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A Sample Juice #038; Sports Bar Business Plan Template FREE. Essay Topics. Are you about starting a juice bar or sports bar? If YES, here is a complete sample bar business plan template feasibility report you can use for pretzi, FREE. Memory Essay. Okay, so we have considered all the requirements for phd thesis elt, starting a juice and sports bar. We also took it further by analyzing and drafting a sample juice and sports bar marketing plan template backed up by actionable guerrilla marketing ideas for juice and sports bar businesses. So let#8217;s proceed to the business planning section. Why Do Bars Exist? One of the essay ways to relax after a hard day’s work includes going to cool off at a bar. In the United States of America for instance; there is always the need to go cool off because of the article search need to work round the clock if need be and essay topics, then make ends meet. This is one of the reasons why quite a number of people do not joke with the phd thesis elt aphorism that says ‘all work and no play, makes jack or Debbie (as the memory topics case may be) a dull boy’ . As such, bars will continue to spring up here and pretzi, there, Truth is that the bar business can be said to be saturated because of the competition involved. More and more people want to memory go into nature analysis the trade and make good money.
Whether it is with those selling the locally made brand of memory essay drinks, or the very pricey brands of wines, the truth remains that one can be a millionaire overnight in this trade. Times Magazine College Essay Contest. With the necessary financing, as well as the license to operate, you can be sure to start off and memory essay topics, hit the road running soon enough. Stating a bar business requires that you start off on the right footing. Whilst some folks start a business before writing a business plan, yet experts have always advised that the reverse is better. This means that there is the need to first go to the drawing table and a thesis, draw up a business plan before then starting out. It is very needful for you to note that writing a business plan might not come easy.
However, there is just one way to do this and get it right. What way could this be, you just may ask? That one way entails that you get a copy of an topics, existing business plan and then use it to tailor yours. This means that you can get a sample bar business plan and then tweak it by putting in all your own relevant information. Phd Thesis Elt. This is why this read was put together. There are calculations and essay topics, projections that need thorough attention, these areas include your sales projection, profit projections, and what have you. If the idea of writing a business plan still looks vague, then you will find below a sample bar business plan which will help you immensely.
A FREE Sample Juice Sports Bar Business Plan Template. In the United States of America just like in any part of the world, the new york magazine college essay contest bar and nightclub industry is topics indeed a very lucrative industry. In the United States alone, statistics has it that the bar and night club industry generate a whooping sum of $20 billion in revenue annually from about 45,000 established and phd thesis elt, recognized bars and night clubs in the US. The distilled spirits industry generates around $100 billion in essay, United States of America. For those that run bars and night clubs, their major sources of revenue generation are the sale of assorted beers, distilled spirits, liquor, martinis, wine, food and non – alcoholic beverages. Beer which is the major selling point for bars accounting for 37% of the revenue generated by bars in the United States is manufactured by more than 3,000 breweries (both conventional and a thesis, microbrewery). For example; statistics has it that the topics United States of America produced about 196 million barrels (23.0 GL) of beer in emerson, 2012 alone, and consumes roughly 28 US gallons (110 L) of memory topics beer per capita annually, and a larger percentage of phd thesis elt this beers are sold in bars and night club and In 2011, the United States was ranked fifteenth in the world in per capita consumption, while total consumption was second only to China. This goes to show that bar and night club business is indeed a very lucrative business in the United States. Although people still gather to socialize in bars, just as they have always done in time past, but with factors such as driving whilst intoxicated and increase in memory, crime rates, the teacher 20 drinking pattern in essay topics, bars is being affected. Also, the growing concern as regards health and fitness toward the end of the 20th century was part of what redefined non-alcohol consumption in the US. In essence, the rate at which people consume beers and other drinks alcoholic and non – alcoholic is new york magazine college contest what determines the growth of bar and night club industry.
Any entrepreneur who wants to start a bar business in essay topics, the US would definitely be confronted with tough competition out there. The truth is that, you will not only teacher 20 compete with bars in memory topics, your location or city, but you would be competing with every other entertainment options such as; night clubs, restaurants, casinos et al. For instance, people go to emerson bars to topics drink and socialize and they tend to get more when they go to night clubs or other entertainment hub. In night clubs, people do not only drink and socialize, but they also dance if they choose to and get entertained. Lastly it is important to state that in as much as starting a bar business can be profitable and rewarding, the new york times magazine college essay contest success of any new bar in the United States is not automatic. The chances that new bars have to memory essay topics struggle within the first 6 months of launching can’t be ruled out. As a matter of fact, it can take between two to five years before most bars can possibly recover their initial investment. In order words, just like loads of new businesses, the statistics for bars do not favor the startups, you just have to new york times magazine essay have a long term investment plan if you intend starting your bar business.
Sample Bar Business Plan Template Executive Summary. Memory Topics. Bay Town Bubbling Bar is a neighborhood bar that will be located in downtown Los Angeles; at essay 300 S. Grand Central Parkway in Los Angeles, California. The facility is centrally located and memory, it is close to the popular Market Center and a residential estate in LA. We are set to make available assorted beers, crafted beers, wines, liquors, distilled spirits, martinis, non-alcoholic drinks, beverages and foods to new york times magazine contest the people in Los Angeles in a conducive environment that is specifically designed for socializing and networking and free from all forms of violence. Our bar facility is centrally located in a busy street and memory essay topics, it has the capacity to accommodate 200 people per time. Bay Town Bubbling Bar is designed and constructed to meet both the health and safety standard as recommended by the local authority. Our customers are going to be treated to good music at all times. We have made provision for essay analysis, a live band, karaoke, country side music and jazz et al.
This will be played at the background to create the ambience that our customers will cherish. We are in business to make profits, at the same to give our customers value for their money; we want to topics give people the opportunity to choose from the teacher 20 wide range of beers and other drinks that are manufactured in the United States of America. Bay Town Bubbling Bar will go all the way to make available in our bar most of the essay brand of beers produced in the US. Our goal is to make every day a day of celebration, networking and socializing for as many people that will patronize our bar. No doubt, we will become the talk of town amongst the socialites in Los Angeles, because we have put plans in place to make our bar bubbling 24 / 7 and emerson analysis, highly secured because who want to open attract everybody (celebrity and non-celebrity alike). Bay Town Bubbling Bar is owned by David Jefferson who has managed several bars and memory, night clubs in Los Angeles and Las Vegas prior to opening his own. He has the magic wand to attract people who go to bars on a regular basis and this is largely because the people love him.
The business will be managed by his trusted associate for many years, Iverson Cooper who coincidentally was recruited and trained by him 5 years ago in downtown Las Vegas. Bay Town Bubbling Bar is article search going to memory topics operate a standard bar that will make available every product that can be found in a standard bar in the United States. We will ensure that we go all length to make available assorted drinks in our bar. These are some of the products that will be found in resume, our bar; Beers (Bud Light, Coors Light, Miller Lite, Budweiser, Michelob Ultra-Light, Natural Light, Busch Light, Bush, Redds Apple Ale, Sierra Nevada Pale Ale, Keystone Light, Pabst Blue Ribbon, Bud Light Lime, Bud Light Platinum Lager et al) Locally Crafted Beers (Pale Beers, Amber Beers, Dark Beers, Hebrew Beers, Gluten Free, Organic Brews, Cider et al) Wines Distilled spirits Liquor Martinis Small Chops Non – alcoholic beverages Tobacco. Our vision is to establish a standard and secured bar Los Angeles, CA that will be the melting pot of all lovers of alcoholic and non – alcoholic drinks.
Our mission is to establish a bar business that will make available all the brands of alcoholic and no – alcoholic drinks in the United States at memory every given time to our highly esteemed customers and a place where people can network and socialize. Bay Town Bubbling Bar is a business that is essay analysis established to be a pacesetter when it comes to essay topics how standard bars should be run in Los Angeles and even in the United States of America. We have the goal of new york contest assembling a team of dedicated workforce who will give our customers excellent customer service at all times, a team that will ensure that we will continue to have repeat customers and a team that will indeed make us the melting pot for beer lovers and socialites in Los Angeles. In view of the memory essay topics above, we have been able to follow suit on what is obtainable in essay analysis, standard bars in the US and perhaps improve on the structure with time when the need arises. Below is the shape and structure we will build Bay Town Bubbling Bar on; Chief Executive Officer (Owner) Bar Manager Bartender / Baristas Accountants / Cashiers Procurement Officer DJ Greeters / Customer Service Agent / Table Attendant Cleaners Security Officers.
Roles and Responsibilities. Chief Executive Officer – CEO: Responsible for providing direction for the business Creates, communicates, and implements the memory topics organization’s vision, mission, and overall direction – i.e. leading the development and implementation of the overall organization’s strategy. Resume Teacher. Responsible for memory, fixing prices and signing business deals Responsible for article search, recruitment Responsible for payment of salaries Responsible for signing checks and documents on behalf of the company Evaluates the memory success of the organization. Responsible for managing the daily activities in new york contest, the bar Ensures that the facility is in tip top shape and conducive enough to welcome customers Interfaces with vendors Reports to the Chief Executive Officer Attends to essay topics Customers complains and enquiries Prepares budget and reports for the organization Responsible for nature essay analysis, Training and Development in the organization Responsible for procuring of raw materials and equipment Handles any other duty as assigned by the CEO. Interacts with customers, take orders for drinks and snacks. Plans and presents bar menu. Checks identification of the memory topics guest to make sure they meet age requirements for purchase of alcohol and tobacco products. Mixes ingredients to prepare cocktails and other drinks. Mixes drinks, cocktails and nature essay, other bar beverages as ordered and in compliance with hotel standard drink recipes. Prepares alcohol or non-alcohol beverages.
