I have ever been too, . and it remains highly rated. I chose this idea because I feel like it is chemistry, easy to gauge how a person feels about the environment from poverty in africa essay, just seeing their reactions and expressions from the time they are buying the ticket, to after the movie is chemistry coursework, finished. As I was conducting my secondary research, I found that key important factors as to what makes a great movie theater start.
Environment , Film , Movie projector 1590 Words | 5 Pages. CHAPTER-03 1. In Africa. What competitive forces have challenged the movie industry? What problems have these forces created? What changes have these . problems caused the movie televisions studios to make? Some competitive forces have challenged the chemistry analysis, movie industry such as – • Treats of new entrants • Substitute Products or services • Increasing bargaining power of customers • Increasing bargaining power of suppliers • Rivalry among existing competitors Those are. Film , Movie theater , Music industry 1117 Words | 4 Pages. Movie Distribution Industry Group 7 Market Overview The market analyzed in this report is the poverty essay, distribution sector of the . movie industry.
In order to chemistry analysis focus the in scriptural, scope of chemistry coursework analysis this report we are specifically looking at the distribution of films to movie theaters in Canada and the United States, and distinguishing the roles of for student council movie producers and distributors. It should be noted that home video viewing is also a large part of the chemistry coursework, movie distribution market, but is too dispersed and complex to include. Box office , Film , Film distributor 1678 Words | 6 Pages. With the law degree, growing number of chemistry coursework analysis internet users participating in movie piracy, this creates a network of users who no longer need to go the . movie theatre or video store to watch a movie . Movie piracy has grown enormously in in africa essay, the past few years making it easier than ever to coursework find box office releases with the simple click of a button. This creates a world where it is okay to steal billions of essays for student council dollars from movie producers, because most of those participating in coursework analysis, piracy see nothing wrong with it. Although. Box office , Copyright infringement , Film 1380 Words | 4 Pages. Today, the movie industry has become a huge moneymaker in the entertainment business. You cannot turn on essay the television without seeing . advertisements for the next big blockbuster film. While most of the chemistry analysis, films these days entertain with amazing special effects or raunchy comedy, there are still films that thrive because of great acting, directing, and editing. Law Degree Coursework. Three films that I believe would be great examples of the way these aspects can cause a film to excel are ?Any Given Sunday?, ?The Cell.
Film , Film director , Mind 1207 Words | 3 Pages. 2013 The Movie Industry in coursework analysis, 2008 (Case A amp; B) MBA Student: Waseem Hasan Ismail Submit to: TAGSB Administration 27 February 2013 . Table of Contents Introduction 3 The Movie Industry in 2008 (Case A) 4 PESTEL Analysis – External Environmental 4 Porter’s five Analysis 4 Profitability Model for bible and quran in scriptural, movie theaters 4 Key strategic issues facing movie theaters 4 Strategic actions that exhibitions might consider 4 The Movie Industry in 2008 (Case B) 4 Outlook for chemistry coursework, the movie industry improved. Customer , Film , Income 1602 Words | 7 Pages. Depth Analysis of the Movie Crash will provide a broad analysis of the movie Crash, and yet a specific picture of visual narrative techniques and audio techniques. The . categories contributing to the nucleus and major movie components are theatrical elements, cinematography, editing, and sound. Essay. The Academy Award winning movie Crash is a story about society's controversial subjects projected in an in your face depiction of analysis lives that in some way or another, cross. Depth Analysis of the Movie Crash The over-all theme of the key terms essay writing, film. Cinematic techniques , Citizen Kane , Don Cheadle 2037 Words | 7 Pages. fatigue” and left with no glory as the nature of war destroys all hopes for these men.
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watching a movie in the cinema vs at home. ?compare and contrast: watching a movie in the cinema vs at in scriptural intertextuality, home Humanity always has been seeking for bigger and better conditions of coursework . lifestyles since the dawn of time. Since the big screen was invented, movies have revolutionized our lifestyle into key terms essay a new millennium, Movies defined our view to the world and changed it, we learn new lessons each time we watch a movie . Chemistry Analysis. It inspires us and sometimes motivates us. And Quran Essays. Movies can touch a man’s soul, who of us doesn’t have the movie that literally changes of how. Film , Movie projector , Movie studio 1143 Words | 3 Pages. detail on chemistry analysis the website Mormon Beliefs . (http://www.mormonbeliefs.org/mormon_beliefs/mormon-beliefs-the-plan-of-salvation/the-plan-of-salvation-the-degrees-of- glory ). Vee. The Three Degrees of Glory , as discussed in mormonbeliefs.org, are the Celestial Kingdom, Terrestrial Kingdom, and Telestial Kingdom. Those eligible for Celestial Glory are those Latter-day Saints who have been baptized, kept the commandments, and taken the Temple oaths, and have been sealed in the Temple to their spouse. The. Christianity , Degrees of glory , Doctrine and chemistry coursework analysis, Covenants 3377 Words | 6 Pages. ?RETIRING of an AMERICAN FLAG The flag of the United States of America is an honored symbol of our nation's unity, it's hopes, it's achievements, it's . glory and it's high resolve. Introduction Essay. When the flag is in such condition, through wear or damage, that it is no longer a fitting emblem for display, it shall be destroyed in a dignified manner befitting such a symbol.
The traditional way is to cut the flag into pieces and burn it in a modest but blazing fire. As we perform this respected duty. Continental Army , Flag of the United States , Old Glory 1150 Words | 4 Pages. The Movie Exhibition Industry 2011. Business Strategy 491BMAL November 10, 2013 The Movie Exhibition Industry: 2011 What can exhibitors do to chemistry coursework improve their performance? To . reverse the downward trends in attendance? To improve their profitability at essays, a time when the studios, relying on the box office more than ever, are increasingly looking internationally?
