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Biotechnology An Introduction to Biotechnology | Essay. In simple terms, biotechnology refers to the use of purpose, living organisms or their products to interview an entrepreneur essay modify human health and purpose in dissertation human environment. It is an amalgamation of molecular and cellular biology and plant, animal and human genetics. Renowned fiction-writer Ken Follett has written about the eleven #8216;twins#8217; in his best seller #8216;The Third Twin#8217;. All these eleven young men are born to different sets of parents in different parts of the country, and yet have the same face, physical features, blood group, and even the same fingerprints. Of course, Follett was just using his imagination when he plotted a team of scientists who created these eleven clones through genetic manipulations. But true- life scientists who created #8216;Dolly#8217;, the interview an entrepreneur sheep, and #8216;Flavr-Savr#8217;, the perfect tomato, have achieved these feats for real. Purpose In Dissertation! And now, we can talk of producing roses without thorns and research science wheat with extra doses of proteins without being laughed at. All this is thanks to the advent of biotechnology.

The seeds for biotechnology were sown in 1953, when James Watson and Francis Crick revealed how four bases could pair to of conclusion in dissertation form the self- copying code of a DNA molecule. These two Nobel laureates could have never imagined how their discovery of DNA would change the very concept of life. But before we discuss the introduction essay various advances that have been made in biotechnology, and the impact that these have had on our lives, let#8217;s take a look at how this technique functions. In simple terms, biotechnology refers to the use of living organisms or their products to modify human health and human environment. It is an amalgamation of molecular and cellular biology, and purpose of conclusion plant, animal and human genetics. In simple terms, biotechnology refers to the use of living organisms or their products to modify human health and human environment. Ernst A. Guillemin Thesis! It is an amalgamation of purpose, molecular and introduction of euthanasia essay cellular biology and purpose plant, animal and on food human genetics. Of Conclusion! All living things are made up of cells, which are programmed by introduction, the same basic genetic material called DNA (Deoxy Ribonucleic Acid). Each unit of DNA is in dissertation made up of four nucleotides.

These are Adenine (A), Guanine (G), Thymine (T), and Cytosine (C) The other two ingredients being sugar and a phosphate. These nucleotides pair up in strands that twist together in a spiral structure, called a double helix. Thus, all DNA whether from a microorganism, a plant, an animal or a human is composed of the same material. While every cell is an supporting being, individual organism, each cell has the same number of DNA units. The different segments of in dissertation, DNA (genes) tell individual cells how to differentiate: i.e., to develop either into an eye, a blood cell, a muscle, a skin cell, and so on. DNA also instructs different cells -to produce specific proteins, enzymes and other substances that the host organism uses to fight disease or fend off predators and other threats. Over the years, researchers have discovered the methods of transferring a specific piece of DNA from one organism to introduction of euthanasia essay another the first step in transferring DNA is to purpose in dissertation cut or remove a gene segment from a chain of DNA, using enzymes as #8216;scissors#8217; (restriction enzymes). These scissors are then used to cut an opening into the plasmid the and culture ring of DNA often found in bacteria outside the core DNA. The next step is to in dissertation paste or place the ernst a. guillemin thesis award gene segment into the plasmid. The cut ends of both the plasmid and purpose in dissertation the gene segment are chemically sticky, and they promptly attach to each other, thus forming a plasmid containing new gene. Finally, another enzyme (ligase) is used to paste or secure the of euthanasia new gene in place.

These transferable genes can be used to transmit the desired genetic traits from one organism to another which is the fundamental approach of biotechnology. Various advances made in the twentieth century have put biology on a molecular footing. For instance, biochemists have purified proteins and purpose of conclusion in dissertation studied them in vitro in a test tube, crystallographers have solved their structures, and geneticists have used mutations to focus on the role of individual genes. And now, the sequencing of the human genome has added a whole new dimension to these processes. Using such techniques, we have made substantial advancement in our understanding of the genetic blueprint, and how it controls the growth and development of living organisms. This has been made possible by the development of artificial genes coding for specific traits. Gene transfer has given birth to development of transgenic and we now have transgene in plants, animals and microorganisms. In fact, now we can even look forward to and culture passing on man-made genes to the next generation through these transgenic. The progress in the field of biotechnology certainly sounds impressive. But its truth worth lies in its implications.

Modern biotechnological tools have helped us scale even the laws of nature, and turn various biological disadvantages to our convenience. The simplest example of purpose, such manipulation is introduction of euthanasia with the plant life. The application of biotechnological techniques can make the purpose of conclusion in dissertation flora more resistant to pests, bacteria, fungi and viruses, which claim over being thirty five per cent of the global vegetation. These losses amount to a whopping US$200 billion every year. Biotechnological tools can help ward off these threats to purpose vegetation, but one would not forget that the use of a. guillemin thesis, this technology is subject to social, economic and ecological pressures.

Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) produces Bt Toxin, which holds strong against insect larvae. But Bt toxins are insecticidal, and unless Bt plants are carefully designed, the insects and pests may develop a resistance to them. Nonetheless, thirty years of success have crowned Bt as one of the fastest acting bio-pesticides available. The successful expression of the purpose in dissertation Bt fusion gene in on food and culture, a hybrid crop provides a good resource for manage­ment of rice pests in tropical Asian countries. Of Conclusion! Now we can even look forward to growing transgenic trees. Scientists are engineering various species like sweet gum and cottonwood with the aim of creating a #8216;Super Tree#8217;. This super tree will grow faster than the normal species, and will also retain their hardness. Isolation of specific promoter elements has also helped in designing the crops expressing proteins in specific tissues. We can even think of blue roses and pink dahlias! Such engineered products will be extremely useful in creating ornamentals for export purposes. Already the first genetically modified tomato called Flavr-Savr has been produced.#8217;

Another area where modem biological techniques and bioengineering principles hold great potential is claims supporting my thesis language unique that of food production the largest industry in of conclusion, the world. The recombinant DNA has been used to interview with an entrepreneur improve the flavour and texture of fruits and vegetables. Genetic transformation also helps prevent frost damage in food products. The gene from flounder has been used to protect plants against freezing damage. But perhaps the greatest achievement of this technology lies in of conclusion in dissertation, the field of nutrition. Essay On Food! #8220;Child is the father of the man#8221;, as said by William Wordsworth holds true. So, we need to preserve our future by producing nutritionally rich food for our future generation. At present nearly 800 million people or about eighteen per cent of the world#8217;s total population, do not have sufficient food to meet their nutritional needs. The situation is purpose quite alarming in the developing world, where nearly twelve million children below the age of five die of malnutrition every year. This problem can be successfully tackled by the application of biotechnology, which enables the paper political growth of healthier and more nutritional food, even under unfavorable conditions. Purpose In Dissertation! These techniques prompt a sustainable increase in the yield per hectare for staple crops like com, rice, wheat and potatoes, and also increase the nutritional content of food crops.

For instance, the #8216;Golden Rice#8217; is an engineered variety of rice that is rich in Vitamin A, precursor P-carotene and iron. This inexpensive solution will counter the wide incidence of childhood blindness and maternal anaemia among millions of thesis, people whose staple food is rice. Biotechnology has also proved its worth in fighting natural adversities like drought. Modern science has helped us develop drought-tolerant plants. In Dissertation! Recent work from Michael Thomashow#8217;s group and Kazuo Shinozaki have explored the intricacies involved in stress resistance mechanisms, which involve master switch type of genes. These reports show that a battery of proteins can regulate freezing and drought tolerance. This concept has been referred as Region Engineering. In the nineteenth century, medicine mainly consisted of morphine- based drugs and crude remedies.

The subsequent evolution of antibiotics and vaccines enabled the eradication of entire classes of diseases. The next medical revolution will come through genetic engineering, which will help conquer cancer, grow new blood vessels in tumors, create new organs from stem cells, and political science even reset the primeval genetic coding that causes ageing of purpose of conclusion, cells. In fact, biotechnology has already yielded dozens of therapeutics like human insulin, growth factors for bone-marrow transplants, products for treating heart attacks, and diagnostic kits for infective agents like AIDS and ernst thesis hepatitis. The first life-saving drug, Humulin was also produced by recombinant DNA technology. These bio-pharmaceuticals are not only produced in a form identical to purpose that normally present in introduction of euthanasia essay, the human body, but also have improved activity, stability and bio-availability. Such products are also free from contamination. Research on purpose of conclusion in dissertation these lines will give way to developing internal organs for human transplantation.

The breakthrough in developing stem cells hold solutions to control cancer, regenerate the spinal cord and brain tissues, and curb many other diseases associated with ageing. Biotechnology has also become an indispensable tool in introduction of euthanasia essay, testing of biological materials, which are used as evidences in legal and criminal proceedings associated with cases like paternity dispute, sexual harassment and murder. Another remarkable success has been in the area of nuclear transfer technology, which has already proved its mettle in the cloning of Dolly the sheep and Polly the lamb. Biotechnology can also come in handy for enhancing the performance of vaccines. #8216;Gene Therapy#8217;, the purpose in dissertation latest feat of science, bio-technology, has opened up a whole new treatment paradigm. The #8216;Pre-implantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD)#8217;, which uses the #8216;Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART), has further made it possible to purpose use the umbilical cord stems cells of a yet unborn (only foetus) to cure genetic disorders. The merging of medical and political science agricultural biotechnology has opened up new vistas to develop plant varieties with health-inducing characteristics. Modern techniques have unraveled how natural plant substances (phytochemicals) confer protection against cancer and other diseases. This knowledge is now being used to enhance the level of purpose, such substances in the food supply.

Ongoing research will soon perfect the delivery of medicines and vaccines through common foods. These #8216;Neutracutical#8217; foods could be used to immunize individuals against a wide variety of enteric and other infectious diseases. Biotechnology has made significant contributions to the field of marine aquaculture. The tremendous potential of marine resources still lies untapped, and can be actively harnessed for the benefit of the interview with mankind. As over-exploitation of natural resources takes its toll on these natural reserves, the development of transgenic fish will play a key role in the aquaculture industry in the near future. Increasing Avenues in Biotechnology: Ever since the purpose of conclusion in dissertation discovery of the a. guillemin thesis DNA, the field of biology has experienced a series of revolutionary changes.

The recent development of high capacity methods to in dissertation analyse the structure and function of interview with an entrepreneur, genes has given birth to purpose in dissertation what we now know as Genomics. Instead of analysing a single or few genes- at babak, a time, it is now possible to determine the complete nucleotide sequence of all the of conclusion in dissertation genes in an organism. Scientists are already looking forward to claims supporting my thesis being the day when they will decipher the whole human genome, all the genes (approximately to purpose in dissertation be around 35-40 thousand) encoded by the three billion bases (chemical pairs) in our DNA. Deciphering of the human genome has opened new vistas in understanding the functional machinery of these genes in a human body. Essay! Just like the human genome, the of conclusion plant genome too has wide implications in helping us understand the function of plant genes in their cellular, organismal and evolutionary context, and to paper political create an information structure of plant biology. In plant-life, the Arabidopsis genome has already been mapped. This achievement could open the floodgates to a new green revolution of the so-called #8216;Super-crops#8217;.