Serves Wine and memory topics, Beer to guests. Arranges bottles and glasses to emerson nature essay make attractive displays. Assesses customers’ needs and preferences and make recommendations Makes lists of supplies in conjunction with the memory bar manager / management Prepares inventory or purchase requisitions as needed to replenish supplies. Ensures that the assigned bar area is fully equipped with tools and products needed for Mixing beverages and serving guests. Collects payment for drinks served and teacher 20, balance all receipts. Prepares financial report at memory the end of every working week Handles all financial transaction on behalf of the article search company Interfaces with our bankers Responsible for payment of tax, levies and topics, utility bills Handles any other duty as assigned by pretzi the CEO / microbrewery manager. Ensures that customers are entertained with the essay topics best of music per time Manages the sound system for essay analysis, the bar In charge of music collections Provides music at events. Responsible for memory essay, developing music playlists. Interacts with public at parties. Magazine. Responsible for essay topics, mixing music tracks. Greeters / Customer Service Agent / Table Attendant.
Opens door and welcome customers Ensures that customers feel relaxed and at essay home Handles customers enquiries Assesses customers’ needs and preferences and make recommendations Ability to Sell or influence others for up selling and suggestive selling. Provides recommendations and suggestions to guest for essay topics, choosing Drinks and Snacks. Serves customers in a friendly and helpful manner. Provides guidance to guests on resort activities, dining options and general resort and Regional information. Determines when a customer has had too much alcohol and if required refusing any further serving on a polite way. Demonstrates a thorough knowledge of food and new york magazine college essay contest, beverage products, menus and Promotions Handles any other duty as assigned by the bar manager. Handles and move objects, such as glasses and bottles, using hands and arms. Topics. Cleans up after customers and clean work area.
Clears ashtrays as and when required. Times Magazine College Essay Contest. Washes glassware and utensils after each use. Maintains a clean working area by sweeping, vacuuming, dusting, cleaning of glass doors and windows, etc. if required. Ensures that toiletries and supplies don’t run out of stock Handles any other duty as assigned by the restaurant manager, Ensures that the facility is memory essay secured at all time Controls traffic and organize parking Give security tips to pretzi staff members from time to time Patrols around the building on essay, a 24 hours basis Submits security reports weekly Any other duty as assigned by the restaurant manager. Sample Juice Bar Business Plan Template SWOT Analysis. Phd Thesis Elt. Bay Town Bubbling Bay is established with the aim of becoming the melting point for socialites and memory, lovers of beers in Los Angles which is why we have taken our time to critically analyze and conduct SWOT analysis to be able to identify areas we need to work on if indeed we want to pretzi achieve our business goal. No investor would want to topics invest his or hard earned money without assessing the risks involved in the venture and also his or her capability to deliver and magazine college contest, make profits from the business. The ability to make profits from memory essay topics, any business and to phd thesis elt favorably compete with competitors in memory essay, the industry starts with the result you get from your SWOT analysis. In view of that, Bay Town Bubbling Bar hired a business and HR specialist to help conduct SWOT analysis for the business and pretzi, below is a summary of the result that was generated; Our strength as a company is, excellent and detailed customer service. Topics. Wide range of assorted drinks, beverages, tobaccos and food. Excellent facility, excellent ambience and perfect location for a bar in metropolitan city like Los Angles.
Our perceived weakness could be that we are new business, and we may not have the financial muscle to sustain the kind of publicity we want to give our business. There are unlimited business opportunities available to bar businesses in busy cities like Los Angeles; Los Angeles is one of the cities in the world where social life is at its peak. Another opportunity that we stand to leverage on is the fact that we can easily order any brand or beer and drinks directly from the manufacturer with little or no stress. One of the phd thesis elt threats that are likely going to confront us is the government policies, downturn in the economy which is likely going to affect sales and perhaps the emergence of new bars (competitors) within the same location where our bar is located. Sample Juice Sports Bar Business Plan Template MARKET ANALYSIS. In recent time, the societal shift away from alcoholic drinks toward healthier lifestyles is to a larger extent contributing to a steady decline in the amount of household spending allocated to trips to memory essay bars and nightclubs plus the 20 fact that nobody wants to be caught driving while drunk. The recent market trend is such that the increase in the number of consumers choosing packaged beverages for home consumption rather than at bars or nightclubs is also on memory topics, the increase.
This trend is surely going to have lasting impacts on both the bar business and nightclub business. Statistics has it that the number of bar and nightclub business establishments is a thesis forecast to decline slightly but that does not in memory topics, any way affect the revenue generated by those who are still in business. In fact, the revenues are expected to grow as the economy improves and defending, consumer spending increases. The industry revenue is projected to grow to about 2.5% per year over memory essay topics the next 6 years. It is resume teacher 20 also important to point out memory that personal income and entertainment contributes greatly to the numbers of people that patronize bars and night clubs. Although there are loads of clients for bar business, but the profitability of individual bars within the location where they operate depends largely on pretzi, their ability to drive traffic and develop a loyal customer’s base. Bars and nightclubs do not only compete with one another alone, they also share the available market with other businesses like restaurants, hotels, casinos and outlets that retails drinks for home consumption. We have done our feasibility studies, market survey and drafted out our juice sports bar marketing plan. We were able to identify those who we expect will eventually become our loyal customers; our target market. Below is topics our target market; Corporate Executives Business People Sports Men and Women Government Officials College Students Tourists. Below are the statistics that we intend working with when developing our marketing and sales strategy (culled from the internet); Householders under 35 spend 51% ($108.40 for 25 to times college contest 34 year olds) t0 58% ($113.55 for under 25 year olds) above the essay topics average household expenditure of $71.98 on beer and resume teacher 20, ale at restaurants and bars.
Further, people who live by themselves and spend less than average on most typical consumer staples, tend to essay spend 6% relative to the rest of the population on article search, beer at bars and restaurants. Ethnicity . Spending by non-Hispanic whites on beer and ale is 16 percent higher than the national household average and comprises 88 percent of the market. Spending by other ethnic groups were lower than the national average: Hispanic (33% less, 7.7% of essay topics market), Black (73% less, 3.3% of market), and Asian (50% less, 1.9% of market). Geography . Differences in a thesis, spending on beer and ale at restaurants and bar emerge regionally: Midwest (38% higher, 32% of market), West (2% higher, 23% of market), Northeast (11% less, 15% of memory market), and South (19% less, 29% of phd thesis elt market). Income levels . Memory Essay. Households earning $100,000 or more spent 84% more than the average household on beer and ales, households earning $70,000 – $100,000 spend 21% more than average, households earning $40,000 to $70,000 spend about 15% more than average, while households earning less than $40,000 spend about article search, 50% less than average.” Part of what is going to be our selling point in Los Angeles is the fact that we operate a standard bar, in a perfect location for the kind of business that we run and also the fact that bar facility is highly secured.
Another factor that will give Bay Town Bubbling Bar competitive edge is topics that we have enough packing space to nature accommodate the numbers of customers our bar can contain per time. Memory. We are not ignoring the fact that we are amongst the few neighborhood bars in downtown Los Angeles that sell almost all the brands of beers, crafted beers, wines, distilled spirits, liquors et al and obviously, that will surely count towards our advantage in the market place and phd thesis elt, also the robust experience of our CEO and the bar manager is also a positive for topics, Bay Town Bubbling Bar. New York Magazine College Essay Contest. Sample Sports Bar Business Plan Template SALES AND MARKETING STRATEGY. Marketing Strategy and Sales Strategy. Top of the list on our marketing and sale strategy document is generating a buzz for our bar via word-of-mouth and leveraging on road show. The model of memory essay topics bar we intend running is a neighborhood bar, hence we are not going to rely only on new york contest, the conventional ways of marketing. We don’t have the plans to run paid adverts on Local TV stations, local radio stations or even local newspaper but we will sure maximize every other available means to promote our business. Memory. Our unique selling proposition is that we have a collection of almost all the brand of beers produced in America in our bar, we have assorted drinks and tobaccos et al. In view of that, we are going to adopt the following strategies to ensure that we do not only attract customers but generate repeated sales from phd thesis elt, them.
Parts of the marketing and sales strategies that we will adopt are; Open our bar in a grand style with a party for all. Ensure that we have a wide range of memory essay beers, wines, liquors, distilled spirits, martinis and non-alcoholic drinks at all times. Make use of attractive hand bills to create awareness and also to give direction to our bar Position our signage / flexi banners at strategic places Position our greeters to welcome and direct potential customers Create a loyalty plan that will enable us reward our regular customers Engage on road shows within our neighborhood to create awareness for our bar. The sources of income for Bay Town Bubbling Bar are stated below; Sales of Beers (Bud Light, Coors Light, Miller Lite, Budweiser, Michelob Ultra-Light, Natural Light, Busch Light, Bush, Redds Apple Ale, Sierra Nevada Pale Ale, Keystone Light, Pabst Blue Ribbon, Bud Light Lime, Bud Light Platinum Lager et al) Sales of Locally Crafted Beers (Pale Beers, Amber Beers, Dark Beers, Hebrew Beers, Gluten Free, Organic Brews, Cider et al) Sales of Assorted Wines Sales of Distilled spirits Sales of Liquor Sales of Martinis Sales of Small Chops Sales of new york times magazine college Non – alcoholic beverages Sales of Tobacco. It is important to memory topics state that our sales forecast is based on the data gathered during our feasibility studies and also some of the assumptions readily available on the field. Below is the sales projection based on the location of our bar and all the resume 20 products we have for sale; The prices of our Beers, Locally Crafted Beers, Wines, Distilled spirits, Liquor, Martinis, Small chops, Non – alcoholic beverages, and Tobacco will be what is obtainable in the market. In fact we will try as much as we can to sell below the industry’s average so as to attract loads of customers. We also have plans in place to discount our products once in topics, a while and also to 20 reward our loyal customers. Our payment policy is all inclusive because we are quite aware that different people prefer different payment options as it suits them. Here are the payment options that will be available in every of our pub; Payment by cash Payment via Point of Sale (POS) Machine Payment via online bank transfer (online payment portal) Payment via Mobile money. In view of the above, we have chosen banking platforms that will help us achieve our payment plans without any difficulty.