Let’s start with a SWOT analysis of the local exhibitor: SWOT Analysis Strengths * Offer a product that is chemistry analysis, still relatively affordable for families and patrons * Product. Film , Marketing , Movie theater 1186 Words | 4 Pages. The Movie Exhibition Industry Case Analysis. exhibitors. Of Euthanasia. Finally, exhibitors are movie theaters owners, controlling anywhere from a single-screen theater in a local community to a . nationwide chain of multiplexes. Exhibitors are not vertically integrated with distributors and fully independent to pursue their own profit-maximizing strategies. There are three primary sources of chemistry revenue for exhibitors: concessions, advertising, and box office receipts. Exhibitors seek to and hy vee maximize their profit from selling movie tickets and chemistry, concessions. Overall. Economic growth , Economics , Film 2199 Words | 6 Pages. is very considerate, she understood that I was not willing to take a shower in and quran in scriptural, this cold weather then she prepare for chemistry coursework analysis, me a big vessel of for student elections warm water.
After . showering, she made for me a very delicious and traditional food, egg boiled, water morning glory with soya cheese and stir-fried medium sized edible snail which she collect in the field. After a cozy dinner, we moved to the living room and shared all the funny things in the way to get there, talking about the chemistry, differences between the life in poverty, the. A Big Family , Family , Grandparent 964 Words | 4 Pages. Online Movie Downloads: the Future of Modern Film Viewing. For the past one hundred plus years numerous people have escaped the daily grind of life via the movie cinema. In fact, the . movie cinema has been around in both America and Europe since 1905 when the first nickelodeon theatres sprang into existence (Pellettieri, 2007). Viewing a movie at the local cinema was for many generations a rite of passage for weekend activity. As time has passed movie viewing venues have brought the theatre into our homes via video tapes and Digital Video Disk (commonly.
Film , Film distributor , ITunes Store 2177 Words | 6 Pages. Text 6: Glory Glory Be to coursework analysis Chocolate- Naught But Nic Contextual detail: Taken from the authors book “From the Devils Pulpit” the . text was publish in 1997 and was written by law degree coursework, the author John Agard. John Agard is a man who was born in Guyana. This is significant because Guyana is located on coursework analysis the Caribbean Coast of South America, a country where simple foods are seen as luxurious as they have one of the poorest economies of South America. Text 6 Genre Poem taken from a section of the introduction of euthanasia, book “From the chemistry, Devil’s.
Audience , Caribbean , Food 1206 Words | 12 Pages. ?Case 2 The Movie Industry in 2008 YU-TING, TSAI Do you like Movies? If I am the resume vee, person to answer the question, I would definitely say . yes. The reason why people like movies is coursework, that I can have a couple hours off without any other thoughts in mind. I really feel relax when I’m watching a movie . However, in the case it calls the law degree coursework, movie industry was a study in analysis, contradiction. In the for student council elections, case it listed out few points. Chemistry Coursework Analysis. First, the numbers of and quran essays in scriptural theaters is declining, but the number of screens is at analysis, an all-time. Barriers to entry , Competition , Film 1581 Words | 4 Pages. Case Study Movie Exhibition Industry.
Strategic Analysis of Movie Exhibition Industry By: Kim Saline February 24, 2010 Objective: To provide an analysis and coursework, make . recommendations to increase revenue in the movie exhibition industry. Overview: Ticket sales for movie theaters are at their lowest point since 1996. With the core demographic group expected to grow slower than the US population and with technological advances growing at speeds faster than the industry can keep up, ticket sales will continue to decline if the chemistry analysis, current. Box office , Film , Film distributor 1523 Words | 5 Pages. Com 156 Final Movie Theatres vs Netflix.
?Week 7 Assignment 1 – Rough Draft – Movie Theatres vs. Movies at Home Daniel Lunden Linda Iaccino 12/8/13 COM 155 . While watching a movie in theaters and watching a movie at home delivers the same content to viewers, the experience is very different. Movie theatres have been around since the 1900’s and before recently, were the only option a person had if they wanted to watch a movie . Fast-forward to and quran in scriptural 2013, and it is analysis, a very different story; with high speed. Box office , Film , Film distributor 840 Words | 3 Pages. Stanley Kubrick: Pessimist or Optimist? landed a job as a staff photographer at “Look” magazine and spent the next few years traveling throughout the United States working on photographic . Coursework. assignments. Meanwhile, Stanley had also developed a keen interest in chemistry, cinema and attended as many movie screenings as his busy schedule would permit. By 1951, when he was just 23 years old, he had begun to dream of becoming a film director. He used his own savings to finance his first film, a 13-minute documentary short about the boxer Walter Cartier. Day of the Fight , Film director , Optimism 1031 Words | 3 Pages. Describe the Most Interesting Movie That You Have Seen.
You should say; What is the title? When did you see it? What is the poverty essay, story about? And explain why this movie was interesting to you. . Last summer, my family and coursework analysis, I went to AMC Movie Theater in Cupertino and enjoyed a movie entitled “Journey to the Center of the essays council, Earth”. It was a Science Fiction and analysis, adventure movie in three-dimensions. Essays For Student. We enjoyed state-of –the-art computer graphics in the movie . For instance, when a dinosaur chased the characters, I was on chemistry analysis edge as if I were with them. The movie’s. Cinema of the United States , Film , Film genres 1694 Words | 6 Pages. Watching movies has been one of the most popular forms of entertainment. Different people have different was to enjoy the movies.
Some prefer going to the . movie theaters while others like watching DVDs at home. From my point of view, the writing, better place to view a movie is in theaters. There are three main reasons for my answer. Firstly, movie theaters are well equipped to give the chemistry coursework, best quality to viewers. It cannot be denied that theaters can bring viewers a more realistic sensation and more amazing.
Entertainment , Film , Movie projector 519 Words | 2 Pages.
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“The Merchant of chemistry coursework, Venice” as a Tragicomedy Essay. ** Consider the play as a tragicomedy. Shakespeare’s ‘The Merchant of Venice’ is a comedy with a difference. It was written almost certainly between 1596 1598. The play is classed as one of the 16 comedy plays but it is also a ‘problem’ play due to the tragic elements woven throughout the intricate plot. The play concludes with a harmonious ending but all through the plot, reoccurring themes of writing, sadness and tragedy are included. In terms of dramatic structure, “The Merchant of Venice” is undoubtedly a comedy. It follows the typical upward trajectory of comedy (beginning complication to ending resolution. Act 1 introduces the coursework analysis plays main complication, but it also sets the tone for comic expectation by establishing upward rhythm of comedy in each of its three scenes.
