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Information Literacy Competency Standards for Nursing. Approved by the ACRL Board of Directors, October 2013. The Information Literacy Competency Standards for Nursing were completed and submitted to ACRL by essay on personal, the Health Sciences Interest Group - Information Literacy Standards for Nursing Task force in the spring of 2013. Essay! Preparation for the writing of the standards was based on two years of essay, research on the information literacy needs of nursing students who are preparing for a profession in which evidence-based practice and is that translational research are fundamental values. Statement! This process included an extensive review of library and nursing literature; study of nursing standards used for accreditation; examining documents respected by nursing professionals and academics; as well as consultation with nursing faculty and library colleagues. The standards directly address the information skills needed by nursing students at essay on christmas, the associate, baccalaureate, master’s and doctoral levels and are written for essay nursing faculty and librarians who support nursing programs and essay on christmas break nursing students in academic settings.
However, because many nursing students are also practicing nurses, the skills described in the standards can be used for continuing education in the nursing profession. The term nurse will be used throughout this document to describe nursing students, nursing faculty and practicing nurses. The purpose of the Information Literacy Standards for on personal statement Nursing is to: provide a framework for faculty and students of nursing at the associate, baccalaureate, master’s, and doctoral levels in the development of information literacy skills for evidence-based nursing practice; encourage the use of a common language for farm is power essay nursing faculty and essay librarians to discuss student information seeking skills; guide librarians and nursing faculty in higher critical essay count, creating learning activities that will support the growth of information literacy skills over on personal statement, the course of a program of nursing education and for lifelong learning; provide administration and the great war the sidney fay thesis curriculum committees a shared understanding of essay on personal statement, student competencies and need; and provide a framework for war the sidney fay thesis answers continuing education in the area of information literacy for the field of nursing practice and research. The IL Standards are meant to on personal be a guide and support for readers and to be fully adaptable to individual institutions and classrooms. Because translational research and evidence-based practice is the professional standard, the ability to identify an information need; find and evaluate information; assess information; use information ethically; and to use information for the purpose of best practice is at the heart of nursing education and nursing practice. To clarify the use of two important terms as they are used in this document: translational research is defined as “research aimed at enhancing the adoption of best practices in the community” (AACN, The Essentials of letter in a paper, Master’s Education); and evidence-based practice is “the integration of best research evidence, clinical research, and patient values in making decisions about the care of individual patients (IOM, 2003)” (AACN, The Essentials of Master’s Education). The nursing standards will prove useful to statement nursing faculty, curriculum committees and administration in the development of programs to satisfy accrediting boards and to adhere to these values.
These standards for nursing are based on higher critical count the “ACRL Information Competency Standards for Higher Education” with outcomes written specifically to essay on personal support nursing resources, language, and the value of evidence-based practice. The standards for nursing have been further informed by the Information Literacy Standards for Science Engineering/Technology. Writing the farm is power outcomes has been a challenge because of the essay on personal statement wide range of levels of nursing education from Associate to Doctoral levels. It has been a particular challenge to gather information and english critical word coordinate feedback from nursing librarians, whose professional membership tends to essay statement be in acknowledgement letter paper, either the Medical Library Association or the Association of College and Research Libraries and rarely in both organizations. Each organization addresses health and nursing information differently in accordance with their mission. Many librarians are in a setting that falls within the purview of both organizations, but still have needs that are not met by statement, either. It is the goal of this document to bridge that gap for Information Literacy Competencies. Sources used for preparation of these standards. Association of College and Research Libraries. “ Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education”.
Accessed June 1, 2010. Essay Count! http://www.ala.org/acrl/standards/informationliteracycompetency. American Association of Colleges of Nursing. “The Essentials of Baccalaureate Education for Professional Nursing Practice.” Accessed August 28, 2012. www.aacn.nche.edu/education-resources/baccessentials08.pdf. American Association of essay on personal, Colleges of Nursing. “The Essentials of Doctoral Education for Advanced Practice Nursing.” Accessed August 28, 2012. www.aacn.nche.edu/publications/position/DNPEssentials.pdf. American Association of Colleges of Nursing. “The Essentials of Master’s Education in Nursing.” Accessed August 28, 2012. www.aacn.nche.edu/education-resources/MasEssentials96.pdf. Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education. “Standards for Accreditation of Baccalaureate and Graduate Degree Nursing Programs.” Accessed August 28, 2012. Higher English Critical Essay! www.aacn.nche.edu/ccne-accreditation/standards09.pdf. Kathleen R. Stevens. Essential Competencies for Evidence-Based Practice in essay statement, Nursing, 2 nd Edition . The Great War The Sidney Bradshaw Fay Thesis! San Antonio TX: Academic Center for Evidence-Based Practice in Nursing, 2009. National League for Nursing Accrediting Commission, Inc. “2008 Edition: NLNAC Accreditation Manual.” Accessed August 28, 2012. Essay On Personal Statement! http://www.nlnac.org/manuals/Manual2008.htm. Health Science Interest Group of the Association of College Research Libraries. Acknowledgement In A Research! “The Essentials of Baccalaureate Education for Professional Nursing Practice The Essentials of essay on personal, Master’s Education in Nursing As They Apply to the ACRL Information Literacy Competency Standards.” Accessed August 31, 2012. http://healthsciencesinterestgroup.wikispaces.com/Documents+%26+Minutes.
ALA/ACRL/STS Task Force on Information Literacy for break Science and Technology. “Information Literacy Standards for Science and Engineering/Technology.” Accessed August 26, 2012. http://www.ala.org/acrl/standards/infolitscitech. The Quality and Safety Education for Nurses, “Competencies, Graduate KSAS”. Retrieved April 15, 2013. http://qsen.org/competencies/graduate-ksas/. The Quality and essay on personal Safety Education for Nurses, “Competencies, Pre-Licensure KSAS”. Retrieved April 15, 2013. http://qsen.org/competencies/pre-licensure-ksas/. Royal College of Nursing. “RCN Competencies: Finding, using and managing information: Nursing, midwifery, health and social care information literacy competencies”. And Contrase Essay! Accessed August 28, 2012. http://www.rcn.org.uk/data/assets/pdf_file/0007/357019/003847.pdf. The TIGER Initiative Foundation. “The TIGER Initiative: Informatics Competencies for Every Practicing Nurse: Recommendations from the TIGER Collaborative. Accessed August 28, 2012. http://www.thetigerinitiative.org/docs/TigerReport_InformaticsCompetencies_000.pdf.
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Identifies the essay statement various disciplines publishing research on the concepts of the question (e.g., health sciences, biology, psychology). Identifies the publication types in the progression from letter paper background (e.g., encyclopedia, textbooks) to foreground research (e.g., primary literature). Identifies likely type of essay on personal, publication where appropriate information is published (e.g., popular vs. trade vs. scholarly, current vs. seminal, primary vs. secondary vs. tertiary). Considers experts or other researchers as potential information resources. Identifies the value and differences of potential resources in a variety of formats (e.g., multimedia, database, website, data set, audio/visual, book, graph). Recognizes that information may need to and contrase essay be constructed with raw data from primary sources or by primary research. Recognizes that potentially useful information or data in a variety of formats may be proprietary, have limited access, or may be freely available online.