A total of 25,498 genes expressing 11,000 proteins have been reported. This gene mapping would provide insights into all the livestock- supporting plants like soya bean, wheat, com and fruit. Such genomic discoveries have indeed paved the way for learning the functions of all plant genes, and unraveling the processes that are fundamental to the mechanisms of plant life. And as the human genome project approaches conclusion, the translation of information from DNA to protein is fast catching up. This may end up virtually revolutionising human medicine and health care. But one of the key challenges lies in understanding Proteomics the science of cellular protein universe. As in purpose of conclusion in dissertation, the case of ernst a. guillemin thesis award, genomics, proteomics helps catalogue and characterize the proteins in a group, and in an automated large-scale manner. Proteomics include transcriptional profiling to determine which genes encode proteins in a particular cell type, developmental stage or disease state, high-throughput expression, protein folding and purpose in dissertation protein- protein interaction studies. It also helps understand transduction and other complex cell processes, large scale protein folding and three- dimensional structures. This process can even reveal an overall picture of how the genes in claims supporting my thesis language being unique, all organisms (total genome) function, including the expression profiles at the mRNA (Transcriptome) and protein (Proteome) levels.

Based on these studies, maps can be made, which could eventually help identify both the defects as well as the positive aspects of the concerned gene or protein. Biotechnology also plays a great role in preserving our environment. The scope of Environmental Biotechnology ranges from the search for microbes that will reduce acid rain by removing sulphur from power plants, to the biological production of biodegradable plastics. As the world battles the dilemma of protecting the environment while simultaneously promoting economic development, environmental biotechnology will play a key role in striking a healthy balance between competing interests. The other area of reckoning is the conservation and sustainable use of purpose in dissertation, Biodiversity. Advances in biotechnology offer powerful tools for conservation, evaluation and essay and culture the use of genetic structures of various species. Applications of modern biotechnology for bio-remediation of contaminated land and water have already helped transform hazardous wastes into non-hazardous wastes. Moreover, biotechnology has played a major role in recovery of degraded ecosystems.

Some of the methods based on plant biotechnology include reforestation through micro propagation and the use of purpose of conclusion, mycorrhiza. Maintaining a wide genetic base, which is an important element of biodiversity, is also essential to the future of science, biotechnology and the sustainable use of biological resources. Biotechnology also holds tremendous implication in increasing our bio-energy resources by increasing the acceptability of biomass, biogas and purpose fuel alcohol as commercially feasible energy options for the future. Computers have added a new dimension to biological research and in turn, biological material in the form of bio-chips will have a tremendous impact on introduction essay computerization. These bio-chips would soon replace conventional silicon chips used in computers today.

The proposed range of of conclusion in dissertation, bio-molecular computers promises to be ten to thousand times smaller than the best super computers available at present, with much faster switching times and extremely low power dissipation. So, with all this excitement in political, the field, and new avenues being added every minute, you have surely made a wise decision if you think biotechnology is the field for purpose, you. Read on to find out what might be in babak fahimi resume, store, and how you can achieve it. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply. You must be logged in to post a comment. Purpose! Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages:

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paraguay essay Albrecht Glatzle and Dieter Stosiek. Paraguay is a landlocked Central South American country (Figures 1 and 2) which has common frontiers with Argentina (to the south and west), Brazil (east) and Bolivia (north). The total land area is 406,752 square km. The country is divided in two major geographical regions, with distinct topography and geology, by the south-flowing Paraguay River. Whereas the eastern region (Oriental) with 159,827 square km has an undulating landscape of rolling hills with abundant rainfall (up to purpose in dissertation, 1,700 mm/year), the western part (Region Occidental or Chaco) is an extensive semi-arid to sub-humid alluvial plain with 246,925 square km (AHK 1999). Paraguay#146;s population was estimated to essay on food and culture, be 5,734,139 in of conclusion in dissertation, July 2001 and 6,506,464 in July 2006 (World Factbook 2006, July 2006 est.), of which about 98 percent are in the eastern sector; the 2006 estimated growth rate was 2.45%. More than 50 percent of the population is considered urban. Agriculture and Forestry account for 26 percent of GDP and 90 percent of essay on food exports (70 percent of which goes into the neighbouring MERCOSUR [Southern Cone Common Market] countries). Total GDP is 8,273,000,000 US $. The contribution of livestock to the GDP is 8 percent (MAG 1996). Note: ------------ boundary of Paraguay.

Figure 1: Biogeographic Provinces of of conclusion in dissertation South America and Location of with an entrepreneur essay Paraguay. Adapted from Tarso Zuquim and Lima Serrano (1997) Politically, the country is divided into purpose of conclusion, 17 Departments of which the three largest ones are part of the Chaco, whereas the 14 most populated ones belong to the Region Oriental (Figure 3). Land tenure is unbalanced. More than 80 percent of the farmers are small holders with properties of less than 20 hectares, but they account for less than seven percent of the total farming area, whereas farms larger than 1,000 hectares (1 percent of farms) account for with an entrepreneur, 77 percent of the total farm land (GTZ 1994). There are reports of farm occupations, by a growing number of landless campesinos, particularly in the Oriental sector of the country. Figure 2: Map of Paraguay (from World Factbook 2006 Website) Figure 3: Republic of Paraguay: Political Subdivision, Departamentos (GTZ 1994)

Landforms. Within the two main physiographic zones, the purpose of conclusion in dissertation Chaco Paraguayo and the oriental region, there are further subdivisions to be featured (Figure 4): A) The Chaco Paraguayo which comprises about 60 percent of the claims language unique country, is an alluvial plain with sediments from the Andes, naturally limited to the east by the Rio Paraguay and to the south and south-west by the Rio Pilcomayo. Altitudes range between 380 m in the north-west and 80 m in the south-east, where the Paraguay and Pilcomayo Rivers join, a distance of in dissertation 750 km (Ramella and Spichiger 1989). Mereles et al. (1992) distinguish two major zones of the language being Chaco: the Humid Chaco (Bajo Chaco), a plain liable to flooding, influenced by the Paraguay and in dissertation Pilcomayo Rivers (annual rainfall 900 to 1300 mm); the Dry Chaco (Chaco Boreal) with an award annual rainfall range of 400 to in dissertation, 900 mm, which is further subdivided into 3 major sub regions (Glatzle 1999): The Central Chaco is essay derived from a former inland delta with a mosaic of so called campos (old riverbeds with coarse sandy sediments) which contrast with the monte areas with fine textured soils (formerly temporarily inundated by flooding of the ancient river system). Campos areas comprise 15 percent of this region. Most of the Northern Chaco is more uniform and is comparable with the monte system of the of conclusion Central Chaco. Sand dune areas in the far north-west of the Paraguayan Chaco are alluvial deposits remodelled by paper science, winds. B) Eastern Paraguay (Oriental Region) comprises 40 percent of the country. In Dissertation! Altitudes range from above 600 m in the north-eastern corner (Pedro Juan Caballero) and 55 m in the south-west (Pilar). The Oriental sector of Paraguay is a rather humid region of research science rolling hills with three major subdivisions (Bertoni and Gorham 1973): The Rio Paraguay Valley is an undulating lowland with plains, parts of which are liable to flooding and with a few hills or strings of hills.

Almost half of Paraguay#146;s population live here, where the capital Asuncion is located. The Central Plateau with many low hills forms the purpose of conclusion continental divide between the watersheds of the introduction of euthanasia essay Rio Paraguay and the Rio Alto Parana. The Alto Parana Valley is an undulating plain, rising to the west. As annual rainfall is high, this zone has many large and small watercourses, all draining to of conclusion, the Rio Alto Parana, which runs through a deep gorge and is dammed as the ernst award Itaipu reservoir which powers the world#146;s biggest electrical power plant. Figure 4: Paraguay: Physiographic Zones (adapted from Bertoni and of conclusion Gorham 1973) Soils. The Paraguayan Chaco is dominated by geologically relatively young eutric cambisols and orthic luvisols with loamy textures (BGR 2001). Sub-dominant are eutric regosols and poorly developed arenosols (in the of euthanasia essay sand dune area). Poorly drained eutric gleysols and planosols are found in inclusions of the purpose Central Chaco (so called water-camps with temporary water logging) and in the inundated areas of the Humid Chaco. Babak Fahimi Resume! As the distance from the Andes increases, soils tend to become finer in texture.

The dominating soils in the Chaco have no major limitations in purpose in dissertation, soil fertility, there are however big differences in water availability (drought and excess of water) over long periods (Fatecha 1989). Research Science! Soil pH ranges from mildly acid to mildly alkaline. The horizons are deep with relatively high salinity. From north-east to south-west, right across the Paraguayan Chaco, there is a belt of about 500 km long and 50 to purpose of conclusion in dissertation, 75 km wide with a shallow saline ground water table. This transitional zone between the essay Dry and Humid Chaco is prone to purpose in dissertation, dry land salinity due to capillary ascension and ernst a. guillemin thesis salt enrichment at purpose of conclusion in dissertation, the soil surface, producing orthic solonetz and solonchaks in the discharge area of saline ground water. In eastern Paraguay, ferric acrisols with sandy to loamy texture are the main groups of soils in award, the rolling hills (Central Plateau).

In contrast to purpose of conclusion in dissertation, the Chaco with greyish soils, for the Oriental Region a reddish soil colour is typical, due to sesquioxide formation in a rather humid environment. As most bedrocks are acidic (granite, sandstone, schists, gneiss), soils also are almost consistently acid. The depth of the soil profile and also the pedogenetic stage depends largely on its position in the relief of the fahimi landscape. Purpose In Dissertation! Seasonally swampy, lower-lying areas in the Rio Paraguay Valley, particularly in the south-western corner (vicinity of Pilar) produce soils with hydromorphic properties (planosols). Intensively cropped basalt-derived ferric luvisols are the dominant group in the Alto Parana Valley. Generally, the introduction of euthanasia soils in the Oriental sector of Paraguay are considered to have high to medium potential for rainfed crop production (two crops a year), so long as there are no limitations of topography (steep slopes) or waterlogging in temporarily flooded areas.

Contrary to the Chaco, the region has been settled and farmed for several centuries and little of the original vegetation remains undisturbed. 3. CLIMATE AND AGRO-ECOLOGICAL ZONES. There is a pronounced rainfall gradient right across Paraguay. Mean annual rainfall increases from about 400 mm in the north-west to 1,700 mm in the south-east (Sanchez 1973, Figure 5). In the Chaco, about 80 percent falls in purpose in dissertation, summer, whereas in the south-east corner mean monthly rainfall is more equally distributed, with a slight depression in the driest months, July and supporting being August. The growing season lasts from October to March in the Chaco. Typical crops are sorghum, cotton and groundnuts. In eastern Paraguay, arable lands are often cropped twice a year under rainfed conditions, with soybean, cotton or maize, followed by a winter crop, such as temperate cereals. Mean annual temperatures vary from 25.9 0 C in the north (Bahia Negra) to 21.4 0 C in the north-eastern corner of the oriental region (Pedro Juan Caballero).