Antonio and Portia’s melancholy are shortly alleviated by appropriate distractions hope. Bassanio hopes to thrive, Antonio tries to help his friend, Portia will not have to worry about being chosen by the suitors she has mocked. Resume And Hy? Bassanio and Antonio get what they mistakenly but happily think is a friendly loan and Shylock mistakenly and happily, he has hit upon a winning scenario. After the opening act has set the rhythm and expectation of chemistry coursework, comedy, there is in scriptural intertextuality increasing fluctuation of the rising and dashing of coursework, hopes because of the various characters choices. Raised hopes and satisfaction however outweigh dashed hopes and dissatisfaction. Launcelot, Jessica, Lorenzo, Portia, Nerrisa, Gratiano Antonio all escape the danger they most fear and realize their aspirations. Morocco, Arragon, Shylock and Antonio all suffer losses.
However, Morocco and Arragon receive the strict justice of their penalty that they swore oaths to accept but both Shylock Antonio are spared death half of their financial losses are recovered. The plot devices used in “The Merchant of Venice” are quite typical of romantic comedies. For example, external forces keep the lovers apart, not by shortcomings in their own characters or incompatibility. These forces include arbitrary laws restrictions (the conditions of Portia’s fathers will) cases of mistaken identity, often involving the wearing of disguises. “The Merchant of Venice” is a play about friendship love. In the first scene itself Antonio displays the nature of love friendship he feels for Bassanio, “My purse, my person, my extremest means lie all unlocked to your occasions”. There is also a predominance of young people and many pairs of lovers and multiple marriages are present in the play. Another common feature of comedies is that the original problem is often less important and complex than the original solution.
This is certainly true in “The Merchant of Venice”. Essay? At the chemistry beginning of the play, Bassanios ‘problem’ is supposedly that he wants to repay the debt he owes Antonio Even though Antonio does not care Very much about getting his money back. Bassanio’s solution to this problem courting and marrying a beautiful heiress promises to be pleasant enough for him but requires turning Antonio into introduction essay, a debtor himself even endangering his very life. Only in the world of coursework analysis, comedy would this sequence of coursework, events be accepted without question. However, “The Merchant of Venice” is too dark to chemistry coursework analysis be considered merely as a romantic comedy. It has come more more to essay be seen as a play, which introduces into Shakespearean comedy a range of disturbing tones. Even if we allow structure to dominate, arguing that love wins over hatred Shylock is primarily a function of the overall design, there are too many disquieting elements to allow any complacency.
Shylock far from chemistry coursework analysis being a mere plot device, is a character of considerable dramatic power he is presented as embodying an intractable mixture of racial vulnerability obdurate insistence upon the inviolability of commercial legal facts. He was hindered and insulted by Antonio for which he wants to kill the merchant. His thrust for and quran in scriptural intertextuality revenge suggests an coursework analysis, anger that a petty spirit could not feel. At the end of the essays play, he is left without the props of his life and although he is considered the villain, one cannot help feeling sorry for him. The title character Antonio belongs in a different kind of play. His mysterious sadness his apparent willingness to die to prove his love for Bassanio suggest the world of tragedy. His ill treatment of Shylock makes him a rather dark hero. The bond he signs with Shylock is unromantically explicit about the three-month term and the consequences of forfeiture.
His contempt for Shylock finds no comic expression at the end of the chemistry analysis play, he is the odd man out key terms writing among the pairs of happy lovers. Love is not the chemistry coursework analysis only dominant interest of the for student elections play unlike Shakespeare’s other romantic comedies. The play could easily be one that is dealing with issues of Jewry and usury that were very contemporary. Bassanio as a romantic hero is not a lovesick languishing figure but his motives are rather dubious. The climax of the chemistry coursework play is not the resume and hy vee love story, as it should be in chemistry a romantic comedy but in the trial scene that comes rather late.
‘The Merchant of Venice is also unconventional because it mingles the people of the law degree coursework aristocracy with lower class characters(such as, Shylock the clown Launcelot Gobo), even though , according to the reigning critical theory of that time, only upper class characters were appropriate to chemistry tragedy while member of the middle and lower classes were the proper subject solely of introduction essay, comedy. The play also presents a threat of death to its main protagonist Antonio that is suddenly at coursework analysis the end by bible and quran Portia’s ingenious casuistry in the trial scene. ‘The Merchant of Venice’ contains both tragic comic elements. Coursework Analysis? It also mingles the upper lower class characters there is a reversal of fortune. Essay? All these elements are typical of chemistry, tragicomedy. Therefore, we can conclude that ‘The Merchant of Venice’ is a tragicomedy. **Is Shylock justified in in africa essay seeking revenge? In Shakespeare’s ‘The Merchant of Venice’, the antagonist Shylock seems to be the pivotal character determining the 20th century interpretation of the play. Shylock is an chemistry analysis, example of a character so dynamic that it takes over from the resume and hy writer assumes dimensions of an independent entity. Chemistry Coursework? He evokes an interest that is beyond the scope of the play.
Shylock is a wealthy Jewish moneylender in bible essays in scriptural intertextuality Venice. He lends Antonio three thousand ducats on the promise that if it is coursework analysis not repaid, the forfeiture shall be a pound of Antonio’s flesh. By placing a pound of flesh as collateral, Shylock is able to envision his revenge all too clearly. By eliminating Antonio, Shylock will not only fuel his thirst for vengeance but would also eliminate his leading competition. Antonio by bible and quran in scriptural lending money at no interest had thwarted Shylock in analysis his bid to acquire even more gold, which he valued more than anything else. So when Antonio defaults on his loan, Shylock relentlessly demands absolute compliance with the terms of the agreement. However, it is simply too easy to label Shylock as a hate driven moneygrubber bent on killing Antonio. In fact, when one looks at the terms of the agreement, and the treatment Shylock has received over the years, one could argue he is completely justified. In the essays elections text, we read of Antonio spiting on Shylock in the past, calling him dog insulting him in chemistry front of other merchants.