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Recognizes the value of archival information, recognizes how its use and importance may vary with each discipline, and animal knowledge essay recognizes the importance of preservation of information. Considers the costs and benefits of acquiring the needed information. Determines the availability of needed information and makes decisions on broadening the on personal information seeking process beyond locally held resources. Takes advantage of continuing education opportunities to the great fay thesis answers acquire new skills. Formulates a realistic overall plan and on personal statement timeline to acquire the needed information. Recognizes that information needed may be in a foreign language and that translation may be necessary. Locates research instruments (questionnaires, scales, interview guides) and identifies if they are appropriate to the great sidney bradshaw fay thesis their populations. Conducts a cost benefit analysis for research projects and considers funding sources. Interprets the complexities of accessing full text and the various publishing models. Reevaluates the nature and extent of the information need.
Understands that research is an iterative process, and a process of statement, discovering what research has been published on a topic to focus a research question. Evaluates and refines original PICO(TT) question in relation to the literature found. Points out evidence gaps in the literature. Describes criteria used to make information choices. The information literate nurse accesses needed information effectively and efficiently. The information literate nurse: Selects the most appropriate investigative methods or information retrieval systems for accessing the needed information. Recognizes where to look for research literature and other sources of evidence at each stage of the research process. Animal Farm Knowledge! Investigates the scope, content, and organization of information retrieval systems.
Selects efficient and effective approaches for accessing the information needed from an information retrieval system. Locates primary or secondary quantitative or qualitative data. Constructs and implements efficient and effectively-designed search strategies. Formulates a strategic approach to essay on personal statement searching the diverse resources available to address each element of the PICO(TT) question. Identifies keywords, synonyms and related terms for the information needed. Identifies the differences between keyword and subject searching and articulates how to essay break use each independently, or in combination, to complete a comprehensive search.
Navigates hierarchies of subject terms (e.g., MeSH and CINAHL) and utilizes scope notes, subheadings, and searching in a thesaurus. On Personal! Constructs a search strategy using appropriate commands for the information retrieval system selected (e.g., Boolean operators, truncation, and acknowledgement letter in a adjacency; internal organizers such as indexes for books). Recognizes similarities and differences across user interfaces (e.g. field codes, command languages, and search parameters). Develops search strategies to locate nursing theories and philosophies. Implements search strategies to locate grey literature such as conference proceedings, theses, dissertations, and white papers. Follows citations and cited references to identify additional, pertinent articles. Retrieves information online or in person using a variety of methods.
Uses various search systems to retrieve information in a variety of formats (e.g., the library catalog, general and specialized databases, and authoritative websites). Uses various classification schemes and other systems to locate information resources within the library. Locates full text journal literature through the information retrieval system selected using links to full text, a link resolver, or interlibrary loan, as appropriate. Does not artificially limit to only readily available full text within the database. Uses online or in-person services when assistance is on personal needed (e.g., interlibrary loan, document delivery, librarians, library staff, primary investigators). Uses surveys, letters, interviews, experiments, and other forms of inquiry to retrieve information or data, as appropriate for the research area or discipline. Refines the search strategy if necessary.
Uses limiters (e.g., year, population, age, English-language, geographical location, human studies). Uses publication type limits to identify and locate the appropriate level of and contrase, evidence within the information retrieval system (e.g., qualitative studies, reviews of statement, literature, controlled trials, evidence-based clinical practice guidelines, meta-analyses, and systematic reviews). Adjusts search strategy to access clinical opinions, research, or evidence summaries according to information need. Selects appropriate subject headings from compare and contrase essay records of relevant articles to refine search statements (aka “pearl growing”). Assesses the quantity, quality, accuracy, currency, and relevance of the search results and the limitations of the information retrieval systems or investigative methods, to determine whether alternatives should be sought and essay on personal utilized. Identifies gaps in the information retrieved and determines if the search strategy should be revised. Repeats the search using the revised strategy or new systems or methods as necessary. Extracts, records, and manages the information and its sources. Maintains a research journal or log of the information seeking process.
Selects the most appropriate technology for the task of extracting the needed information (e.g., copying, scanning, exporting to bibliographic management software). Creates a system for organizing the information utilizing file management concepts. Differentiates between the types of sources cited; understands the english essay count elements and correct syntax of a citation for a wide range of resources. Records all pertinent citation information for future reference. The information literate nurse critically evaluates the essay on personal procured information and its sources, and as a result, decides whether or not to modify the initial query and/or seek additional sources and whether to compare and contrase develop a new research process. The information literate nurse: Summarizes the main ideas to be extracted from the information gathered. Applies the understanding of the structure of nursing, health, or medical research articles and uses sections, such as the abstract and conclusion, to summarize the main ideas. Selects main ideas from the text.
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Examines and compares information and evidence from various sources in order to on personal statement evaluate reliability, validity, accuracy, authority, currency, and point of view or bias. Recognizes the cultural, historical, physical, political, social, or other context within which the information was created, and understands the impact of context on interpreting the information. Letter Paper! Distinguishes between the methodologies used in nursing, health, and medical research studies, and analyzes the structure and logic of supporting arguments and methods. Identifies gaps in the literature as research opportunities. Synthesizes main ideas to construct new concepts. Synthesizes divergent information to answer a research question and generalizes relative research to a related question. Recognizes interrelationships among concepts and combines them into potentially useful primary statements and/or summary of findings with supporting evidence.
Extends initial synthesis, when possible, at on personal, a higher level of abstraction to construct new hypotheses that may require additional information. Utilizes computer and other technologies (e.g. spreadsheets, databases, multimedia, simulators, and audio or visual equipment) for studying the interaction of ideas and other phenomena. Employs analytic methods to critically appraise the literature and other evidence to determine and implement the best evidence for nursing practice. Recognizes that existing information can be combined with original thought, experimentation, and/or analysis to construct new concepts. Interprets primary quantitative or qualitative data to address the question. Compares new knowledge with prior knowledge to determine the value added, contradictions, or other unique characteristics of the information. Values the acknowledgement research need for continuous improvement based on new knowledge. Discriminates between valid and essay statement invalid reasons for modifying evidence-based practice.
Uses consciously selected criteria to determine whether the information contradicts or verifies information used from other sources. Draws conclusions based upon information gathered. Tests theories with discipline-appropriate techniques (e.g., simulators, experiments). Letter In A! Determines probable accuracy by questioning the source of the information, limitations of the information gathering tools or strategies, and the reasonableness of the conclusions. Integrates new information with previous information or knowledge. Determines whether information provides evidence relevant to the information need. Includes information that is essay on personal pertinent even when it contradicts the individual's value system, being careful to maintain a neutral position. Validates understanding and interpretation of the information through discourse with other individuals, subject-area experts, and/or practitioners.
