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A jargon-free explanation by Michael Berry. An excellent illustrated review of the physiology of olfaction. It is provided by Leffingwell and Associates, a company that services the part food, beverage, and perfume industries. A tutorial on the sense of smell by Tim Jacob of Cardiff Univesity. See also his Physiology of Taste.
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Notes and micrographs from a Veterinary Histology course. A primer about the vertebrate eye and a step-by-step view of a dissection from San Francisco's Exploratorium. Detailed information and diagrams about eye anatomy and the neurology of vision. Discretion Better Part? An explanation of receptive fields in the visual system, from the Psychology Department at Hanover College. This government agency provides a wealth of information about eye diseases and vision research. There's also a Glossary of essay writing Eye-Related Terms. A professional organization site that provides news and online education resources. Non-profit organization that funds research on blindess. Provides information about various causes of better part of valour-essay blindness.
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You'll need to download the appropriate plug-ins to see the images. A 61-page animation-rich tutorial about the human skeleton. You'll need to have a Java-enabled browser to use it. An overview and links to pages that cover the components of the axial and appendicular skeleton. This is part of the essay human anatomy exhibit on the e-museum site of Minnesota State University. An cool use of interactivity. Click the bone on the skull graphic to bring up a QuickTime VR movie of that human bone. You can use your mouse to rotate the bone.
This is from California State University in Chico. X-rays of the human skeleton, both normal and injured, from Access Excellence. Shockwave tutorials from an orthopedic surgeon's site show anatomy and common surgical procedures. Want to learn the names of the introduction revolution essay different types of movements made by your body? You can download movies of muscle actions at this site from the University of Michigan Medical Center Learning Resource Center. Visit this site for information about the musculoskeletal system from the physicians that treat it.
Information from U.S. medical societies. Key Terms Writing? A searchable government site with bone health information, research bibliographies, and links to other governmental and organizational sites. This nonprofit organization fund researches and promotes education about bone health and osteoporosis. University Florida Admissions Essay? This site is designed to educate physicians and patients about osteoporosis and bone physiology. It was created and is maintained by Susan Ott, MD, at the University of Washington. A collection of micrographs of the skin, provided by the Internet Dermatology Society. A page by dermatologist and film buff Dr. Key Terms Essay Writing? Reese, which will keep you updated on the skin condition of the othello thesis stars and explain all those weird symptoms you've seen in the movies.
Diagrams and micrographs from the Loyola University Medical Education Network. There's a wealth of skin-related patient information on this medical organization's site. A Hawaiian site that will convince you to limit your time in the sun, or at least use a sun block. You can also access relevant news and check on the daily UV forecast for key terms cities throughout the United States. A thematic guide developed by the Center for International Earth Science Information. Information about the different forms of UV radiation, the types of skin cancer, and other health effects of UV. Daniel Morse is developing complex semiconductor devies from sponges.
Learn how sponges are being used for constructing complex structures and how this technology could lead to better solar cells. What was the first animal? PBS investigates this question, offering videos and pictures of sponges and othello revenge, stories of scientists who discovered proof of the first animal. Medical news on sponges used in medical research. A 1996 article from Frontiers, the electronic newsletter of the National Science Foundation.
A Web feature to support the Scientific American Frontiers show on PBS. This Why Files site describes both the essay writing scientific and the social issues raised by stem cell research. This is part of a training module developed at Emory University. Interactive games and tutorials introduce organ systems on this marvelous BCC site. Beautifully illustrated tutorials and animation about the brain, skeleton, heart, and digestive system. An interactive introduction to the tissues and organs of the reflective on christmas human body. It's designed for a general audience and is both basic and relatively jargon-free. The American Medical Association provides this introduction to human anatomy that includes sections on the torso, muscles, heart, and skeleton. A wonderful look inside the human body. It's a three-dimensional, high-resolution database of human male and female anatomy derived from direct analysis of key terms essay anatomical specimens and radiological imaging. A look at the various ways with which we create the tree of life including anatomical homology, protein sequences, and othello revenge thesis, DNA-DNA hybridization.
Explore the tree of life. Navigate through the website using the main Tree of Life figure on the homepage. Learn about the Barcode of Life, a short DNA sequence from a uniform locality on the genome that's used to identify species. Browse the various articles written on writing, the DNA Barcode under Press Commentary. UC Berkeley's webpage on phylogeny, the tree of life, time periods on earth, and a helpful glossary. Evidence of where microbes burrowed into volcanic glass 3.5 billion years ago shows early life thrived in lava flows. Of South Florida Admissions? This article discuses the a particular clay mineral that helps the assembly of RNA. In this interview, Stanley Miller talks about key terms essay, exobiology, the field his work helped make famous. A look at evolutionist Lynn Margulis' research on endosymbiosis and its relevance to the evolution of eukaryotic cells. A quick tutorial on leaf parts.
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Slides and notes from the University of Kansas Medical Center. Drawings, micrographs, and notes provided by Dr. Roger Wagner at the University of Delaware. This series of slides with descriptions is part of key terms a histology course on the Loyola University Medical Education Network. A page from a training manual developed at Emory University.
Connective Tissue Slides from the Loyola University Medical Education Network. Use the Next button to view the othello revenge thesis lessons about connective tissue cells and specialized connective tissues. A page from a training manual developed at Emory University. Hypertext terms are linked to definitions. Information from the National Institute of writing Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Disease.
A page from a training manual developed at Emory University. Hypertext terms are linked to definitions. This series of slides with descriptions is part of a histology course on the Loyola University Medical Education Network. Most aspects of muscle physiology are covered on the University of racial essay California, San Diego, site. A very detailed description of the organization of the sarcomere and key terms writing, how the components interact to allow movement. From Medical Biochemistry site. A page from a training manual developed at Emory University. Hypertext terms are linked to definitions. Slides with descriptions from a histology course on the Loyola University Medical Education Network.
Chudler has created and compiled a terrific collection of material about nervous tissue and the nervous system. Neuroscience for Kids is a good place to start. A searchable full-text book published by the National Academy Press. NASA scientists have bioengineered a small patch of heart tissue. The page includes video of the beating tissue. An online lesson designed to supplement a biochemistry textbook. The mystery of the steps of DNA Replication of the Eykaryotes. This page from the site for the PBS series A Science Odyssey provides an interactive Shockwave activity that explains DNA replication. Of French Essay? You'll also want to check out the key terms links to related material on the same site. An animation from PBS's Evolution site.
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The site includes biographies of Marshall W. Nirenberg, Har Gobind Khorana, and Robert W. Holley. The presentation speech details the research for which the writing prize was awarded. Racial Segregation? This illustrated Molecule of the Month feature on the Protein Data Bank site describes the structure and function of transfer RNA. Key Terms? A page from a cell biology site by Dr. Gwen Childs at the University of of french Arkansas.
This illustrated molecule of the month feature on the Protein Data Bank site describes the structure and function of ribosomes. QuickTime and Shockwave animations of eukaryotic translation are provided by the University of Wisconsin's BioWeb site. An extremely detailed description of translation from the Medical Biochemistry site. The Genetic Science Learning Center provides this example of protein synthesis. The Nobel Foundation has put together a terrific resource filled with text, illustration, and animation. Key Terms Essay? Material is available at either a basic or an reflective essay on christmas, advanced level. Information from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Information about fluid and electrolyte balance from Medline Plus. A basic overview of essay writing processes of osmoregulation.
The target audience is high school students. Lecture notes for a course from the Centre for Human Biology, University of revenge thesis Leeds (UK). A look at writing, the excretory system of a fetal pig. It is provided by Whitman College. There is also an Excretory System Quiz, available from the essay Main Page of the site. This is part of a training module developed at Emory University and is beautifully illustrated.
One of the many patient education brochures available from the Digital Urology Journal site. Control of blood pressure and the juxtaglomerular apparatus are among the topics covered on this Cardiff School of Biosciences site. Basic information for patients from the National Kidney and Urological Diseases Clearinghouse. Part of the Pathophysiology of the Endocrine System Hypertextbook from Colorado State University. This is a well-done, highly accessible resource. For information about aldosterone, see Mineralocorticoids. Part of The Biology Project, an key terms, interactive online resource for learning biology, developed at the University of Arizona. This government site provides information about of french revolution, prostatitis, cystitis, and other disorders. It includes statistics about the frequency of key terms these ailments in the United States. This site provides free access to journal abstracts and to an image-rich Atlas of university florida admissions essay Renal Pathology. The Center for Disease and Prevention's webpage on HIV/AIDS.
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objecthood essay “I really would like to know what it is you do to ‘magnetize’ your. poetry, where the curious reader, always a bit puzzled, comes. back for a clearer insight.” —John Ashbery, ‘The Tomb of Stuart Merrill’ Poetry has not fared well in contemporary philosophical aesthetics. Key Terms Essay! 1 While there have been a few heroic attempts to of french revolution essay, correct this, 2 in recent years philosophers of art have published more on gardening and comics than on poetry; and one should note that of late philosophers have not published all that much on gardening and comics. The situation is not unlike what we would have if we found that our colleagues in Philosophy of essay writing Science had failed to consider physics or that those in Ancient Philosophy had somehow overlooked Socrates. Whatever the reason for the philosophical avoidance of poetry, the result is an embarrassingly conspicuous omission in the philosophy of art’s coverage of its own field. What I would like to do here is explore one respect in resume ficelle, which philosophy, especially the philosophy of language, has much to learn about the nature and possibilities of meaning from poets and critics. If each of the arts is associated with a set of defining philosophical problems — in the novel, say, the problem of fiction, in painting that of depiction, in writing, music the expression of better of valour-essay emotion, and so on — then among poetry’s defining problems is the problem of meaning. At any rate, if one is speaking about modern lyric poetry, as I shall be, this is surely among the most interesting problems, since for key terms over the past two hundred years — roughly when poetic romanticism was born 3 — each subsequent generation of poets has found itself increasingly happier to part of valour-essay, linger near the key terms line that separates sense from nonsense, at least as philosophers and linguists, if not always poets and is the better of valour-essay, critics, conceive this line. 4.
The problem, as it shall interest me here, is the following. Poetry is, according to key terms, a deep-rooted view, the communicative art par excellence : poems are vehicles of communication, among much else, of university of south florida admissions course. They speak to us, and this is key terms essay writing, among the chief reasons we value them, contrary to what recalcitrant formalists might tell us. And the philosophical puzzle is that poems very often do none of the things philosophers tend to think language must do if it is to bear meaning. Indeed in othello revenge, a great amount of modern poetry — especially poetry of the modernist sort that, as the essay writing tired joke has it, likes to say ‘go to hell’ to the reader — we often find an extraordinary communicative act carried out in language that strikes us, initially at least, as inscrutable, in fact language we would dismiss as meaningless if we were to encounter it outside the context of a work of art.
How can this be? That is, how can a use of language at once strike us as a powerful and effective form of communication and racial segregation, yet renounce the very resources we employ when endowing words with meaning in virtually all other linguistic contexts? Simon Blackburn has said, with admirable understatement, that no one ‘would claim that the study of metaphor has been one of analytic philosophy’s brighter achievements.’ 5 If philosophy still struggles to key terms, understand how sentences like ‘Juliet is the sun’ can be true, bear meaning, or simply convey a thought, one has an acute sense of how limited its resources must be when confronting a poem like T.S. Eliot’s The Waste Land or Wallace Stevens’ ‘New England Verses’. What I shall do here is offer a few suggestions concerning how philosophy might develop these resources. I won’t be offering anything like a new theory of meaning, even of poetic meaning. But I will try to show in a general way how we might try to reconcile the communicative force of poetry with the unconventionality and sheer inventiveness of its language. Othello Thesis! My concern is to try to make sense of a certain power poetry has — this power to communicate when, from the linguistic point of view, one should not be able to — and, like any power, a poet of course enjoys a certain amount of freedom to exercise it or not. But if the power I identify is not omnipresent in essay, poetry, I do hope to show that a discussion of it reveals a few general features of how poems communicate, and that the uniqueness of the kind of othello revenge thesis meaning they can bear should be of more interest to the philosophy of language and of art. To be perversely clear, I should emphasize that in essay writing, setting up the problem this way I am not assuming that there is such a thing as the reflective on christmas meaning of a poem, contained, as it were, in a poem in all of its fullness regardless of whether anyone actually reads the poem. Key Terms Essay Writing! Nor am I assuming that poems bear the same species of meaning sentences do, or that meaning in poetry consists in the making of a kind of claim or statement, the offering up of discrete bits of information, and so on.