He calls Shylock a ‘cur’ and belittle him for his religious belief. Shakespeare is essays elections successful in creating an environment rich with people but exclusive to only Christians. For a lone Jew in a sea of Christians it appears life can be very lonely. Coursework Analysis? Even at the point of the transaction, his contempt for the ‘Jew’ was obviously apparent- “I am as like to essays for student call thee so again, To spit on thee again, to spur thee too” By displaying his utter disregard for Shylock, Antonio creates an enemy who simply salivates at the prospect of some payback when Antonio comes to ask for a loan. Treated as less than a second-class citizen for far too long, Shylock found it more than a bit hypocritical that the same Christians who cursed and spit upon him for coursework being a moneylender now came willingly to him in their time of need. This is a crucial moment in the drama, and outlines a clear moral dilemma.
At this point, we beg for Shylock to practice a truly humane principle, thus teaching his tormentors then true meaning of religion. But alas, Shylock is too blinded by hate to forgive for resume better or worse as readers, we can understand this. Jessica’s betrayal makes Shylock more determined to seek his revenge. With one blow, Shylock loses his daughter and huge portion of chemistry coursework analysis, his hard-earned fortune due to Jessica’s disloyalty. The fact that the poverty essay Christians knew about it and later taunts him about it shows the extent of prejudice that existed in that society. Shylock’s speech- “If a Jew wrongs a Christian what is his humility? Revenge. If a Christian wrongs a Jew, what should his sufferance be by Christian example?
Why, revenge. Chemistry Analysis? The villainy you teach me, I will execute, it shall go hard but I will better the instruction.” The above mentioned quote, briefly, explains Shylocks motives and drive in his pursuit of a pound of essay, flesh. For one so obsessed with money, the fact that he would be willing to forsake a decent sum in the pursuit of vengeance speaks volumes of hatred and animosity between Shylock Antonio. Justifiably bitter over his treatment by a hypocritical Christian society, Shylock focuses his revenge so sharply, that he is blind to anything else. Our understanding of this fact does not lessen the horror we feel at chemistry his cruelty towards Antonio but, we are able to remember that the passion for revenge is a common human failing. In my opinion, Shylock was justified in seeking revenge, but he takes it too far.
He was victimized but one is and quran intertextuality also repulsed by his treatment of coursework, his daughter and for student elections, his mercenary attitude. Although I think that his seeking revenge against Antonio was reasonable, his way of executing it was not. ** The contrast between Belmont and Venice. In ‘The Merchant of Venice’ Shakespeare creates an interesting contrast between the coursework mercantile, tumultuous city of Venice and and hy, the peaceful, gracious world of Belmont. The striking difference between these two settings helps to capture and maintain our attention. Analysis? There are differences in the value of of euthanasia essay, systems of the people belonging to the two different cities. To understand the play we must first look at the setting. The play is not set in chemistry analysis the year it was written.
Instead, Shakespeare looks back in time to the beginning of the Renaissance. Venice, a city-state in Italy, was a crossroads for crusaders, a money-lending centre of Europe. Venice fascinated the essay writing Elizabethans, as it was commercially hospitable to people from all parts of the world e.g. Coursework Analysis? Greeks, Jews and Protestants. Poverty In Africa Essay? The city was also a trading centre of great importance. Analysis? Venice itself was Catholic city and politically independent. A place of great beauty, luxury and extremely artistic. A second setting of the play transports us to Belmont, which contrasts, with Venice in its fairy tale outlooks and musical interludes. It is in Belmont that love blooms, honesty and peace prevails everywhere. The atmosphere of Venice is almost like a romantic fairy tale and Portia is like the beautiful princess who cannot marry until the right man arrives to choose the right casket. As long as she is imprisoned by her fathers will, Portia must remain in Belmont and wait for her prince to come and rescue her.
The distinction between Venice and essay writing, Belmont is coursework analysis that one place is where money is made and the other is where it is spent. One is characterized by and quran intertextuality light, sunshine, and the other by moonlight and music. Wealth is described in almost sensuous terms like when Salerio says. “…touching but my gentle vessels side …Enrobe the roaring waters with my silks”. Moreover, in chemistry coursework an ironic way, later love is talked about in commercial terms. Another dissimilarity is presented when the scenes shift from Venice to law degree Belmont. Analysis? When we hear of Shylock’s hatred and key terms essay, his terms of the bond, our anxiety builds. Chemistry Coursework Analysis? Then the play moves on to Belmont and the mood shifts from a sort of harshness and tension to a world of romance and courteousness.
The most striking disparity is between the courtroom scene in Act 4 and the opening scene of act 5, which takes place on a starlit, romantic night in Belmont. Belmont in contrast to Shylocks Venice is full of music. Law Degree Coursework? Starting with the music to accompany Bassanios choice, Portia tells us that “music is/Even as the flourish when true subjects bow/To a new crowned monarch.” “A Flourish of Cornets” announces Morocco’s entrance, his introduction to the caskets, and his exit. Arragon is introduced to chemistry analysis the caskets by another flourish. A song accompanies Bassanios choice. Essay? In Act 5, Bassanio’s ‘tucket’ heralds his victorious return to Belmont. These trumpeting are signs that the people of Belmont observe rituals or ceremony. In Venice, ceremony runs into difficulties.
Gratiano regrets that “we have not made good preparation’ for the masque at Bassanio’s house. Solanio agrees “‘Tis vile unless it may be quaintly ordered/And better in my mind not undertook”. The ill fated masque is eventually cancelled when the inconstant wind unceremoniously changes for Belmont. At the end of the play we see that Belmont clearly extend its influence over Venice. The theme of mercy comes with Portia from Belmont and eventually spreads over Venice. Shakespeare is a shrewd dramatic engineer and in words of Joan Holmer he “fashions an coursework, artistic unity out of the richly varied and often contradictory elements that constitute The Merchant of Venice”.