Participates in classroom and virtual/electronic discussions for validating understanding and interpreting the information. Works effectively in small groups or teams. Seeks expert opinion through a variety of mechanisms (e.g., interviews, electronic communication). Utilizes, and/or contributes to, and shares evidence of the great bradshaw fay thesis answers, best practices with, interprofessional teams, professional association discussion lists, networks, and at professional conferences. Initiates and facilitates professional discourse and discussions as a team member, mentor, practitioner, preceptor, and/or educator. Determines whether the initial query should be revised. Participates in peer review of search strategies with information professionals, students, nurses, and/or faculty.
Draws conclusions based on statement a combination of personal training and research. Determines if original information need has been satisfied or if additional information is the great war the sidney bradshaw fay thesis answers needed. Reviews search strategy and incorporates additional concepts as necessary. Reviews information retrieval sources used and expands to include others as needed. Evaluates the procured information and essay statement the entire process. Reviews and assesses the procured information and determines possible improvements in is power, the information seeking process. Applies the improvements to statement subsequent projects.
The information literate nurse, individually or as a member of a group, uses information effectively to accomplish a specific purpose. The information literate nurse: Applies new and prior information to acknowledgement in a paper the planning and creation of a particular product. Organizes the content in a manner that supports the purposes and format of the on personal product or performance (e.g., poster, paper; care plan, practice guideline, procedure or patient instruction). English Critical Count! Articulates knowledge and skills transferred from prior experiences to planning and creating the product.
Selects, analyzes, organizes, summarizes and/or synthesizes, and integrates the new and prior information, including raw data, quotations and paraphrasings, in statement, a manner that supports the purposes of the acknowledgement letter in a paper product. Utilizes technologies to essay on personal statement communicate, organize, collaborate, and prepare the break product or performance. Manipulates digital text, images, and data, as needed, transferring them from essay their original locations and formats to a new context. Initiates changes in performance of patient care when information or evidence warrants evaluation of acknowledgement letter, other options for improving outcomes or decreasing adverse events. Statement! Participates in design, selection and use of systems and technologies that support evidence-based practice. Designs original research studies to address gaps in letter in a paper, the literature. Statement! Revises the development process for the product. Maintains and reviews a journal or log of activities related to the information seeking, evaluating, and communicating process to discover potential areas to target for process improvement. Reflects on past successes, failures, and alternative strategies.
Applies devised improvements to subsequent projects and activities. Designs continuous improvement processes based on translational research skills to improve patient care. Communicates the product effectively to others. Chooses a communication medium and format that best supports the purposes of the product or performance (e.g., written, verbal, nonverbal, and emerging technology methods) and the intended audience (e.g., peers, work groups, patients). Communicates clearly and succinctly in research, a style that supports the purposes of the intended audience.
Employs principles of design in the visual display of information and data. Uses information and communication technologies to advance patient education, enhance accessibility of care, analyze practice patterns, and improve health care outcomes. Articulates to a variety of audiences the evidence base for practice decisions, including the credibility of sources of information and essay the relevance to the practice problem confronted. Contributes to the scholarly conversation, moving it forward by adding individual analysis. Conducts original research to produce information to address identified gaps, and essay break publishes findings. Provides convincing rationale for using evidence-based approaches in clinical decision making, research, healthcare policy, and education. The information literate nurse understands many of the economic, legal, and essay statement social issues surrounding the use of information and accesses and uses information ethically and legally. The information literate nurse: Understands many of the ethical, legal and socio-economic issues surrounding information and information technology.
Identifies and discusses issues related to privacy and security in both print and electronic environments. Identifies and discusses issues related to free vs. Critical Essay Word Count! fee-based access to information. Identifies and discusses issues related to censorship and freedom of speech. Follows HIPAA guidelines to ensure protection of health care information. Does not allow personal bias to influence acquisition or communication of health information.
Uses books, articles, media and images for written or oral presentations within the scope of statement, fair use or the permission of the owner, demonstrating understanding of intellectual property, copyright, and fair use of copyrighted material. Follows laws, regulations, institutional policies, and etiquette related to compare and contrase essay the access and use of information resources. Uses formal conventions when engaged in electronic communication. (Includes a greeting, content written in statement, full sentences, and suitable to a business environment.) Complies with institutional policies on compare essay access to information resources. Recognizes the complexities of accessing full text and the various publishing models. Reads and essay on personal statement complies with the academic integrity guidelines of the institution to acknowledgement letter in a research paper which they are affiliated. Complies with and teaches students and peers about concepts of academic integrity and statement plagiarism, and about appropriate behavior online and in the classroom.
Follows copyright restrictions in regard to course reserves and o what is that sound course management environments. Demonstrates understanding of institutional policies related to human subjects research and data storage. Acknowledges the use of statement, information sources in communicating the product or performance. Correctly cites references in required format (APA, MLA) for all works used in a project. Acknowledges permissions of author/creator of textual, visual, or other created material used for a product or presentation. Includes information about attribution in course design.
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6 Famous Symbols That Don#039;t Mean What You Think. Statement. If we've ever made you laugh or think, we now have a way where you can thank and support us! The entire point of using a symbol is that it conveys meaning and saves space -- you see one picture of a stick figure in break a dress and you no longer need the phrase This is the place where female humans can discharge waste. But what is fascinating is that sometimes the meaning of a symbol will get lost to history, but we'll just keep right on using it anyway. But would we do that if we knew . Note: Did you know that Cracked used to statement be a magazine? Of course you didn't, none now live who remember that. And Contrase Essay. But it's true -- that goofy little C you see at essay statement, the top of your tab is a symbol that now means: you are on the internet, reading comedy jokes, for fay thesis, free. But it used to essay on personal mean: you are reading a magazine, and if you don't buy it soon, the guy behind the counter is going to start giving you shit.
See? The world's a madhouse! Constantly changing and defying any hope for any of letter in a research us to understand it! And in this Cracked Classic, it gets even worse! -Cracked. Apart from the cross, the most ubiquitous symbol of Christianity is the ichthys, known to us as the Jesus Fish, and today it appears predominantly in its natural habitat -- car bumpers.
The ichthys actually dates right back to ancient times, when Christianity was still an obscure sect, and considering that fish and fishing were frequently used as symbols in the Bible, you could argue that it's a more appropriate symbol for the teachings of Christ than the device used to torture and essay on personal statement kill him. Seriously, guys? Do you wear tiny rifle necklaces to is that auden essay remember Martin Luther King Jr.? One of the names given to the pre-Jesus Jesus Fish is the vesica pisces (vessel of the fish), and it was used as a symbol of every female fertility god ever, from Atargatis (the Syrian fertility goddess), Aphrodite/Venus (the goddess of love and sex) to the pagan Great Mother goddess, where it symbolized her life-giving vulva. Basically, whenever you encountered an image of on personal statement fish in essay on christmas the pre-Christian world, it was probably an opposite-of-subtle metaphor for lady parts. New Starbucks Haddockuccino, served in a vulva cup! It's fishlicious! According to some researchers, Christians adopted the vagina-fish symbol simply because of how common it was, but later looked for all sorts of essay statement non-vaginal justifications for it. Even actual Christian scholars admit that their second most popular symbol has a colorful history, just not one you want to answers bring up during a family dinner party. It's one of the most ubiquitous symbols on on personal statement the planet, appearing everywhere from cards to candy to jewelery to bikers' tattoos. The common heart shape is is that sound, such a part of everyday life, in essay statement fact, that it's easy to overlook the fact that it actually looks nothing whatsoever like a heart.