My curiosity is much more basic than all of this, and it can perhaps best be put in terms of what I find to be a baffling yet extraordinary skill all good critics possess. It is the critic’s ability to make meaningful a poem that delights in revenge, its attack on sense and syntax, indeed whose surface seems positively opaque from the linguistic point of view. And I am interested in this act of making meaningful in an altogether basic sense: what must a critic first do with language of the key terms writing especially difficult poetic sort so much as to get it to appear to speak? What happens when she rolls up her sleeves and gets to work beating sense out of that which at first blush appears madly and proudly senseless? I won’t have much to say about the fully articulate statements of meaning a critic attributes to a poem and its various lines, though a study of the sort I offer here will naturally lead in this direction. Ficelle! 6 I find the initial act of attributing meaningfulness of the most minimal sort astonishing enough, and key terms, that is what I shall concern myself with here. II. Hearing Meaning Hearing a Question of Meaning I will develop my discussion of poetic meaning with constant reference to metaphor, but let me say immediately that I will nowhere suggest that poetic meaning is just a kind of metaphoric meaning (the fact that we can find poems without metaphors should make one skeptical of the very idea).
What I dwell on in this section is the fact that poems and metaphors tend to raise a question of meaning in revenge, very different ways, and seeing this will help us understand more clearly what the problem of poetic meaning amounts to. According to essay, a common conceit in the philosophy of language, metaphor represents the ‘dark side’ of language, the furthest point we will reach if we set out in search of the final outposts of discretion is the part meaningfulness. 7 There is something to this, but we will be much more likely to find a poem than a metaphor when we reach the end of the line, and it is important to see why. There are (at least) two respects in essay, which we experience meaning in poetry in a way that is considerably more complex than is the standard experience of meaning in metaphor. In common cases: (i) poetic meaning is experienced as latent , that is, there is frequently and importantly a felt gap between understanding the language of a poem and understanding the segregation poem itself; and (ii) we experience poems as having a twofoldness of communicative content , that is, as speaking and so producing meaning on two distinct levels. Key Terms! I’ll discuss each in turn. Latency vs Immediacy. Thesis! When we offer a metaphor in standard conversational contexts, we do so with the hope of bringing to clarity the point we are pursuing, by forging, say, a shared framework of thought and essay writing, feeling in introduction, respect to whatever it is we are trying to get others to key terms writing, understand as we do.
For example, assume you are having drinks with friends from work and you are all struggling, in a playful way, to thesis, pinpoint exactly what makes a certain colleague so unlovable. After a number of abortive attempts, you say, ‘I’ve got it! Bill is Brooklyn without the charm’. Your friends laugh and nod in satisfied agreement, convinced just as you are that this is pretty much exactly what Bill is. In uttering this metaphor in this context, you expect that any member of your linguistic community with a reasonable amount of experience of essay writing her own culture will get it, and is the of valour-essay, that she will get it in a way she surely would not have had you said that your colleague is Montreal or Savannah without the charm (for one, the metaphor will no longer be ironic if we replace Brooklyn with a city of fabled charm). Essay! And, more importantly, you expected, and indeed found, that listeners grasped the meaning, the point, of the metaphor immediately, 8 without the aid of any (measurable) act of interpretation: they got it, and their getting it was effortless.
9. In this respect, if metaphors raise a question of meaning, then it is usually a purely philosophical question. Revenge! If we are familiar with the terms of key terms essay writing a metaphor (Bill, Brooklyn, and charm), then we shall hear the meaning of the metaphor simply upon hearing the metaphor itself. If certain philosophers and linguists skeptical of the idea of metaphoric meaning are correct, this sense will be mistaken. But we nonetheless do have the is the part of valour-essay impression that a successful metaphor achieves a kind of key terms writing immediate expressive perfection. The philosophical problem is how this can be — how can we hear not only meaning but a kind a truth or aptness in metaphors, when on the whole they are literally, and wildly, false? — not whether metaphors can really provoke this experience of meaning in the listener (they obviously can). Poems are usually very unlike metaphors in is the better, this respect. Consider two. Key Terms Essay! Neither is much longer than a standard metaphor — this is is the of valour-essay, why I have chosen them — but each offers a very different kind of encounter with meaning: Who put canned laughter. Into my crucifixion scene?
—Charles Simic, ‘The Voice at essay writing 3:00 A. M’ 10. Between one flower plucked and reflective, the other given. the inexpressible nothing. —Giuseppe Ungaretti, ‘Eternity’ 11. [Tra un fiore colto e l’altro donato. Note that the problem here is not quite with the meaning of the key terms writing language of the poems. Their language is, in a sense, perfectly clear. But if the language of these poems is racial segregation essay, clear, the meaning of these poems is not. I assume that we take these poems to be trying to say something, but that we do not grasp what it is key terms, they are saying in any sort of immediate or pre-reflective way, certainly if we have no previous rapport with them. Of course we have much to work with in our attempt to render them meaningful, for example the racial segregation essay striking images these poems conjure up: of key terms essay writing a laugh-track playing behind an act of martyrdom; of a great expanse of essay emptiness stretching between two objects (or acts) of simple beauty.
Indeed, we can detect a kind of thematic kindredness in these poems and to that extent a kind of shared communicative purpose: though one is more playful than the other, they each seem to key terms essay, be trying to say something about life, and it doesn’t seem to othello revenge, be especially pleasant or optimistic. But all of key terms writing this seems to be of the order of suggestion. Othello Thesis! It hardly seems to be descriptive of anything we should be inclined to essay, call their meaning. In this respect, the meaning of a poem, contrary to that of a metaphor, is revenge, standardly experienced as a kind of key terms problem . Admissions Essay! It is a sign of poetic success if a poem demands to be studied before it can be understood; it is generally a sign of essay writing failure if a metaphor must be: metaphors, like jokes, are an embarrassment to the speaker when no one gets them. Introduction Revolution Essay! Even a young student reading Catullus count the ways he loves Lesbia knows that Catullus’ poetry might be about more than what it ‘says’ — despite his poetry’s apparent simplicity and obviousness — and that his professor will expect him to be aware of this possibility when interpreting the poem.
In other words, even if we experience the meaning of a poem as immediate, we also know to be skeptical of our experience. The point this brings home is that we frequently do not, strictly speaking , hear the meaning of a poem so much as we hear a poem as occasioning a question of meaning , a question we devote ourselves to answering if we are to essay writing, make sense of the racial segregation essay encounter with meaning a poem initiates. In the context of poetry, we usually take meaning to be a destination and not a point of departure. Twofoldness of Content. Consider the following. Critics may, and in fact once did, debate whether the line ‘Do I dare to eat a peach’ in T.S. Eliot’s ‘Prufrock’ ought to be read as an expression of key terms sexual desire or as an acknowledgement that the speaker has dentures . 12 And a critic might reasonably suggest that before we can understand Eliot’s poem, we must understand this metaphor — what ‘to eat a peach’ means in this context — and all the others like it we find in discretion, the poem.
For if we haven’t understood what the various lines of a poem mean, surely there will be a hole in essay writing, our understanding of the poem itself. Resume Ficelle! But note that if we illuminate the meaning of key terms this metaphor, and indeed the meaning of every line of the poem, we still would not take ourselves to have thereby illuminated the meaning of the poem . Revenge! For it would still be perfectly legitimate for key terms essay writing one to say, ‘ I see that this is what all these lines mean, but what does the poem mean? 13 And we can ask this because we know that the meaning of a poem, unlike the meaning of a metaphor, is essay, not a kind of writing sentence meaning at all, and so casting in relief the semantic content of every line of a poem can still leave us in utter darkness about the racial segregation essay meaning of the poem itself. Language in poetic contexts has the tendency to be doubly productive of meaning, and this distinguishes it in key terms essay, an important way from ordinary (‘standard’) uses of language, including metaphoric uses. Essay On Christmas! If I sent you an email with clear and key terms, precise instructions on how to arrive at the funeral of a childhood friend, it would be plain weird to say of university of south essay it, ‘I see, but what does this email mean ?’ But if I sent you a poem with the very same content, it would not only essay writing, be appropriate but expected. My poem will likely turn out to be a bad poem, but that is immaterial. What is segregation, important is to see that simply putting language in the context of a poem occasions this unique, and further, question of meaning. Essay Writing! In ordinary contexts, the meaning of an utterance is just the content it conveys. Things get complicated once we begin to consider irony, metaphor, and the like, in which the speaker seems to say one thing yet mean another. Florida Essay! 14 But even here there is but one communicated content, and coming to grasp it is key terms writing, a matter of othello distinguishing ‘what is said’ from ‘what is conveyed’ (if I say that ‘James is a train wreck’ you will not think I am telling you that James is the name of a train that has been in a terrible accident but that it is the name of a person whose life bears a striking resemblance to one). Key Terms Essay Writing! But the double content of a poem is a doubleness of communicative content: the racial essay meaning of the essay lines that constitute the discretion is the better poem and the meaning of the poem itself.
Each is important, and each asks to be understood, appreciated, and essay writing, the competent critic will arrive at an (at least) implicit sense of how they interlock if she is to introduction of french revolution, make sense of a poem. This further meaning is what is often called work meaning, and it is a kind of meaning artworks, but few other things under the essay writing sun, bear. Essay! As a kind of work meaning, it is meaning that accrues to key terms writing, the poetic object itself, and resume de la ficelle, it is almost always irreducible to any feature of its linguistic or semantic surface. I can now say something precise about what the problem of essay poetic meaning amounts to, at least as it shall concern me here. Essay On Christmas! What we need to understand is what we do with a poem so that we can come to essay, hear it as fully enriched with meaning, as saying something, anything. What underwrites the skill of revenge thesis a critic such that she can fill this gap between the first encounter with a poem and the first experience of its meaning? What aspect of key terms essay a poem and its language generates work meaning, and how? And, perhaps most importantly, how do we hear a question of of french meaning rather than nonsense or simply nothing in poetry marked by latency? In the case of key terms writing apt metaphors and well-formed literal sentences (in one’s tongue), it is because we hear meaning in a stretch of language that we take it to be communicating, to be saying something. If we remove this direct and revenge, immediate encounter with meaning, then exactly what occasions a question of meaning in the first place?
If we are to offer a plausible account of how we come to hear poetry as enriched with meaning, we need to cast some light on what kind of meaning we are talking about here. Part of the writing problem is that there is a picture of racial segregation essay poetic meaning we need to find a way around, a picture that is oddly hard to key terms, escape, however obviously silly it is. Put simply, on this picture, when we attempt to understand a poem we set out in search of a kind of master-proposition or uber-statement the content of which is equivalent to revenge, the meaning of poem. To find the meaning of a poem, on this picture, is to expose in key terms essay, the poem an implicit claim, point, declaration — a linguistic item of some sort — to the effect that I mean this ! And the particular ‘this’ a poem means has the function of unraveling the mysteries of meaning the poem occasions in the reader. What gives this picture its intuitive force is the habit of thinking that meaning is always essentially (i) linguistic, and (ii) propositional. Though poems often have lines that bear these sorts of meaning, I think that poetic meaning is ultimately neither. Is The Better Of Valour-essay! Of course, whatever a poem means will bear important links to whatever its language means — it would be madness to deny this. But the essay way forward, I’ll suggest, is to of south admissions essay, look beyond a poem’s language and towards something this language creates, something fundamentally imaginative and not linguistic.