By creating, a difference between Venice and Belmont Shakespeare makes the play even more appealing and as readers, we sure can appreciate this. University/College: University of Arkansas System. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 20 June 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on “The Merchant of key terms writing, Venice” as a Tragicomedy. for only $16.38 $13.9/page.
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analytical law essay How to develop and write an analytic essay. Argument : Writing an analytic essay requires that you make some sort of chemistry coursework analysis, argument. The core of this argument is called a thesis. It is your claim, succinctly stated in a single sentence. What do budding literary critics such as yourselves argue about? You make a pervasive, persistent case that a certain thing is true about law degree coursework a piece of literature. This thing should not be readily obvious to the casual reader of the chemistry analysis, literature in bible and quran essays in scriptural intertextuality question. It is what you draw out of the chemistry, book or essay, how you interpret it. It is essays for student a claim that must be supported by specific evidence from the text.
Thesis statement: At least once during the course of writing your essay, isolate what you consider to be your thesis. Is your proposition both arguable and reasonable? If it is coursework analysis obvious (i.e. Mary Rowlandson used the Bible for comfort during her captivity) you don’t have an argument. Argument requires analysis (i.e. taking things apart and coursework, explaining them). One test that may help is asking yourself what the opposite side of coursework, your argument would be. A good, complicated thesis (which was proposed by one of your classmates) is that Although Mary Rowlandson says she often used the Bible as a source of comfort during her captivity, a closer reading of her narrative suggests her faith may have been more troubled by her experience than she lets on. One useful structure for writing thesis statements is the although form used above: Although x seems to be true about poverty in africa this piece of literature, y is in fact more true (or makes our thinking about x more complex). In this form you present both sides of your argument at once and show which side you’re on. Your job in the paper is to convince your reader to join you. Another way to write an effective thesis statement is to use the form If we look closely at x (e.g. Chemistry Coursework Analysis. how Bradford defines freedom) we discover y (that ). In order to poverty essay find something to argue: Look for chemistry analysis, images or metaphors that the author uses consistently.
What other sort of pattern can you identify in the text? How do you interpret this pattern so that your reader will understand the book, essay, poem, speech, etc. better? What philosophical, moral, ethical, etc. ideas is the author advocating or opposing? What are the consequences of accepting the author's argument? Explain how the key terms essay writing, work functions as a piece of rhetoric-- how does the author attempt to convince his or her reader of something? For instance, what widely held beliefs do they use to support their argument? How do they appeal to emotions, logic… Re-examine something that the chemistry analysis, text or most readers take for resume and hy, granted (that Thoreau’s book Walden represents his attempt to escape from society).
Question this major premise and see where it takes you. Ask yourself if an coursework analysis, author’s literary argument is inconsistent with itself or is in some way philosophically dangerous, inadequate, unethical, or misleading. Examine how characters are presented in a story. How do they help the main character to develop? Which characters are trustworthy? Which are not? Why are they presented this way? What counts as evidence: Structure : How the parts of the book or essay follow one another; how the parts are assembled to make a whole?
Why does the author start where they start, end where they end? What is the in africa essay, logical progression of thought? How might that progression be intended to affect the chemistry coursework, reader What effect might this progression of intertextuality, ideas have on chemistry coursework analysis, a generic reader or on a reader from the time period in which the work was written? Does the essays for student council elections, piece move from the analysis, general to the specific or vice versa? If you could divide the book/essay into sections, units of meaning, what would those sections be?
How are they related to each other? Note that chapters, while they form obvious sections can themselves be grouped. Referring to the text : In writing analytic papers that address any kind of literature, it is necessary to refer to the text (the specific words on the page of the book) in order to support your argument. Key Terms Essay Writing. This means that you must quote and interpret passages that demonstrate or support your argument. Chemistry Analysis. Quotation is usually stronger than paraphrase. Remember also that your purpose in essays for student council writing an essay is not merely to paraphrase or summarize (repeat) what the chemistry coursework, author has said, but to make an argument about essays for student council how the make their point, or how they have said what they have said. Language : includes the way an author phrases his or her sentences, the key metaphors used (it’s up to chemistry coursework you to explain how these metaphors are used, why these metaphors are appropriate, effective, ineffective, or ambiguous). Is the way a sentence is phrased particularly revealing of the author’s meaning? Practical Essay-writing Hints: Please title your paper and make the essay, title apt and enticing--I LOVE a good title. It puts me in a good mood before I start reading.
Be clear about whether you’re writing about coursework analysis a book, an essay (non-fiction, short prose), a story (short fiction) a poem, a novel (book-length fiction), an autobiography, a narrative (as in Captivity Narratives) etc. Walden is a book comprised of chapters. Each of these chapters could also be called an essay. Within these essays, Thoreau sometimes tells stories. The book itself is not a story, but closer to a narrative, which is non-fiction. Bible And Quran Essays In Scriptural Intertextuality. Always go through at least two drafts of chemistry coursework analysis, you paper . Let your paper sit, preferably for 24 hours between drafts sometime during the process of your writing. Eliminate first person pronoun (I) in your final draft (it’s OK for rough drafts and essays council, may help you write). If your paragraphs are more a full page or more in length it is analysis more than likely that they are tooooooo long . Probably you have too many ideas in the air at once. Consider breaking the paragraph in half--into two smaller, but related arguments.
Your reader needs a break, needs more structure in order to essay be able to follow your meaning. If several of chemistry coursework analysis, your paragraphs are exceedingly short (4-5 lines), it is likely that you are not developing your ideas thoroughly enough--that you are writing notes rather than analysis. Short paragraphs are usually used as transitional paragraphs, not as content paragraphs. (Short paragraphs can be used in the rhetorical devise of reversal where you lead your reader down a certain path (to show them one side of the essays, argument, the one you are going to coursework oppose) and then turn away from that argument to state the true argument of your paper.) Employ quotation often. One quotation per argumentative paragraph is usually necessary. Depending upon the length and complexity of the passage or topic you're dealing with, more quotations may be useful to prevent you from introduction essay, getting too far away from the text. Your quotations combined with your interpretations are your proof. Be sure that you show your reader how they should interpret these quotations in order to follow your argument. (Almost every quotation should be followed by an interpretation, a deeper reading of what is being said and how its being said. This interpretation demonstrates how the quotation supports the analysis, claim you're making about it). Pay attention to metaphor, phrasing, tone, alliteration, etc. How is the author saying what they are saying--what does that teach us about the bible and quran essays in scriptural, text? Remember to write directive (sometimes called topic) sentences for your paragraphs . Chemistry Analysis. The first sentence of any paragraph should give your reader an idea of what the paragraph is going to say and how the paragraph will connect to introduction the larger argument.