Sample Bar Business Plan Template Publicity and Advertising Strategy. Bay Town Bubbling Bar is a neighborhood bar and we will ensure that we create the buzz that will make people in our area know about us and what we do. We are quite aware that one of the effective ways of promoting our bar is to memory create special internal promotions which in turn will help us achieve our aim of leveraging on word of mouth publicity. Here are the platforms we intend leveraging on to promote and advertise Bay Town Bubbling Bar; Encourage our loyal customers to help us use Word of Mouth Sponsor relevant community program Leverage on the internet and social media platforms like; Instagram, Facebook , twitter, et al to defending a thesis promote our brand Install our Bill Boards on strategic locations Engage in road show from time to time Distribute our fliers and memory essay topics, handbills in target areas Position our Flexi Banners at phd thesis elt strategic positions around our bar location. Start – Up Expenditure (Budget) This is the key areas where we will spend our start – up capital; The Total Fee for Registering the Business in Los Angeles, CA: $750. Memory Topics. Legal expenses for obtaining licenses and permits as well as the phd thesis elt accounting services totaling $1,200. Marketing promotion expenses (2,000 flyers at $0.04 per copy) for the total amount of $3,580. Cost for hiring Consultant – $2,500. Insurance (general liability, workers’ compensation and property casualty) coverage at a total premium – $2,400. Cost of accounting software, CRM software and Payroll Software – $15,000 Cost for memory topics, payment of rent for 12 month at nature essay analysis $1.76 per square feet in topics, the total amount of $105,600 . Cost for facility remodeling – $25,000.
Other start-up expenses including stationery – $500 ) Phone and utility deposits ($2,500). Pretzi. Operational cost for the first 3 months (salaries of essay employees, payments of bills et al) – $60,000 The cost for new york times magazine college contest, Start-up inventory – $16,027 Storage hardware (bins, utensil rack, shelves, glasses case) – $3,720 The cost for counter area equipment (counter top, sink, ice machine, etc.) – $9,500 Cost for serving area equipment ( glasses, flatware) – $3,000 Cost for store equipment (cash register, security, ventilation, signage) – $13,750 Office equipment and furniture – $3,600 The cost for the purchase of furniture and gadgets (Computers, Printers, Telephone, TVs, Sound System, tables and chairs et al): $4,000. The cost of memory essay Launching a Website: $600 The cost for our grand opening party: $5,000 Miscellaneous: $2,500. We would need an estimate of resume 20 $500,000 to memory essay topics successfully launch our bar in 20, downtown Los Angeles, CA. This amount includes the memory essay salary of all employees and emerson essay, the CEO (Owner) for 3 months. Generating Funding / Startup Capital for Bay Town Bubbling Bar. Memory Essay. Bay Town Bubbling Bar is a private business that is owned by Mr.
David Jefferson and nature essay analysis, he intends to finance the business alone. Although he has plans to make the bar manager part owner of the memory essay business after 3 or 5 years of services, but that does not stop him from reserving well over 80 percent stake of the business for himself and his family. Since he is the sole financier of the business, he has decided to adopt the following means to generate start – up capital for the business; Generate part of the start – up capital from his personal savings and sale of his stocks Source for soft loans from family members and pretzi, friends Apply for loan from my Banks. N.B: Mr. David Jefferson has been able to generate $250,000 the breakdown shows that he generated $150,000 from his personal savings and sale of his stocks and memory essay, he generated $100, 000 soft loans from his family members and friends. The balance of new york times essay contest $250,000 will be generated as loan facility from his bank. Sample Bar Business Plan Template Sustainability and Expansion Strategy. Part of the memory topics grand plan of sustaining Bay Town Bubbling Bar is to make the bar manager a part owner of the business.
The truth is that if the owner of the bar is not going to be active in the running of the bar, the chances of being defrauded will be higher. From our findings, another factor that kills new businesses is financial leakages. In order to plug financial leakages, the management of Bay Town Bubbling Bar will adopt the use of payment machine and accounting software to run the business. In the bid to emerson nature essay building a successfully business, we will ensure that all our employees are comfortable and we will provide them with the best of facilities and welfare package that will help them achieve peak performance in all their duties and in topics, turn help the organization achieve its goals and defending, business objectives. Business Name Availability Check: Completed Business Registration: Completed Opening of Corporate Bank Accounts: Completed Securing Point of Sales (POS) Machines: Completed Opening Mobile Money Accounts: Completed Opening Online Payment Platforms: Completed Application and Obtaining Tax Payer’s ID: In Progress Application for business license and permit: Completed Purchase of Insurance for the Business: Completed Renting of facility and remodeling the facility: In Progress Conducting Feasibility Studies: Completed Generating capital from family members: Completed Applications for memory, Loan from the bank: In Progress Writing of Business Plan: Completed Drafting of Employee’s Handbook: Completed Drafting of phd thesis elt Contract Documents and other relevant Legal Documents: In Progress Design of essay topics The Company’s Logo: Completed Graphic Designs and Printing of Packaging Marketing / Promotional Materials: In Progress Recruitment of employees: In Progress Purchase of the Needed furniture, electronic appliances, office appliances and bar accessories: In progress Creating Official Website for the Company: Completed Creating Awareness for the business both online and in the neighborhood: In Progress Health and Safety and Fire Safety Arrangement (License): Secured Opening party / launching party planning: In Progress Establishing business relationship with vendors – suppliers of all our needed drinks, tobacco and article search, small chops: In Progress.
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Public Relations and Fundraising Managers. Public relations managers plan and direct the creation of material that will maintain or enhance the public image of their employer or client. Fundraising managers coordinate campaigns that bring in donations for their organization. Public relations and fundraising managers generally work in offices during regular business hours. However, many must travel to memory essay topics give speeches and meet with individuals who are important to emerson nature their organization. Many work more than 40 hours per week. How to Become a Public Relations or Fundraising Manager. Public relations and fundraising managers need at essay topics least a bachelor’s degree, and some positions may require a master’s degree.
Many years of related work experience are also necessary. The median annual wage for public relations and phd thesis elt, fundraising managers was $107,320 in May 2016. Employment of memory public relations and fundraising managers is projected to grow 7 percent from 2014 to 2024, about as fast as the average for all occupations. Employment of resume teacher public relations managers will be driven by memory essay topics the need for organizations to maintain their public image, especially with the growth of social media. The need to phd thesis elt raise funds for nonprofit organizations will require more fundraising managers. Explore resources for employment and wages by state and area for public relations and fundraising managers. Compare the job duties, education, job growth, and pay of public relations and fundraising managers with similar occupations. More Information, Including Links to O*NET. Learn more about public relations and topics, fundraising managers by visiting additional resources, including O*NET, a source on key characteristics of workers and occupations. What Public Relations and Fundraising Managers Do About this section. Public relations managers plan and direct the creation of material that will maintain or enhance the public image of their employer or client.
Fundraising managers coordinate campaigns that bring in phd thesis elt donations for their organization. Public relations managers typically do the following: Write press releases and prepare information for the media Identify main client groups and audiences and determine the best way to reach them Designate an appropriate spokesperson or information source for media inquiries Help clients communicate effectively with the public Develop their organization's or client’s corporate image and identity Assist and inform an organization’s executives and spokespeople Devise advertising and promotion programs Assign, supervise, and review the activities of staff. Fundraising managers typically do the following: Manage progress towards achieving an organization’s fundraising goals Develop and memory, carry out fundraising strategies Identify and contact potential donors Create and plan different events that can generate donations Meet face-to-face with highly important donors Apply for grants Assign, supervise, and phd thesis elt, review the memory essay, activities of staff. Public relations managers review press releases and sponsor corporate events to help maintain and improve the image of their organization or client.
Public relations managers help to clarify their organization’s point of view to its main audience through media releases and interviews. They observe social, economic, and political trends that might ultimately affect their organization, and they recommend ways to enhance the resume teacher, firm's image based on those trends. For example, in response to a growing concern about the environment, the public relations manager for an oil company may create a campaign to memory topics publicize its efforts to develop cleaner fuels. In large organizations, public relations managers often supervise a staff of public relations specialists. They also work with advertising, promotions, and marketing managers to ensure that advertising campaigns are compatible with the image the company or client is emerson nature essay analysis trying to portray. For example, if a firm decides to essay topics emphasize its appeal to a certain group, such as young people, the phd thesis elt, public relations manager needs to make sure that current advertisements are well received by that group. In addition, public relations managers may handle internal communications, such as company newsletters, and may help financial managers produce an organization’s reports. They may also draft speeches, arrange interviews, and essay topics, maintain other forms of public contact to help the organization’s top executives. Public relations managers must be able to work well with many types of specialists to report the article search, facts accurately.
In some cases, the information they write has legal consequences. As a result, they must work with the company's or client's lawyers to be sure that the information they release is memory topics both legally accurate and clear to the public. Fundraising managers oversee campaigns and phd thesis elt, events intended to bring in donations for their organization. Many organizations that employ fundraisers rely heavily on the donations they gather in memory order to run their operations. Fundraising managers usually decide which fundraising techniques are necessary in a certain situation. Common techniques may include annual campaigns, capital campaigns, planned giving, or major gifts.
In addition, social media has created a new avenue for fundraising managers to connect with more potential donors and to resume 20 spread their organization’s message. Those who work on annual campaigns focus heavily on contacting donors who have given in the past, and request that they give again. Memory Topics! Finding new contacts for future donations is also a component of a successful annual campaign. Capital campaigns are different; they are generally used to raise money over a shorter time period and for a specific project, such as the construction of a new building at a university. Fundraisers who spend most of their time on planned giving must have specialized training in taxes regarding gifts of stocks, bonds, charitable annuities, and real estate bequests in a will. Major gifts are a feature of many different campaigns and are generally requested in phd thesis elt person given the large value of the potential donation. Work Environment About this section. Public relations and essay, fundraising managers held about 65,800 jobs in resume teacher 20 2014. The largest employers of public relations and fundraising managers were as follows: Public relations and fundraising managers usually work in memory topics offices during regular business hours.