Let me explain. I mentioned above that not only poems but works of art in general can bear a unique kind of meaning, what we call work meaning. Key Terms Writing! It is a general mystery in aesthetics how artworks can bear this sort of essay meaning (how, for example, do non-linguistic art forms such as painting, music, and key terms essay writing, dance strike us, at least at discretion is the part times, as bearing communicative content?) and each of the arts presents a unique way of encountering this problem. In all forms of literature — poetry, prose, and drama — the very basic problem of work meaning is the following. Since literary works are creatures of language, we are clearly talking about a linguistic object when we ascribe meaning to them.
But it is no ordinary sort of meaning, for it is not descriptive of any feature of the key terms writing language of introduction a work, surely not of anything a work actually says. To say that As I Lay Dying as a work is about, and hence meaningful in respect to, ephemerality and the impossible implications of the key terms essay passage from existence to inexistence — at least in the mind of racial segregation one attempting to make sense of the burden of death — is manifestly not to describe some content conveyed by essay writing any of Faulkner’s sentences, as though for better part this to be a legitimate statement of the writing book’s meaning it must amount to a claim to be found on the surface of Faulkner’s creation. But then of what, exactly, are statements of work meaning descriptive? Precisely where do we encounter work meaning, if not in the language of the text? We have fairly well-developed resources for university of south florida explaining how works of prose fiction can do this.
In the case of standard sorts of key terms essay writing works of fiction (think of garden-variety realist novels), work meaning is segregation essay, arrived at key terms essay writing by exploring the content not quite of a work’s language but of the world it creates, what we commonly call a fictional world. And virtually every theory of the ‘world-generating’ capacity of works of racial segregation fiction link this power to a certain imaginative activity. Just consider any of the essay dominant make-believe, simulation, or possible-world theories of fiction, all of which cast the language of literature as having an essentially creational function. Language in the context of literature functions not, or not just, to ‘convey a content’ but to reflective essay on christmas, conjure up a world, and it is a world we can encounter only if we read the language of a work as specifying a kind of imaginative stance to take towards it content, texturing in this respect a sense of fictional space for our appreciative and critical exploration. And note that worlds and key terms writing, what we might find in them bear a kind of meaning, though surely not of the sort words and sentences bear.
When applied to a world and all that we find in it, meaning is a matter of significance and not signification . It is not meaning in reflective essay on christmas, a semantic sense but meaningfulness as the phenomenon of bearing of value , import , and consequence , and it is brought to key terms essay writing, light when we attempt to essay, articulate how and why a work’s presentation of character and circumstance matters for creatures such as ourselves. It is here that we find the vision , in a quite literal sense, of a work, and without a consideration of this we’ll find ourselves shamefully mum when called upon to say what a work might mean. The point is, through our imaginative involvement with literary works, we give ourselves access to essay writing, a much broader range of meaning, significance, and aboutness, meaning that we will miss entirely to if we take a purely, or merely, ‘linguistic’ stance towards a work of literature. 15. There is an obvious sense in which work meaning is interpretation-dependent . We can, if we wish, read many novels ‘naively’, that is, as simply about fictional people going about is the of valour-essay, their fictional business (though good luck reading Joyce, Faulkner, or Beckett ‘naively’), in essay writing, which case we shut ourselves off from the full encounter with meaning a work can offer us.
But to treat a novel as a work , and not merely as a fictional story, is to attempt to interpret it and hence to bring to light the on christmas kinds of meaning only a work can bear. And if meaning in key terms essay writing, modern lyric poetry is more challenging than in common kinds of novels, it is largely because poetry offers fewer occasions to be read naively. Indeed, without interpretation, without some conception of work meaning, one often cannot begin to make sense of the language of much modernist poetry, of what it is even ‘saying’. One always mentions John Ashbery here. Is The Part Of Valour-essay! Consider the opening lines of one of his more recent poems: Not the smoothness, not the insane clocks on the square, the scent of manure in the municipal parterre, Not the fabrics, the sullen mockery of Tweety Bird,
Not the fresh troops that needed freshening up. If it occurred. in real time, that was OK, and if it was time in a novel, that was okay, too. From palace and key terms writing, hovel. the great parade flooded avenue and othello revenge thesis, byway. and turnip fields became just another highway. —John Ashbery, ‘A Worldly Country’ 16. Note the faint, playful echo of the key terms essay heroic couplet, the poetic form of high subject matters and hence of poems in which content, and so meaning, matters.
And indeed we find in university essay, his poem the stuff of those great, high subjects: images of time, the State, warfare, social class, but mixed in with Tweety Bird and writing, a barrage of university florida admissions essay negations without any mention at all of what subject(s) of the negations might be. This, of course, makes it rather difficult to key terms essay, determine what the poem is saying at even the most basic semantic level, and reflective essay, so we set out in the hopes of finding an key terms essay, interpretation that will allow us to articulate what the poem is even about. Now much lyric poetry is resume de la, not fictional or even narrative-based: much lyric poetry tells no story, properly so-called. And without a story, indeed without the presence of fiction, one does not have the key terms basic ingredients for making a fictional world , the very currency of communication in racial segregation essay, the case of most prose literature. Thus it may initially appear puzzling how this account of work meaning could possibly apply to poetry. But what is essay writing, important for our purposes is not the notion of fiction but the othello revenge role of the imagination in generating work meaning. And poems obviously offer much to the imagination. Even in a poem as proudly incoherent as Ashbery’s, we have a striking clash of images , of objects placed in a violently contradictory imaginative space.
And if one is, like Ashbery, a product of postwar New York, then what better way could there to be to convey to the reader the essay exhilarating but profoundly disconcerting nature of the experience of othello Manhattan than this, a city in which a municipal building sophisticated enough to have ‘parterre’ may very well stand under the (likely illuminated) ‘sullen mockery of Tweety Bird’? Isn’t that precisely the experience of walking from the Upper Eastside to Midtown? And to negate these images, as Ashbery does, is to writing, ask us to imagine saying No, at a rather cosmic level, to all of this (while, still, of course, celebrating it, as New Yorkers inevitably do). Now this may be a pithy interpretation, and a very thin sort of meaning. And it is very unlikely that Ashbery or any of his better critics would be pleased with such a reading, insisting as they often do that he explores not cities but subjectivities. 17 But I’ve only just begun.
The point is, we are beginning to see that approaching the poem in terms of the imaginative space it creates allows us to get a poem that would otherwise seem incapable of speech to begin to communicate. This is the capacity, the genius really, we find implicit in the activity of a talented critic, though surely the talented critic will go on to elicit more refined forms of reflective essay meaning from the poem than I have here. This reveals something important about key terms essay writing, why we do not experience poems whose language strikes us as nonsensical as nonsense , and seeing this will help rid us of the terrible and simplistic habit of regarding entire expanses of modern poetry as turncoats to meaning and introduction of french revolution essay, confederates of the key terms writing irrational just because their language is anarchic. 18 We find nonsense in a linguistic unit that is hopelessly ill-formed (so-called semantic nonsense: ‘I baptized at you and revenge, then mathematics’) or whose utterance bears no logical relation to any item in its communicative environment (so-called contextual nonsense: ‘I’ll have a beer and key terms essay writing, a sandwich,’ said not to a waiter but to a student who has asked a question in class). 19 It may be the case that the poems of Simic and Ashbery produce sentences that are nonsensical in either of better part these ways; but since the meaning that most matters is work meaning, this alone is writing, not sufficient to produce a nonsensical poem. Essay On Christmas! In fact, if we are being precise, sentences, but not images, can be nonsensical. Images can clash, disconcert, confuse, startle, even freak us out key terms essay writing, a bit. And that can be their point, the very thing that generates their communicative content. But images and imaginings are not, strictly speaking, ever experienced as nonsensical , and thus our experience of reflective poems with nonsensical language is not thereby an experience of nonsensical works . Even if a poem is key terms writing, shot through with nonsensical language, once we pass, as we must, from the linguistic space of a poem to the imaginative space it creates, we pass into a realm that is potentially rich in thesis, meaning.
What we have when we first turn to a poem is an uninterpreted mass of images. And it is the writing sense that these images are pregnant with potential significance that explains why we hear a question of meaning rather than nothing or nonsense in a poem of thesis even the most semantically rebellious sort. As with novels, we must do something with the poem if we are to make available its meaning. And this will take the form of engaging with the content of a poem imaginatively and not merely linguistically. Key Terms Writing! It is ultimately the assuming of an imaginative stance that allows us to begin to experience a poem as enriched with meaning of the poetically interesting sort, even when the language of the poem appears to rejoice in its assault on sense and syntax. Philosophers are often tempted by the idea that metaphors mean whatever they do partly by virtue of figuration, of the images they create, 20 which are virtually always experienced as contradictory or impossible on some level (Bill can’t possibly be Brooklyn, with or without the charm). Thus locating the communicative content of poetry partly in the kind of imaginative experience it provokes, as I have, is not an unexpected move; nor does the chaos of the imaginings some modernist poetry offers present a unique problem for the idea that they can bear meaning; if metaphors can get away with it, poems should be able to, too.
But more needs to be said to bring to clarity the point I have been pursuing. Specifically, I need to give shape to this provisional idea of an ‘imaginative space’ I am developing here and of french revolution essay, what it means to say that it is productive of key terms writing meaning. To do so, I will again turn to on christmas, a consideration of metaphor, with the hope that what I find here will cast light on poetry, too. Consider a metaphor that enjoyed fifteen minutes of fame during the 2008 US presidential election. Key Terms Essay! It was said that a certain candidate was ‘a penis in desperate need of Viagra’ —though the metaphor is not as clever as it would like to be, it adds something to othello, know that it was said of Sarah Palin and not John McCain. This metaphor clearly offers much to the imagination. But the essay writing question is racial, exactly what is it we are imagining when we hear it, or when we hear any metaphor for that matter? If we understand this metaphor, surely it is not because we literally imagine a person as a penis, nor, for that matter, as the sun, a bulldozer, or an island, to writing, mention other metaphors philosophers like to discuss.
What would it be to imagine this? I suppose it would be to think of a penis or the segregation sun but just with human eyes, and perhaps a mouth and nose. This is hardly helpful, and at any rate it gets us closer to cartoon than to a meaning. Nor does it help to writing, weaken it and imagine the person not as but merely like these objects, as the university of south essay ‘hidden simile’ account of metaphor would have it. ‘Like’ in which respect, exactly, for surely a word is key terms, owed concerning the nature of revenge thesis similarity? Like the sun, Juliet is radiant ? Like the troubled penis, Palin is key terms essay writing, impotent ? But these too are metaphors, so we’ve moved no further ahead. Discretion Is The Better Of Valour-essay! To this extent, the making explicit of the key terms essay writing putative hidden term of the simile has the risible effect of just adding another metaphor to segregation, the figurative mess we are trying to clean up. Key Terms Essay! And if we try to take the metaphor out and discretion is the, look for literal respects in which Juliet and Palin are ‘like’ these objects, we are back to the problem of imagining the sun with a human face, but now just with something like a human face. This is thoroughly unhelpful. A very useful idea here is the notion of semantic descent . 21 Put as simply as possible, semantic ascent , as Quine introduced the notion, is key terms essay writing, what we do when we move from a linguistic item to is the better, a claim about key terms, a linguistic item (‘James is a train wreck’ to “James is a train wreck’ is true”). At each step of ascent we move farther away from the world and deeper into language about language.
Semantic descent, however, goes in the opposite direction. Instead of looking for higher-order linguistic or metalinguistic items, in resume de la, semantic descent we rather try to get below language, as it were, to key terms essay writing, a consideration of the things , the objects that language is segregation essay, about. Essay! That is, in semantic descent we cast off the linguistic at just the right moment and racial, allow a bit of the writing world to frame our thought of the discretion is the subject of a metaphor. Thus in ‘Juliet is the sun’, the sun — the very object — figures in writing, our sense of the metaphor, in resume ficelle, effect functioning to qualify Juliet. And the sun (just as a train wreck, a penis, Brooklyn, and other objects of metaphor) bears a kind of meaning for us, but it is clearly not linguistic in nature. Key Terms! It consists in the set of associations, connotations, resonances, values, and so on that any object that matters in our form of life will have. The sun has meaning of the irreducibly cultural sort, and in the sense of essay significance and not signification; and it has this meaning insofar as we find it beautiful, productive of life, and generally an all around essential and essentially good bit of the cosmos.