Summers are hot, even very hot. Therefore, potential evapotranspiration reaches values up to of conclusion in dissertation, 2100 mm (Verma 1982). Absolute maxima range from 40.8 0 C (Encarnacion) to 44.0 0 C (Mariscal Estigarribia). In winter, night frosts (to an interview with essay absolute minimum temperature of - 6.0 0 C) occur, except in the extreme north east. Aerial parts of tropical grasses are generally burnt off by frost. This can produce a forage shortage, when standing hay is spoiled by rain after frost (Glatzle 1999). Temperature changes may be sudden (15 to 20 degrees in a few hours with the onset of a storm), as prevailing winds switch from purpose in dissertation northerly to thesis, southerly, since there are no significant east west mountain barriers to retain winds.

Wind speed exceeds 6 m/s for 14 percent of the year, resulting in purpose, wind erosion of cleared, bare land (Hacker et al . 1996). In short, Paraguay has a subtropical continental climate dominated by a. guillemin thesis award, summer rainfall. It falls within the C climates of Koppen#146;s classification (Eidt 1969). Figure 5: Paraguay (Chaco) : Rainfall and purpose of conclusion Temperature. Vegetation. The dominant vegetation formations are xeromorphic, thorny, dry deciduous forests in the Chaco and subtropical rainforests in the East. Dominant trees in the Dry Chaco are Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco, Chorisia insignis and Schinopsis quebracho-colorado . Among the introduction of euthanasia shrubs, various Prosopis spp ., Acacia spp ., Capparis spp., Ruprechtia triflora and Cercidium praecox are dominant on the monte type soils. In contrast, the of conclusion in dissertation sandy campos, along the ancient riverbeds, are characterised by a savanna-like open woodland with the dominant trees being Astronium fraxinifolium, Schinopsis heterophylla, Tabebuia caraiba and Jacaranda mimosifolia . The herbaceous layer is predominantly grass species Elyonurus muticus . In the past, fires, frequently lit by indigenous people, helped to keep the vegetation open (Hacker et al. 1996). Sand dunes in the north-western Chaco are stabilized by natural vegetation. Their pronounced topography differs markedly from the flat, sandy campos in the Central Chaco, but their savanna-like vegetation is very similar.

To the south and east, depressions with seasonal waterlogging (water-camps) become more frequent. Here, the trees Prosopis ruscifolia, Calycophyllum multiflorum and on food Bulnesia sarmienti indicate cracking clay soils. The centre of the seasonal ponds, however, have no woody vegetation. An edaphic grassland with species tolerant of waterlogging like Hemarthria altissima, Leersia hexandra and purpose in dissertation Paspalum spp . covers the ground. In the of euthanasia humid Chaco, the vegetation is characterised by a mosaic with the irregular distribution of wetlands. The lower areas are seasonally waterlogged savannas with a palm ( Copernicia alba ) and purpose of conclusion grasses like those in the water-camps of the essay on food Central Chaco, whereas drier areas typically support a tall Anadenanthera colubrina forest (Ramella and Spichiger 1989). In the Oriental Region, the littoral of the Rio Paraguay Valley resembles the of conclusion Entre Rios Formations of Argentina with open swampy grasslands and marshes.

This region is suitable for cattle raising. The predominantly sandy soils of the Central Plateau and its outskirts once supported a dense forest, rich in quality and variety of hardwood species (e.g. Amburana cearensis, Aspidosperma polyneuron, Pterogyne nitens, Peltophorum dubium ) which were progressively cleared. Besides timber species there are yerba mate ( Ilex paraguariensis ) and the tung-oil trees ( Aleurites fordii ) as well as the fahimi coco-palm ( Acrocomia totai ) grown in purpose, pure plantations or mixed cropping systems. The valleys are dominated by grasslands which are, however, nowadays successively converted into arable lands with zero-tillage technology. The undulating plain of the and culture Alto Parana Valley was also once covered by species-rich subtropical forest, much of of conclusion in dissertation which has been converted in recent years to claims supporting being, intensively cropped arable lands (particularly for soy bean and temperate cereals). 4. Of Conclusion In Dissertation! RUMINANT LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION SYSTEMS. There are about 10,000,000 head of introduction of euthanasia cattle, 400,000 sheep, 350,000 horses, 120,000 goats plus 1,800,000 pigs and some 15,000,000 poultry in Paraguay (DCEA 2000).

Figures in FAOSTAT for 2005 are 9.6M cattle; 500,000 sheep; 360,000 horses; 155,000 goats; 1.6M pigs and in dissertation 17.9M poultry (FAO, 2006). Research Science! Hence, cattle raising for meat and milk is by far the most important livestock sector. Livestock numbers are shown in Table 1. There are about 310,000 individual producers (99 percent) or companies (1 percent) on the 24,000,000 hectares of useful land (arable and grazing). On average there are 5.3 members per producer family. Table 1. Purpose Of Conclusion! Livestock numbers (FAO databases, 2006) Poultry nos (,000,000) Land and Livestock Tenure.

With respect to my thesis being, land and livestock tenure systems, land ownership is unbalanced. Farms between 1 and in dissertation 20 hectares own less than 15 percent of the livestock and represent more than 70 percent of all producers / producer families. On the of euthanasia other hand, the producer class with more than 1000 hectares (1 percent of the purpose of conclusion farms) owns 77 percent of the farm land and 60 percent of the livestock population (Table 2). About 25 percent of interview an entrepreneur Paraguay#146;s producers are involved exclusively in crop production. Of the rest, 89 percent run mixed farms (Molas et al. 1996), combining, meat or milk production and crops, to diversify activities and minimize risk. The remaining 11 percent are exclusively livestock producers. Of Conclusion! Smallholders are usually subsistence oriented and labour intensive with limited use of essay on food technology and external inputs. Purpose In Dissertation! However, farms at all production levels are commercially orientated, obviously with increasing market orientation, as the political research farm size gets bigger. Farms over 1,000 hectares contribute more than three quarters of the agricultural exports of the in dissertation country (GTZ 1994).

Table 2: Land tenure system in Paraguay as analysed by most recent agricultural census (MAG 1992) Number of farms. Rel. no. of farms ( %) per class. Total area (1000 ha) Rel. no. of total ha (%) per research science, class. Rel. no. of cattle (%) per class. 1000 to 5000 ha. 5000 to 10.000 ha. The most striking difference between farming systems in purpose of conclusion in dissertation, eastern Paraguay and the Chaco is average farm size and introduction essay average stock number per farm (Table 23). Purpose In Dissertation! Whereas in the sparsely populated Chaco (1 inhabitant per 2 sq. km) large farms (up to 50,000 ha) predominantly produce beef, in the more densely populated Oriental Region (32 inhabitants per sq. Supporting My Thesis Being! km) farm size is much smaller and farms are much more oriented to mixed farming. Beef and milk production is highly commercialised, whereas small ruminants and pigs are predominantly kept for subsistence or have only local commercial importance (no exports).

Horses are almost exclusively working animals, particularly for cattle herd handling. Table 3: Distinctive characteristics of farms in the Oriental Region and the Chaco. (MAG 1992 and DCEA 2000) Number of farms. Total number of cattle. Average farm size. Relative number of farms with. Avg. no. of cattle per purpose, farm. There is practically no permanent housing of ruminants.

Steer fattening in feedlots has shown marginal profitability. Animals are ranched on natural or improved pastures. Even in intensive dairy systems milking cows gain part of their feeding requirements on political, pastures near milking pens. Tethering is of conclusion common among smallholders and research science landless campesinos, otherwise they keep their animals on public land between the of conclusion in dissertation fences at both sides of public roads. Stocking densities on range, bush land and sown pastures vary from about 10 (Alto Paraguay) to 0,2 ha (Central Department) per head of cattle, depending on the agro-ecological conditions and feed and claims language being unique supplement availability. Paraguay has a multicultural rural population with strong minorities (native Indians of at least eight different ethnicities and of conclusion in dissertation languages, groups of settlers of Brazilian, German or Japanese origin and foreign investors) which differ considerably in their production systems, production levels and and culture organizational structures.

While the native Indians live predominantly by subsistence agriculture on purpose of conclusion in dissertation, communally owned land, most of them showing little affinity for ernst a. guillemin thesis award, animal husbandry, typical Paraguayan campesinos and foreign groups of settlers generally apply mixed farming systems on privately owned land, being predominantly market oriented. Foreign investors, representing a fairly high proportion in purpose, the Chaco (Table 3), are exclusively commercially oriented and frequently grow monocultures, such as beef, soy bean or cotton. The organizational structure of Paraguayan campesinos and foreign investors is relatively weak. Ernst Award! However almost all emigrant settlers communities are organised into of conclusion, marketing co-operatives. Among them are so called colonies of Japanese and Mennonites (a religious community of German origin which settled in interview with essay, the Chaco and in eastern Paraguay mainly in the first half of the past century). These colonies exert a strong impact on national markets in purpose, special sectors such as dairy products, vegetables and yerba mate. Herd Productivity and Breeds.

Beef is commonly produced in interview with essay, extensive systems on purpose of conclusion, the 165,000 square km of native pastures and ernst a. guillemin award grazed bush land plus 33,000 square km of cultivated pastures. Main capital investments refer to fencing, establishment of in dissertation herd handling facilities, construction of dams or so called Tajamares (basins for being unique, rain water collection) and pasture establishment and of conclusion in dissertation maintenance. Traditionally, there was little veterinary care and fahimi resume infrequent herd mustering, no seasonal bull service, no weaning control and of conclusion in dissertation little genetic improvement. Therefore, traditional herd productivity is low compared to of euthanasia essay, production figures which are regularly achieved nowadays by a growing number of cattle farmers (Table 4). Table 4: Comparison of traditional and purpose of conclusion present production parameters of beef cattle herds and grazing lands in fahimi resume, the Chaco (Glatzle, 1999) From the most important production parameters. Calving rate ( percent) Mortality calves ( percent), first year. Mortality adults ( percent)

Fattening period till 450 kg LW (months) Proportion of in dissertation cows in the herd ( percent) . result in the following production indices: Extraction rate ( percent) Energy efficiency (kg LW GJ -1 ME) Liveweight production (kg LW ha -1 a -1 ) from ME consumed: 2.5 GJ ME ha -1 a -1 (native bushland)

25 GJ de ME ha -1 a -1 (sown pasture) The energy efficiency of forage was modelled on the basis of the production parameters of of euthanasia both traditional and modern systems. The improved herd productivity results in almost twice as much liveweight being produced from a unit of fodder energy consumed. In Dissertation! Moreover, up to being unique, a tenfold rise in purpose of conclusion in dissertation, liveweight production per babak fahimi, area (across the whole herd) is achieved by improving the forage base. Hence, improved pasture establishment results in a better land use efficiency (Table 4) as long as the production system is ecologically compatible.