It should have more to do with what you have to coursework analysis say about the essay, materials than what the chemistry analysis, author him or herself has said. Transitions between paragraphs : try to get away from using The next, First of all Another thing. Coursework. to connect your paragraphs. This is the chemistry, list method of structuring a paper--not an integrated, logical approach. A really strong transition makes the logical connection between paragraphs or sections of a paper and gives the reader a sense that you’re building an argument. To make sure you are making a well-connected argument, ask yourself how the introduction essay, last sentence of each paragraph and the first sentence of the next are connected. Each of the sentences within your paragraphs should be related somehow (follow from, refer to, etc.) the one that precedes it, and the one which follows it. Coursework. This will help the reader follow the essay, flow of your ideas. The order of chemistry coursework analysis, your paragraphs should reveal a developing argument.
On the and quran essays in scriptural intertextuality, most basic level, you should be able to consciously justify the presence and placement of every word in every sentence, every sentence in every paragraph, every paragraph in every essay . To repeat: in revising your papers after the first draft (which is analysis always, inevitably to some degree confused because you are involved in the process of working your ideas out), you should be highly conscious of what you are doing and of euthanasia, why you are doing it.
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?Fred Cotten Descriptive Essay September 27, 2014 English 1010 - 85 A Mini Vacation to law degree Atlanta, Georgia Traveling is chemistry coursework analysis one . of my family’s favorite things to do. The family has visited numerous places throughout the United States, however, none are as memorable as Atlanta, Georgia. In Atlanta, there are many places to go and sights to see such as: Cola-cola factory, Cabbage Patch Kids Factory, Under Ground Mall, the Zoo, Atlanta Braves Stadium, Six Flags Over Georgia, Stone Mountain Park, and. 1996 Summer Olympics , Atlanta , Atlanta metropolitan area 788 Words | 3 Pages. My first Car Enc1101 March 11, 2012 Descriptive essay My first car was my first most prized possession. Vee! I’d named her, . tested her out on interstates, and took good care of her like she was one of chemistry coursework analysis, my children. She had mirror tinted windows and was deep ocean blue that gleamed in the summer sun, she was flawless. I will never forget my first out of town drive to Tallahassee- smoothest, fastest ride ever! Had it not been for the scenery I would’ve felt like I was driving in a race. I remember.
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Even though your descriptive essay is chemistry coursework analysis more personal than a standard five-paragraph or compare-contrast essay , there is poverty in africa essay still quite a bit of homework to coursework analysis be done. Here is a list of important rules. Emotion , Essay , Essays 1406 Words | 5 Pages. Ivory Koehn 9/10/2010 Descriptive Essay Under The Raised Hand Prologue When I was a young girl learning about life and . love, I always thought that some man would sweep me off my feet and it was my fate to essays council be with him and only him. My mother was not a big fan of love and fate. She didn’t have a very good history of guys and relationships. She would always tell us love was not a reality and chemistry we should find someone with a lot of money.
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?Icesus Holland Brenda White English 101 16 September 2013 Descriptive Essay The beach is one of the most beautiful . Chemistry! places in the world. And Quran In Scriptural Intertextuality! Before visiting, I had only been to the four states, which is the stringy grassy fields, the forest of chemistry coursework analysis, trees, the coursework, smelly white and chemistry black cows and vee pink curly tailed pigs. See I had never seen any other states but Missouri, Kansas, Oklahoma, and coursework Arkansas. I love the introduction essay, picture in my head but it was nice to finally see something different. When my boyfriend. 1996 albums , 2005 singles , Akira Kurosawa 1256 Words | 4 Pages. Descriptive essay example If you are having problems with writing of a descriptive essay you . should certainly look for a descriptive essay example (or even maybe several examples). Descriptive essays have their distinctive features and compulsory elements. A writer has to chemistry develop chosen topic in such a way, so that reader have no further questions on law degree, the issue.
What are these issues? These may be people, events, facts etc. Coursework! Descriptive essay examples will certainly help aspiring writers compose. Emotion , Essay , Essays 738 Words | 3 Pages. ?Name Professor Course Name and Number Date Descriptive Essay One of tha problems with growing older is losing tha wonder and bible . fascination of tha world that children see. With tha everyday drudgery of life, it gets harder and harder to analysis see tha world with tha child like perspective that we all once did. This is tha reason that having children has been so exciting because I can once again regain tha opportunity to see tha world through thair innocent, creative eyes. Thare are few places where tha. Disney Vacation Club , Epcot , Magic Kingdom 1533 Words | 6 Pages.
the absolutely best part of any school day. I was put in between a rock and a hard place. As everyone else started fileling out coursework, of the . room , a silence began to pervade the coursework, place. Law Degree Coursework! Eventually I was alone, sitting in chemistry, a desk with a half lightly drawn potion of California on and quran in scriptural, my paper. Eventually I just put my pencil down and chemistry analysis started to look around the essays in scriptural, class room . It’s truly amazing how the absence of sound and chemistry coursework analysis souls can change a place. As the writing, clock ticked onwards, my mind came to recollect the perfectly.
2006 albums , Classroom , Mind 1495 Words | 4 Pages. Chandell Gabler English 099-22-Intro to College Writing 9:05-10:15 am Professor Braxton-Robinson/Professor Sheffield Assignment: Write a . Coursework! Descriptive Essay describing a storm you have witnessed. The storm I witnessed was Hurricane Sandy. When I first heard of the hurricane I thought it wouldn't be as bad as some people were prediciting, but as the storm approached I certainly changed my mind. As we sat in the house it became very real how bad the storm was going to introduction essay be. It was scary to.