22 Of course, a community of vampires would find it horrible, and this is why ‘Juliet is the sun’ would have been an insult rather than praise had Dracula written Romeo Juliet . This should make it clear that semantic descent, in my usage, is writing, descent from the linguistic to part of valour-essay, the cultural. Writing! More descent than this — say to a sense of reflective essay something like ‘objects in themselves’ quite apart from the sense they have in essay, a form of life — will make communication of the resume ficelle sort I am interested in here all but impossible. To imagine the sun is to imagine it as an object charged with a kind of aesthetic, cultural, and moral significance. Key Terms Essay Writing! And in hearing a metaphor such as ‘Juliet is the sun’, we place our thought of Juliet within the imaginative space created by racial the thought of the sun. Our experience of the metaphor need not resolve into a coherent image of, or claim about, Juliet if it is to convey. 23 It is both unnecessary and unhelpful to hear the metaphor as claiming that ‘Juliet is (precisely) thus and such’ or as asking us to imagine Juliet (literally or metaphorically) as the sun. It is enough to place her in the imaginative space created by the image of the sun and allow her to linger there for a moment, framing our thought of her in essay writing, productive and, ultimately, meaningful ways.
It is in this respect that we find that poems and metaphors are most closely related in the family of meaning. What Simic does in writing ‘Who put canned laughter/into my crucifixion scene’ is not altogether unlike what Shakespeare did with ‘Juliet is the sun.’ In the case of university admissions essay Simic’s poem, we allow the image of our crucifixion accompanied by an impersonal, ridiculous laugh-track to key terms, frame how we think of our lives, just as in the case of Ashbery we allow the violent clash of images of florida essay high and low culture — and much else besides — to act as a stage upon which we rehearse thoughts of our world and the mayhem of experience it offers. And one needn’t consult only modernist oddities to see this. To come to essay writing, hear Wordsworth’s poetry as about more than just pleasant leas and lovely trees, to come to hear it as a reflection on, as critics sometimes like to put it, ‘the problematic condition of the modern subject,’ it is enough to de la ficelle, allow his poetic re-enchantments of nature to offer us what the key terms essay real world never quite delivers, an imaginative space that puts us in touch with what we’ve lost, in this way telling us both what we need and casting aspersions on modern culture for making it unavailable to us. To attempt to see metaphors and poems as at least partly communicating imagistically — by virtue of the revenge thesis ‘objects’, in the most general sense, they bring to key terms, view — is in a respect to emphasize the painterly dimension of these otherwise linguistic creatures. And if it seems odd to essay, say that objects and key terms, not just sentences, images and not just assertions, can convey, consider the following, explicitly painterly form of communication, which I hope shall bring my point home. Assume I wish to convey to reflective essay on christmas, you why I am so unhappy, despite my smart job in a smart city, smart friends who adore me, and so on. I could simply list for you properties that I truly bear, for example, that I am forty-two, unfulfilled, alienated, and so on. But besides being tedious this is also a rather ineffective way of expressing what I wish to express, given the alternatives. So I opt for a bit of essay writing helpful figuration and instead offer a much more succinct kind of communication.
Imagine that I say to resume de la, you that ‘ this is what I have always wanted my life to be like,’ pointing to: Edouard Manet, Still Life with Melon and Peaches. c. 1866. And then after a moment’s pause I say, ‘but unfortunately, this is the life I actually have,’ indicating the following: Richard Hamilton, Just What Is It That Makes Today’s Home So Different, So Appealing? (1956) This is key terms writing, as good an example of semantic descent as one could hope for. In an obvious and literal sense, a worldly object — the painting I indicate — contributes to the meaning of racial segregation essay what I have said. Key Terms! What I have in effect done here is given you a subject of thought — my life — and two radically different modes or framework s 24 with which to conceive it: for thinking about and so ultimately coming to introduction of french, understand it. The descriptive thickness of writing my communicative act resides in how successful these images are not in telling you what to think about my life but how to think about it. You now know, for example, that I have a romantic streak, that I’d prefer a simpler life in a simpler place, and that I have somehow managed to fill my life with campy, superficial crap. Or so I feel. But what makes this form of communication especially rich is not that it allows us to derive ‘true descriptions’ of my life, though it does make a bit of this possible.
It is rather a matter of how each work offers a very precise environment of thought and feeling into which we can place an otherwise formless, indeterminate conception of a life. Essay! By putting these objects in a certain relationship with a subject — my life — I charge their aesthetic features with a kind of moral significance: they now come to represent ‘ways of being in the world’; that is, they represent a life as tethered to very different kinds of value and forms of key terms possible experience. In a sense, every poem has a subject for which the poem itself functions as a framework of thought and feeling, much as the paintings in my example do. In some poetry the subject is explicit: Lesbia and love in Catullus, for florida example. But in a great expanse of modern poetry, however, the key terms essay subject is implicit, at university florida admissions essay best suggested and so only half visible, and criticism is in part the struggle to find it and bring it to full view. Even of poems that seem to say what they mean and mean what they say, we know to search for their unmentioned subject, as we do when we read Coleridge’s ‘Kubla Khan’ as ultimately about the nature of poetic creation and not just strange happenings in Xanadu, even though the poem only explicitly talks about the latter. And if latency is characteristic of key terms writing our experience the ficelle meaning of a poem, it is not because it takes so long to unearth its hidden meaning. The idea of ‘hidden’ meanings can be dangerously misleading, suggesting as it tends to the idea of a master-proposition upon which critics converge when they’ve unraveled the essay mystery of a poem. We frequently experience poetic meaning as a far-off destination not because the meaning of introduction revolution a poem is so deeply hidden in key terms essay, its language but because the kind of communicative act in which a poem engages is extraordinarily complex, beginning with language and words but then soon passing from this into a richly, and at ficelle times bizarrely, textured imaginative space, the exploration of which is potentially interminable. This is key terms essay writing, why we do not believe in the existence of interpretations of poems to racial, which nothing more can be added, that say everything that can be said about a poem.
Poems, and artworks more generally, strike us as always saying ‘I mean more than that’ in the face of even our best interpretations and most competent critics. All this should make clear that while I do wish to emphasize the communicative role of essay images in essay, metaphors and poems, I am in no way attempting to reanimate that old body of theory that equates the meaning of a metaphor with a single image or picture, one that ‘shows’ a metaphor’s meaning. This is why I enlist the notion of an imaginative space and not of an image to explain the mechanics of communication here, since the former is much broader and more accommodating than the latter. Among other things, an imaginative space can tolerate the presence of a number of essay writing images and essay, objects, and it can also acknowledge the contradiction and at times incoherence of the imaginings metaphors and poems often produce, something a single-image theory of figurative communication will find very difficult. At any rate, while the philosopher of language may be forgiven for entertaining the idea that metaphors produce an image in which their meaning, in some way, resides, it is clearly silliness to think that poems generate a single, solitary image in virtue of key terms which they convey. Perhaps some do, but it is too much to think that poems that communicate imagistically always do so by resolving, in some mysterious way, into a single image. Is The Better Of Valour-essay! Part of the motivation for essay writing introducing the notion of an resume de la ficelle, imaginative space is to avoid the problems invited by the single-image theory without abandoning the key terms writing sensible idea that images nonetheless are a standard currency of communication in de la ficelle, poetry, and indeed in figurative language more generally. As I said above, the full generation of poetic meaning — that is, of the densely wrought patterns of key terms essay writing significance and sense a talented critic will attribute to a poem — will require much more than the minimal activity of making-meaningful I am considering in this paper.
This is to admit that if we approach a poem armed simply with our imaginations, we’ll barely get any further than I did with Ashbery, and essay, this is not very far at all. But an account of how we get from the minimal meaningfulness I have explored here to the richness of criticism shouldn’t be very hard to devise, though it is beyond the scope of this paper. Critics, educated and experienced as they sometimes are, are usually members of a rather complicated form of life, a practice in which one can participate only once one has mastered everything that goes into what Arthur Danto calls the ‘atmosphere of theory’ 25 in which artworks are created, interpreted, and consumed. This background of ideas will include a general sense of the poetic projects that define a tradition, the ideas of culture, art, and philosophy that inform it, a sense of a particular poet’s standing interests, past works, and so on. All of essay this is part of what guides, constrains, and informs a critic’s imagination and its ability to elicit from a poem all that it means but about which it may say virtually nothing, just as we saw it does in of south florida, the case of modern subjects in Wordsworth and poetic creation in Coleridge. And it is this surrounding culture of ideas, history and criticism that reveals what critics know well and the rest of us too little, and key terms writing, so why a critic’s imaginative engagement with a poem is often so much more productive than is the othello revenge amateur’s, despite the latter’s enthusiasm and good intentions. What I have tried to identify here is the key terms necessity of the form of imaginative engagement I have outlined, and of how this casts light on how we take the first, and perhaps just the first, step in the process of making a poem meaningful. Of course it requires considerable time, work, and often the aid of a fine critic, to move successfully from this first shimmer of sense to the experience of a poem as fully enriched with meaning.
The story of this is the story of nothing less than the interpretive enterprise itself, the revenge products of which are works of criticism, and key terms essay, my arguments in this paper concern just the first moment in this grand affair. But I do hope that some of what I have said brings to light possibilities for thinking about these further matters. By way of a conclusion, I’ll assert, without argumentation, that our experience of much poetry, modernist or otherwise, bears the mark of the problems I have addressed here, though usually not nearly as completely and essay on christmas, proudly as, say, Ashbery’s poetry does. Yet even if there are poems that do not strike us as problematic as those I have discussed here, we do find these the basic problems lurking somewhere, behind some line, in virtually every modern poem, and writing, a great many premodern. At any rate, it would be silly to claim that the poets I have used to set up my argument are exceptions to is the better part of valour-essay, the rule of how we experience meaning in poetry. What would the essay rule be to which these are exceptions? That poems are generally composed of clear, literal language? That the meaning of most poems is transparent and immediately available to anyone who reads them? It is hard to say this with a straight face. All one needs to grant me is that poets of the sort I have explored represent a kind of limit-case, and that in coming to understand what happens at this borderline, we’ll be able to essay on christmas, throw light on key terms, what happens when poems approach it to whatever extent they do, that is, when they strike us as communicating in excess of whatever their ‘language’ means, and partly by virtue of the kind of imaginative space they open up to appreciation. 26.
Altieri, Charles. Self and Sensibility in Contemporary American Poetry . New York: Cambridge University Press, 1984. Ashbery, John. Self-Portrait in a Convex Mirror: Poems. Racial Segregation! New York: Viking Press, 1975. ———. A Worldly Country: New Poems. New York: Ecco, 2007. Blackburn, Simon. Spreading the Word: Groundings in the Philosophy of Language. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1984.
Camp, Elisabeth. “Two Varieties of Literary Imagination: Metaphor, Fiction, and Thought Experiments.” Midwest Studies in Philosophy 33.1 (2009): 107-30. Critchley, Simon. Things Merely Are: Philosophy in the Poetry of Wallace Stevens. London: Routledge, 2005. Danto, Arthur. “The Art World.” Journal of Philosophy 61 (1964): 571-84.
Eliot, T. Key Terms Essay! S. Collected Poems, 1909-1962. Introduction Revolution Essay! Franklin Center, Pa.: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1991. Gibson, John. Key Terms Essay! “Interpreting Words, Interpreting Worlds.” Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 64, no. 4 (2006): 439-50. Guttenplan, Samuel. Objects of Metaphor. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005. Jollimore, Troy. “Like a Picture Or a Bump on the Head”: Vision, Cognition, and the Language of resume ficelle Poetry.” Midwest Studies in key terms, Philosophy 33.1 (2009): 131-58. Koethe, John. Poetry At One Remove.
Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2000. Lycan, William. Philosophy of Language: A Contemporary Introduction. 2nd ed., New York: Routledge, 2008. Moran, Richard. Is The Better Of Valour-essay! “Metaphor.” Companion to the Philosophy of Language . Key Terms Essay! Eds. Bob Hale, and florida admissions, Crispin Wright. Oxford: Blackwell, 1997. 248-70. Poulin Jr, A. “The Experience of writing Experience: A Conversation With John Ashbery.” Michigan Quarterly Review 20.3 (1981): 241-55. Ribeiro, Anna Christina. “Intending to Repeat: A Definition of Poetry.” Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 65.2 (2007): 189-201.
Rieke, Alison. The Senses of Nonsense. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 1992. Simic, Charles. Jackstraws: Poems. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1999. Ungaretti, Giuseppe. Selected Poems. Trans.
Andrew Frisardi. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2002. Vendler, Helen. Invisible Listeners: Lyric Intimacy in Herbert, Whitman, and Ashbery. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2005.
John Gibson is Associate Professor of Philosophy at the University of Louisville. He is the author of Fiction and the Weave of is the of valour-essay Life (OUP, 2007) and is currently coediting, with Noel Carroll, The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of essay writing Literature and university florida admissions, editing The Philosophy of Poetry for OUP.
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Defining Key Terms - Essay Writing …
analyze essays How to write your best essay ever! English biz has separate guides for each of the writing types of writing you'll meet on your course but this particular guide is probably the most important of them all. It will show you how to construct an effective, well-structured argument-based essay. How do you feel when you're given an essay to write? Do you fill with f-f-fear? W-w-wobble with worry?
P-p-pour with perspiration? Well, here's a way that make the whole process more satisfying and enjoyable! Okay, he's off his rocker (but we won't worry as he's not real!). He's yet to discover that writing an essay is never going to be an easy task, even for the best writers. But you're about to find out how it can be made much more straightforward , interesting and effective . Oh, and likely to gain you a significantly higher grade, too! So that's something to feel, well. just a little bit excited about!
It's important to understand one thing before we start: unlike a maths or science question, an English essay question has no single 'correct' answer. You can breathe easy on othello revenge, that one. It's just not like that. In an essay English essay there is no one 'answer' and nothing to 'prove'. That isn't to say there aren't wrong answers - there are. These are those based on 'mis-readings' of your texts. But what your teacher or examiner wants is a reasonable, informed, explained and well-supported view . In a nutshell, that's it. An essay requires this from you: a succinct opening in is the better part, which you give an overview of your response to the essay question.
This is a kind of 'super-condensed' response that sums up your whole response in a line or two. you can add to the opening sentences, a very brief explanation of wh at aspects of the text brought you to this view . If you can give, say, four - six aspects, then you are setting out the coming structure of your essay . There is no better way to begin an essay than like this. From this point on you will never be left scratching your head wondering what to write next. the remainder of the key terms writing essay is discretion part merely a series of PEE paragraphs that, point by point, argue the case for key terms writing, what you have just stated. Each point (P) needs its own paragraph and to have support (E) from the text (either a quotation, or an explanation of some aspect of form or structure ) along with with an university admissions essay explanation (E) of how the text brought you to such a view, the effects it created, the methods the author used to key terms essay create the effects and, finally, its relevance to introduction of french revolution essay the text, that is, the author's purposes . That's it. Done and dusted! More detail below if needed. The secret of a good essay? Make it an argument ! An effective essay is a piece of writing that makes a strong and key terms writing, well-supported case for a stated viewpoint . The view it makes the case for is your response to the essay title or question . You'll have arrived at after a couple of readings of the resume de la ficelle text, more if a poem, and one of which will be a so-called 'close-reading' when you annotate the writing text carefully in line with whatever the essay question asks, seeking out support as quotations or explanations of useful effects created by form and structure . So your essay starts with a clear statement of your opinion . Racial Essay? It could be something like, as an example: 'Shakespeare's theme of violence in Romeo and Juliet is writing shown especially effectively through the opening scene, as well as through the characters of Mercutio and Tybalt and an analysis of othello revenge these three dramatic aspects will form the basis of this essay.' The opening overview is sometimes called a thesis statement . Key Terms Writing? The 'thesis' is your response, i.e. the heart of your 'argument'.
It's what the essay goes on to explain and othello revenge, support to key terms essay show that it is racial segregation essay a view that is well - considered, based on the text and reasonable to hold . Essays are about essay writing, opinions, not facts. This point is crucial to take on board. There is never a straightforward right answer to an essay q uestion or title. There are wrong answers, of course - caused through, for example, misinterpreting the text; but the 'answer' to an essay question will always be a point of segregation essay view . Essays deal in opinions, not facts . This is why your teacher is looking to read your views and why you have come to key terms essay think in this particular way. How do you arrive at a 'thesis' or overview? This is the tough part - there#39;s no getting away from that. Not least, this is university of south florida admissions essay because it puts to the test your knowledge of the text and writing, your understanding of the essay title or question . The good news is that when it's done and done well, the remainder of the essay becomes much more straightforward and far more interesting to write, perhaps even a little exciting! The Outline Structure for an Effective Essay.
As already stated above, this first paragraph needs to open with a clearly stated summary of your whole 'answer' along with an equally brief summary of the aspects of the text you'll be analysing to show your stated view is sound . It is these early sentences that provide the major 'signposts' that give your essay and its general direction. On Christmas? Importantly, you need to set a confident tone early on key terms essay writing, in the resume de la ficelle essay. This can be done by key terms essay writing, adding in a very few details to show you've grasped the text's big picture . Resume? This should be a brief comment (brevity is everything in the opening paragraph) on the major details of the story (poem or whatever) along with an equally brief statement of any relevant context , (that is the situation you feel brought the writer to want to write their text, including key aspects of their social , cultural and literary contexts ). Key Terms? This will, though, always need to be focused on the needs of the essay question . Notice how you are constantly seeking to avoid waffle and generalised 'bolted on' comments ; instead, you need to keep all you write tightly focused on the needs of the essay title or question. Introduction Revolution Essay? This is the bulk of the essay essay. It is a series of paragraphs each introduced with a new clear important and ficelle, wholly relevant point . Sadly, it's all too easy to open a in a way that inspires little confidence and which drifts from the essay question or argument. Key Terms Essay? Avoid this by part, opening each and every paragraph in a way that is clearly and directly developing the essay's 'answer' or argument . If you started by stating the four-six aspects you'll be covering in your essay, then you'll have no difficulty knowing what to write in key terms essay, these body paragraphs. This is where you restate, in essay, a different form, your opening argument and give a brief list of the major points you have made along with a comment about the wider implications and relevance of what you have found. Key Terms Essay? It will help to think back to the imaginary classroom situation. What would follow on from the highly condensed 'answer' you gave to your teacher? Your teacher might say, 'Good, that's a fair view to hold - but why do you think that? Show me from the text itself what made you think that way.' In the written essay, you'll need to be providing a whole lot more 'evidence' mainly in the form of quotations each one itself supported by a commentary derived from an analysis of the florida quotation's literary and essay writing, linguistic content . However, with a central and guiding argument starting off and flowing through the entire essay, it now becomes much easier to search the text for aspects and segregation, quotations that will provide good quality evidence to support the essay's points.
Each point and key terms essay, supporting quotation needs to reflective on christmas be followed by an analysis and comment . Some teachers call this the essay P.E.E. Essay On Christmas? ( point example explanation ) or P.Q.C. Key Terms Essay Writing? ( point quotation comment ) system. This is needed to introduction of french revolution explain how and essay writing, why the aspect of the de la ficelle text or the quotation 'works' within the context of the essay question and the originally stated argument. Essay Writing? Certain key questions need to be answered concerning each quotation used: What techniques have been used to make the language of the quotation effective? This means discussing the writer's methods , e.g. through the creation of realistic dialogue; the reflective essay on christmas use of an writing effective metaphor; through vivid description; onomatopoeia; alliteration; effective stage directions, etc. How does the method used affect the ficelle reader's understanding of the text and its themes (e.g. 'the effect of this passage is to key terms essay writing create a sense of really being there for the reader. ')? Why was this method used (i.e. Discretion Part Of Valour-essay? what was the writer's purpose )? E.g. Key Terms Writing? 'At this point on the story the author wants to gain the reader's attention in part of valour-essay, order to begin exploring the overall theme of essay injustice. ' MARK GRABBING TIP No.
1! Begin all of your paragraphs in such a way that it is absolutely clear you are focused on the essay question and essay, its requirements, thus building up your overall argument. This will keep the essay on track and avoid the plague of poor essays: wandering, digression and waffle! What if your essay title isn't in key terms essay, the form of a question? When considered as a question, you will often find it is easier to generate that all-important single main point of view to it - the main idea upon which you will then base the remainder of your essay . Here is an example of introduction a main idea succinctly stated (i.e. thesis statement ) that could be used to create an argument essay from the key terms writing above question: The remainder of this - or any other - essay must then be no more than a linked series of points with each point explained , developed and essay, supported in essay, a paragraph of its own . These points must all be directly related to better of valour-essay the main idea you have already explained in the opening paragraph, which itself is your response to the essay title or question. Remember that each point - each paragraph - must set out to explain , develop and support some aspect of your over-riding main idea and nothing more . In this example, the paragraph that follows the opening paragraph - the essay writing first of what is university of south essay called the essay body paragraphs of your essay - could be based on the point that the theme of introduction of french revolution ambition is shown through what Macbeth and Lady Macbeth are given by Shakespeare to say and essay writing, do in Act One of the reflective on christmas play. The third paragraph of your essay - its second body paragraph - might then explore, develop and support how the theme of ambition is essay shown through these two characters in some part of Act 2, and so on.
Below you'll find lots more detail and ideas for writing an effective essay but with luck, the above will have given you the basic idea. Aim to 'integrate' words or phrases from the text you are studying directly into your own sentences (still using quotation marks, of course). Don't overdo this effective technique, but used sparingly, this use of 'embedded' quotations can help create a very impressive style, one that suggests you have a good grasp of the text and admissions, the essay question. Here are some examples of how to use embedded quotations. The first is from the opening of John Steinbeck's novel, 'Of Mice and Men': 'Small and quick' George is presented by Steinbeck as a character in key terms, complete contrast to his friend, the lumbering and 'shapeless' Lennie. Here is a similarly embedded quotation from J B Priestley's 'An Inspector Calls': As the Inspector says, 'We don't live alone' and this is an important message Priestley gives his audience. Finally, see how this can be done using John Agard's poem, 'Half-Caste': Perhaps Agard also wants his reader to 'come back tomorrow' with a different attitude towards those they might feel are in any way different from themselves. MORE TIPS AND MORE DETAIL! Essays take a great deal of effort and time and so deserve careful preparation. T he most common failing examiners find is a lack of understanding of the text on which the essay is based.
This is to take the road signpos ted 'Failure'. But you're heading elsewhere. So. get to know your text well. You won't succeed if you don't! I f you struggle with the text, read it through again with a study guide to hand. Also, talk the text over with friends or your teacher. There is more help with specific texts here . Many essay writers fail to create an initial main viewpoint or drift from essay on christmas this single focus. Key Terms? This loses marks as it leads to waffle , vagueness and generalisation . As you've read above, another common pitfall is to focus too much on de la, the surface features of the text you are writing about.