What's with that? My love for you is essay break, like a kidney, in that it filters out the essay on personal, bad stuff, like that time you had sex with that bitch Mandy. Well, there's some pretty convincing evidence that it was never supposed to be a heart in the first place, but rather . A contraceptive from the Roman era. If you trace the heart symbol back as far as you can, you wind up finding it on old Roman coins, like this one: So yeah. Hallmark cards and industrial-scale slavery have the same origin. Compare And Contrase. But that's not supposed to essay statement be someone's cardiac muscle. That's the seedpod of the critical word count, silphium plant, a herb so prized for its birth control capabilities that the Romans literally fucked it to extinction . But while it existed, depictions of its seeds were widespread across the Roman Empire, to the point where it appeared on their money. To get a proper grasp of essay how much the Romans liked to essay hide the sausage, imagine if the on personal statement, Founding Fathers had printed a picture of a condom on the dollar bill. The conspiracy theories would be a lot more entertaining. On Christmas Break. Historians aren't absolutely certain that this was the origin of the symbol we use today, rather than some crazy coincidence, but it beats our best alternative theory, which is Damned if we know.
If true, then the universal symbol for love began as the statement, universal symbol for hard dicking, which kind of makes your Mother's Day card a little awkward. We can still trump that, though. See, the Romans did liken the shape of the higher essay count, silphium plant to on personal statement a bodily organ, but it wasn't the heart. To see the original design, you have to flip the higher word count, image upside-down. And imagine it dangling above your face after getting ganked in, oh, any shooter ever. That's right. The box of candies you bought your girlfriend for Valentine's Day is actually a bunch of multicolored, dangling nutsacks. The peace sign remains one of the most powerful and essay inspiring symbols on the planet, despite its long association with hippies. Maybe it's the simple geometric shapes that speak to war the bradshaw fay thesis answers some primal part of our brains, but looking at it, you do feel this sort of essay on personal grandiosity, hope and conviction from it.
Unfortunately, all of essay break that's basically the statement, polar opposite of what the symbol's creator had in mind. It was actually supposed to be a picture of a cherry pie. I just suck at is that auden, drawing. Originally, it was an image of a dude slumped over in despair. Gerald Holtom, a British graphic designer, came up with the peace sign design in 1958 to be used at a protest against nuclear weapons.
It's actually a kind of double entendre: People have adopted one interpretation of the symbol, two superimposed semaphore letters -- N and D -- which were meant to stand for nuclear disarmament. Either that or nonstop dancing. On Personal. But what we've forgotten was the primary image that Holtom was trying to portray: In his own words, his logo was meant to be a human being in despair. The inspirational peace sign is in actuality a representation of compare essay a man who has lost hope in a world gone mad, stretching his arms out and downward in desperation and defeat. Oh yeah, we see it. Holtom immediately regretted his depressing-as-hell image after it went mainstream and tried to change it by flipping it upside-down so that the arms were stretched up into the air. Essay. He could even have kept his semaphore imagery, because the V-shape in semaphore is a U, for unilateral.
But the alternative version failed to catch on. Instead, a depressed and defeated stick man became the inspirational symbol for every progressive movement of the late 20th century, from Vietnam to civil rights. We can suppose it wouldn't have caught on so well if he had gone with his alternative design of a stick man quietly slashing his own wrists. Next on Scooby-Doo -- the mystery of letter research why no one understands our pain. Essay On Personal Statement. There is something inherently wholesome about the classic red-and-white barber pole, isn't there? It evokes images of small town main street, mom and pop stores and barbershops run by a friendly guy in compare and contrase essay a white coat. But that pole was never the essay on personal statement, symbol of a single franchise or anything -- all barbers had it. Why that and not, say, a simple symbol of a pair of scissors or something? What the hell is that thing supposed to be?
It's a dick, isn't it? It's always a dick. It's a blood-soaked bandage. The barber pole first emerged during the Middle Ages as a sign used by barber-surgeons. Yes, you read that correctly -- back then, doctors considered themselves much too classy to the great war the sidney fay thesis participate in anything so vulgar as slicing people open, so the task fell upon essay on personal statement, barbers, whose job descriptions were considerably broader than they are today. Sidney Bradshaw. Back then, barbers did all the usual barber stuff like cutting hair and trimming beards, but if you had the essay, cash, they were also happy to pull teeth and essay on christmas break remove gallstones. Don't worry, I anesthetize first -- with some cheap gin and a funnel. The most common surgical procedure of the time was bloodletting -- literally, the belief that you could just bleed a disease out of essay statement you.
To do this, the patient would grasp a bandaged pole, and the barber would cut into the patient's wrists, letting the blood run down the bandage, along with all the bad spirits and gypsy curses that they figured were the reasons for disease back then. And that's what the pole represented. Hey, Joe. I'll have a shave and war the sidney answers a cataract surgery, please. It's a little harder to explain, however, why barbers would openly advertise that one part of their job that involved stealing other people's blood in the first place. On Personal. It says something about the era that they didn't feel the need to dress it up, the way modern toilet paper ads won't show people pooping.
No pics of essay break smiling customers or happy slogans, just Come on on personal statement in, you're gonna bleed all over acknowledgement letter in a paper the damned place. OK, so I murder people and cook them into pies. On Personal. No one bothered to compare essay train me otherwise. You've probably never questioned the logic that says a severed rabbit's foot brings good luck. Open that can of worms, and you have to start asking questions about all the walking under ladders and breaking mirrors stuff -- why would we expect any of it to not be insane? Well, as it turns out, the story of the rabbit's foot is on personal statement, even creepier than the idea of dismembering animals for sidney bradshaw answers, luck. These are the feet of essay on personal statement a millionaire. The rabbit's foot was thought to actually be the foot of a witch. In the acknowledgement letter in a paper, United States, the on personal, symbolism of the rabbit's foot most likely came from American hoodoo folk magic.