However, many must travel to a thesis deliver speeches and attend meetings and community activities. They work in high-stress environments, often managing and organizing several events at the same time. Most public relations and fundraising managers work full time, which often includes long hours. About 1 in 3 managers worked more than 40 hours per week in 2014. How to Become a Public Relations or Fundraising Manager About this section. Public relations and essay, fundraising managers need at article search least a bachelor’s degree, and some positions may require a master’s degree. Many years of memory essay related work experience are also necessary. For public relations and fundraising management positions, a bachelor's degree in defending public relations, communications, English, fundraising, or journalism is generally required. However, some employers prefer a master’s degree, particularly in public relations, journalism, fundraising, or nonprofit management.
Courses in advertising, business administration, public affairs, public speaking, and creative and memory essay topics, technical writing can be helpful. Licenses, Certifications, and new york times magazine college, Registrations. Although not mandatory, public relations managers can get certified through the Public Relations Society of essay America. Candidates qualify based on phd thesis elt years of experience and must pass an exam to become certified. The International Association of Business Communicators offers a credential to demonstrate a level of essay topics knowledge and expertise. The Certified Fund Raising Executive program, offered by CFRE International, is defending voluntary, but fundraisers who pursue certification demonstrate a level of professional competency to memory essay topics prospective employers.
Candidates are required to have 5 years of work experience in defending a thesis fundraising and have 80 hours of continuing education through conference attendance and memory essay topics, classroom instruction to article search qualify. Fundraisers must apply for renewal every 3 years to keep their certification valid. Work Experience in a Related Occupation. Public relations and fundraising managers must have several years of experience in essay a related or entry-level position, such as a public relations specialist or fundraiser . Lower level management positions may require only a few years of experience, whereas directors are more likely to need 5 to 10 years of related work experience. Communication skills. Managers deal with the new york times college essay, public regularly; therefore, they must be friendly enough to essay build rapport and receive cooperation from their media contacts and donors. Leadership skills.
Public relations and fundraising managers often lead large teams of specialists or fundraisers and must be able to guide their activities. Organizational skills. Public relations and fundraising managers are often in charge of running several events at the same time, requiring superior organizational skills. Problem-solving skills. Managers sometimes must explain how the company or client is pretzi handling sensitive issues. They must use good judgment in what they report and essay topics, how they report it. Speaking skills. Public relations and fundraising managers regularly speak on behalf of their organization.
When doing so, they must be able to explain the organization’s position clearly. Writing skills. Managers must be able to write well-organized and clear press releases and speeches. They must be able to grasp the college essay contest, key messages they want to get across and write them succinctly in order to keep the attention of busy readers or listeners. Public Relations and Fundraising Managers.
Median annual wages, May 2016. Advertising, marketing, promotions, public relations, and topics, sales managers. Note: All Occupations includes all occupations in the U.S. Defending! Economy. Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Employment Statistics. The median annual wage for public relations and fundraising managers was $107,320 in May 2016.
The median wage is the wage at which half the workers in an occupation earned more than that amount and half earned less. Memory Essay! The lowest 10 percent earned less than $59,070, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $205,110. In May 2016, the pretzi, median annual wages for public relations and fundraising managers in the top industries in which they worked were as follows: Most public relations and fundraising managers work full time, which often includes long hours. About 1 in 3 managers worked more than 40 hours per week in 2014. Public Relations and Fundraising Managers. Percent change in employment, projected 2014-24. Public relations and fundraising managers.
Note: All Occupations includes all occupations in the U.S. Economy. Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment Projections program. Employment of public relations and fundraising managers is projected to memory essay grow 7 percent from college essay 2014 to 2024, about as fast as the average for all occupations. As online social media increases the speed at which news travels, public relations managers will be needed to address good and bad news for their organization or client. Organizations continue to emphasize community outreach and customer relations as a way to memory enhance their reputation and visibility. Public opinion can change quickly, particularly as news spreads rapidly through the Internet. Consequently, public relations managers will be needed to defending coordinate and help respond to news developments in order to essay maintain their organization’s reputation. Fundraising managers are expected to become increasingly important for organizations (such as colleges and universities) that depend heavily on donations. More nonprofit organizations are focusing on cultivating an online presence and new york times magazine, are increasingly using social media for fundraising activities.
Competition for memory essay, public relations and fundraising manager jobs is expected to be very strong. Prospective public relations managers should face the defending a thesis, toughest competition at businesses that have large media exposure and at the most prestigious public relations firms. Job prospects for fundraising managers should be best for those with a master’s degree in philanthropic studies or fundraising. These degree programs lead to experience in memory the industry, giving graduates an advantage over those who do not have such experience. SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment Projections program.
Public relations and fundraising managers. State Area Data About this section. Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) The Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) program produces employment and a thesis, wage estimates annually for over 800 occupations. These estimates are available for the nation as a whole, for topics, individual states, and for metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas. The link(s) below go to phd thesis elt OES data maps for employment and memory essay, wages by state and area. Occupational employment projections are developed for all states by Labor Market Information (LMI) or individual state Employment Projections offices. All state projections data are available at www.projectionscentral.com.
Information on this site allows projected employment growth for an occupation to new york times magazine college essay be compared among states or to be compared within one state. Memory Essay Topics! In addition, states may produce projections for article search, areas; there are links to each state’s websites where these data may be retrieved. America’s Career InfoNet includes hundreds of occupational profiles with data available by state and metro area. There are links in the left-hand side menu to compare occupational employment by topics state and occupational wages by local area or metro area. There is also a salary info tool to search for wages by zip code. Similar Occupations About this section. This table shows a list of resume teacher occupations with job duties that are similar to those of public relations and fundraising managers. Advertising sales agents sell advertising space to businesses and individuals. They contact potential clients, make sales presentations, and maintain client accounts. Advertising, Promotions, and Marketing Managers. Advertising, promotions, and marketing managers plan programs to memory generate interest in products or services.
They work with art directors, sales agents, and financial staff members. Market research analysts study market conditions to examine potential sales of a product or service. They help companies understand what products people want, who will buy them, and at what price. Multimedia artists and animators create animation and visual effects for television, movies, video games, and other forms of media. Public relations specialists create and phd thesis elt, maintain a favorable public image for the organization they represent. They design media releases to shape public perception of essay topics their organization and to increase awareness of its work and goals. Contacts for More Information About this section.
For more information about defending, public relations and fundraising managers, including professional certification in public relations, visit. Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of memory essay topics Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2016-17 Edition , Public Relations and Fundraising Managers, Publish Date: Thursday, December 17, 2015. The What They Do tab describes the typical duties and responsibilities of workers in a thesis the occupation, including what tools and equipment they use and how closely they are supervised. This tab also covers different types of occupational specialties. The Work Environment tab includes the number of jobs held in the occupation and describes the workplace, the level of physical activity expected, and typical hours worked.
It may also discuss the topics, major industries that employed the occupation. Article Search! This tab may also describe opportunities for topics, part-time work, the resume teacher, amount and type of travel required, any safety equipment that is memory essay topics used, and the risk of injury that workers may face. The How to Become One tab describes how to prepare for a job in nature essay the occupation. This tab can include information on essay education, training, work experience, licensing and magazine essay, certification, and memory topics, important qualities that are required or helpful for entering or working in the occupation. The Pay tab describes typical earnings and teacher 20, how workers in the occupation are compensated—annual salaries, hourly wages, commissions, tips, or bonuses. Within every occupation, earnings vary by experience, responsibility, performance, tenure, and geographic area. This tab may also provide information on earnings in the major industries employing the occupation.
The State and Area Data tab provides links to state and area occupational data from the Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) program, state projections data from Projections Central, and memory essay topics, occupational information from the Department of Labor's CareerOneStop. The Job Outlook tab describes the factors that affect employment growth or decline in the occupation, and in some instances, describes the relationship between the number of job seekers and the number of job openings. The Similar Occupations tab describes occupations that share similar duties, skills, interests, education, or training with the occupation covered in the profile. The More Information tab provides the Internet addresses of associations, government agencies, unions, and other organizations that can provide additional information on the occupation. This tab also includes links to relevant occupational information from the Occupational Information Network (O*NET). The wage at article search which half of the topics, workers in the occupation earned more than that amount and half earned less. Phd Thesis Elt! Median wage data are from the BLS Occupational Employment Statistics survey. In May 2016, the median annual wage for all workers was $37,040.
Additional training needed (postemployment) to attain competency in the skills needed in this occupation. Typical level of education that most workers need to enter this occupation. Work experience in a related occupation. Work experience that is commonly considered necessary by employers, or is a commonly accepted substitute for essay, more formal types of training or education. The employment, or size, of this occupation in 2014, which is the base year of the 2014-24 employment projections. The projected percent change in employment from resume 20 2014 to 2024. The average growth rate for essay topics, all occupations is 7 percent. The projected numeric change in employment from 2014 to 2024.
Typical level of education that most workers need to enter this occupation. Additional training needed (postemployment) to attain competency in the skills needed in this occupation. Employment Change, projected 2014-24. The projected numeric change in nature employment from 2014 to 2024. The percent change of employment for each occupation from 2014 to 2024. The projected numeric change in employment from 2014 to 2024. The projected percent change in employment from 2014 to 2024. The wage at memory topics which half of the workers in the occupation earned more than that amount and half earned less.
Median wage data are from the BLS Occupational Employment Statistics survey. In May 2016, the median annual wage for all workers was $37,040.
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MLA Essay Format: Help with Writing Your Essay. MLA (Modern Language Association) style is used in memory essay, writing custom essays, research and term papers in many fields. MLA essay format is most widely used in the field of humanities and liberal arts. The Modern Language Association recommendations to formatting essays were updated in 2009. Among the new rules of formatting, the Works Cited or References list is the phd thesis elt, requirement of indicating the medium of publication for every cited source. Memory Essay. It could be a Print source for article search, books and articles or a Web source for on-line sources. MLA referencing can be a bit confusing because it can be used with either Chicago/Turabian style footnotes or APA / Harvard style in-text referencing. Since it can be used with either one, the writer must choose which reference style to use.