This happens when you write at length about the meaning of the text, i.e. by telling what happens in it. In effect, all you are doing when you do this is to retell the story of the essay text. You need to resume ficelle be discussing how and why the author has created an effective text through careful, interesting and effective choices of style and language as well as structure . M ore marks are lost if you forget the need to support the points you make in each paragraph. A good idea is to try to use at least one quotation - or reference to key terms essay the text - per paragraph. Remember, too, that this is an English essay and this means you need to better part of valour-essay reflect how authors use language and literary techniques in effective ways in essay writing, their writing . Aim only to choose quotations that contain important elements in them that will allow you to discuss in depth aspects of, for reflective on christmas, example, their literary style , language or structure. Consider discussing, for example, how the key terms writing quotation acts to build tension , mood , character , a sense of place or how it helps explore one of the othello text's themes . Discuss, too, how the quotation works both at the point it occurs and key terms, as a contribution to the whole , i.e. the introduction revolution essay way it helps the writer achieve his or her purpose . This means you need to discuss aspects of the quotation such as its effectiveness - which means discussing aspects of language , structure and key terms writing, style . 1. DEVELOP A STRONG INITIAL FOCUS FOR YOUR ESSAY. The word 'essay' comes from a French word meaning 'attempt': your essay is your attempt to discretion is the better part argue for your point of key terms view , a view that when succinctly expressed is called a thesis statement . This 'thesis statement' needs to be an idea you developed based on an interpretation of whatever aspect of the text is asked in essay, the essay question. Interpretation means considering how a text operates at different levels ; it is your interpretation of the text that will be at the heart of the essay: an interpretation that must supports the overall thesis statement.
2. FIND SOLID SUPPORT FOR YOUR VIEWPOINT. You will need to search through the text and note down a series of aspects and quotations that can be used to support the overall view you have developed. Use 'post-it notes' to help with this or write the essay aspects/quotations down separately. Choose aspects or quotations that you can analyse successfully for resume de la ficelle, the methods used , effects created and key terms writing, purpose intended . 3. WRITE AN EFFECTIVE OPENING PARAGRAPH. Use your introductory paragraph to state your point of resume ficelle view , i.e. your thesis statement. The purpose of your opening paragraph is to make clear your thesis statement - response to the essay question: that is, to explain the key terms focus of your argument - your main idea or point of view. Stated clearly at the opening to your essay, this shows how you intend to answer the essay question and what general direction your essay will take. Following your thesis statement, it's a good idea to add a little more detail that acts to 'preview' each of the revolution major points that you will cover in the body of the essay. This opening paragraph will then act to key terms essay show - succinctly - where you stand regarding the questions and how you intend to answer it. Importantly, in revenge, the opening paragraph of your essay you will also need to writing write an university essay overview of the text, one that gives a succinct summary of the ' big picture ' of the text; importantly, too, of course, this must be focused on the requirements of the key terms essay question. Segregation Essay? Giving a succinct account of the big picture of the text in the opening paragraph will show that you have engaged with and digested the essay writing detail of three key aspects of the essay: the essay question, the text and its author - perhaps also, a brief account of the author's context . Discretion Is The Part? Giving an key terms writing overview suggests a confident approach and is a hallmark of the best essays.
TIP: It is always impressive to incorporate into your own sentences, using quotation marks of course, a short suitable quotation taken from the text. Introduction Revolution Essay? Some teachers call this using embedded quotations. Keep all references to the biographical background of the author and any aspects of his or her context entirely relevant to the essay question and - brief! Remember that this is not a history or a sociology essay so very few marks are awarded for this kind of key terms background information (although that does not mean it might not be useful). The majority of marks in an English essay are awarded for part of valour-essay, the quality of essay writing analysis and interpretation you show - that is, an awareness of the resume de la author's uses of the English language and literary uses of key terms essay writing this. If your essay title does concern aspects of context try hard to discuss context by deriving your comments from quotations rather than by merely discussing aspects of introduction of french essay context; in essay, other words allow the text to introduce the context. Introduction Of French Essay? TIP: avoid making simplistic and irrelevant value judgments of the text or its author. Saying that Shakespeare is 'a wonderful author' or that you think 'Of Mice and Men' is 'really good' will gain no marks whatsoever - this is key terms writing no more than a kind of waffle that fills space with empty words that add nothing useful to your essay. 4. USE THE REMAINING PARAGRAPHS EFFECTIVELY.
Follow the opening paragraph with a number of paragraphs that form the 'body' of the essay. Each of these paragraphs are there purely to revenge thesis expand on key terms writing, and support your originally stated overall viewpoint. Having stated your main idea in reflective essay on christmas, your opening paragraph, now you need explore this, develop it and provide support from the text for this. In the essay writing essay's body paragraphs your aim is to: follow the analysis system called P.E.E. or P.Q.C. Part Of Valour-essay? For more on writing, this see here ; work through the text's structure logically and, highlighting via the use of othello quotations, explain how these led you to develop your point of key terms essay writing view; comment on how the racial language of each of these parts led you to form your interpretation: why did the author choose this particular type of key terms language to make this point in this way? How does it help a) the audience and b) the writer's purpose or theme ? discuss how this individual part of the text forms a useful structural part of the text by leading the reader towards an overall understanding of the discretion is the of valour-essay themes, messages or purposes of the text; CRUCIALLY. each paragraph needs to develop a separate and individual point - one that will help to show how different parts and key terms, aspects of the text helped you develop your interpretation and viewpoint (this is the POINT part of P.E.E.); A useful tip is to open each paragraph with a topic sentence . This is reflective essay a sentence that clearly makes a point that is developing your argument - your answer to the essay question - and, because it is, therefore, clearly focused on the essay question, it will keep your writing on track; Always aim to provide support for each of the points you make by referring directly to essay writing the text (this is the EXAMPLE part of P.E.E.). You normally do this by quoting briefly from a relevant part of the text but you might choose to describe an event.
It's very important NOT to university of south florida essay write a long description of WHAT happens. If you do you are merely 'retelling the story' - this loses many marks. In a play you also lose marks if you do not discuss aspects of the staging and stage action. You will need to essay writing follow each quotation with an explanation of and a discussion on aspects of the language the author used in the quotation; this means discussing, for example, how aspects of the quotations literary, poetic or dramatic language works, including mentioning the method the writer used, the effect the language creates and the reasons this might have been done (this is the EXPLAIN part of P.E.E). You should also aim to show how the quotation helped you develop your overall interpretation of the text (this is also the othello thesis EXPLAIN part of P.E.E). 5. CREATE A LOGICAL STRUCTURE. Always work in a clear way through the text, from beginning to end. Avoid starting your essay by discussing a point that occurs half way through your text: ALWAYS begin at the beginning! Many students begin discussing a text half way through or even near the key terms essay end then go back to an earlier point. This ignores the work the on christmas writer puts in to develop an effective structure to key terms essay their text - and loses marks! 6. CONCLUDE EFFECTIVELY.
The conclusion to an essay is discretion is the important but causes problems for many students. It should leave your reader with a pleasant and logical sense of 'closure' - a 'wrapping up' of the main ideas behind the essay . 1. Re-state in a different form (using rather different words) your opening argument. 2. Now bring together your main points (again, avoiding simple repetition of the same words): list or summarise the main points from the preceding paragraphs (use the topic sentences from each paragraph to give you an idea). 3. Writing? End by identifying some of the wider implications and introduction essay, relevance that arise from what you have found and explored. The conclusion should consist of just a few sentences but these will need to be made to sound convincing and authoritative . It's crucial to keep the conclusion brief and to the point and, above all else, to introduce no new material at all. ALWAYS WRITE ANALYTICALLY , NEVER DESCRIPTIVELY. Here is an example of how many students go wrong; don't worry, you won't - but this is a very common mistake: In William Shakespeare's play, 'Romeo and key terms, Juliet', these are the first two lines of the 'Prologue' as spoken by 'The Chorus': 'Two households, both alike in dignity, In fair Verona, where we lay our scene. ' What follows is a typical 'retelling': an 'overview' or 'translation' that gains no marks : 'Here, Shakespeare is saying that the play is set in Verona where there are two dignified families.' Compare the above 'description' with this analytical and insightful interpretation : 'The opening lines of the Prologue are important because they paint a picture for racial, the audience of what could and should be - fairness and dignity. These words set up a powerful contrast to what is: the violence, hatred and bloodshed shown in the coming scene. It will be against this violent backdrop that the pure love of Romeo and Juliet will have to essay writing struggle.' Which approach and style would gain the higher mark? STUCK FOR WHAT TO WRITE ABOUT?
THERE ARE FOUR KEY ASPECTS THAT APPLY TO ALL TEXTS AND WHICH SHOULD FORM THE BASIS OF ANY LITERATURE ESSAY. FORM, CONTENT, STRUCTURE AND STYLE. This is so very often ignored despite the fact that it provides the basis for the very best essays because it provides a subtle response. And subtlety always receives the highest marks ! When you write about a text at the level of its form , you analyse how aspects of it other than the meaning of its language have been used by introduction essay, the writer in important and effective ways. To give you an idea of the importance of form to a text, you yourself make use of the form of language when you speak loudly or softly , or when you chat or text a friend and use CAPS LOCK. Also, when you create short or long sentences or paragraphs you are affecting the key terms essay look - the of south form - of your writing. This, albeit subtly, affects the way the writing is received and interpreted.
A novelist makes use of form by writing in sentences and paragraphs of varying lengths (you can imagine the effect a very short sentence, or a one-line paragraph, for example). The use of dialogue (spoken words shown inside speech marks) is also an key terms essay effective use of form, as is the use of underlining , bold or italics - or, in non-fiction texts, the inclusion of of french bullet points or sections. Poets are acutely aware of and very creative with the use of form. A poet makes use of form, for example, by consciously splitting up sentences into the lines of poetry . This allows the poet to exaggerate a particular word by key terms writing, placing it at the end of a line, or by rhyming it with a similar sounding word. A non-fiction writer makes use of form by using layout and resume ficelle, appearance and by adding illustrations and photographs , and so on.
All writers use form by using patterns of sound , such as by using alliteration , rhyme , rhythm , onomatopoeia , assonance and so on. A playwright, of key terms essay course, uses form very differently. When your essay concerns a play, therefore, you'll definitely be losing marks if you ignore aspects of form. In a play, much of the reflective on christmas 'meaning' is created not from language but from what you see happening on the stage - the essay writing staging and stage action. This includes not just what the actors do but what they wear , where they stand and racial segregation essay, so on - all potentially important formal aspects of the play that should find their way onto essay your essay. Form is always worthy of comment when (but only when ) if it adds usefully to the meaning, i.e. the thesis content of a text. Every word and phrase has a literal meaning . This is its basic dictionary meaning. It's sometimes called a word's denotation . E.g. 'In this story, the author's detailed description of darkness denotes the coming on of a storm'. This is a way of 'playing' around with a word's meaning that makes writing more vivid , emotional and writing, interesting . Essay On Christmas? Words and phrases can be used differently from their literal context and given what is called a connotation . Using connotation or figurative language , a writer can introduce layers of meaning - especially emotional meaning (don't forget that many words can create both meaning and feeling ). The most common way this is done is to use a word not for its literal meaning but for its metaphorical or figurative meaning. Another way is to use a word that acts as symbolically and represents something very different from its literal meaning. E.g. 'As well as suggesting the coming of a storm, the key terms essay darkness also acts to suggest a metaphorical darkness is taking over the character's mind.
In this way the darkness seems to be symbolising a kind of evil'. Using a pun - a witty play on words - is on christmas another way that meaning can be played with in an interesting way. Key Terms Writing? Punning works because some words, in a certain context, can have an ambiguous meaning - two possible meanings - one of which might be humorous. Irony is segregation a key way that writers use to create layers of meaning. Sarcasm is irony, but this is a spoken form of irony that is intended to hurt someone's feelings by ridiculing some aspect of them.
It's a crude, easy kind of irony not really subtle enough for writing. Irony is usually subtle , sophisticated , edgy and witty ; an altogether more intelligent use of language. But irony can also be difficult to recognise - yet it is probably true to say that irony is one of the most common means by which a sophisticated writer creates layers of meaning in a text . Irony works because when it is recognised, it engages the reader very much more closely with the text. This is because, rather like solving a puzzle, there is a real enjoyment and satisfaction in unpicking the various levels of meaning created by the irony. Key Terms Essay Writing? Creating an 'ironic tone of voice' in writing is much harder than in speech because the original sound of of south florida essay voice and facial expression or body language of the speaker are absent. To create an ironic tone (or any tone, for that matter), words have to be chosen with great care.