They believed that rabbits were frequently witches in disguise (how else could they be so good at fucking?), so cutting a rabbit's foot off meant, to them, getting a hold of part of a witch to wear around their neck. Back then, they weren't terribly big on witches' rights. I can't have sex with all the menfolk in the village? I'm sorry, I thought I was in and contrase AMERICA. Statement. The earliest references to the rabbit's foot legend detail the numerous ways in which you can maximize the evil power of the foot before you chop it off. Apparently, it's best if the rabbit is killed on a Friday, especially a rainy Friday, in a cemetery, by and contrase an African-American. Of course, they didn't use the term African-American back then, but you get the picture. They called him Paul, the weird rabbit guy. But how exactly did the rabbit's foot go from being an statement, implement of acknowledgement letter research evil black magic to something sold to tourists at souvenir stands? Just like a lot of edgy things that go mainstream, it simply got watered down. Essay Statement. People forgot about the whole evil charm thing and sidney just remembered the essay statement, rabbit's foot as a vaguely magical talisman.
On the upside, witches are relatively safer now. Rabbits, not so much. Sidney Fay Thesis. Each late December, people around the world decorate their houses with the mistletoe plant and kiss underneath it because, for some of us, a bizarre holiday tradition is the only way we're going to on personal get any action. Break. Apart from that, we don't really question how the tradition came about. If you did know, you probably wouldn't be in statement the mood for the great war the bradshaw fay thesis, kissing so much as clutching at essay on personal statement, your groin. A symbol of ritual castration.
Caused by kissing Christie at the office party after she's rebuffed you four times already. Just like that kid in school your parents got nervous talking about, the mistletoe actually has two daddies. One of them is the Viking god Baldur, who, according to on christmas break Nordic myths, was killed by an arrow made of mistletoe. Thankfully, Baldur was later brought back to life and decided to reform the mistletoe, making it a plant of life instead of death . as long as it never touched the ground. That's why we now kiss under hanging mistletoe -- to keep it above ground and symbolize that everything is cool, man . no need to murder everyone . we're all friends here, OK? Come and rest your pert buttocks upon my chin. But the other side of the mistletoe tradition is essay, all about balls. The sticky juice from mistletoe berries apparently quite resembles sperm, and in letter research fact was sometimes referred to as oak sperm. We bring it up not because we know some of you are eating right now, but because it explains why Celtic druids worshiped the mistletoe. Essay On Personal. Well, worship is one word for sidney answers, what they did. As we've mentioned, ancient cultures generally had a tendency to on personal revere anything vaguely genitalia related, and so, combined with the fact that mistletoe grew on sacred oaks, the druids eventually came to essay the perfectly logical conclusion that the mistletoe must also be sacred.
Sacred oak testicles , that is. Essay Statement. If there's one thing you should take away from animal farm knowledge essay this article, it's that everything is balls. Cutting off the mistletoe was thus something akin to ritual castration of the oak god. The plant would then be hanged inside the house to harness its magical testicle powers that apparently brought you good luck instead of the wrath of high-pitch-voiced deities. So go forth and spread your seed, we guess. Cezary Jan Strusiewicz is a freelance English-Japanese-Polish translator, tour guide and writer. Statement. Contact him at break, firstname.lastname@example.org . Essay On Personal. And stop by LinkSTORM because the weekend never ends on the Internet.
And don't forget to follow us on Facebook and Twitter to get sexy, sexy jokes sent straight to o what is that auden essay your news feed. Do you have an idea in mind that would make a great article? Then sign up for our writers workshop! Do you possess expert skills in image creation and manipulation? Mediocre? Even rudimentary? Are you frightened by statement MS Paint and simply have a funny idea? You can create an compare essay, infographic and you could be on the front page of Cracked.com tomorrow! If we've ever made you laugh or think, we now have a way where you can thank and support us! 14 Modern Dangers Hidden In The Last Place You#039;d Look. Essay Statement. ‘Rules’ That Make No Sense, But Everyone Follows Anyway. 11 Charts To Help You Understand The People Around You.
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essay collage art The quintessential essay on Cubism and probably the most important single essay about 20th Century painting. Pablo Picasso, Still Life with Piano , 1911. C OLLAGE WAS A major turning point in the evolution of Cubism, and essay, therefore a major turning point in the whole evolution of modernist art in this century. English. Who invented collage--Braque or Picasso--and when is still not settled. Both artists left most of the work they did between I907 and 1914 undated as well as unsigned; and each claims, or implies the claim, that his was the first collage of all. That Picasso dates his, in retrospect, almost a year earlier than Braque's com-pounds the difficulty. Nor does the internal or stylistic evidence help enough, given that the interpretation of Cubism is still on a rudimentary level. The question of priority is much less important, however, than that of the motives which first induced either artist to on personal statement paste or glue a piece of compare and contrase essay extraneous material to the surface of a picture. About this, neither Braque nor Picasso has made him-self at on personal all clear. The writers who have tried to explain their intentions for them speak, with a unanimity that is suspect in higher itself, of the need for renewed contact with reality in face of the essay growing abstractness of Analytical Cubism.
But the term reality, always ambiguous when used in connection with art, has never been used more ambiguously than here. A piece of imitation-woodgrain wallpaper is not more real under any definition, or closer to nature, than a painted simulation of it; nor is wallpaper, oilcloth, newspaper or wood more real, or closer to nature, than paint on canvas. And even if these materials were more real, the question would still be begged, for reality would still explain next to nothing about the actual appearance of the Cubist collage. There is no question but that Braque and research, Picasso were concerned, in their Cubism, with holding on to painting as an art of on personal statement representation and illusion. Is Power Essay. But at essay on personal statement first they were more crucially concerned, in and through their Cubism, with obtaining sculptural results by strictly nonsculptural means; that is, with finding for every aspect of three-dimensional vision an explicitly two-dimensional equivalent, regardless of how much verisimilitude might suffer in the process. Painting had to spell out, rather than pretend to deny, the physical fact that it was flat, even though at the same time it had to overcome this proclaimed flatness as an aesthetic fact and continue to in a research report nature. Neither Braque nor Picasso set himself this program in advance. It emerged, rather, as something implicit and inevitable in the course of their joint effort to fill out that vision of a purer pictorial art which they had glimpsed in Cézanne, from statement whom they also took their means.
These means, as well as the vision, imposed their logic; and sound auden, the direction of that logic became completely clear in 191 I, the fourth year of Picasso's and Braque's Cubism, along with certain contradictions latent in the Cézannian vision itself. By that time, flatness had not only invaded but was threatening to swamp the Cubist picture. The little facet-planes into which Braque and essay on personal statement, Picasso were dissecting everything visible now all lay parallel to the picture plane. They were no longer controlled, either in drawing or in break placing, by linear or even scalar perspective. Each facet tended to essay on personal statement be shaded, moreover, as an independent unit, with no legato passages, no unbroken tracts of break value gradation on its open side, to join it to adjacent facet-planes. At the same time, shading had itself been atomized into on personal flecks of light and dark that could no longer be concentrated upon the edges of shapes with enough modeling force to turn these convincingly into depth. Light and war the answers, dark in essay statement general had begun to act more immediately as cadences of and contrase essay design than as plastic description or definition.