In MLA formats, using in-text referencing is the more popular choice. By doing this, in-text references will be provided, as will the source list at the end of the essay. However, if you use footnotes instead of in-text citations, you may be allowed to do without Bibliography page. You may follow MLA template to easily adjust your paper to format requirements. Following this MLA template you may easily accustom your paper to MLA format requirements . You can use the MLA template for making your work look like a professional one. The text in MLA style essay format is typed with a double space. This rule concerns the memory essay topics, basic text of pretzi, your essay, along with the formatting of in-text citations and the Works Cited page. 12-font size is topics preferable. Times New Roman or any other standard typeface is used in the MLA format essay . One-inch margins are used on all sides of your essay, research or term paper. Remember that the headings in the MLA essay format are no longer underlined. According to the recommendations of the magazine essay, Modern Language Association, the headings have to be italicized or typed in bold.
The first line of each paragraph has to be indented a half inch from the left side. You should put page numbers at the top, and justify it to the right. It is not a mandatory requirement, but it is recommended that you type your last name before the page number, if the paper is several pages.Using this MLA template for Word simply change the editable fields and follow the guidelines within the essay, text. Here you may find an example of proper MLA essay formatting. While citing a book, periodical, electronic source, etc. in an essay written in MLA style , you should provide a reference after each citation. Otherwise, it would be seen as plagiarism, which is absolutely unacceptable. The same concerns indirect in-text references. Be very attentive while formatting your essay. Remember that your research may fail if MLA citations are formatted in an improper way.
The following rules must be observed while writing an article search, essay in MLA style. Short citations If a citation used in the text of a MLA style essay is short, it should be indicated in double quotation marks. At the end of the citation, you have to state the author’s name and essay topics the page number where the MLA citations are from in the text. This information should be enclosed in round brackets (parenthesis) . Example : If you want to quote from a book Greenmantle of John Buchan from 1916. Analysis. It will look like this: “There never has been, and memory essay topics there never could be a real Superman … But there might be a Superwoman” (Buchan 154). Note : there is no comma or full stop between the authors’ last name and page number. In cases when the author of a book has been already mentioned in the sentence , just indicate the phd thesis elt, page number in reference.
Example: As Buchan wrote “There never has been, and there never could be a real Superman … But there might be a Superwoman” (154). Long citations. When a citation takes more than three lines of a typed text, it is called a long citation and essay topics has to be placed separately from a new line. Quotation marks are not used in this case. However, the a thesis, author’s name and the page number should still be indicated in round brackets. Example: One of the characters in Kipling’s novel Kim describes the Mutiny in the following way: A madness ate into memory all the Army, and they turned against their officers. That was the first evil, but not past remedy if they had then held their hands. But they chose to kill the Sahibs’ wives and children. Then came the Sahibs from over the sea and new york times magazine college contest called them to most strict account (Kipling 77).
Reducing of citation If the original citation in memory topics, a MLA essay is reduced or you simply omit some words in phd thesis elt, the cited sentence, you should place three periods in memory topics, place of contest, those words. The omitting of words in MLA citations is used in essay, cases when you are directly interested in only part of the statement of the author in resume teacher 20, the original source, which is located in the middle of the essay topics, quoted sentence. In this situation, you can preserve the key information and omit the details that you do not need. Example: Lawrence was compared to “a caliph . Pretzi. . Essay Topics. . Defending. who had stepped out from the pages of memory topics, ‘The Arabian nights’” (Thomas 16) Adding information . In the MLA essay , it is a thesis allowable to essay, add your own commentaries or notes within MLA citations, but they should be enclosed in square brackets. Example: When discussing civil rights, it is hard to not mention Martin Luther King Jr., who was a man who was passionate about the words of the Emancipation Proclamation: “…a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand today, signed the Emancipation Proclamation. This momentous decree came as a great beacon light of emerson essay analysis, hope to millions of Negro slaves who had been seared in the flames of withering injustice” (King 813). More than one source of reference If you cite more than one book in a sentence of a MLA essay , then at the end of the sentence indicate in essay, brackets all references, dividing them with a semicolon.
Example : David Lloyd George characterized Lord Kitchener as a a controversial figure who was admired as “a legend of the article search, British empire, to whom the Orient added its greatness”, but at the same time as a man whose “brain has dried out under the hot sun of the desert” (15; 47). Books with no author mentioned When you cite this type of work, indicate the title in italics and the page number in the parenthesis. Example: As stated by the presidential commission … (Report 4) In-text citations in a MLA essay usually provide brief information about the reference and they have to correspond to the information indicated in the Works Cited list at the end of essay. To get detailed information about the formatting of Works Cited list in a MLA style read the paragraph devoted to topics, MLA Works Cited List Format at P rof E ssays.com. The formatting of your research or term paper may become rather difficult. In the essay analysis, MLA format essay, both the footnotes and in-text citations may be used. Essay. If you are not sure which you should choose, you may ask for phd thesis elt, professional help from P rof E ssays.com. Our writers are ready to assist you in essay, writing and formatting your MLA essay, 24 hours a day/7 days a week. P rof E ssays.com is just one click away when you want to order a custom essay, research or term paper that will comply with all your requirements. The process of gathering and formatting the information for pretzi, your custom essay, research or term paper is quite exhausting.
Improper formatting of citations may spoil the results of essay topics, your hard work. Article Search. Order you paper at P rof E ssays.com and memory essay topics be sure to get a custom essay, research or term paper that will correspond to a thesis, the latest recommendations of formatting a MLA Style Essay P rof E ssays.com is a custom essay writing service provider that will guide you in writing your MLA format essay . Be sure that our custom essay will correspond to all requirements of formatting both in-text citations with the Works Cited List and essay footnotes. P rof E ssays.com is the defending, best place to buy MLA format essays of the memory essay topics, highest quality. The title page in the MLA essay format is emerson essay not compulsory, so when there is no special requirement of writing it, never do it. However, there are specific requirements to the first page in MLA essay. Learn how to memory essay topics, format your MLA Title Page properly with us. Type your name, the name of your instructor, the title of the course and the date in the upper left-hand corner of the defending, first page.
The title of your essay should be indicated within a double spaced interval in the middle of the title page. Memory. Remember that the pretzi, title of memory essay topics, your MLA essay is never underlined, italicized or enclosed in quotation marks. The text of your MLA essay comes next to the title with a double space. If your instructor asked you to write an MLA title page , then you should comply with all the rules of formatting the cover page in a MLA style. MLA Format Outline (Click on Image to Enlarge) There might be a working outline , that is resume teacher 20 usually done and even submitted before writing an memory essay, essay and a final outline that is submitted together with the pretzi, essay.
Needless to say that both can be done in MLA format . MLA outline should be done on a separate page. Memory Essay. The title of the emerson nature essay, essay should be typed at the top of the page and centered. Introduction and conclusion are numbered in the MLA format outline . Use different types of numbers/letters for different levels of MLA outline . If you want to memory, reflect your sub-points in MLA outline , remember that the nature, section of outline can’t have only one sub-section. So, logic requires that at each level of the outline if you have sub-section “A” in your paper, you need to have a “B”; or if you have point “1”, you need point “2”, etc. MLA Works Cited List Format (Click on Image to Enlarge) The detailed information about the author, the title, the year of publication, the memory topics, publishing house and the overall number of pages in resume teacher 20, a book, periodical, etc. is provided at the end of your research in the part called Works Cited, References or Bibliography. The MLA format sets specific rules of formatting the Woks Cited list. Every essay or manuscript written in MLA style has to implement these rules. All books, periodicals, electronic sources, etc. in memory, cited within the MLA essay format must be arranged in alphabetical order by the last name of the times magazine essay, author.
In cases when there is no author, the references must be listed alphabetically by their titles. When you are citing several books by the same author , arrange them in the Works cited list alphabetically by their title. When you do the references of essay, this kind, you should put the teacher 20, author’s last name in front of his first name which shouldn’t be shortened. The title of the memory essay, book is listed after the author’s name, and then the place of publication, the article search, publishing house and essay the year of publication. Do not forget to italicize the title of new york magazine contest, a book. Example: Buchan, John. Essay. Greenmantle. London: Abacus, 1916. Print.
Note: According to the update in 2009 for the rules of formatting MLA style essays, the medium of publication has to be represented too (for example, print or web sources). Referencing a publications of several authors. When you deal with a book that has more than one author, the name of the article search, first author in essay, the MLA essay format must be inverted and the names of the second and the third ones have to be placed in the direct order. So be attentive to how you place the first name and then only the last name of the second author. In cases when there are more than three authors of the book, you can choose to list all names in pretzi, the Works Cited list of your MLA essay or just indicate the inverted name of the first author and add et al . Example: Lowi, Theodore, Benjamin Ginsberg, and Steve Jackson. Analyzing American Government: American Government, Freedom and Power. 3rd ed. New York: Norton, 1994. Print. Some books are published by organizations, commissions, associations, committees and other corporate authors.
When there is no single author distinguished on the cover page of a book, put the name of the corporate organization in the first place. Example : Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art. A Guide to the Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art, Cornell University. Ithaca, NY: Cornell U, 1973. Print. Referencing newspaper/journal articles. The formatting of newspaper articles in a MLA essay differs a lot from the formatting of cited books. The general scheme of citing a newspaper article is the following: at first you should indicate the author’s inverted name, then the title of article enclosed in double quotation marks, then the title of newspaper, magazine, journal or any other periodical, then the day, month and memory essay year of publication, followed by the number of pages. Additionally, the medium of the publication has to be indicated in the Works Cited list in regards to the MLA style.
Example : Smith, Lewis. “Leading scientist urges teaching of creationism in article search, schools”. The Times. London, 2008, Sept 12. 6. Print. Note: Do not forget that while you are listing a book cited in your MLA essay, you have to italicize the title of a book, and in the case of a periodical, italicize the title of the periodical and not the memory, title of the article. The month of publication has to phd thesis elt, be abbreviated (For example, Jan., Dec., etc.). Only May, June and memory essay topics July are never abbreviated. Pretzi. The qualified writers of P rof E ssays.com will help you to format your MLA essay according to the adopted rules.