It is a key reading skill to key terms be able to detect this as it tells you what attitude the writer is taking towards their subject matter. An example of irony occurs in an old story by of south florida essay, O. Henry called 'The Gift of the Magi'. This story of poor young lovers ends with the boyfriend selling the one thing he owns of value, his pocket watch, in order to buy his girlfriend an essay expensive hair comb; equally secretly, she has all of her long hair cut off to sell to a wig maker so she can afford to buy him. University Admissions? a chain for key terms writing, his watch. Structure is the way a writer consciously 'shapes' a piece of writing in an attempt to make it as effective as possible for their audience and their purpose. It is important to comment on the structure of a text, e.g. University Florida Admissions Essay? 'The way the key terms writing author slowly builds up the tension throughout this chapter helps create a feeling of of south florida admissions essay real excitement and mystery'. Style is the way a writer or speaker consciously chooses language and writing, language features to suit a particular audience to achieve a specific purpose . Essay? When you aim to convince your mum that Friday's party cannot be missed, you will consciously adapt your style to one that is more emotional and essay writing, persuasive! Some famous writers have a particular style of their own that is quickly recognisable. Racial? John Steinbeck, Charles Dickens and William Wordsworth are three such writers - here, a writer's individual style is key terms sometimes referred to as the writer's 'voice'. Your primary job when analysing and discussing a text is to comment on its style - on what are called the stylistic or language choices its writer has made, especially those that seem to you to on christmas have been chosen to create a particular effect to essay achieve a certain purpose. So. if you are commenting on the form and admissions, content of key terms essay a writer's language, you are commenting on the writer's style . COMPARING TWO OR MORE TEXTS. Is The? Even though it's a central part of the mark scheme, and always made clear in the essay question or title, each year many students still manage to write their comparison exam answer or coursework essay and forget to compare and contrast the texts . Aside from not knowing the texts sufficiently well, failing to key terms essay compare and contrast is the number one reason marks are lost in discretion is the part, this kind of essay.
When writing about more than one text, your opening paragraph should be used to give the writing briefest details of each text (i.e. your writing needs to be succinct !). This will mean being even more careful and othello thesis, sparing when you write an overview of each text, in which you give the big picture . There are two methods you can consider using when comparing texts: 1) Write about the first text fully before moving on to the key terms writing second - still using the techniques outlined above; but when you go on to write about the second text, you must compare and contrast it with the first. Reflective? 2) Alternatively, and writing, this makes the most sense when thinking about the argument essay, you write about both texts as you proceed . This allows you still, as shown above, to create a central argument , one in which examples to support the points are taken from one or both texts as relevant to the point. This second method is the more complex and essay, sophisticated of the key terms two.
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If you are a prospective job candidate or simply want to learn more about your career mobility, please register here Pathways Conference Registration. Once you have registered (or if you have already registered) please submit your resume as a PDF file (last name, first name) to Sophia Piliouras at key terms essay writing email@example.com no later than 8pm EST, Thursday, September 28 . This is a strict deadline . If you do not submit your resume by university of south florida, the due date in the correct format noted above, your resume will not be submitted digitally to participating employers. Participating Corporate Law Departments: If you are an interested prospective corporate employer, who may or may not have a current open requisition but, would like to connect with diverse talent for key terms essay long term planning, or a member (corporate or law firm) interested in essay on christmas meeting some of the employers onsite, please contact firstname.lastname@example.org for more details. In collaboration with: Available only to HNBA Members and MCCA Members and Sponsors. During the 2017 Creating Pathways to Diversity Conference, HNBA members, MCCA law firm members, corporate law departments and legal service provider sponsors* will have the opportunity to participate in essay writing MCCA’s inaugural Pitch Session Network. This event provides a platform for university of south florida admissions essay diverse law firm attorneys and legal service providers to essay, make meaningful connections with in-house counsel interested in legal services. These sessions also allow corporate law departments to racial segregation, connect with diverse attorneys, diversify their service client portfolios and assist in holding law firms and legal service providers accountable for their diversity efforts. Application forms are available at the 2017 Creating Pathways to Diversity registration website (http://www.mcca.com/events/pathways/).
Select Pitch Session Network and the appropriate classification for your organization (corporate law department, MCCA law firm member or legal service provider). Once you add the Pitch Sessions Network to your agenda, you will be guided to complete the Pitch Session Network application form. Please contact Kevin Wong at email@example.com with any questions or concerns regarding the MCCA Pitch Session Network. *Legal service providers can participate in the Pitch Session Network as MCCA sponsors because they do not meet MCCA membership requirements. Law firms must be MCCA members to participate and cannot participate as sponsors. For frequently asked questions, please click here. Women Power: Getting Ambitious for Ambition.
Location: Duffy / Columbia (7th Floor) Do you feel ambivalent about acknowledging your ambition or desire to seek power? Have you, at times, ceded or deflected your ambition? Did you used to feel ambitious and now feel that drive has dissipated? Or, is your ambition strong yet the key terms essay receptivity to any of revenge, your expressed desires for promotion and power been discouraged, diminished or even received with outright hostility. At this session, you will be inspired by key terms writing, a distinguished panel who will talk about how to get ambitious about introduction essay ambition. We will debate the awkwardness for some women around ambition and the need to overcome such reticence in order to seek and develop power. We will wrestle with the thorny challenges of overcoming the naysayers and key terms, those who may want to thwart our ambitious efforts. We will also address the reflective on christmas fear of exposing our true desires as well as the essay tension that some feel that our ambitions may conflict with our aspirations outside of de la ficelle, work. Participants will leave the session inspired to further develop and nurture their ambitions as well as cultivate strategies to sustain and key terms essay writing, achieve them. Anne Lee Benedict – Executive Vice President, Chief Legal Officer and Secretary, Summit Materials, Inc.
Deborah Epstein Henry – Co-Founder, Bliss Lawyers; Founder, DEH Consulting, Speaking, Writing. Samantha Grant – Partner, Sheppard, Mullin, Richter Hampton LLP. LaTanya Langley – Vice President General Counsel, BIC International. The Ethics of Diversity and Corporate Social Responsibility (Ethics CLE) Location: Hudson / Empire (7th Floor) Good governance and reputation management are no longer optional for organizations of any size and with that now also comes the management of business practices such as Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and diversity. Shareholders require companies to florida admissions, behave responsibly and ethically, and companies need to understand how giving back to the community is critical to both the bottom line and to the growth and health of their workforce. What is the key terms writing value of introduction revolution, ethical commitments in key terms writing diversity and inclusion?
What role do these commitments play in CSR? Who should influence corporate ethics? These are just a few of the questions that will be addressed during this session that will explore the legal and corporate value of racial, ethical commitments and key terms, the benefits of introduction essay, building, developing and communicating robust D I plans. Darren T. Binder – Vice President Deputy General Counsel, Bon Secours Health System, Inc. David L. Douglass – Managing Partner, Sheppard Mullin Richter Hampton LLP. Alicia Lowery Rosenbaum – Senior Corporate Attorney, Global Sales, Marketing Operations Group, Microsoft Corporation. Managing a Multigenerational Workforce. Location: Times Square (7th Floor) What’s the key terms best way to of french essay, connect across generations, from Millennials to GenX’ers to Baby Boomers?
How can law firms and corporate law departments leverage the experience of its older professionals and its savvy younger attorneys? This program will discuss myths, motivations, and management practices for effective communication and key terms essay writing, collaboration with colleagues of all ages. An-Ping Hsieh – Senior Vice President, General Counsel and thesis, Secretary, Hubbell Incorporated. Bonnie Pierson-Murphy – Vice President and Assistant General Counsel, IBM Corporation. Rodney C. Pratt – Vice President, General Counsel Corporate Secretary, Converse Inc. Debbie Tang – Partner, Bridge Partners LLC. Julie Totten – Partner, Orrick. Power and key terms, Pitfalls: Best Practices to Select the Right ADR Professional. Location: Hudson / Empire (7th Floor)
Engaging the florida admissions right neutral (mediator or arbitrator) for a certain matter is crucial for efficient, cost-effective results. This panel of neutrals who are also in-house legal officers and law firm partners have served on key terms, both sides of the table – as mediator/arbitrator and introduction of french revolution essay, counsel in various proceedings. Writing! They will discuss how general counsel can make an essay on christmas, impact and essay writing, implement change in alternative dispute resolution (ADR) proceedings by university of south admissions essay, engaging in key terms essay writing a thoughtful process to othello revenge, select the right neutral, and how best to anticipate possible challenges to neutral disclosures, to avoid derailing the proceedings, and key institutional services available to key terms writing, users. The panel will also address the segregation lack of diversity in writing the demographics of the neutrals selected in ADR proceedings and provide fundamental guidelines to of south florida admissions essay, what the new arbitrator and ADR Community should and could be doing to diversify their profession. Theodore Cheng – Partner, Fox Horan Camerini LLP. Lea Haber Kuck – Partner, Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher Flom LLP and essay, Affiliates. Yun G. Lee – Associate General Counsel, AIG. Richard J. Wallis – Vice President Deputy General Counsel, Microsoft Corporation. Jeffrey Zaino – Vice President of the Commercial Division, American Arbitration Association. Enlisting “Good Guys” As Key Allies. Location: Duffy / Columbia (7th Floor)
Even as diversity and de la ficelle, inclusion initiatives are becoming the norm, actual gender parity and racial diversity has stagnated. Key Terms! Despite “stocking the pipeline” and mentoring programs, retention and advancement for minority attorneys have often stalled because the majority of DI efforts fail to discretion is the part, involve a key ally in the existing power structure—influential white heterosexual men. To continue making progress, it is incumbent on ALL attorneys to promote the values of diversity. This panel will discuss: The business case for diversity and essay writing, why non-minority attorneys should be involved Effective ways to engage key allies and build relationships How to enact change, individually and organizationally. Alice Hsu – Partner, Akin Gump Strauss Hauer Feld LLP. Andrea (Andi) Mandell – Partner, Dentons (US) LLP.
Reginald M. Rasch – General Counsel – Head of Legal, Rakuten USA, Inc. Anthony Sharett – Vice President, Bank Legal, Nationwide Bank. Joseph E. Tilson – Co-Chair, Labor Employment, Cozen O’Connor. Mandating Diversity: The Inclusion Clause. Location: Times Square (7th Floor) The percentage of othello, minority attorneys in Am Law 200 and NLJ 250 law firms saw small incremental gains from essay, 15.0 percent in 2015 to racial segregation, 15.6 in 2016. Similarly, among the key terms essay partnership ranks, minority attorneys grew modestly from 8.2 percent in 2015 to 8.6 in resume de la ficelle 2016. Seeking to increase these numbers, some general counsels have started using a stick instead of or in addition to the carrot (i.e., bonus fees if diversity targets are met). Essay Writing! In the form of discretion is the better part, mandates with the consequence of losing fees and additional work, these general counsels are starting to require more diversity among their outside counsel, including relationship partners and billing attorneys.
This panel will discuss the value of such mandates, their implementation, and their effect on outside counsel decisions. Rima J. Alaily – Assistant General Counsel, Diversity Inclusion Lead for Corporate, External Legal Affairs Department, Microsoft Corporation. Rosaleen Chou – Associate, Kilpatrick Townsend Stockton LLP. William A. Delgado – Partner, Willenken Wilson Loh Delgado LLP. Malvina Camejo Longoria – General Counsel, Strategy Transformation, Mastercard. Christophe Mosby – Associate General Counsel and Vice President, HP, Inc. Networking Lunch and Transgender Trailblazers Discussion. Location: Broadway Lounge / Marriott (8th Floor) A major change is underway in today’s workplace.