More efficient beef production technologies are increasingly adopted by cattle farmers, as indicated by an increase by 66 percent of the purpose of conclusion nation-wide extraction rate in the past 20 years (Table 6). As far as the milk sector is concerned, 40 percent of the farms own milking cows (in the average 3.6 per farm). Ernst! Only part of them (estimated at 25 percent) have access to milk collection and processing systems. The remaining 75 percent are either subsistence oriented or depend on of conclusion in dissertation, local markets for interview with, fresh milk or home made cheese. There is a big variation of of conclusion in dissertation production levels, taking into account all (not only the commercial) milk producers. Whereas the nation-wide average production parameters are poor, specialised commercial milk producers achieve remarkably high production levels (Table 5) applying high technology, and covering up to 75 percent of the daily feed requirements with concentrates and being unique silages, in purpose in dissertation, order to ernst a. guillemin thesis, raise milk yields and to of conclusion in dissertation, achieve a more balanced production across the seasons.

Table 5: Milk production parameters in Paraguay comparing the national average with data from a commercial farm and a Mennonite co-operative (Molas et al . 1996) Heifer age at first service (months) Calving interval (days) Lactation period (days) Average production (kg milk/cow/year) The Criollio breed, derived from Spanish and later British cattle importations, is a well adapted, small framed and robust, double purpose breed, highly fertile but otherwise low in a. guillemin, production. This traditional breed forms about 70 percent of the Paraguayan cattle population (MAG 1992). However, an increasing proportion of commercial beef cattle farms are replacing Criollo by Zebu types, such as Nellore and Brahman.

Frequently a high level of of conclusion Zebu-genes is maintained in the herds, served by bulls of British (Angus, Hereford) or European continental (Gelbvieh, Fleckvieh, Limousine) breeds in order to produce a fast growing, environmentally adapted and resistant industrial cross. In commercial dairying, almost exclusively Holstein Friesian genes are incorporated by substitution crossing. Paper Political Research Science! In addition some hardy dual purpose breeds, such as Santa Gertrudis or Brown Swiss are kept. Artificial insemination is practised within well organized co-operatives or on very big farms. Production, Marketing and Consumption of Animal Products. Of Conclusion In Dissertation! Since the early nineteen-eighties the cattle population grew by about 50 percent from claims unique approx. 6,500,000 to almost 10,000,000 (MAG 1992 and purpose of conclusion DCEA 2000). In the same period, beef and milk production more than doubled, and indicators of production levels, such as average extraction rate of slaughter animals and milk yields per milking cow, increased by about 65 percent and 25 percent respectively (Table 6).

These higher production levels can be attributed to better herd handling, improved veterinary care and the use of adapted and paper political research productive breeds, but also to purpose of conclusion in dissertation, the expansion of the area sown to improved pastures. Moreover the amount of agro-industrial by-products available increased considerably in resume, the past two decades, particularly in medium to of conclusion, large scale dairy farms. In 2000, total agricultural imports reached a value of US$ 383,241,000 and exports a value of US$ 647,699,000 (FAO 2005) by 2003 figures were US$ 207.7 for babak fahimi, imports and US$ 1.02 billion for purpose of conclusion, exports. Essay And Culture! Net beef exports accounted for 4 to 9 percent of the total beef production in the past years (Table 6). Beef exports vary from year to year and depend very much on the outbreaks of Foot and Mouth Disease and a positive immunological status of the animals due to compulsory vaccinations; meat exports beyond South America are insignificant. Beef imports are negligible, like imports and purpose of conclusion exports of other meats.

Almost all wool and hides are processed locally or discarded. There is only commercial milk production where an efficient and with an entrepreneur essay reliable collection system and a processing plant have been built up. This is the case in of conclusion in dissertation, the Central Department (around the capital Asuncion) with about 1,000,000 inhabitants, in the Boqueron and Presidente Hayes Departments (Chaco) and the Departments Caaguazu and science Alto Parana (Oriental Region). Insignificant amounts of dairy products are exported since national production does not cover consumption. Imported milk equivalents (predominantly from Argentina) account in recent years for 7 to of conclusion in dissertation, 13 percent of the national production of commercialised milk (Table 6). More than half of the meat consumed is beef. As stated in Table 6, total meat consumption is high in Paraguay. Babak Fahimi! On the other hand the of conclusion in dissertation supply of processed milk is unsatisfactory (less than 2/3 of the 150 kg/head/yr. recommended by science, the FAO). Table 6: Paraguay statistics of production, exports and consumption of animal products and important agro-industrial by-products used as animal feeds (FAO 2006) (percent cattle slaughtered) 1. Live cattle net export.

Net beef export. (1000 t) incl. offal. Mutton and goat meat production (1000 t) Pig meat production. Poultry meat production. Production of cattle hides. Milk production 2. Milk production 2. per milking cow (kg/yr.) Net milk product imports. (1000 kg milk equiv.)

Bovine meat supply. Total meat supply. Milk supply (kg/cap/yr.) Agro-industrial by-products for concentrates: 1 Sources: MAG (1992), DCEA (2000) and FAO (2006) 2 Only commercialised milk. 3 Bran yield: about 25 percent of wheat production - wheat exports. 4 Seed cakes (production - exports) of soy bean, cotton, sunflower and groundnuts. The main forage resource for ruminant livestock is natural pasture, cultivated pastures, and native bush . Purpose Of Conclusion In Dissertation! The total area dedicated to livestock production is 19,900,000 ha which are distributed in the Oriental and the Occidental Regions as shown in Table 7. Table 7: Areas (millions of hectares) of native and cultivated pastures and extensively grazed bush land in Paraguay (Molas et al . 1996)

Native Grazing Resources in Eastern Paraguay. Most of the grazing lands in the Oriental Region are marginal for agriculture due to natural constraints such as poor drainage, shallow soils, and rocky soil . Basically there are two types of native pastures in Eastern Paraguay. Lowland grazing (Praderas Bajas): grazing lands on a. guillemin thesis, hydromorphic, periodically waterlogged and even swampy soils, mostly on purpose of conclusion in dissertation, the banks of rivers (particularly Rio Paraguay). However, there are also extended stretches of plains with hydromorphic planosols with an impermeable clayey subsoil towards the central Oriental Region along riverain zones. Within these grazing lands, the a. guillemin award dominant herbaceous species are large tussock grasses generally with low palatability and nutritive value Sorghastrum agrostoides, Panicum prionitis, Andropogon lateralis , and A. Purpose! condensatus , and grasses of low growth habit, such as Andropogon selloanus, Leersia hexandra, Luziola peruviana, Hymenachne amplexicaulis, Panicum millioides, Paspalum almum, Hemarthria altissima, Rottboellia selloana, Paspalum notatum, Axonopus compressus, A. affinis , and of euthanasia Paspalum plicatulum , all considered as highly palatable and nutritive. Moreover, herbaceous legumes such as Desmodium canum, Aeschynomene americana, Macroptilium lathyroides and Arachis spp . are valuable components commonly found in the lowlands of the Oriental Region.

Hillside grazing (Praderas Altas): These are grazing lands in the rolling hills of eastern Paraguay, predominantly at sites, sub-optimal for cropping in the Central Plateau and the Alto Parana Valley. Though generally not cultivated, native hillside grazing lands developed under human influence in forest clearings. Most of them maintain the aspect of a savanna or open woodland with varying densities of in dissertation trees (even the planted coco-palm Acrocomia totai ). In the Central Plateau, grazing lands are often restricted to claims being, sandy soils with rocky outcrops (granite, sandstone, schist) and of limited fertility (high acidity, high aluminium and low phosphorous contents). In the Alto Parana Valley, fertility characteristics of the basaltic soils are better, however, grazing lands frequently present slopes marginal for agriculture. The most important indigenous forage grasses of hillside grazing lands are Paspalum notatum, Axonopus affinis, A. compressus, Paspalum plicatulum and of conclusion Andropogon lateralis . Of Euthanasia! Common valuable native legumes are Chamaecrista rotundifolia, Stylosanthes guianensis, Arachis spp . , and Alysicarpus sp . . Among the grasses of purpose in dissertation low stock acceptability are Imperata brasilensis and Aristida spp . . Ernst A. Guillemin! Weedy dicotyledoneous species commonly found are Vernonia chamaedrys, Baccharis sp ., Psidium araca, Butia yatay and Campomanesia obversa . Native Grazing Resources of the Chaco Region. The Occidental (Chaco) Region is an extended alluvial plain with a gradient of rainfall and soil texture from north-west to south-east (more rain and finer texture as the distance from the Andes Mountains increases). The agro-ecological conditions are good for permanent pastures.

However cropping faces some limitations and in dissertation risks from the quantity and distribution of research rainfall (Dry Chaco) and temporary waterlogging (Humid Chaco) respectively (Figure 4). The native grazing resources in the two major physiographic sub regions of the Chaco can be described as follows: The Humid Chaco (Bajo Chaco) : The grazing lands of the of conclusion Humid Chaco are predominantly palm savannas with Copernicia alba on essay, poorly drained, hydromorphic gleysols and planosols. Purpose! The palm Copernicia tolerates fires and temporary waterlogging. It is essay and culture found in densities of purpose up to 100 trunks per hectare and its spread is promoted by babak fahimi, livestock (Degen 1996). These natural grazing lands contain many grasses of purpose in dissertation medium to high nutritive value and palatability, such as Leersia hexandra, Hemarthria altissima, Panicum elephantipes, Diplachne uninervia, Hymenachne amplexicaulis, Paspalum lividum, P. alcalinum, P. almum, Cynodon dactylon, Pennisetum nervosum and Eriochloa montevidensis . Frequently found herbaceous legumes are Desmodium canum, Aeschynomene americana, A. denticulata, Desmanthus virgatus, Dolichopsis paraguariensis and Macroptilium lathyroides . Tussock grasses with rather low palatability are Sorghastrum agrostoides, Paspalum paniculatum, P. Interview With An Entrepreneur Essay! plicatulum and purpose P. conspersum. Reported carrying capacities are one American Livestock Unit (454 kg LW) per 2 to 4 ha (Ramirez and Laneri 1989). Besides mechanical or chemical treatments or burning of the introduction of euthanasia essay shrubby weeds ( Acacia curvifructa, Prosopis ruscifolia and Geoffroea decorticans, and Tessaria dodoneaefolia ), there are practically no interventions for the maintenance of good grazing economically feasible or necessary (Glatzle 1999).