The general rules of formatting on-line sources in MLA style written essays coincides with that established to formatting books and memory essay topics periodicals. The former requirement of representing the URL address of cited on-line source is simplified in resume teacher 20, the last edition of the MLA format rules. Essay Topics. However, if your instructor still wants to see the phd thesis elt, URL in your MLA format reference list, you may include this information. The URL has to be indicated as additional information after the author’s name, article title, publisher’s name and memory topics year of edition. Some on-line sources may not provide all the above-mentioned information. In such cases, list the defending, available information.
When indicating the medium of publishing, put Web for on-line sources. Example : “MLA Format: Help with Writing Your Essay.” ProffEssays.com.. 2011, January. Memory. http://www.professays.com/info/mla-essay-format/ . Phd Thesis Elt. Web. Note: Be sure the on-line source provides reliable information that will not mislead you. The preference in memory, the choice of pretzi, on-line sources is given to the official web sites of organizations, associations, libraries, museums, art galleries, etc. URL is indicated in angle brackets. P rof E ssays.com can easily assist you in writing and formatting MLA essays . Our professional writers always use reliable sources of information and format MLA essay in accordance with the standard rules. Though the preferable format of essay topics, a MLA essay includes the in-text citation, the Footnotes and Endnotes may still be used in the custom essay, research or term paper that is written in the MLA style. New York Times Magazine Essay Contest. Footnotes and Endnotes are marked out in the text by Arabic numbers in superscript.
The footnotes are indicated at the foot of every page and the endnotes are indicated at the end of your paper on a separate page. Custom essay writing service providers, such as P rof E ssays.com , will help you to format the MLA footnotes and endnotes and to write an excellent custom essay, research or term paper. Please do not confuse headings with a header ! A header with author’s name is typed next to the page number at the top of each page. Topics. While heading refer to the title of your paper and defending a thesis the the titles of its sections. MLA does not have strict regulations regarding the use of headings, just some general norms: The headings of the MLA essay are usually typed in same font and essay size as the rest of the paper, however you are free to italicize them or type in defending a thesis, bold. The title of the MLA paper should be centered.
Each word in the title should start with a capital letter. All headings of the sections in topics, MLA essay should be numbered, including Introduction and Conclusion .
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Action Phrases and memory, Power Verbs for phd thesis elt Your Resume and essay topics, Cover Letter. Take your resume or cover letter to the next level with these powerful verbs and action phrases. Describing your work experience isn#8217;t easy. A Thesis. To help you, we#8217;ve compiled a list of action phrases and power verbs. The purpose of memory essay using them is to pretzi, show employers that you know how to memory topics, get results. Begin your job descriptions with a power verb or phrase: enlisted the article search support#8230;, formed a committee#8230;, sold, budgeted, improved, increased, maintained the memory client relationship. accelerated acclimated accompanied accomplished achieved acquired acted activated actuated adapted added addressed adhered adjusted administered admitted adopted advanced advertised advised advocated aided aired affected allocated altered amended amplified analyzed answered anticipated appointed appraised approached approved arbitrated arranged ascertained asked assembled assigned assumed assessed assisted attained attracted audited augmented authored authorized automated awarded avail balanced bargained borrowed bought broadened budgeted built. Defending A Thesis. calculated canvassed capitalized captured carried out essay cast cataloged centralized challenged chaired changed channeled charted checked chose circulated clarified classified cleared closed co-authored cold called collaborated collected combined commissioned committed communicated compared compiled complied completed composed computed conceived conceptualized concluded condensed conducted conferred consolidated constructed consulted contracted contrasted contributed contrived controlled converted convinced coordinated corrected corresponded counseled counted created critiqued cultivated cut. debugged decided decentralized decreased deferred defined delegated delivered demonstrated depreciated described designated designed determined developed devised devoted diagrammed directed disclosed discounted discovered dispatched displayed dissembled distinguished distributed diversified divested documented doubled drafted. earned eased edited effected elected eliminated employed enabled encouraged endorsed enforced engaged engineered enhanced enlarged enriched entered entertained established estimated evaluated examined exceeded exchanged executed exempted exercised expanded expedited explained exposed extended extracted extrapolated. facilitated familiarized fashioned fielded figured financed fit focused forecasted formalized formed formulated fortified found founded framed fulfilled functioned furnished gained gathered gauged gave generated governed graded granted greeted grouped guided handled headed hired hosted. 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Memory Essay Topics. named narrated negotiated noticed nurtured observed obtained offered offset opened operated operationalized orchestrated ordered organized oriented originated overhauled oversaw. paid participated passed patterned penalized perceived performed permitted persuaded phased out pinpointed pioneered placed planned polled prepared presented preserved presided prevented priced printed prioritized probed processed procured produced profiled programmed projected promoted prompted proposed proved provided publicized published purchased pursued. quantified quoted raised ranked rated reacted read received recommended reconciled recorded recovered recruited rectified redesigned reduced referred refined regained regulated rehabilitated reinforced reinstated rejected related remedied remodeled renegotiated reorganized replaced repaired reported represented requested researched resolved responded restored restructured resulted retained retrieved revamped revealed reversed reviewed revised revitalized rewarded routed. 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essay semiotics We can define semiology or semiotics as the essay study of signs. We may not realize it, but in fact semiology can be applied to all sorts of human endeavours, including cinema, theatre, dance, architecture, painting, politics, medicine, history, and religion. That is, we use a variety of gestures (signs) in everyday life to pretzi, convey messages to topics, people around us, e.g., rubbing our thumb and forefinger together to signify money. We should think of messages (or texts) as systems of signs, e.g., lexical, graphic, and so on, which gain their effects via the constant clashes between these systems. For example, the menu we consult in article search, a restaurant has been drawn up with reference to a structure, but this structure can be filled differently, according to memory, time and new york magazine college contest, place, e.g., breakfast or dinner (Barthes, 1964, p. 28).
In the notes that follow, I will say a few words about structuralism, an intellectual movement which flourished during the 1950s and the 1960s, and semiology, which has been one of the chief modes of this intellectual movement. The major figures in this movement include Ferdinand de Saussure, Roland Barthes, Roman Jakobson, Claude Levi-Strauss, Thomas Sebeok, Julia Kristeva, and Umberto Eco. For reasons that will become obvious, I will focus on Saussure and Barthes, the pioneers. All believed semiology is the key to unlocking meaning of all things. the basic elements of structuralism. To begin with, we should think of structuralism as a mode of thought, a way of conceptualizing phenomena. Whereas in topics, the past, determinists like Aristotle saw things in terms of cause and effect, structuralists look for structures: From the 15th century, the word structure was used as a noun: the process of pretzi, building (Williams, 1976). During the 17th century, the term developed in two main directions: towards the product of building, as in a wooden structure, and towards the memory topics manner of construction generally. Modern developments flow from (b). The sense of the latter is: the mutual relation of the constituent parts of a whole which define its nature, as in internal structure.
The term entered the vocabulary of biology in the 18th century, as in the structure of the hand. The term entered the vocabulary of language, literature, and philosophy in the 19th century, to convey the phd thesis elt idea of internal structure as constitutive, as in matters of building and essay topics, engineering. Defending! Scholars would talk (1863) about the structural differences that separate man from gorilla say. We need to know this history if we are to understand the development of structural and structuralist thinking in the 20th century, as in topics, linguistics and anthropology. Article Search! We note that this theoretical construct dominated intellectual life in memory essay topics, France, extending into the literary arts, during the period from WW I to WW II. Linguists in North America had to discard the presuppositions of Indo-European linguistics when they studied the languages of American Indians. They developed procedures for studying language as a whole, i.e., deep internal relations. Pretzi! Thus, we now distinguish function (performance) from structure (organization), as in structuralist linguistics and functional anthropology.
According to (orthodox) structuralism, these structures range from kinship to myth, not to mention grammar, one permanent constitutive of human formations: the defining features of human consciousness (and perhaps the human brain), e.g., Id, Ego, Superego, Libido, or Death-Wish in psychology. Of course, the assumption here is memory topics that the structuralist is an objective observer, independent of the defending object of consideration. In this context, we use words like code (hidden relations) to describe sign-systems (like fashion). We should note that structuralism challenges common sense, which believes that things have one meaning and this meaning is pretty obvious. Memory Topics! Common sense tells us that the pretzi world is pretty much as we perceive it.
In other words, structuralism tells us that meaning is memory topics constructed, as a product of new york times college contest, shared systems of signification. Semiology: Two Pioneers. Again, semiology can be defined as the study of signs : how they work and how we use them. We note again that almost anything can signify something for someone. Saussure developed the principles of memory topics, semiology as they applied to language; Barthes extended these ideas to 20, messages (word-and-image relations) of topics, all sorts. 1. Resume 20! Ferdinand de Saussure , 1857-1913. Saussure was born in Geneva, Switzerland, to a family celebrated for its accomplishments in the natural sciences. Not surprisingly, he discovered linguistic studies early in life. In 1875, he entered the University of Geneva as a student of physics and essay topics, chemistry, taking course in Greek and Latin grammar as well. This experience convinced him that his career lay in the study of language. In 1876, he entered the University of Leipzig to study Indo-European languages.
Here, he published (1878) a monograph on the Primitive System of Vowels in Indo-European Languages . He was awarded the Ph.D. for his thesis on the genitive case in Sanskrit. After completing his thesis, he moved to Paris, where he taught Sanskrit, as well as Old High German. Phd Thesis Elt! For 10 years, he focused on specific languages--as opposed to general linguistics. Memory! In 1891, he returned to Geneva, to teach taught Sanskrit and historical linguistics at the university. The university provided the catalyst for shaping semiology--he was asked to teach (1906-11) a course of lectures in teacher 20, general linguistics.
He died in February of 1913. His students thought his course so innovative that they assembled their notes and published (1916) a work called Course in General Linguistics . In this work, Saussure focuses on the linguistic sign, making a number of crucial points about the relationship between the signifier (Sr) and the signified (Sd). Below I summarise the key ideas: Language (Saussure, 1916) is a self-contained system, one which is made up of elements which perform a variety of functions, based on the relations the memory various elements have one with another. We can think of syntax and grammar as organizing principles of langauge. Phd Thesis Elt! We have no trouble recognizing the grammatical sense of the following construction: Colorless green ideas sleep furiously . We can think of language (p. 34) as a system of signs, which we can study synchronically (as a complete system at memory essay any given point) or diachronically (in its historical development). A signifier (Sr), the sound-image or its graphical equivalent, and its signified (Sd), the concept or the meaning, make up the sign (pp.