What is key terms essay life like as a transgender attorney? Join us in a discussion on some of the ficelle obstacles and unexpected advantages of being an openly transgender attorney practicing in the current environment. Where living an essay, authentic life is discretion better part of valour-essay more an key terms writing, act of survival than an act of is the, courage. Learn about the unique personal and professional journeys of these trailblazers that have conquered adversity and helped usher in policies that affirm and essay, support the LGBTQ community in the legal profession. Blake Liggio – Partner, Goodwin Procter LLP. Jillian T. Weiss – Executive Director, Transgender Legal Defense Education Fund. Kelly Wessels – Senior Corporate Counsel, VF Outdoor, LLC. Blueprinting for Success: Developing Plans for Success in Sponsorship, Promotion, Networking, Leadership Flexibility. Location: Duffy / Columbia (7th Floor) In today’s competitive workplace, it is no longer enough to be a top notch professional. What are the intangibles that differentiate those professionals who thrive and those who wither?
During this session, attendees will discover the five challenging areas where professionals should focus. 1. Sponsorship and essay on christmas, Strategic Alliances; 2. Promotion and Self-Promotion; 3. Key Terms Writing! Networking and Business Development; 4. Leadership and Executive Presence; and, 5. Work/Life Balance and Flexibility.
After gaining an understanding of the challenges, attendees will learn tangible steps to better navigate their way. Racial Segregation Essay! Attendees will leave the program, armed with feedback and essay writing, inspiration, to develop the essay skill sets they need to gain the success and status they want. Deborah Epstein Henry – Co-Founder, Bliss Lawyers; Founder, DEH Consulting, Speaking, Writing. Corporate Crisis Management : How General Counsel Anticipate and Respond to Critical Risks. Location: Hudson / Empire (7th Floor) This past year, companies and organizations faced an array of crises that forced them to confront some of their worst nightmares. And general counsel were at the front lines. By definition, a crisis arises precisely because the problem is key terms essay writing unforeseen and unexpected, and of french revolution, the GC is usually the one tasked to devise an key terms essay, immediate response plan.
When the monster rears its ugly head, the admissions essay crisis can come in many forms, such as a regulatory subpoena concerning a serious legal violation that may have occurred, an unexpected class action lawsuit presenting financial peril to the company, or a potentially serious data breach involving customers’ personal data. Essay! Our panel of senior legal leaders, will discuss lessons learned from being in the heat of a corporate crisis and the leadership role GCs play. They will also discuss how to prepare a comprehensive and multi-pronged strategy that focuses on managing the othello thesis crisis through communication, fact-gathering, document holds, and writing, prevention / mitigation / rectification best practices. Damien Atkins – General Counsel Corporate Secretary, Panasonic Corporation of North America. Mark Brennan – Partner, Hogan Lovells. Linda Lu – Senior Vice President, Property Casualty Personal Lines Legal Team, Nationwide Insurance. Neil Wilcox – Senior Vice President #038; Associate General Counsel, First Data Corporation. Location: Times Square (7th Floor) Although diversity training and introduction of french essay, inclusion initiatives have become a popular corporate effort in the past three decades, have these programs become worn out? Are companies and key terms, firms just checking the de la ficelle box?
There is a sense of writing, frustration in resume the lack of key terms essay, progress and a sense of fatigue at thesis the personal and key terms writing, organizational level. Racial Segregation! What to do when the key terms writing burden of diversity efforts always fall on the same few minority attorneys or when the same message is play over othello, and over with the same results? This panel will discuss ways to address diversity fatigue and ways to involve all shareholders and essay writing, integrate effective personnel practices. Vijay Bondada – Vice President, Litigation, Duke Energy Corporation. David Levine – General Counsel, Bloomberg. Dawn Rosemond – Partner, Director of Diversity, Professional Development Inclusion, Barnes Thornburg LLP. Sid Shenoy – Partner, Womble Carlyle Sandridge Rice, LLP. Andy Yoo – Vice President, Associate General Counsel, Pearson. Learn about upcoming research reports, new initiatives, and share suggestions for programs you’d like to see. Summaries of the 2017 Vault/MCCA Law Firm Diversity Database and the Corporate Demographic Survey will be available.
MCCA will introduce new research addressing hidden bias and new membership initiatives, such as secondment opportunities and advisory services to enhance your organization’s DI efforts. MCCA and its partners will be available for any questions about these new programs and research. Vera Djordjevich – Managing Director, Research #038; Consulting, Vault.com, Inc. Tammy Patterson – CEO and President, The NALP Foundation. Julie Peng – Counsel, Director of Training and resume ficelle, Membership Development, MCCA. Women Leaders in key terms essay writing the Law: Breaking Barriers to university of south admissions, Entry. Location: Westside Ballroom (Salons 1 2) (5th Floor) Many have said that 2016 was the year of key terms essay, women. Some thought that a woman would break the highest glass ceiling in our nation to see their first female President of the of south florida admissions essay United States.
Although that has yet to essay, become a reality, women leaders in our profession have been actively leading the racial essay charge (more than ever) to break barriers and change the key terms essay status quo in pay and introduction of french, leadership positions. During this plenary session, women leaders will share how they are disrupting both quietly and loudly the status quo, share best practices on how women at essay writing all stages of othello, their careers can effectuate positive changes by essay writing, collaborating with one another and with men, our most powerful ally. Cristina A. Essay! Carvalho – Managing Partner, Arent Fox LLP. Michelle C. Ifill – Senior Vice President and General Counsel, Verizon Corporate Services Group, Inc. Sophia Piliouras – Senior Counsel, Director of Education and essay writing, Research, MCCA. Simone Wu – Senior Vice President, General Counsel, Corporate Secretary and ficelle, External Affairs, Choice Hotels International, Inc. Pathways Honors Cocktail Reception. Location: Westside Ballroom (Salons 1 – 4) (5th Floor) Awards Ceremony and Fireside Chat – Diversity Disruptors: How are men championing and effectuating change? Pathways Honors will include a cocktail reception, elegant dinner, and awards program that will recognize MCCA’s 2017 Rising Stars, Vashon Innovator Award honorees and writing, the recipient of the Paula L. Ettelbrick Award. The Vashon Innovator Award is named for scholar, abolitionist and lawyer George B. Vashon, who was the first licensed African American attorney in university florida admissions New York State and one of the key terms essay writing first admitted to practice before the U.S.
Supreme Court. As part of the annual Creating Pathways Conference, the award is given to smaller companies (not in the Fortune 1000) and law firms (less than 500 attorneys) that have led the way with innovative best practices to assist diverse attorneys. The Paula L. Ettelbrick Award celebrates unparalleled achievement by an individual or an organization in advancing lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender attorneys. The award is named for the late Paula L. Ettelbrick whose quarter-century of work for organizations like Lambda Legal Defense, National Gay and Lesbian Task Force and the International Lesbian and racial segregation essay, Gay Human Rights Commission assisted thousands of individuals. MCCA’s 2017 Rising Stars also will be honored during Pathways Honors. Key Terms Essay Writing! Each Rising Star will be recognized on stage for his/her professional achievements and commitment to improving his/her community. Pathways Honors Emcees: LaTanya Langley – Vice President General Counsel, BIC International. Austin So – General Counsel, Chief Legal Officer Secretary, StoneMor Partners, LP. Ricardo Anzaldua – Former Executive Vice President General Counsel, MetLife. A.B.
Cruz, III – MCCA Chair, Enterprise Shared Services, Senior Vice President, Chief Legal Office, USAA. Wai L. Discretion Part Of Valour-essay! Choy – Associate, Proskauer Rose LLP. Robert Grey – President, LCLD. Samuel M. Reeves – Senior Vice President General Counsel, International, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. Location: The View at the New York Marriott Marquis. Location: Manhattan Ballroom (8th Floor)
MCCA Exchange (MCCA Members only event) Location: Manhattan Ballroom (8th Floor) The Exchange is a MCCA member-only networking breakfast that provides an opportunity for key terms essay in-house counsel to network with their peers and expand their rolodex with other MCCA Member corporations, MCCA Law Firm members, and resume, sponsoring organizations. Key Terms Essay Writing! Don’t miss this opportunity to meet MCCA’s in-house members, law firm affiliates, and sponsors. In collaboration with: Available only to HNBA Members and MCCA Members and discretion is the part, Sponsors.
During the 2017 Creating Pathways to key terms essay, Diversity Conference, HNBA members, MCCA law firm members, corporate law departments and legal service provider sponsors* will have the othello opportunity to participate in MCCA’s inaugural Pitch Session Network. This event provides a platform for essay writing diverse law firm attorneys and legal service providers to make meaningful connections with in-house counsel interested in legal services. These sessions also allow corporate law departments to connect with diverse attorneys, diversify their service client portfolios and assist in holding law firms and legal service providers accountable for their diversity efforts. Application forms are available at the 2017 Creating Pathways to Diversity registration website (http://www.mcca.com/events/pathways/). Select Pitch Session Network and segregation, the appropriate classification for your organization (corporate law department, MCCA law firm member or legal service provider). Once you add the Pitch Sessions Network to your agenda, you will be guided to complete the Pitch Session Network application form. Please contact Kevin Wong at key terms essay firstname.lastname@example.org with any questions or concerns regarding the MCCA Pitch Session Network.
*Legal service providers can participate in the Pitch Session Network as MCCA sponsors because they do not meet MCCA membership requirements. Law firms must be MCCA members to participate and cannot participate as sponsors. For frequently asked questions, please click here. MCCA’s Blueprint for Selling Buying: A Pitch Workshop for Outside In-House Counsel. Through instruction and experiential learning participants will work together to learn skills and behaviors for resume building successful business relationships. Outside Counsel will have the writing opportunity to work in racial teams to develop a formal pitch from key terms essay, a mock RFQ for legal services, which will be presented to real in-house counsel and the Blueprint coaches. In-House Counsel will learn more about best practices in assessing and retaining Outside Counsel. Julie Peng – Counsel, Director of introduction, Training and Membership Development, MCCA. Michelle Banks – Senior Advisor, BarkerGilmore, LLC Former EVP Global General Counsel, Gap Inc. Charles Wilson – Vice Chair, Office Managing Partner, Cozen O’Connor. New York City Activities for Out-of-Town Attendees (additional fees will apply) * Online registration for Creating Pathways to Diversity Conference will close Sunday, October 1 at 11:59pm (EST).
Onsite registration will be available Monday, October 2 (5:30 pm – 7:30 pm) and Tuesday, October 3 (7:30 am – 5 pm). Key Terms Essay! Please note there will be additional fees for onsite registration. See chart above. All Major Credit Cards accepted. MCCA Law Firm and Corporate Members : Please note as part of your membership benefits you may be entitled to complimentary registrations and the Member rate for conference registration. Members must enter their Member Validation Code and select Apply on the payment page to receive the discretion is the better part Member registration rate. To learn more contact email@example.com. All cancellations must be received in writing; telephone cancellations will not be accepted. Key Terms Essay! Cancellations received in writing before August 31, 2017 will be fully refunded minus a $100.00 processing fee.
Individuals canceling in writing after August 31 but prior to September 15 will receive a 50% refund minus a $100.00 processing fee. Of French Revolution Essay! If written confirmation of cancellation is not received by September 15, no refunds will be issued of any kind. Cancellations and requests for key terms essay writing substitutions should be submitted to de la, firstname.lastname@example.org. MCCA, at its discretion, may reduce or waive the conference fee for any attorney, member or non-member, who wishes to attend the conference, but for whom the writing cost would be a financial hardship. Requests for tuition waiver will not be accepted on-site.
Requests for reflective essay on christmas tuition waiver, along with an explanation of hardship, must be received in writing writing at least 28 business days prior to the program. To receive detailed instructions or to submit a request for a fee reduction or waiver e-mail email@example.com. Please advise the Pathways team if you have any special needs for facilities, visual aids or dietary requirements at firstname.lastname@example.org. Enterprise Shared Services, Senior Vice President, Chief Legal Office, Sheppard, Mullin, Richter. General Counsel – Head of Legal, Rakuten USA, Inc.
MCCA would like to discretion part of valour-essay, thank all our generous sponsors who support the essay writing MCCA’s 2017 Creating Pathways to Diversity® Conference.