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essays about trees The following are the prize winning essays from the essay competition held at Tashidingkha MSS in commemoration of Social Forestry Day 2014: We are not new to the fact that trees, humans and other organisms must coexist in harmony. Trees are the chemistry, basic source of life. Forget the world; let us talk about poverty essay our country. The forest cover in Bhutan is analysis, providing us with all our fundamental needs and other countless number of things. Others need not be mentioned, though equally important, we are being provided with free flowing water for bible and quran essays in scriptural intertextuality agriculture and coursework analysis hydropower generation which is the heart of our country’s economy. In the last few decades, forest cover in Bhutan had been rapidly disappearing. In the 1960s Bhutan took a big leap towards modernization from isolation. Tough not literally, we had been bringing destruction on our country ever since. “Modernization is replacing forest covers, with others not yet talked about.” That would be the key terms, most appropriate phrase to chemistry coursework analysis, describe the essays council, chain of events taking place in the country since then. With modernization, population in Bhutan boomed, assisted by the boost of country’s economy and coursework analysis social services.
This led to fragmentation of essays for student elections free land and clearing of forests. Coursework. Trees were, and are, being cut down extensively to meet the wants of the people. Moreover, higher demand for land for agriculture and other purposes are met with deforestation. We know, but we are not aware, that it’s just the waging wars against essays council elections, ourselves. While forest cover is disappearing the whole world is experiencing devastating natural disasters. Coursework Analysis. We all know these are the consequences of our primitive careless manners. Some of these disasters are landslides, Glacial Lake Outburst Flood, etc. The world is working towards preserving what we are left with in unison. It has now realized the fact that without trees no living beings can exist. The government of Bhutan is also trying its best to conserve forests.
If you plant a single tree for every one you cut, then the key terms essay writing, forest coverage will remain constant. If you cannot do that, at least plant a single tree every year. Plant trees for a green society, a green school, for a green Bhutan, for a green world, a green planet which is after all a better place to coursework, live in. As said by Lohn Keats, “A thing of beauty is of euthanasia essay, a joy forever.” The thing which is beautiful lasts forever. Trees are one. According to English Oxford Student Learner’s Dictionary a tree means a plant that can live for long time. However, we must plant trees to keep them alive generation after generation. Chemistry Analysis. Otherwise they will disappear forever. For every hard work there is reward. If we do hard work in planting trees then we will get rewards of fresh air, water, fruits, raw materials for making medicines and houses.
Trees also provide continuous supply of water for introduction of euthanasia essay generating electricity which can be used for domestic purposes as well as export to other countries. This generates income and increases our economy. For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. If we conserve forest, the analysis, result will be good, but if we destroy forest, then the result will be bad. Resume And Hy. Therefore, it is better to conserve forest and make our country clean and green. In order, to conserve our forests, we have to stop shifting cultivation, deforestation, forest fire and coursework lumbering. If we cut down a lot of trees, then the law degree coursework, world climate will change. Chemistry Coursework Analysis. Water sources will dry up, land will turn barren, air will get polluted, plants and in scriptural intertextuality animals will get extinct. To avoid such hazards, we must first of all educate our people about the importance of trees. Then we should teach them how to take care of our Mother Nature. Trees are our guardian deities and protectors, as they shelter us from sun, rain and storm.
We must look upon analysis, them with outmost respect and care. To achieve the essay, goal of Green Bhutan, we must plant trees and take care of chemistry analysis them throughout the country. The Social Forestry Day reminds us of our co-existence with nature and inspires us to plant trees. So let us join hands today and do it. As quoted by Ralph Waldon Emerson, “Nature never hurries, atom by atom, little by little, she achieves her work.” It is time for the Bhutanese people to think twice and work extra. The term “Green Bhutan” doesn’t only poverty in africa essay mean that the coursework, color of the and hy vee, land should look green all over but it also refers to the happiness of each and coursework analysis every Bhutanese Citizen. Directly or indirectly, trees are the smaller units of nature which helps to achieve this happiness. Why should people plant trees? They should plant trees because trees are the backbone of Bhutan’s economy.
They also help in reduction of carbon dioxide in essays elections, the atmosphere. Forest helps in protection of rare species of the world which are endangered. Bhutan is known as one of the ten biological hot spots in the world due to coursework, its vast forest coverage. So it is the essays for student council elections, responsibility of chemistry coursework each and every citizen to work together to uphold with the introduction of euthanasia, name. It is said that once Sahara desert was a thick forest but due to over exploitation, it has now become the world’s largest desert. I am sure that none of the Bhutanese would wantour rich forest to turn into poor deserts. So why not plant at least one tree by every citizen and increase the number? In terms of economy, trees not only contribute for electricity but also attract tourists from the outside world in the country. Tourism is one of the chemistry, largest income generating industries in and quran, Bhutan. Tourists visit Bhutan to take breathes of fresh air and coursework analysis enjoy the beauty of green scenery and crystal clear water. Vegetation at Phobjikha in Wangdue is providing home for the black naked cranes which are rare on the earth.
Bhutanese people are lucky to see many of the rare species of flora and fauna which are not seen in other countries. Foreigners have to travel a long distance to come to Bhutan to see those beautiful plants and animals. We know now that planting of trees has uncountable advantages for people. When a person plants a tree, it not only benefits that person but also many others. If all individuals in Bhutan plant trees, it produces a huge positive impact. So keep this in mind and poverty plant trees for Green Bhutan. We are fortunate to have DrukGyalpoJigmeSingayWangchuk as our fourth king because he was the one who inspired us to preserve our greatest treasure of coursework analysis green forest. On His coronation day on June 2 we observe Social Forestry Day where we plant trees and pay respect to the Nature. Foreign people come from far away country to Bhutan because we haveelegant forest in our country.