36-38). For example, we can say that, to an English speaking person, the three black marks c-a-t serve as the signifier which evokes the emerson nature cat. The relation between Sr and Sd is arbitrary (pp. 37-38). Different languages use different words for the same thing. No physical connection links a given signifier and a signified. Described in these terms, language is a system of formal relations. This means that the key to understanding the structure of the system lies in difference . One sound differs from another sound (as p and memory essay topics, b ); one word differs from teacher 20 another (as pat and bat ); and essay, one grammatical forms differs from another (as has run from will run ). No linguistic unit (sound or word) has significance in and of itself. Each unit acquires meaning in conjunction with other units. We can distinguish (p.
29) formal language (Saussure calls it langue ) from the pretzi actual use of language (which he calls parole ). Every expression we use is based on collective behavior or convention. We can say that a sign is motivated when we perceive a connection between Sr and Sd, e.g. in instances of onomatopoeia like bow-wow and tick-tock (pp. 39-30). 2. Roland Barthes , 1915-80. This cultural theorist and analyst was born in Cherbourg, a port-city northwest of Paris. His parents were Louis Barthes, a naval officer, and Henriette Binger. His father died in 1916, during combat in memory essay topics, the North Sea. In 1924, Barthes and a thesis, his mother moved to Paris, where he attended (1924-30) the Lycee Montaigne. Unfortunately, he spent long periods of his youth in sanatoriums, undergoing treatment for TB.
When he recovered, he studied (1935-39) French and the classics at the University of Paris. He was exempted from military service during WW II (he was ill with TB during the period 1941-47). Later, when he wasn't undergoing treatment for TB, he taught at a variety of schools, including the Lycees Voltaire and Carnot. He taught at universities in Rumania (1948-49) and Egypt (1949-50) before he joined (in 1952) the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, where he devoted his time to sociology and lexicology. Barthes' academic career fell into three phases. During the first phase , he concentrated on demystifying the stereotypes of bourgeois culture (as he put it).
For example, in Writing degree Zero (1953), Barthes examined the link between writing and biography: he studied the essay topics historical conditions of literary language and the difficulty of a modern practice of writing. Committed to language, he argued, the writer is at once caught up in new york essay contest, particular discursive orders, the socially instituted forms of memory topics, writing, a set of signs (a myth) of literature--hence the search for an unmarked language, before the closure of myth, a writing degree zero. During the years 1954-56, Barthes wrote a series of essays for the magazine called Les Lettres nouvelles , in which he exposed a Mythology of the Month, i.e., he showed how the denotations in the signs of popular culture betray connotations which are themselves myths generated by new york magazine college essay the larger sign system that makes up society. The book which contains these studies of everyday signs--appropriately enough, it is entitled Mythologies (1957)--offers his meditations on many topics, such as striptease, the New Citroen, steak and chips, and so on. In each essay, he takes a seemingly unnoticed phenomenon from everyday life and deconstructs it, i.e., shows that the obvious connotations which it carries have been carefully constructed. This account of contemporary myth involved Barthes in the development of semiology. During the second phase , the semiotics phase dating from 1956, he took over Saussure's concept of the essay sign, together with the concept of language as a sign system, producing work which can be regarded as an appendix to Mythologies . During this period, Barthes produced such works as Elements of Semiology (1964), and The Fashion System (1967), adapting Saussure's model to the study of cultural phenomena other than language.
During this period, he became (in 1962) Directeur d'Etudes in the VIth section of the emerson nature essay analysis Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, where he devoted his time to the sociology of signs, symbols, and representations. The third phase began with the publication of S/Z (1970), marking a shift from Saussurean semiology to a theory of the text, which he defined as a field of the signifier and of the symbolic. S/Z is a reading of Balzac's novel Sarrasine , plotting the migration of five codes, understood as open groupings of signifieds and as points of crossing with other texts. Topics! The distinction between the writable and resume, the readable, between what can be written/rewritten today, i.e., actively produced by the reader, and memory, what can no longer be written but only read, i.e., passively consumed, provides a new basis for evaluation. Barthes extends this idea in The Pleasure of the Text (1973) via the body as text and language as an object of desire. During this period, he wrote books as fragments, suggesting his retreat from new york times magazine college essay contest what might be called the discourse of memory topics, power, as caught in the subject/object relationship and the habits of rhetoric. He tried to distinguish the ideological from the aesthetic, between the language of science, which deals with stable meanings and which is identified with the sign, and the language of writing, which aims as displacement, dispersion. He offers a textual reading of himself in Roland Barthes by Roland Barthes (1975). In 1976, he became professor of resume teacher, literary semiology at the College de France. In his last book, Camera Lucinda (1980), he reflects on the levels of meaning of the memory photograph.
Barthes died on 26 March 1980, having been knocked over by a laundry van (reports suggest that the driver was drunk). In the new york times magazine essay notes that follow, I summarise the principle he forumlates in Elements of Semiology : the basic elements of semiology. The goal of semiological analysis is to identify the essay topics principle at work in the message or text, i.e., to determine the rhetoric or the grammar tying together all the elements. I gloss the chief terms used by analysts in the section below, and I provide a short guide to semiological analysis in the very last section. 1. axes of article search, language. We get a sense of how language works as a system (Barthes, 1983, p. 58) if we think of language as a pair of axes or two planes of mental activity, the vertical plane being the essay selective principle (vocabulary) and the horizontal dimension being the combinative principle (sentences).
For example, we might select items (words) from various categories in the vertical (associative) dimension, such as kitten, cat, moggy, tom, puss, mouser; sat, rested, crouched; mat, rug, carpet and so on, and link them in the horizontal (combinative) plane to resume teacher, formulate statements like The cat sat on the mat . The idea is to think of language (Saussure, 1916) as a system of signs. Let me say a few words about this important concept. Memory Topics! By system we mean an organized whole, involving a number of parts in some non-random relationship with one another. In other words, a system is teacher 20 a set of entities that interact with one another to memory essay topics, form a whole. Pretzi! We speak of memory essay, mechanical, biological, psychological, or socio-cultural systems. A machine is emerson essay analysis a system. We think of the brake system in a car. An organism like the body is a system. We think of the nervous system.
With regard to topics, social units, we think of the family . The members of the family are the phd thesis elt objects of the system. Their characteristics as individuals are the attributes; their interaction forms constitute the memory topics relationships. Phd Thesis Elt! A family exists in a social and cultural environment, which affects and is shaped by, the members. The following example will help clarify three related terms: The system of traffic signals performs the memory essay function of controlling traffic; the structure of this system is the binary opposition of red and green lights in alternating sequence. To make a long story short, we should think of texts as systems, e.g., lexical, graphic, and pretzi, so on, which gain their effects via the constant clashes between these systems. As we have seen, de Saussure--the founder of semiology--was the first to elaborate the tripartite relationship. signifier + signified = sign. According to Saussure, the linguistic sign unites a sound-image and a concept.
The relationship between Sr and Sd is arbitrary. It should be remembered that neither of these entities exist outside the construct we call a sign. We separate these entities for convenience only. The signifier --which has a physical existence--carries the meaning. This is the memory sign as we perceive it: the marks on the paper or the sounds in the air. The signified is pretzi a mental concept that is the meaning.
It is memory topics common to all members of the same culture who share the same language. The sign is the associative total of the two: we speak of it as a signifying construct. During the 1960s, long hair on a man, especially if it was dirty (the signifier) usually suggested counterculture (the signified), whereas short hair on a man (the signifier) suggested the resume teacher businessman or square (the signifier). Of course, these meanings vary according to place and time. The terms motivation and constraint describe the extent to which the signified determines the signifier. Memory Essay Topics! In other words, the form that a photograph of a car can take is determined by the appearance of the specific car itself. The form of the signifier of a generalized car or a traffic sign is determined by the convention that is accepted by the users of the code. Motivated signs are iconic signs; they are characterized by a natural relation between signifier and signified.
A portrait or a photograph is iconic, in that the signifier represents the appearance of the signified. The faithfulness or the accuracy of the a thesis representation--the degree to which the memory signified is re-presented in the signifier--is an inverse measure of how conventionalized it is. Phd Thesis Elt! A realistic portrait (painting) is highly conventionalized: this means that to signify the work relies on our experience of the sort of reality it re-presents. A photograph of a street scene communicates easily because of our familiarity with the reality it re-presents. It is important to recognize that (i) in signs of high motivation, the signified is the determining influence, and (ii) in signs of low motivation, convention determines the form of the essay topics signifier. In unmotivated signs, the signifieds relate to new york times essay, their signifiers by convention alone, i.e., by an agreement among the users of these signs. Memory Essay! Thus, convention plays a key role in our understanding of phd thesis elt, any sign.
We need to know how to read a photograph or a sculpture, say. Convention serves as the social dimension of signs. We may not understand the unmotivated verbal sign for car that the French use, but we understand the road signs in France in memory, so far as they are iconic. The arbitrary dimension of the unmotivated sign is often disguised by the apparent natural iconic motivation; hence, a man in a detective story showing the defending a thesis inside of his wallet is conventionally a sign of a policeman identifying himself and not a sign of a peddler of essay topics, pornographic postcards. 4. denotation and connotation. Saussure concentrated on the denotative function of signs; by contrast, Barthes pushed the analysis to another level, the connotative. Simply put, these two terms describe the meanings signs convey. By denotation we mean the common sense, obvious meaning of the sign. A photograph of a street scene denotes the defending street that was photographed. This is the mechanical reproduction (on film) of the object the camera points at.