Periodically and in dissertation episodically flooded areas with waters from the claims language being Pilcomayo river in regions with rather low rainfall (below 750 mm) are to be considered as a transitional zone between the Humid and the Dry Chaco. This zone along the left side riverbanks of the in dissertation upper Picomayo-river is exposed to an extremely varying water regime, which may cause seasonally flooded grasslands to be reconverted into xeromorphic bush and vice versa within a few consecutive years. The Dry Chaco : Traditionally the most important natural grazing resource in the Dry Chaco are the thesis award espartillo grasslands (campos) on the regosols or arenososls in old riverbeds of the former inland delta which shaped the landscape of the purpose of conclusion in dissertation Central Chaco. These grasslands are characterised by introduction, abundance of the grass Elyonurus muticus (espartillo), not particularly palatable. Other grasses are Aristida circinalis, Paspalum chaseanum, Heteropogon contortus and Sporobolus pyramidalis . Of Conclusion In Dissertation! The espartillo-grasslands present a wealth of claims supporting unique native legumes as soon as fire frequency is reduced and disturbance by grazing increased. Among the more important legumes are Aeschynomene histrix, Stylosanthes leiocarpa, Galactia sp ., Macroptilium bracteatum, Mimosa chacoensis, M. nuda, Rhynchosia balansae, Chamaecrista rotundifolia and Zornia crinita (Hacker et al.

1996). Typical pasture weeds coming up in overgrazed espartillos are Sida spp ., Croton cujabensis, Aloysia virgata and purpose Acacia aroma . In former decades, a relatively high proportion of the campos was used for cropping by early European settlers and on food indigenous horticulturalists. Although the fertility status (organic matter, P, K) of virgin regosols is purpose in dissertation relatively high, continuous cropping with frequent tillage and without fertilization drastically reduced soil fertility. Nowadays, rundown regosols are restored establishing a permanent pasture (e.g. with Pangola grass) and introducing a suitable legume (e.g. Stylosanthes hippocampoides or Alysicarpus vaginalis ). Towards the sub-humid parts of the Central Chaco (south and east), inclusions of edaphic grasslands on poorly drained gleysols (so called water-camps ) are found with increasing density. The forage species occurring in essay and culture, the water-camps are essentially those listed for the Copernicia savannas in the Humid Chaco. Another important traditional natural forage resource in the Dry Chaco is the native bush land ( montes ). Of Conclusion! Browsing the mostly thorny woody plants, such as Acacia praecox, A. aroma, Caesalpinia paraguariensis, Ruprechtia triflora, Capparis tweediana and C. Introduction! retusa and purpose of conclusion in dissertation eating the with an entrepreneur essay pods of various Prosopis and Acacia spp. (Morello and purpose of conclusion Toledo 1959) supports an average stocking density of paper political about one bovine animal unit to 10 to 15 ha of bush (Fretes et al.

1969). Understorey grasses are virtually absent: Setaria globulifera, S. fiebrigii and purpose of conclusion in dissertation Digitaria sacchariflora are practically the only grasses found, but in very low frequency. There are studies demonstrating a severe degradation of the monte soils due to overgrazing under traditional grazing regimes. Essay On Food And Culture! However, Adamoli et al. (1990) estimated the area affected by soil degradation in Chaco bush land to be less than one percent of the total area. Abril and purpose in dissertation Bucher (2001) reported that soil organic carbon losses are much lower under cultivated pastures than in over utilised bush land. 6. OPPORTUNITIES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF FODDER RESOURCES. Sown Pastures with Introduced Forages . The establishment of pastures with selected grasses and legumes on cleared land raises herd productivity per unit area about ten fold (Glatzle and of euthanasia essay Cabrera 1996, and Table 3). Hence it is not surprising that the area of cultivated pastures increased five to of conclusion, six fold since 1980, mostly at the expense of native forests and ernst thesis award bush. Large scale land clearing and pasture establishment obviously has adverse effects on landscape and species diversity and carbon sequestration. Therefore it is indispensable to take into purpose of conclusion, account a number of land clearing regulations in order to a. guillemin thesis, maintain or create a healthy and of conclusion diverse agro-ecosystem.

A steadily increasing number of farmers leave at an entrepreneur essay, least 25 percent of the forest, woodlands or bush of a property intact (Ley Forestal 422/73). Leave intact a bush strip of 100 m width in of conclusion, east-west orientation, perpendicular to the prevailing wind (north-south) every 500 m and around the property (Resolucion No. 729/2000) Leave bush borders at least 100 m wide around all types of temporary or permanent waters (rivers, lagoons, water-camps) (Decreto No. On Food! 18.831/86). A significantly higher biodiversity was found when pastures contained a large number of native bush niches (strips and of conclusion in dissertation islands) and when the use of fire as a management tool was restricted or avoided (Glatzle 1999). Introduction Essay! Moreover, at of conclusion in dissertation, sites with an elevated dry land salinity risk (high water table of saline ground water in a semi-arid climate, such as the of euthanasia essay Chaco), native bush fulfils the of conclusion in dissertation important role of preventing salinity due to the very high suction forces produced by babak, many Chaco woody species, capable of keeping the ground water at a low level (Glatzle et al. Of Conclusion In Dissertation! 2001).

Bush clearing at sites prone to salinisation has resulted in the loss of valuable pasture land. Pasture establishment in Paraguay with selected forages has a relatively short history but has reached significant importance during the past two decades (Table 7). Probably with the introduction and multiplication of a. guillemin thesis award buffel grass ( Cenchrus ciliaris ) by an American agricultural advisor of the Mennonite colonies in the Central Chaco, Robert Unruh, in the early nineteen fifties, cultivated pastures attained economic importance for the first time. Later on, a number of other introduced grasses gained commercial importance and were multiplied on a national level (Table 8). When the German-Paraguayan Project Estacion Experimental Chaco Central started in purpose, the early nineteen-nineties, a new era started for the commercial use of introduced pasture legumes (Table 8). In order to maintain productivity, cultivated pastures require, even more than native grazing lands, a correct adjustment of stocking rates.

Typical stocking rates range from about 0.5 to 2 bovine units per hectare along the rainfall gradient across Paraguay, from north-west to south-east. Fahimi Resume! Maximum energy conversion from Panicum maximum cv. Gatton and Cynodon nlemfuensis pastures in the Central Chaco by grazing steers (into animal liveweight per ha) was attained by a stocking rate of 1.8 AU/ ha (Stosiek et al. 1997). This figure exceeds, however, the of conclusion in dissertation recommended long term ecological optimum stocking rate for this zone (0.8 to with an entrepreneur essay, 1.2 AU/ ha). Maintenance interventions, such as woody weed control, are necessary to maintain long term profitability of sown pastures. Other grasses cultivated on a commercial scale, but of much less importance than the ones mentioned in Table 8, are: Chloris gayana cv. Of Conclusion In Dissertation! Callide, Panicum coloratum cv. Supporting Unique! Bambatsi, Brachiaria decumbens, B. mutica, B. humidicola, Cynodon sp . Tifton 85 and Callie, Digitaria milanjiana, Cenchrus ciliaris Bella, Acroceras macrum and Dichanthium caricosum . Purpose Of Conclusion! Pasture legumes of secondary importance are: Macroptilium atropurpureum Siratro, Lotononis bainesii, Stylosanthes scabra cv.

Seca and paper Siran, S. hamata cv. Amiga, Clitoria ternatea cv. Milgarra and Chamaecrista rotundifolia cv. Wynn. Other Fodders. In Dissertation! Among the most important cultivated forages is Silage Sorghum for dairy enterprises. In the Central Chaco (accounting for about 50 percent of the national milk production), the area cultivated with Silage Sorghum is estimated at with essay, over 10,000 hectares. Purpose! At smallholder level in Eastern Paraguay some silage is made from introduction of euthanasia essay Pennisetum purpureum (Cameroon grass). Part of the grain Sorghum (23,000 t on 16,000 ha in Paraguay) and purpose in dissertation maize (900,000 t on 370,000 ha in Paraguay) is used for concentrates, to be mixed at farm or at small commercial enterprise level with the agro-industrial by-products obtained predominantly from oilseeds (Table 6). No statistics are available on total concentrate feed production, nor on the proportions used to feed dairy cows, pigs, horses or poultry.

However, concentrates used for beef production are negligible. A typical emergency feed is sugar cane, grown on a small area on many farms and harvested in the dry season. During prolonged drought periods (about one in 10 years), whole sugar cane (produced in more humid Eastern Paraguay) is sold to cattle farmers in the Dry Chaco to enable them to maintain at least their breeding herd. There is little haymaking in Paraguay. Similarly, there is virtually no irrigated fodder production due to the absence of irrigation water in the Chaco (and poor external drainage) the high rainfall reliability in essay, Eastern Paraguay the of conclusion in dissertation high opportunity costs (irrigated vegetables are more profitable than forages).

Table 8: Commercially important pasture grasses and legumes in Paraguay. Cultivar or/and common name. Since 1990 most important grass for newly cleared lands. In the babak resume Chaco, many 100,000 hectare of highly productive Gatton pastures. Colonial and Tanzania. Grown on the more fertile basaltic soils in East Paraguay. Less important in the Chaco. Buffel grass, Texas 4464. Since nineteen fifties.

Several 100,000 ha in the Dry Chaco. Otherwise replaced by Gatton. Several 100,000 ha along the limit of the Dry and purpose Humid Chaco, in the Humid Chaco, and on essay on food, the fertile soils in East Paraguay. Wide spread in East Paraguay predominantly on infertile sandy soils. In the Chaco not frequent.

Tolerant to spittle bug. Digitaria eriantha var . Of Conclusion In Dissertation! pentzii. Several 10,000 hectare on sandy soils and at shortly inundated sites in East and West Py. Important since 1995 in the Chaco to restore rundown Gatton and buffel pastures. Restores rundown arable regosols in the Chaco. Combines well with Pangola. Also used as a summer active ley legume. Excellent to restore rundown arable regosols. Combines well with Pangola.

Cultivated legume, native to the Chaco. Adapts well to heavy textured soils. Unsatisfactory long term persistence under grazing is limiting factor. Cunningham and Tarramba. Used as a fodder bank by an increasing number of smallholders and big farms. Winter active, to be mixed into permanent pastures in ernst a. guillemin award, the Alto Parana Valley, East Py. Winter active ley legume, relatively rare. Constraints. The main constraints to pasture establishment, grassland management, forage and ruminant production and product marketing in Paraguay are the following: Shrubby weed invasion in in dissertation, cultivated pastures and native grasslands (requires interventions every two to of euthanasia essay, three years) Soil compaction due to overstocking and loss of soil plasticity (loss of organic matter) Reduced pasture productivity due to nitrogen deficiency in older pastures Uncontrolled fires entering from neighbouring properties, destroying fodder reserves Wind erosion on sandy, denuded soils Increasing pests and diseases, such as leaf cutting ants ( Acromyrmex landolti and Atta vollenweideri ), grasshoppers ( Staurorhectus longicornis ), caterpillars ( Spodoptera frugiperda ), spittle bugs ( Zulia sp . ), red spider mite ( Tetranychus sp. ), buffel blight ( Pyricularia grisea ), ergot ( Claviceps maximensis ) etc. Unexpectedly prolonged droughts, particularly in the Chaco High risks of dryland salinity within a belt of purpose of conclusion in dissertation about 500 km long and 50 to supporting unique, 75 km wide with a shallow saline ground water table, right across the Paraguayan Chaco from of conclusion in dissertation north-east to south-west Long distances to the slaughter houses (reduces profitability for ernst, beef) Absence of milk collection systems in many parts of the of conclusion country. Pasture seed production.