The main problem at this juncture became to keep the statement inside of the picture--its content--from fusing with the outside--its literal surface. Depicted flatness--that is, the facet-planes--had to be kept separate enough from english critical essay word literal flatness to permit a minimal illusion of three-dimensional space to survive between the two. Braque had already been made uncomfortable by the contraction of illusioned space in on personal his pictures of 1910. The expedient he had then hit upon was to farm knowledge is power insert a conventional, trompe-l'oeil suggestion of deep space on top of Cubist flatness, between the depicted planes and the spectator's eye. Essay Statement. The very un-Cubist graphic tack-with-a-cast-shadow, shown transfixing the top of a 1910 painting, Still Life with Violin and compare and contrase essay, Pitcher , suggests deep space in essay on personal a token way, and destroys the surface in a token way. War The Answers. The Cubist forms are converted into the illusion of a picture within a picture. In the Man with a Guitar of early 1911 (in the Museum of Modern Art), the line-drawn tassel-and-stud in the upper left margin is a similar token. The effect, as distinct from the signification, is in both cases very discreet and inconspicuous.
Plastically, spatially, neither the tack nor the tassel-and-stud acts upon the picture; each suggests illusion without making it really present. Georges Braque, Man with a Guitar , 1911. Early in on personal statement 1911, Braque was already casting around for ways of reinforcing, or rather supplementing, this suggestion, but still without introducing anything that would become more than a token. Bradshaw Answers. It was then, apparently, that he discovered that trompe-l'oeil could be used to undeceive as well as to on personal statement deceive the eye. It could be used, that is, to declare as well as to deny the actual surface.
If the actuality of the surface--its real, physical flatness--could be indicated explicitly enough in certain places, it would be distinguished and separated from everything else the surface contained. Break. Once the literal nature of the support was advertised, whatever upon it was not intended literally would be set off and essay on personal, enhanced in its nonliteralness. Or to put it in still another way: depicted flatness would inhabit at least the o what sound auden essay semblance of a semblance of three-dimensional-space as long as the brute, undepicted flatness of the literal surface was pointed to as being still flatter. The first and, until the advent of pasted paper, the on personal most important device that Braque discovered for indicating and separating the surface was imitation printing, which automatically evokes a literal flatness. Block letters are seen in one of his 1910 paintings, The Match Holder ; but being done rather sketchily, and slanting into depth along with the depicted surface that bears them, they merely allude to, rather than state, the literal surface. Only in the next year are block capitals, along with lower-case letters and higher, numerals, introduced in exact simulation of printing and stenciling, in absolute frontality and outside the rcpresentational context of the picture. On Personal. Wherever this printing appears, it stops the eye at and contrase essay the literal plane, just as the artist's signature would. By force of contrast alone--for wherever the literal surface is not explicitly stated, it seems implicitly denied--everything else is thrust back into at on personal statement least a memory of deep or plastic space. It is the old device of the repoussoir, but taken a step further: instead of being used to push an illusioned middleground farther away from an illusioned foreground, the imitation printing spells out the real paint surface and thereby pries it away from the illusion of depth. The eye-undeceiving trompe-l'oeil of simulated typography supplements, rather than replaces, the conventional eye-deceiving kind.
Another literally and graphically rendered tassel-and-stud imbeds flattened forms in knowledge is power essay token depth in Braque's Portuguese (1911), but this time the brute reality of the surface, as asserted by stenciled letters and on personal statement, numerals, closes over both the essay token illusion of depth and the Cubist configurations like the lid on a box. Sealed between two parallel flatnesses--the depicted Cubist flatness and the literal flatness of the paint surface--the illusion is made a little more present but, at the same time, even more ambiguous. As one looks, the stenciled letters and numerals change places in depth with the tassel-and-stud, and the physical surface itself becomes part of the essay statement illusion for an instant: it seems pulled back into depth along with the stenciling, so that once again the and contrase picture plane seems to be annihilated--but only for the fraction of another instant. Essay. The abiding effect is of a constant shuttling between surface and depth, in which the depicted flatness is infected by the undepicted. Rather than being deceived, the eye is puzzled; instead of seeing objects in space, it sees nothing more than--a picture. Through 1911 and break, 1912, as the essay on personal statement Cubist facet-plane's tendency to adhere to the literal surface became harder and harder to the great bradshaw fay thesis answers deny, the task of keeping the essay on personal statement surface at arm's length fell all the more to eye-undeceiving contrivances. To reinforce, and acknowledgement in a research, sometimes to replace, the simulated typography, Braque and essay on personal, Picasso began to compare and contrase mix sand and other foreign substances with their paint; the granular texture thus created likewise called attention to on personal statement the reality of the surface and was effective over much larger areas. In certain other pictures, however, Braque began to paint areas in exact simulation of wood graining or marbleizing. These areas by virtue of their abrupt density of pattern, stated the literal surface with such new and superior force that the resulting contrast drove the simulated printing into a depth from the great war the sidney fay thesis which it could be rescued--and set to shuttling again--only by conventional perspective; that is, by being placed in such relation to the forms depicted within the illusion that these forms left no room for the typography except near the surface.
The accumulation of such devices, however, soon had the effect of statement telescoping, even while separating, surface and depth. The process of flattening seemed inexorable, and it became necessary to emphasize the surface still further in order to prevent it from fusing with the illusion. It was for this reason, and no other that I can see, that in September 1912, Braque took the radical and revolutionary step of pasting actual pieces of animal farm knowledge is power imitation-woodgrain wallpaper to a drawing on paper, instead of trying to simulate its texture in paint. Picasso says that he himself had already made his first collage toward the end of 1911, when he glued a piece of imitation-caning oilcloth to a painting on canvas. It is true that his first collage looks more Analytical than Braque's, which would confirm the essay statement date he assigns it.
But it is also true that Braque was the animal knowledge essay consistent pioneer in the use of simulated textures as well as of typography; and moreover, he had already begun to broaden and simplify the facet-planes of Analytical Cubism as far back as the end of 1910. Pablo Picasso, Man in Hat , Charcoal and collage, 1912. When we examine what each master says was his first collage we see that much the same thing happens in each. (It makes no real difference that Braque's collage is on paper and eked out in charcoal, while Picasso's is on canvas and eked out in oil.) By its greater corporeal presence and its greater extraneousness, the affixed paper or cloth serves for a seeming moment to push everything else into a more vivid idea of depth than the simulated printing or simulated textures had ever done. But here again, the surface-declaring device both overshoots and falls short of its aim. For the illusion of depth created by the contrast between the affixed material and everything else gives way immediately to an illusion of forms in essay statement bas-relief, which gives way in turn, and the great war the sidney bradshaw, with equal immediacy, to an illusion that seems to on personal statement contain both--or neither. Because of the size of the areas it covers, the pasted paper establishes undepicted flatness bodily, as more than an indication or sign. Literal flatness now tends to assert itself as the main event of the picture, and fay thesis answers, the device boomerangs: the illusion of essay statement depth is rendered even more precarious than before.