For example, I can use color film, pick a day of pale sunshine, and use a soft focus lens to topics, make the street appear warm and happy, a safe community for children. Nature Analysis! I can use black and memory essay topics, white film, hard focus, and strong contrast, to make the street appear cold, inhospitable. The denotative meanings would be the same. By connotation we mean the interaction that occurs when the sign and the feelings of the viewer meet. 20! At this point, meanings move toward the subjective interpretation of the sign (as illustrated by the above examples). If denotation is what is photographed, connotation is memory topics how it is photographed. 5. paradigms and syntagms.
Saussure defined two ways in which signs are organized into codes (Fiske, 1982, pp. 61-64): A paradigm is a vertical set of units (each unit being a sign or word), from which the required one is pretzi selected, e.g., the set of shapes for road signs: square, round and triangular. A syntagm is the horizontal chain into which units are linked, according to agreed rules and memory topics, conventions, to make a meaningful whole. The syntagm is the phd thesis elt statement into which the chosen signs are combined.
A road sign is a syntagm, a combination of the chosen shape with the chosen symbol. Paradigms and syntagms are fundamental to the way that any system of signs is organized. Memory Essay Topics! In written language, the letters of the alphabet are the basic vertical paradigms. These may be combined into syntagms called words. These words can be formed into syntagms called phrases or sentences, i.e., according to pretzi, the rules of memory, grammar. Syntagms--like sentences--exist in time: we can think of them as a chain.
But syntagms of a thesis, visual signs can exist simultaneously in space. Thus, a sign of two children leaving school, in black silhouette, can be syntagmatically combined with a red triangle or a road sign to memory essay topics, mean: SCHOOL: BEWARE OF CHILDREN. The term difference describes the relationship between the elements at phd thesis elt work in any given message. They work as rhetorical figures, such as the figures of addition , where the elements are added to a word, sentence, or image; or the figures of suppression , where elements are suppressed, concealed, or excluded. The key to understanding the structure of a system of signs, then, lies in understanding the memory essay relationship(s) the system utilizes. Pretzi! We are interested in the techniques of additions primarily, which include: Repetition is the repetition of the same element: word, sound or image;
Similarity is memory essay similarity of form, as in rhyme, or on similarity of content, as in comparisons; Accumulation refers to a number of different elements conveying the idea of abundance or profusion, verging on disorder and chaos; and. Opposition occurs at the level of form (an ad set in two different countries) and the level of content (an advertisement for detergent featuring a man in white smocking sitting on a heap of coal). Thus, difference might be a function of contrast or opposition in terms of: high quality - low quality. The idea is that nothing in and of itself has meaning: rather, meaning is a function of some relationship. 7. Metaphor and Metonymy. These terms--used by Roman Jakobson, the times magazine college contest linguist--define the two fundamental modes by which the meanings of signs are conveyed. Metaphor involves a transposition or displacement from signified to signifier, together with the recognition that such a transposition implies an essay, equivalence between these two elements of the sign. Likewise, visual metaphors are constructed, e.g., a portrait of a man is constructed in such a way as to nature essay, convince us that the two dimensional visual representation is equivalent to its three-dimensional reality.
Similarly, a map signifies the reality to which it refers by constructing an equivalent form in memory essay, whose features we can recognize those of the resume teacher object itself. Thus, both verbal and non-verbal, arbitrary and essay, iconic signs can be metaphorical. In metonymy, the signification depends upon the ability of a sign to act as a part which signifies the whole . Resume 20! Television advertisers are particularly adept at exploiting both metaphoric and metonymic modes in order to cram as much meaning as possible into a short period of time. For example, the sign of a mother pouring out a particular breakfast cereal for her children is a metonym of all her maternal activities of memory essay, cooking, cleaning, and so on, but a metaphor for the love and the security she provides. Pretzi! As we have suggested, the structural relationship between these modes can be visualized as operating on two axes, one vertical and one horizontal in character.
8. three orders of signification. In the memory essay study of signs, we can speak of pretzi, different levels of meaning or orders of signification. In the first order of signification, the sign is self-contained: the photograph means the individual car. This is the denotative order of signification. In the second order, this simple motivated meaning meets a whole range of cultural meanings that derive not from the essay sign itself but from the way society uses and values the nature Sr and the Sd. Memory Topics! This is the connotative order of new york times magazine college contest, signification. In our society, a car--or a sign for a car--can signify virility or freedom.
According to Barthes (1964), signs in essay topics, the second order of signification operate in two distinct ways: as mythmakers and as connotative agents. When signs move to the second order of signification, they carry cultural meanings as well as representational ones, i.e., the signs become the signifiers of CULTURAL MEANINGS. Phd Thesis Elt! Barthes calls the essay cultural meanings of these signs MYTHS. The sign loses its specific signified and becomes a second-order signifier, i.e., a conveyor of cultural meaning. We can explain the connotative order of signification with a simple example. A general's uniform denotes his rank (first-order sign) but connotes the respect we show it (second-order sign). Say that by the end of the war film we are watching the general's uniform is tattered and torn; it still denotes his rank; however, the connotative meaning will have changed.
Thus, in the connotative order, signs signify values, emotions, and attitudes. Camera angle, lighting, and background music, for example, are used in emerson nature essay analysis, film and television to connote meaning. The connotative meaning of a televised painting can be changed by the background music accompanying it. The range of cultural meanings that are generated in this second order cohere in the third order of memory, signification into a cultural picture of the world. It is in this order (the third) that a car forms part of the defending a thesis imagery of an industrial, materialist, and rootless society. Memory Essay Topics! The myths which operate as organizing structures, e.g., the myth of the neighborhood policeman as keeper of the peace and friend of all residents of the community, are themselves organized into emerson essay, a pattern which we might call MYTHOLOGY or IDEOLOGY. In the third order of signification, ideology reflects the broad principles by which a culture organizes and interprets the reality with which it has to cope. This mythology is a function of the social institutions and the individuals who make up these institutions.
9. semiological analysis. Barthes (1964) points out that semiological analysis involves two operations: dissection and articulation. The first operation (dissection) includes looking for topics, fragments (elements) which when associated one with another suggest a certain meaning. The analyst looks for paradigms, i.e., classes or groups from which elements have been chosen (and endowed with specific meaning). The units or elements in this group or class share a number of characteristics. Two units of the same paradigm must resemble one another so that the new york times essay contest difference which separates them becomes evident, e.g., to memory topics, a foreigner, American automobiles seem to teacher, look alike, yet they differ in make and color. The second operation (articulation) involves determining the rules of combination. This is the activity of articulation. In summary: The analyst takes the object, decomposes it and then re-composes it. The analyst makes something appear which was invisible or unintelligible. 10.
Concluding Remarks. Like structuralism, semiology decenters the essay topics individual, who is no longer the source of meaning. Semiology (Barthes, 1964) refuses the obvious meaning of a work: it does not take the message at face value. Pretzi! We are concerned with MESSAGES and the preferred ways to READ them. I conclude these notes with a guide to a semiological analysis, based on Barthes' (1977) seminal essay, The Rhetoric of the Image. a guide to a semiological analysis. This guide identifies the key activities analysts undertake when they conduct a semiological critique of a text, such as an advertisement, a tv program, a movie, a painting, etc. Offer your reader a brief overview of the message.
The idea is to provide a brief description of the advertisement (say) so that the reader can visualize the message. Identify the key signifiers and signifieds . Ask questions like: What are the important signifiers and what do they signify? What is the system (of signs) that gives the text meaning? What ideological and sociological matters are involved? Identify the paradigms that have been exploited. Ask questions like: What is the central opposition in memory essay, the text? What paired opposites fit under the various categories? Do these oppositions have any psychological or social significance? Identify the magazine contest syntagms that come across. Ask questions like: What statements or messages (directly and memory essay topics, implied) can you identify?
Answer this question by considering. (a) the a thesis linguistic message. This message is made up of all the words, denotations and connotations. (b) the non-coded iconographic (literal) message. This message is made up of the denotations in memory, the photograph. (c) the coded iconographic (symbolic) message. This message is made up of the visual connotations we detect in nature essay, the arrangement of photographed elements. Finally, identify the topics principle at work in the message or text. Remember, the a thesis goal of analysis is to memory topics, determine the resume rhetoric or the memory essay grammar tying together all the elements. Barthes, R. 1964.
The Structuralist Activity. From Essais Critiques , trans. R. Howard. In Partisan Review 34 (Winter):82-88. ---. 1967. Writing Degree Zero , trans. Teacher 20! A. Lavers and C. Smith. 1953; rptd. Essay! New York: Hill and Wang. ---.
1967. Mytholgies , trans. A. Lavers. 1957; rptd. London: Hill and Wang. ---. 1967. Elements of Semiology , trans. A. Lavers and C. Smith. 1964; rptd. New York: Hill and Wang. ---. 1974. S/Z , trans. R. Resume Teacher 20! Howard. Essay! 1970; rptd. Oxford: Blackwell. ---. 1975. Phd Thesis Elt! The Pleasure of the Text , trans. R. Howard. 1973; rptd. New York: Hill and Wang. ---. 1977. Roland Barthes on Roland Barthes , trans. R. Howard. Essay! 1975; rptd. New York: Hill and Wang. ---. 1977. The Rhetoric of the Image.
In his book Image-Music-Text , trans. S. Heath. 1964; rpt. Defending! London: Wm. Collins Sons and Co., pp. 32-51. ---. 1981. Camera Lucinda , trans. R. Howard. 1980; rptd. New York: Hill and Wang. ---. 1983. The Fashion System , trans. M. Ward and R. Howard. 1967; rptd. New York: Hill and Wang.
de Saussure, Ferdinand. 1960. Course in General Linguistics . 1916; rpt. London: Peter Owen. Eco, Umberto. Memory Essay Topics! 1976. Article Search! A Theory of memory essay topics, Semiotics . Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Fiske, John. 1982. Introduction to Communication . London: Methuen. Jakobson, Roman.
1960. Linguistics and Poetics. In Style in Language , ed. 20! Thomas A. Memory Topics! Sebeok. Pretzi! Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp. 350-77. Williams, Raymond. 1976. Structural. In Key Words . Essay! London: Fontana, pp. 253-59.