There is a strong small to medium scale pasture seed production in the Central Chaco of Paraguay at farm level. The seed produced are Panicum maxium cv. Gatton, Cenchrus ciliaris cv. Texas 4464 and Bella, Urochloa mosambicensis, Chloris gayana cv. Callide, selections of Digitaria milanjiana , Panicum coloratum cv. Bambatsi, Sorghum sudanense, Leucaena leucocephala, Alysicarpus vaginalis, Desmanthus virgatus cv. Filadelfia and Stylosanthes hippocampoides cv. Oxley. Total seed production attains several hundred tons a year.

Although there is no pasture seed certification, seed quality commonly competes with certified Argentine or Brazilian seed. Most seed is locally marketed directly between farms or via the co-operatives of the zone. Bigger seed producers also export Gatton Panic seed to political, neighbouring Argentina and Bolivia. However, practically all Brachiaria spp . seed and most Panicum maximum cv. Of Conclusion! Tanzania and cv. A. Guillemin Thesis Award! Colonial seed which are used in Paraguay, are imported from Brazil, because seed yields are too low under local conditions.

7. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATIONS AND PERSONNEL. At present little research is carried out actively in Paraguay in the fodder and in dissertation pasture sector. However, in a. guillemin, the past, international or bilateral programmes and projects introduced and screened pasture species, initiated trials on pasture and purpose of conclusion in dissertation herd handling and grazing management, and disseminated innovations in the forage and livestock sector. For example: an American agronomist employed by the MCC (Mennonite Central Committee) who introduced buffel grass and initiated pasture cultivation in the Chaco the Servicio Tecnico Interamericano de Cooperacion Agricola (STICA) who evaluated for the first time cattle breeds, native and introduced to Paraguay a Swiss project in connection with the Instituto Agrario Nacional (IAN) in Caacupe a USAID project in connection with PRONIEGA (Programa Nacional de Investigacion y Extension Ganadera) in Pozo Colorado a French project in babak fahimi, connection with the Fondo Gandero in La Patria a German project in co-operation with DIA (Direccion de Investigacion Agricola) in the Central Chaco (Estacion Experimental Chaco Central, Cruce de los Pioneros). Besides that, there were many initiatives by individual farmers to introduce and test species they brought in from other countries, mostly Brazil and Argentina. Most of the Brachiaria species and a number of Cynodon cultivars came in through this channel and were spread from farmer to farmer. More recently, livestock farmers interested in applied experimentation became privately organised in the Consorcio Ganadero para la Experimentacion Agropecuaria (CEA). CEA holds a highly appreciated international congress on technology transfer every year in Asuncion at the headquarters of the Asociacion Rural del Paraguay (ARP).

CEA members even organised an information travel of purpose in dissertation farmers to Queensland, Australia, from paper research where a lot of new ideas and aspects on cattle breeds and grass cultivars came into the country. Moreover, the ARP is the organiser of a big annual Agricultural Trade Fair, where regularly cattle breeds and adapted pasture seed are exposed and marketed. On a regional level, farmers conscious of sustainable and profitable production systems organise themselves in so called CREA-groups (Consorcio Regional de Extension Agropecuaria). Purpose Of Conclusion! Some private CREA groups work very efficiently, and sometimes contrast favourably with public extension services, such as divisions of the Ministry based Direccion de Extension Agricola y Ganadera (DEA) or even services offered by credit institutes, such as CAH, BNF and Fondo Gandero. Only about one in ten farms is reached by a pubic extension service at a nation-wide average (Molas et al. 1996). However, many producers#146; co-operatives provide competent technical assistance to their members. A new programme has started in resume, October 2001 at Loma Plata, Chaco, the Iniciativa para la Investigacion y Transferencia de Tecnologia Agraria Sostenible (INTTAS), initiated by the private foundation DeSdel-Chaco (Fundacion para el Desarrollo Sostenible del Chaco), and purpose of conclusion in dissertation sponsored by ernst award, the Swiss foundation AVINA (Accion para la Vida y la Naturaleza).

This programme integrates, co-ordinates and purpose of conclusion in dissertation complements the on-farm-experimentation and technology dissemination activities carried out by introduction of euthanasia, various co-operatives and their extension services, and of conclusion in dissertation private farmer groups within the language being unique Paraguayan Chaco. Of Conclusion In Dissertation! Furthermore, INTTAS is to reactivate a virtually paralysed public research station in the Chaco Region, implementing joint research programmes, and to promote regular exchange of experience with private and public entities of interest from the other Chaco countries, Argentina and Bolivia. The Direccion de Investigacion Agricola (DIA), part of the Ministry of Agriculture, carries out research mainly in the cropping sector in babak resume, 9 research stations spread over the country. However, little importance is given to research in pastures and in dissertation forages. The mandate of another Ministry-dependent research unit, the paper political science Direccion de Investigacion de Produccion Animal (DIPA), is to conduct research in purpose, the animal production sector in three stations across the country. Again, the products of resume co-operative based and other private initiatives on of conclusion in dissertation, animal breeding, animal selection and improvement of herd handling are more obvious than public efforts in this field. The low efficiency of public research in on food and culture, Paraguay is primarily due to the lack of purpose in dissertation operational funds. More than 80% of the resume small budgets available (including revenues generated on the research stations) are used to cover the personnel costs.

In contrast to many other countries throughout Latin America efforts to revamp public-sector agricultural research and development agencies in in dissertation, Paraguay have yet to research, come to fruition. Major change was proposed in in dissertation, the mid-1990s in the form of the fahimi resume establishment of a national agricultural research institute, the Paraguayan Institute of Agrarian Technology (IPTA), as a joint public-private venture with multiple funding sources. The proposal for purpose, the creation of IPTA is being unique still pending, however, and it now appears that no legislative decision will be made until at least 2002, following a public reform process that is currently underway in Paraguay Beintema et al. (2000). On the other hand meanwhile, a strong negative selection process is of conclusion being observed, by skilled technicians and paper science scientists moving away from the public sector (DIA and purpose of conclusion DIPA) into private research and introduction essay development entities. Some kind of extension work and small scale experimentation in the forage and livestock sector is done by of conclusion, institutions of higher education which are:

Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias (FCA) - Universidad Nacional de Asuncion (UNA) Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias (FCV) - Universidad Nacional de Asuncion (UNA) Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias (FCA) - Universidad Catolica Nuestra Senora de Asuncion (UCA) Facultad de Ingenieria Agronomica Ciencias Agrarias (FCA) - Universidad Nacional del Este (UNE) Distinguished Technicians currently engaged in public or private research programmes in the pasture and forage sector are: Jefe Seccion Pastura. Estacion Experimental Chaco Central. Cruce de los Pioneros. Ruta Trans-Chaco - km 412.

Estacion Experimental Pilar. Tacuary esq. Dr. My Thesis Unique! Mazzei. Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, UNA. Dpto. Produccion Animal. Campo Universitario, San Lorenzo. Servicio Agropecuario, Chortitzer Komite. Loma Plata - 101 / Chaco.

C.d.c. 883 Asuncion. Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, UNA. Campo Universitario, San Lorenzo. Servicio Agropecuario, Chortitzer Komite. Loma Plata - 101 / Chaco. C.d.c. 883 Asuncion. Tel: xx 595 918 2301. Abril, A. and purpose of conclusion in dissertation E.H.

Bucher (2001): Overgrazing and essay soil carbon dynamics in the western Chaco of Argentina. Applied Soil Ecology 16, 243 - 249. Adamoli, J., E. Of Conclusion In Dissertation! Sennhauser, J.M. Acero and A. Rescia (1990): Stress and disturbance: Vegetation dynamics in the dry Chaco region of Argentina. Journal of Biogeography 17, 491 - 500. AHK (1999): PARAGUAY . Deutsch-Paraguayische Industrie- und Handelskammer, Asuncion, Paraguay. Beintema, N.M., P. Zambrano, M. Nunez, and P.G. Pardey (2000): Agricultural RD in Paraguay: Policy, Investments, and Institutional Profile. International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington D.C. Bertoni, G.T. and J.R. Gorham (1973): The Geography of Paraguay.

In J.R. Gorham (ed.). Claims Supporting Language Being Unique! Paraguay: Ecological Essays. Academy of the Arts and purpose of conclusion in dissertation Sciences of the Americas, Miami, pp. 9 - 18. BGR (2001): Proyecto Sistema Ambiental del Chaco. Inventario, evaluacion y recomendaciones para la proteccion de los espacios naturales en la Region Occidental.

Bundesanstalt fur Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover. DCEA (2000 ): Sintesis Estadistica 1999/2000. Direccion de Censos y Estadisticas Agropecuarias, Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganaderia, Asuncion, Paraguay. Degen, R. (1996): Dinamica poblacional de Copernicia alba Morong Caranda#146;y. Direccion de Ordenamiento Ambiental and Estacion Experimental Chaco Central (unpublished report) Eidt, R.C. (1969): The climatology of South America. In E.J.J. Illes, H. Klinge, G.H. Schwabe, and H. Sioli (eds.). Biogeography and fahimi ecology of South America. Vol.

1. Dr. W. Purpose In Dissertation! Junk, The Hague. FAO (2006): Online Statistical Database. http://apps.fao.org. Fatecha, A. (1989): Present and potential area for agricultural use in the Arid Chaco of Paraguay. In M. Hump and M.A. Tiefert (eds.). Agricultural Production under Semi-Arid Conditions with Special Reference to the Paraguayan Chaco: Strategies and babak resume Appropriate Technologies . DSE Feldafing, pp. Of Conclusion In Dissertation! 26-49.

Fretes, R., C. Fahimi! Gay and R. Of Conclusion In Dissertation! Samudio (1969): Las praderas naturales del Paraguay. I. Clasificacion y caracterizacion. Programa Nacional de Investigacion y Extension Ganadera. Publicacion No. 6, San Lorenzo.

Glatzle, A. and A.J.N. Cabrera (1996): Potencial de las pasturas cultivadas en el Chaco Paraguayo. Thesis Award! In Consorcio de Ganaderos para Experimentacion Agropecuaria (ed.): CEA #146;96 ; Forrajes. III er Congreso Internacional de Transferencia Tecnologica Agropecuaria (17 y 18 de Nov. 1996), Asuncion, 155 - 168. Glatzle, A. (1999): Compendio para el Manejo de Pasturas en el Chaco . Edicion El Lector, Asuncion, Paraguay. Glatzle, A., R. Schultze-Kraft, and R. Mitlohner (2001): Potential Role of Native Bush in the Chaco for purpose in dissertation, Mitigation of Dryland Salinity in Grassland . XIX International Grassland Congress, February 2001, Piracicaba, Brazil, ID 24-02. Gorham, J.R. (1973): The Paraguayan Chaco and Its Rainfall.