Instead of isolating the literal flatness by specifying and circumscribing it, the pasted paper or cloth releases and spreads it, and the artist seems to have nothing left but this undepicted flatness with which to essay finish as well as start his picture. On Personal Statement. The actual surface becomes both ground and background, and and contrase essay, it turns out--suddenly and paradoxically--that the only place left for a three-dimensional illusion is in on personal statement front of, upon, the surface. In their very first collages, Braque and Picasso draw or paint over and on the affixed paper or cloth, so that certain of the principal features of their subjects as depicted seem to thrust out into real, bas-relief space--or to be about to do so--while the rest of the subject remains imbedded in, or flat upon, the surface. And the surface is driven back, in its very surfaceness, only by this contrast. In the upper center of Braque's first collage, Fruit Dish (in Douglas Cooper's collection), a bunch of grapes is and contrase, rendered with such conventionally vivid sculptural effect as to lift it practically off the picture plane. The trompe-l'oeil illusion here is no longer enclosed between parallel flatnesses, but seems to thrust through the essay on personal statement surface of the essay drawing paper and essay on personal statement, establish depth on top of war the sidney it. Yet the violent immediacy of the wallpaper strips pasted to the paper, and the only lesser immediacy of block capitals that simulate window lettering, manage somehow to push the grape cluster back into place on the picture plane so that it does not jump. At the essay on personal same time, the wallpaper strips themselves seem to be pushed into knowledge is power depth by the lines and patches of shading charcoaled upon essay statement, them, and by their placing in relation to the block capitals; and these capitals seem in turn to be pushed back by their placing, and by contrast with the corporeality of the woodgraining. On Christmas. Thus every part and plane of the picture keeps changing place in relative depth with every other part and plane; and it is as if the only stable relation left among the different parts of the picture is the ambivalent and ambiguous one that each has with the surface. And the same thing, more or less, can be said of the contents of Picasso's first collage.
In later collages of both masters, a variety of extraneous materials are used, sometimes in the same work, and almost always in conjunction with every other eye-deceiving and eye-undeceiving device they can think of. The area adjacent to one edge of a piece of affixed material--or simply of a painted in form--will be shaded to pry that edge away from the surface, while something will be drawn, painted or even pasted over essay on personal another part of the same shape to animal farm knowledge is power drive it back into depth. Planes defined as parallel to the surface also cut through it into essay real space, and a depth is the great war the fay thesis, suggested optically which is greater than that established pictorially. All this expands the oscillation between surface and depth so as to on personal statement encompass fictive space in front of the surface as well as behind it. Flatness may now monopolize everything, but it is a flatness become so ambiguous and expanded as to turn into illusion itself--at least an optical if not, properly speaking, a pictorial illusion. Depicted, Cubist flatness is now almost completely assimilated to higher english critical word count the literal, undepicted kind, but at on personal the same time it reacts upon and largely transforms the undepicted kind--and it does so, moreover, without depriving the latter of its literalness; rather, it underpins and reinforces that literalness, recreates it. Out of this re-created literalness, the Cubist subject re-emerged. For it had turned out, by a further paradox of compare Cubism, that the means to essay an illusion of depth and plasticity had now become widely divergent from the means of representation or imaging. In the Analytical phase of their Cubism, Braque and Picasso had not only had to minimize three-dimensionality simply in order to preserve it; they had also had to english critical word count generalize it--to the point, finally, where the illusion of depth and relief became abstracted from specific three-dimensional entities and was rendered largely as the illusion of depth and relief as such: as a disembodied attribute and expropriated property detached from everything not itself. In order to be saved, plasticity had had to be isolated; and as the aspect of the subject was transposed into those clusters of more or less interchangeable and essay on personal statement, contour--obliterating facet-planes by farm knowledge is power, which plasticity was isolated under the Cubist method, the essay on personal statement subject itself became largely unrecognizable. Compare And Contrase. Cubism, in its 1911-1912 phase (which the French, with justice, call hermetic) was on the verge of abstract art.
It was then that Picasso and Braque were confronted with a unique dilemma: they had to choose between illusion and representation. Essay On Personal Statement. If they opted for illusion, it could only be illusion per se--an illusion of depth, and of relief, so general and abstracted as to exclude the war the sidney representation of individual objects. If, on essay on personal statement, the other hand, they opted for representation, it had to farm is power essay be representation per se --representation as image pure and simple, without connotations (at least, without more than schematic ones) of the essay three-dimensional space in which the objects represented originally existed. It was the collage that made the terms of and contrase essay this dilemma clear: the representational could be restored and preserved only on the flat and literal surface now that illusion and representation had become, for the first time, mutually exclusive alternatives. In the essay on personal end, Picasso and Braque plumped for the representational, and essay on christmas, it would seem they did so deliberately. (This provides whatever real justification there is for statement, the talk about reality.) But the animal farm inner, formal logic of Cubism, as it worked itself out through the collage, had just as much to do with shaping their decision. When the smaller facet-planes of Analytical Cubism were placed upon or juxtaposed with the large, dense shapes formed by the affixed materials of the collage, they had to coalesce--become synthesized--into larger planar shapes themselves simply in order to maintain the integrity of the picture plane. Left in their previous atom-like smallness, they would have cut away too abruptly into depth; and the broad, opaque shapes of pasted paper would have been isolated in such a way as to make them jump out of plane. Large planes juxtaposed with other large planes tend to assert themselves as independent shapes, and to the extent that they are flat, they also assert themselves as silhouettes; and on personal, independent silhouettes are apt to coincide with the recognizable contours of the subject from which a picture starts (if it does start from a subject). Essay Break. It was because of this chain-reaction as much as for any other reason--that is, because of the growing independence of the planar unit in essay collage as a shape--that the identity of depicted objects, or at least parts of them, re-emerged in Braque's and Picasso's papiers collés and continued to remain more conspicuous there--but only as flattened silhouettes--than in essay any of their paintings done wholly in oil before the end of 1913. Analytical Cubism came to an end in the collage, but not conclusively; nor did Synthetic Cubism fully begin there. Essay Statement. Only when the collage had been exhaustively translated into sound essay oil, and transformed by this translation, did Cubism become an affair of positive color and flat, interlocking silhouettes whose legibility and statement, placement created allusions to, if not the illusion of, unmistakable three-dimensional identities.
Synthetic Cubism began with Picasso alone, late in 1913 or early in 1914; this was the point at word count which he finally took the lead in Cubist innovation away from Braque, never again to relinquish it. But even before that, Picasso had glimpsed and entered, for a moment, a certain revolutionary path in which no one had preceded him. Statement. It was as though, in that instant, he had felt the flatness of collage as too constricting and had suddenly tried to escape all the way back--or forward--to literal three-dimensionality. This he did by using utterly literal means to carry the and contrase essay forward push of the collage (and of Cubism in general) literally into the literal space in front of the picture plane. Some time in 1912, Picasso cut out and folded a piece of paper in the shape of a guitar; to this he glued and fitted other pieces of paper and four taut strings, thus creating a sequence of flat surfaces in real and sculptural space to which there clung only the vestige of essay on personal a picture plane.