Even though our country is small and poor but because of nature we are popular and bible and quran intertextuality rich. His majesty DrukGyalpoJigmeSingayWangchuk, the chemistry, king of Bhutan, has stated “Throughout the centuries, the Bhutanese have treasured their natural environment and have looked upon vee, it as the source of life. Chemistry Coursework. We wish to continue living in harmony with nature and to pass on this rich, heritage to writing, our future generations”. Bhutan is also one of the first countries in the world to coursework, create trust fund dedicated to environment protection. Being a Buddhist land Bhutan believes in law degree coursework, giving back to nature what has been taken away and to respect all forms of life. If we don’t plant trees for green Bhutan now,we would regret in future when our country sees many Sahara Deserts. Long time back Sahara desert was not a desert but a beautiful forest with full of plants and animals.But soon it awfully turned into desert because of human greediness and wants for natural resources. If this happens in our country, people would feel sad for analysis what they have done to the forest. So we have to think twice, be cautious and take serious responsibility for coursework saving our gift of chemistry coursework beautiful nature. Being Bhutanese citizens, let us join our hands together and work to make our homes, schools, country and earth green and beautiful by planting more trees. So, lastly my dear friends living on the earth as enthusiastic students, we should plant trees and preserve them for future generations.
As a saying goes “one drop of water makes a mighty ocean, “by planting at introduction of euthanasia least a single tree each year we can create a big forest. Coursework. Keep this in mind and act now before it is too late. Trees are basically a plant which is supposedly believed one of the oldest and clearly important features that have existed and still prevails on this earth abundant. Essay Writing. In addition to its significant values of air and chemistry coursework analysis water for the rest of the law degree coursework, depending creatures on earth, it also act as vital factor particular in beautifying mother earth and safe guarding her biodiversity. Bhutan is a country that religiously concern trees plus on the other hand depends profoundly on chemistry analysis, trees. ‘Green’ resembles the color of trees and essay writing is moreover a refreshing healthy color. “Just plant a tree and never on it let anyone pee”.
People know the consequences of the chemistry analysis, absence of trees, they should know it. It would result in grave difficulties to all being on earth. Have you ever questioned yourself about law degree how difficult it would it is going to be if more trees disappear? Sometimes do some critical thinking. Trees have consequently started to decrease in quantity and devastating natural calamities are happening on mother earth due to human commercial and chemistry coursework analysis home uses.
Obviously we understand that trees wouldn’t ever extinct but never the less many unique and important species of trees are lost recently. So people must humbly appreciate the gift of nature in a cursory manner by law degree coursework, simply planting trees. Bhutan being mountainous country, mountain would wear down due to analysis, the disappearance of bible trees, since the chemistry coursework analysis, trees make the soil fixed using their roots. No mountains means no Bhutan because Bhutan is just a range of mountain in small portion of the world. Bhutan is also one of the for student council, biological hotspots. Bhutan has been awarded recognition award for the beneficiary and protective works in conserving Mother Nature from United Nation Organization. In act beloved 4 th King of Bhutan should be appreciated by all the citizens for his responsibility in preserving the forest. The king has indeed done his part of responsibility in making beyond half of the country ‘Green’ and chemistry coursework analysis now the time has come for and hy the people to maintain, conserve and protect the chemistry analysis, trees.
So, “Plant More Trees for introduction of euthanasia Green Bhutan”. As coded by Mahatma Gandhi, “Earth Provides Enough to Satisfy Every Man’s Needs, but Not Every Man’s Greed”. Chemistry Coursework. So Bhutan is for student elections, one of the tenth “Biological Hotspots” in the world that means Bhutan is one of the areas with a richest biodiversity. It is mountainous country surrounded by beautiful forest. Bhutan’s forest cover is 64% of our land. We are fortunate to be born on this green planet, earth, created by coursework analysis, the gods. We all know that our natural world is a splash of eye catching colors and it is one of the introduction, most important natural resources, yet it is analysis, all up to us weather we want to preserve our forest or not before it turns into a barren land Sahara desert of Africa. Forest gives us fresh water and air to breathe to all living beings in this earth. In olden days people can live more than 80 years though there were no hospitals like present world. It is mainly because of forest which provides medicinal herbs like Om-rib (local medicinal) which is used to law degree coursework, treat fiver, lungs and liver diseases and other such as Cordyceps (Yartse Geonbom) which can cure heart diseases and chemistry cancer, so it is a rear medicine found on the Himalayan mountain. We get wild food and fruits like mushrooms, asparagus, strawberry etc from the poverty in africa, forest.
Our country is rich in forest. People export trees in chemistry, other countries and make an economic for the country. So, as a saying, “If the wealth is essays, lost nothing is lost, if health is lost everything is chemistry coursework analysis, lost”. Conservation of forest doesn’t mean that we should not cut down the resume and hy vee, trees but we can manage and utilize in sustainable way. To keep our country green forever we must conserve our forest by following some of the ways such as reducing the number of cattle, harvesting trees in a selective way and stop shifting cultivation. Our royal Government also carries out activities to safe our mother earth. We have afforestation and reforestation program in our country. We celebrate 2 nd June as social forest day. Actually June 2 nd is coronation day of His Majesty 4 th King. We celebrate the day by planting trees in our school.
In order to maintain 64% of land under forest cover. As per the saying, “It is better to safe than sorry”. So look after our forest and environment before it is too late. Now we are facing different problems due to rapid growth of population, cut trees for building materials, construction of road though forest which damage the trees, shifting cultivation which causes forest fire and as a result it destroy animal life and create imbalance in ecosystem. Forest fire also causes soil erosion and landslides which damage our life and chemistry coursework analysis properties. Since the population of our country is growing rapidly they cut down lot of trees which absorbed carbon dioxide. Day by day the temperature of earth is increasing causing global warming which causes natural calamities. Streams and river are drying, different varieties of diseases come up which damage our life and properties. Animals are disappearing which helps in balancing ecosystem. Now forest covers are reducing and it is our responsible to look after our natural environment, as a saying goes, “Time and Tide waits for none”. So, start working before it is too late.
So lastly, plant is mankind, everything that we have comes from the coursework, Mother Nature. The foods that we eat, cloth that we have, the book that we are studying are all from plants products. As a saying goes, “Prevention is better the cure”. So now let us all join our hand to save our mother earth. -Essays Submitted by Sr.
Dzongkhag Forest Officer, Punakha.