In J.R. Gorham (ed .). Paraguay: Ecological Essays . Academy of the Arts and Sciences of the Americas, Miami, U.S.A., pp. 39 - 60. GTZ (1994): PARAGUAY. Perfil del pais con informaciones y comentarios relacionados al desarrollo economico y socia l. Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit, Eschborn, Germany. Hacker, J.B., A. Glatzle and fahimi resume R. In Dissertation! Vanni (1996): Paraguay - a potential source of new pasture legumes for the subtropics. Being Unique! Tropical Grasslands 30, 273 - 281. MAG (1992): Censo Agropecuario Nacional 1991 . Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganaderia, Asuncion, Paraguay. MAG (1996): Lineamiento Estrategico para el Desarrollo del Sector Agropecuario y Forestal. Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganaderia, Asuncion, Paraguay.

Mereles, F., R. Degen and N. Of Conclusion In Dissertation! Lopez de Kochalca (1992): Humedales en el Paraguay: Breve resena de su vegetacion. Ernst! Amazoniana 12, 305 - 316. Molas, O., R. Heyn and R. Arias (1996): Documento base sobre el sector pecuario y su impacto ambiental. In Dissertation! ENAPRENA, Asuncion, Paraguay. Morello, J. and C. Saravia Toledo (1959): El Bosque chaqueno.

II. La ganaderia y el bosque en el Oriente de Salta. Revista Agronomica del Noroeste Argentino 3 (1-2), 209 - 258. Ramella, I. and R. Claims Language! Spichiger (1989): Interpretacion preliminar del medio fisico y de la vegetacion del Chaco Boreal. Contribucion al estudio de la flora de la vegetacion del Chaco. Candollea 44, 639 - 680. Ramirez, E.G. and J.L.

Laneri (1989): Fodder and Feeding of Cattle in the Paraguayan Chaco. In M. Hump and M.A. Tiefert (eds.). Agricultural Production under Semi-Arid Conditions with Special Reference to the Paraguayan Chaco: Strategies and Appropriate Technologies . DSE Feldafing, pp. 139-148.

Sachez, T.F. (1973): The climate of Paraguay. Purpose Of Conclusion! In J.R. Gorham (ed.). Introduction Of Euthanasia Essay! Paraguay: Ecological Essays . Academy of the Arts and Sciences of the of conclusion in dissertation Americas, Miami, U.S.A., pp. With Essay! 33 - 38. Stosiek, D., A. Glatzle and R. Schultze-Kraft (1997): Utilized Metabolizable Energy and of conclusion Its Impact on the Management of Grass Pastures in the Central Chaco of Paraguay. Proc. XVIII th International Grassland Congress , Winnipeg and Saskatoon, Canada, 29-7 - 29-8. Tarso Zuquim, P. and I. Lima Serrano (1997): Tuiuiu: Under the skies of the Pantanal. Empresa de Artes, Sao Paulo, Brazil (work sponsored by Monsanto do Brazil)

Verma, G.P. (1982 ): Research needs for the development and essay improvement of dryland agriculture in the Paraguayan Chaco . Unpublished report of the purpose of conclusion Technical and Economic Co-operation between the Government of the Republic of India, New Delhi, India and the Government of the Republic of Paraguay, Asuncion, Paraguay. Glatzle, Dr. Fahimi Resume! Albrecht. Asesor Tecnico Administrativo de la Iniciativa para la Investigacion y Transferencia de Tecnologia Agraria Sostenible (INTTAS)

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a masters degree A Master is an advanced degree conferred by universities around the world for completion of graduate study in a specific discipline. Masters degree programs typically take one to two years to of conclusion in dissertation complete and further prepare graduates for essay a career in their chosen field. In Dissertation! Obtaining a Masters degree offers numerous professional, personal and claims supporting being unique, academic benefits to students who have graduated from a Bachelor program. Masters degrees are available across various fields of study, including the Arts, Business, Engineering and Technology, Law, Humanities, Social Sciences, Biological and Life Sciences, and of conclusion, the Natural Sciences. Essay On Food And Culture! Within each of those fields of purpose of conclusion in dissertation, study, numerous practical specializations are available within particular disciplines. The variety of different Master programs can be overwhelming - don't let it stop you! Start your search by looking at the most popular Master degrees listed below. MA in ernst award, International Economy and Business.

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A built-in network of professionals from your classmates, instructors, and my thesis unique, alumni association. A demonstration of commitment to your profession. In Dissertation! The knowledge you gain for a field you are passionate about. Worldwide, there are thousands of master’s programs to choose from. Master’s programs typically require 1-2 years of full-time academic study beyond the bachelor’s degree.

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Example Of Opinion Essay Essays and Research Papers. Opinion essay Opinion essay is purpose of conclusion in dissertation, a formal piece of essay writing which presents the resume, . author’s point of of conclusion in dissertation view on interview with, a particular subject supported by reasons and examples . The opposing viewpoint is also suggested, it goes with arguments that show that it is unconvincing. Purpose Of Conclusion In Dissertation? A Successful Opinion Essay Consists of: An introduction where the topic and fahimi resume the author’s opinion are stated clearly. A main body where viewpoints supported by reasons are presented in several paragraphs. This section has also the. Education , Essay , Mobile phone 792 Words | 3 Pages. ? Opinion Essay Some people use marijuana for health purposes, some just use it to get really high. Of Conclusion In Dissertation? Smoking marijuana . isn’t as bad as it seems to others. Obviously lighting something on fire and inhaling it wouldn’t seem as if it’s good or healthy for you. That’s why people get the wrong impression. I believe marijuana should be legalized because there are more positives to it than negatives.

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Baroque , Baroque music , Dome 1264 Words | 4 Pages. of the week when Pete receives big shipments of thesis award inventory for the store. When that occurs the retail part of the Garden Center can be really busy for a few . days after stocking the new inventory. Of Conclusion? Inventory can range from a variety of things, for example ; garden rocks in babak assorted rock pallets, mulch bags sorted out by purpose of conclusion in dissertation, type, hay bales stacked, and even bird baths. So as one of the three managers, Pete has to of euthanasia make sure things go well and items are placed correctly and neatly throughout the purpose of conclusion, store, in. Annual plant , Evergreen , Garden 1115 Words | 3 Pages.

Example Essay “He that is good for making excuses is seldom good for anything else.” -- Ben Franklin. As early as the . founding of the United States of America, Mr. Franklin observed society using the excuse, I don't have enough time… and it negative effects on their lives. Today, it is frequently used as an resume, excuse to justify the lack of time management skills. Purpose In Dissertation? The effects on kids, work, or even in family life are sometimes devastating.

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A good introduction. • Does the on food, job of clearly defining the topic covered in the essay and the specific aspects which will be discussed. See in particular last sentence of introduction. Purpose In Dissertation? ( We will be looking at the structure of introductions. Causality , Environmentalism , Essay 1501 Words | 5 Pages. Definition Of Friendship Example Essay. of friendship.

Consider the ernst a. guillemin thesis award, purpose, audience, and context of of conclusion in dissertation your article. Organize your ideas and details effectively. Include specific details that . clearly develop your article. Edit your speech for a. guillemin thesis standard grammar and language usage. Example Essay on the Definition of Friendship If asked, many people would say that their friends are some of the most important people in their lives.

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In the following, I am going to summarize the . concerned clinical issue / practice presented in of euthanasia essay the journal article. In the second part of the essay , I will analyze the concerned clinical issue / practice and relate to my prior learning and/or experience. Next, I will discuss on of conclusion, what I have learned from the concerned clinical issue / practice. Lastly, I am going to recommend strategies to facilitate my learning. Health care provider , Illness , Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator 839 Words | 3 Pages. ? Opinion Essay Options Karisa Horsch Professor R. Sorrell HIST 136; Opinion 2, 3, 6 March . On Food? 7th 2013 Industrialists Vs. Workers Opinion Option #2 Today, the United States is known for being a big, beautiful powerhouse of in dissertation complex industrial systems and award with these industrial systems, bridges have been built, factories have been produced, inventions and workers have been put to purpose of conclusion work and thus, a new age industry arise. It’s hard to exactly pin-point.

19th century , Immigration , Immigration to the United States 1048 Words | 4 Pages. Descriptive Essay 1) Definition: Descriptive essay is essay and culture, one of the many types of writing styles that provides a detailed . description for a particular person, place, memory, experience or object. Descriptive essay is purposely created so readers can readily imagine its particular subject matter. It focuses on the five senses which are sight, smell, touch, sound and purpose of conclusion taste. 2) Example : Spring Everyone has a comfortable place to fahimi resume escape to for relaxation. They go there when they need to be.

Hearing , Odor , Olfaction 1017 Words | 4 Pages. Opinion Essay: Is Television Good or Bad for of conclusion in dissertation American Society? Assignment taught by Dr. Sally Lozada. Of Euthanasia? PART I Throughout the next four modules, you will plan and develop an argumentative essay . Your . homework assignments will consist of: Module 1: Taking a Stance Module 2: Developing an Outline Module 3: Providing Body Paragraphs Module 4: Submitting the of conclusion in dissertation, Completed Essay Taking a Stance Below is the topic for Essay 1. Essay 1 Topic Television is an interesting form of entertainment. With a proper cable subscription, one’s television can display.

Logic , Obesity , Rhetoric 1160 Words | 6 Pages. ELEMENTS OF AN ESSAY Preliminary Remarks Following are some suggestions to help you write an acceptable academic- level essay . . This is not the only way to organize and of euthanasia develop an essay . It is, however, a tried and true system and will likely be what your TCC instructors require of you. Audience and in dissertation Purpose Before beginning, you should consider both your audience and purpose. Babak Fahimi? For, before you can know how to approach the subject, you must determine whom you will be addressing, how much they already. 2005 albums , Essay , Five paragraph essay 1430 Words | 5 Pages.

statement in this argument? 3. What’s the topic sentence of the writer’s personal view? 4. In Dissertation? Note down some of the transitions used in supporting language unique this argument: 5. What . is the wrap-up in this essay ? Rhetorical Devices Find the following devices in this argumentative essay . There might be more than one example of each. Annotate the essay to of conclusion in dissertation show these features. On Food And Culture? Use of personal pronouns Exclamations Hyperbole Imperatives Juxtaposition Modern idioms and trendy phrases Non-sentences Repetition Rhetorical questions. Arc de Triomphe , Food , Hamburger 683 Words | 3 Pages. Steven Vanous Opinion essay 131-17 One of the most debated topics of today in America is Health Care. How can we make it . better? How can we fix the major flaws?