The affixed elements of collage were extruded, as it were, and acknowledgement, cut off from the literal pictorial surface to statement form a bas-relief. By this act he founded a new tradition and genre of sculpture, the one that came to be called construction. Though construction, sculpture was freed long ago from on christmas strict bas-relief frontality, it has continued to be marked by its pictorial origins, so that the essay sculptor-constructor Gonzalez, Picasso's friend, could refer to it as the new art of paper drawing in essay on personal space--that is, of manipulating two-dimensional forms in three-dimensional space. Essay Break. (Not only did Picasso found this new art with his paper guitar of 1912, but he went on, some years afterwards, to make some of the strongest as well as most germinative contributions to it.) Neither Picasso nor Braque ever really returned to collage after 1914. The others who have taken it up have exploited it largely for its shock value, which collage had only incidentally--or even only accidentally--in the statement hands of its originators. There have been a few exceptions: Gris notably, but also Arp, Schwitters, Miro, E. L. T. Mesens, Dubuffet and, in this country, Robert Motherwell and Anne Ryan. In this context, Gris's example remains the most interesting and most instructive. Braque and Picasso had obtained a new, self-transcending kind of decoration by reconstructing the picture surface with what had once been the means of its denial. Starting from illusion, they had arrived at a transfigured, almost abstract kind of literalness. With Gris it was the opposite.
As he himself explained, he started out with abstract flat shapes, to which he then fitted recognizable images and higher count, emblems of three-dimensionality. And whereas Braque's and Picasso's subjects were dissected in essay on personal statement three dimensions in higher english critical essay word the course of being transposed into two, Gris's first Cubist subjects tended--even before they were fitted into the picture, and as if preformed by its surface--to be analyzed in two-dimensional and purely decorative rhythms. It was only later that he became more aware of the fact that Cubism was not a question of statement decorative overlay and that the resonance of is that auden its surfaces derived from an abiding concern with plasticity and essay statement, illusion which informed the very renunciation of plasticity and illusion. In his collages almost more than anywhere else, we see Gris trying to solve the problems proposed by this fuller awareness. But his collages also show the extent to which his awareness remained incomplete. Because he continued to take the picture plane as given and therefore not needing to be re-created, Gris became perhaps too solicitous about the illusion. He used pasted paper and trompe-l'oeil textures and farm knowledge is power essay, lettering to assert flatness, but he almost always completely sealed the flatness inside an illusion of conventional depth by allowing images rendered with relatively sculptural vividness to occupy, unambiguously, too much of both the nearest and farthest planes. Because he shaded and modeled more abundantly and tended to statement use more explicit color under his shading, Gris's collages seldom declare their surfaces as forthrightly as Picasso's and Braque's collages do. Their total presence is thus less immediate and is that essay, has something about on personal statement, it of the removedness, the closed-off presence, of the the great war the traditional picture. And yet, because their decorative elements function to a greater extent solely as decoration, Gris's collages also seem more conventionally decorative.
Instead of the seamless fusion of the decorative with the plastic that we get in Picasso and Braque, there is an alternation, a collocation, a mere juxtaposition of the two; and essay on personal, whenever this relation goes beyond juxtaposition, it leads more often to confusion than to on christmas fusion. Gris's collages have their merits, but only a few of essay statement them deserve the unqualified praise they have received. Juan Gris, Le Journal, 1916. But many of Gris's oils of 1915-1918 do deserve their praise. Compare And Contrase. In all Justice, it should be pointed out that his paintings of those years demonstrate, perhaps more clearly than anything by Braque or Picasso, something which is of the highest importance to Cubism and to the collage's effect upon it: namely, the liquidation of sculptural shading. In Braque's and Picasso's very first papiers collés , shading stops being pointillist and suddenly becomes broad and incisive again, like the shapes it modifies. This change in shading also accounts for the bas-relief effects, or the velleities to bas-relief, of the first collages. But large patches of shading on a densely or emphatically patterned ground, such as woodgrain or newsprint, tend to take off on their own when their relation to the model in nature is not self-evident, just the way large planes do under the same circumstances. They abandon their sculptural function and essay, become independent shapes constituted by blackness or grayness alone. Not only did this fact contribute further to the ambiguity of the critical essay collage's surface; it also served further to reduce shading to a mere component of surface design and color scheme.
When shading becomes that, all other colors become more purely color. It was in this way that positive color re-emerged in the collage--recapitulating, curiously enough, the way pure color had emerged in the first place for Manet and the Impressionists. In Analytical Cubism, shading as shading had been divorced from specific shapes while retaining in principle the capacity to inflect generalized surfaces into depth. In collage, shading, though restored to specific shapes or silhouettes, lost its power to act as modeling because it became a specific shape in itself. This is how and why shading, as a means to illusion, disappeared from the statement collages of Braque and Picasso, and from their Cubism, never really to reappear. Is That Essay. But it was left to Gris, in his pictures of 1915-1918, to elucidate this process and its consequences for all to see--and, in doing so, to produce, finally, triumphant art. Gris's Cubism in on personal statement this period--which is almost as much Analytical as it is is power essay, Synthetic--separated, fixed and immobilized, in oil on wood or canvas, some of the over-lapping stages of the transformation that Cubism had already undergone in Braque's and Picasso's glued and pasted pictures. The cleanly and simply contoured solid black shapes on which Gris relied so much in these paintings represent fossilized shadows and fossilized patches of shading. All the on personal statement value gradations are summed up in a single, ultimate value of flat, opaque black--a black that becomes a color as sonorous and pure as any spectrum color and that confers upon the silhouettes it fills an even greater weight than is possessed by the lighter-hued forms which these silhouettes are supposed to shade.
In this phase alone does Gris's art, in my opinion, sustain the main tenor of Cubism. Letter. Here, at last, his practice is on personal, so completely informed by a definite and steady vision that the acknowledgement letter research details of execution take care of themselves. And here, at last, the decorative is transcended and transfigured, as it had already been in Picasso's, Braque's and Léger's art, in essay on personal statement a monumental unity. This monumentality has little to do with size. (Early and late, and whether in Picasso's hands or Braque's, Cubism has never lent itself with entire success to an outsize format. Even Léger's rather splendid big pictures of the late 1910S and early I920S do not quite match the perfection of his smaller scale Cubism of on christmas 1910-1914.) The monumentality of Cubism in on personal statement the hands of its masters is more a question of essay on christmas break a vision and attitude--an attitude toward the immediate physical means of pictorial art--thanks to which easel paintings and even sketches acquire the self-evident self-sufficiency of architecture. This is as true of the Cubist collage as of anything else in Cubism, and perhaps it is even truer of the collage than of on personal statement anything else in Cubism.
-- Art and Culture , substantially revised from an article in animal farm knowledge essay Art News , September, 1958.