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These acts are clear examples of claims supporting being unique cruelty towards animals, and can never be truly justified. Purpose Of Conclusion In Dissertation? If we take the rights steps, in a warranted and honest manner, then we can stop animal abuse, and ernst award save future species from an unruly and unjustified future as slaves to man-kind. . Animal cruelty , Animal Liberation Front , Animal rights 1055 Words | 3 Pages. Jun. Purpose In Dissertation? 17, 2013 ESSAY WRITING ESSAY . – A short literary composition of an analytical, interpretive, or reflective kind, dealing with its subject in a. guillemin thesis award a non-technical, limited, often unsystematic way and, usually expressive of the author’s outlook and personality. - An attempt. TYPES OF ESSAYS – Personal – Describes how you feel about someone or something. YOU are at purpose of conclusion, the center . . Article , Essay , Essays 622 Words | 3 Pages. Example MBA admission essay The world of finance and business is a complicated and ubiquitous arena, and on food and culture the axis around which . Purpose In Dissertation? most of our society’s most important issues move.

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ART-O-METER scale essay Music is a form of expression; it is art, and what makes it of highest or lowest value can often be a matter of . Political Research? personal choice. There are, however, universal ways of looking at in dissertation, a song’s value. Interview With Essay? First, one can analyze a song based on the message the writer wants to reveal. Words construct meaning, which ultimately reveals a theme, and the power of the theme helps listeners decide a song’s worth and universal impact. Closely linked to of conclusion a song’s theme is the babak fahimi resume, song’s literary. Aspect of music , Broken heart , Fiction 1377 Words | 4 Pages. How to write an argumentative essay. Give your opinion . Of Conclusion In Dissertation? Argumentative Essay How to write an Argumentative Essay : Outline, Structure, Format, . Examples , Topics How to write an argumentative essay ? The leading tone in an argumentative essay is the position of proving that the presented point of view is the introduction of euthanasia essay, correct one and possesses more truthful arguments than any other opinions . The author through proper reasoning, inducting and purpose in dissertation making conclusions, must prove the assertions or the introduction of euthanasia, theories of the argumentative essay . If the author. Essay , Essays , Five paragraph essay 569 Words | 3 Pages. ! Analyzing Essay Psychologist Martin E. P. Seligman’s article “On Learned Helplessness” talks about what happens when people go through . traumatic events and how the purpose, handle the situations. On Food? Seligman ` studied the of conclusion, conditions that can lead to feelings of fear, helplessness, depression, and interview with competence.

By applying his theories and ideas I will analyze the article “Gunman Kills Himself After Hostage Drama” by Charles P. In Dissertation? Wallace and Tim Waters. In the article by Wallace and Waters, a twenty-six. Depression , Emotion , Harry Dean Stanton 990 Words | 4 Pages. Definition Essay How to essay write a Definition Essay : Outline, Format, Structure, Examples , Topics Writing a . Of Conclusion In Dissertation? definition essay A definition essay is an essay concentrated on the explanation of the meaning of essay on food a definite term. The term may be analyzed from the position of one and only meaning and also from the position of subjectivity of the person defining the term. This classification divides the words into two groups: •material terms – a table, a door, a printer. Of Conclusion In Dissertation? •spiritual terms – friendship.

Causality , Cosmological argument , Definition 2125 Words | 7 Pages. ? ESSAY IS A WRITTEN EXPRESSION OF WRITER'S DIRECT OPINION . THAT OPINION IS BASED ON OUR BELIEFS. Fahimi Resume? now belief is of . further two types: 1. changeable (where there is in dissertation, tendency to change the opinion ) 2. non-changeable ( opinion is in just yes or no; agree or disagree) basically the changeable opinion is our thesis statement. * every thesis statement is opinion but every opinion is not thesis statement. Introduction Of Euthanasia Essay? types of essays ' topics: 1. open topics on which writer's own tendency to of conclusion in dissertation prove his opinion. Belief , Creative writing , Critical thinking 474 Words | 2 Pages. Name: Andrew Gordon Subject: Exp201, Professor Morales Summary Assignment Forerunners Sei Shonagon: Hateful Things Essay question: . Consider Sei Shonagon’s definition of the word ‘hate’ in the Heian era. Is an paper political science, opinion considered hostile if it focuses on honesty and transparency of a situation? “Hateful Things” is an purpose in dissertation, opinionated extract from the book “Pillow Talk” written by Sei Shonagon. On Food And Culture? Pillow Talk is a collection of the lists, desires, poetry and judgmental conversations by Shonagon. Sei. Essay , Heian period , Japan 1371 Words | 4 Pages. Example of an Ethnolect Based Essay. travelled, can appreciate humour, and that he would like to be perceived as an educated person with further academic goals.

The phonological features of a . person’s speech are the in dissertation, most obvious signposts to essay and culture his or her origins or mother tongue. For example , Bill pronounces the ‘not’ in ‘not really’, ‘correct’, ‘just’ and ‘want’ by ending with a glottal stop (/?/), rather than the voiceless consonant (/t/). This occurs as final consonants are much less frequent in Mandarin than in English and thus they. Australian English , British English , Dialect 953 Words | 3 Pages. 1 AN OPINION COMPOSITION When you are writing an essay that asks you to discuss a topic or give your opinion on a . question, it is important to organize your thoughts and present your arguments clearly and to in dissertation work out the structure of your essay before you start to write.

1. Plan four or five paragraphs: 2. 3. And Culture? 4. In Dissertation? 5. - an introduction (saying why it is important, what the situation is. ) - two or three paragraphs in support of the argument/ giving a contrasting or different view (with reasons). Developmental psychology , Essay , Learning 1697 Words | 5 Pages. Wind” essay by Verlyn Klinkenborg and then answer the following questions: . http://www.nytimes.com/2008/07/18/ opinion /18fri4.html?_r=1 1. Explain how the author describes the essay on food, wind in three sentences? Provide one quote from the essay . 2. Copy down at least three descriptions that connect to in dissertation at least three of the following senses: a. visual b. taste c. hearing d. touch e. smell 3. Supporting My Thesis Language Being Unique? Write down the author’s main point. Purpose In Dissertation? Actually copy his main point from the essay so I. Essay , Following , Plutarch 1249 Words | 4 Pages.

every reader's question: So what? Supportable - A thesis must be a claim that you can prove with the evidence at hand (e.g., evidence from your texts . Paper Research Science? or from your research). Purpose? Your claim should not be outlandish, nor should it be mere personal opinion or preference (e.g., Frederick Douglass is my favorite historical figure.) Precise - An effective thesis statement has been narrowed down from a very broad subject. Your claim should not be something on which whole books could be written. . Argument , Frederick Douglass , Logic 1094 Words | 5 Pages. Essay Development Learning Team B COM/172 September 10, 2010 The ultimate success or failure of a paper may often be traced back to . the planning stages. What might you do to provide yourself with the best opportunity to succeed when writing our college papers? Planning is the most important tool we can use to create an effective essay . When we plan accordingly, we are setting the ernst a. guillemin, right expectation for completing our assignment.

We take the time to create an effective outline and purpose of conclusion in dissertation use. Begin , Essay , Pop music 1304 Words | 4 Pages. watching. Interview? Mary Chastain writes for Breitbart.com and as a concerned parent, she mostly covers semi-controversial subjects of the purpose in dissertation, news that focus on mental . health issues of children. She inserts herself into a. guillemin her articles with compassion and lets her opinions flow. Any mother or father would certainly feel the compassion in her words and might trust her judgment just by knowing that she is a mother herself. Not knowing this information could skew your view of purpose her articles. If I did not know she was. Parent , Psychology , SpongeBob SquarePants 1056 Words | 3 Pages. of a highly successful career is the amount of introduction respect we receive from our peers. Of Conclusion? We are respected because of our expertise and our knowledge.

We stand out . An Entrepreneur? above the average person. We are noticed, loved and admired by many. Our opinion is valued. Other people's opinions are high of purpose of conclusion us. In our local community, we are thought of as being a vivacious and charismatic leader. Everyone wants to be around us because we make him or her feel good about introduction essay themselves, and we help boost his or her self-esteem. Happiness , Need , Poverty 846 Words | 3 Pages. anyone believe that they were a witch. This is also seen as injustice because it is of conclusion, definitely not fair or moral. In The Crucible, Miller uses character to . show that just because someone is different could possibly mean that they were witches.

An example of character in essay and culture the film was when Giles Corey had just asked how someone’s day was and a fire had made flames. This made him convicted to being a witch just because how creepy people had seen him as. Justice cannot be seen here because justice is. Arthur Miller , Daniel Day-Lewis , John Proctor 899 Words | 3 Pages. Essay Structure: The Secret To A Good Essay. Essay Structure: The Secret To A Good Essay Essays are like the people that write them; each one is unique . and individual. A good essay topic seems the most important aspect for a paper; but if the purpose of conclusion, writer can’t effectively convey their argument or idea in a fluid procession the paper’s topic will not matter. On Food And Culture? A writer needs to capture their audience in the most successful way and structural elements are a contributor to that. In the purpose, essay , Graffiti: Art or Vandalism, the author effectively. Art , Banksy , Eyesore 943 Words | 3 Pages. Descriptive Essay Example We all know college is hard; if it were easy, everyone would have . a degree and no one would ever ask for help.

But here at Crafton Hills College, tutors are available to help out babak fahimi students in purpose of conclusion any way, so that those who struggle can do well and be successful. These mentors don’t just lecture, they take the time to make sure students understand and comprehend what is being taught. Tutors are at hand for paper research science a variety of subjects, some have. Learning , Teaching assistant , Tutor 1006 Words | 3 Pages. spaces to people who don’t live in Ann Arbor who commute from all over the surrounding areas. For example , my MTH 169 teacher, Mr. King, would . Of Conclusion In Dissertation? commute from Farmington to Ann Arbor every day. When in supporting my thesis language unique the class, he was always on time because he had another class before us so he had the opportunity to find a parking space, but if he arrived later than that he wouldn’t have found one. Purpose In Dissertation? Another example was in winter 2012, my boyfriend’s mother had exited the Bailey Library, and immediately a person asked. Ann Arbor, Michigan , Bus , Bus stop 1050 Words | 4 Pages. CORE Arguments, Opinions and suggestions.

? Appendix 2: Guidelines for with an entrepreneur essay Essays Each group must select ONE of the Topics below: Research the Topic and Write an . Purpose Of Conclusion In Dissertation? essay . In preparing their assignments, students are expected to do a thorough research on the chosen topic and also provide case examples to an entrepreneur essay illustrate/defend their arguments. Where possible, students are encouraged to use UAE/GULF OR Middle-East organizations as an example . In agreement with the lecturer, they may also change the topic slightly to suit a. Critical thinking , Human resource management , Management 497 Words | 2 Pages. boot-camp not as a military training program, but rather as a group of individuals who are driven by a common goal? If we can do this then we can begin . making comparisons with other groups of individuals and notice a great deal of purpose in dissertation similarities. For example , universities offer a wide variety of fahimi resume clubs such as the of conclusion, Philosophy Club or the my thesis language, Student Veterans Organization, and these clubs are formed because like-minded individuals driven by a common goal congregated and of conclusion bonded to birth their club. Just like.

Bond , Bonds, Lancashire , Marine 900 Words | 2 Pages.