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A Streetcar Named Desire pdf - Bishop Wordsworth's School
Free Religious Studies and Theology essays. BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY. Public is as old as mankind. Public Relations affect almost everyone who has a contact with other human beings. All of us in one way or the other practice or experience public relations daily.
Public Relations are the planned and sustained effort to essay of a established a mutual understanding between an organization and its publics. According to British Public Relations as an art and social science analysis trend, predicting their consequence, counseling organization, leader and implement planned programme of action which will serve for thesis on failure, both the critical streetcar desire organization and its public interest, the world assemble in Mexico City in August(1987).Public relations is the strategic management of relationship between an organizations and its diverse publics, through the use of communication to achieve mutual understanding, realize organizational goals, and serve the public interest(Flyn, Gregory #038; Valin 2008). The term cult is what to write in a, a Latin word which refers to worship, religion and faith. A cult is a group of people who are adherents of a certain type of worship. In the contemporary context, it generally refers to a fraternal relationship between a group of people who are out to achieve set objectives for critical named desire, members, even through these objectives go against the interest and norms of the larger society(Ikudayisi,1998).Onyechere(1988) defines these cults as a group of people who share and propagate peculiar beliefs only to members. Cultism is 2014, dated back to of a streetcar named 1952, when Wole Soyinka winner of the 1986 Nobel Peace Prize for Literature- and a group of friends at the University of 2014 Ibadan formed the Pyrites ‘Confraternity with the motto ‘’Against all Conventions’’. The skull and cross bones were their insignia, cultivating a bohemian style that ridiculed the colonial attitudes mode of dress of the essay named day. This caught on among students and over the next two decades, the fraternity, a non –violent body, became established in all the tertiary institutions that emerged in post- independence Nigeria. In the mid- 1980s, reports had it that some of the cults have been co-opted by elements in the intelligence and security services serving the military government such that they were used as foils to the left- wing student unions which, along with university teachers, were among the music belfast only remaining bastions of opposition to military rule. Cultism includes the activities of secret cults or societies that are very rampant in our institutions of learning today. This has not only created an critical named atmosphere of insecurity in our campuses, it is also diverting attention from the primary purpose of the universities which is what scholarship essay, education.
Taiwo(2004) declared that’ ’What we are all witnessing today in named the education sector is skins, a sad reflection of corruption in essay streetcar desire the society and the low priority placed on standardization and improvement of the intellectual custodians of music our time by those in governance’’. This is against the fact that most members of these cults are from rich homes and are never serious with their studies; thus prompting their venturing into examination malpractices. 1.2 Statement of the problem. The basic conditions for sustained academic culture have been eroded in tertiary institution. And it has been a negative impact in tertiary institution which little attention has been given to the consequence. Sometimes students are attacked, killing with acids, charms, machetes, Knives, guns, daylight and gang rapping, loss of life, property and harassing of critical of a desire female students. Obada –Obieh(2002). There is no peace in campus, series of examination malpractice, killing of lecturers. Public Relations as problem- solving communication are expected to create strategies to enlighten the students and make them aware of what is circulatory system, needed of in an academic community .In order to tackle this problem successfully both the students and general public and the government should take the challenges upon themselves.
1.3 Rationale Of The Study. The Research of the study is carried out due to the high rate of moral decadence among student in tertiary institution. It focuses on the relevance measures in which public relations and critical essay, any external body could adopt to solve social phenomenon in tertiary institution in Nigeria. The study tries to portrayed the relationship and essays music belfast, effect between the desire students and the cultism in thesis Nigeria institution. 1.4 Objectives Of The Study. The aims of this study include the following; 1. To examine the different causes of cultism in tertiary institution. 2.To examine the role of Public Relations as strategies tool to reach the audience. 3.To study the of a various challenges the cultists group have caused on belfast, the school activities.
Media relation has a significant effect in the fight against cultism in. Nigeria Tertiary Institution. 1.6 Research Questions. 1.Why do students get involve in cultism in tertiary institution? 2. What roles does the critical essay streetcar Public Relations play to effects research combat cultism in Nigeria tertiary institution? 3. What are the problems the streetcar desire cultists group caused on campus? 4. What are the tools put in place to mobilize and thesis circulatory system, encourage students on cultism in the institution?
1.7 Significance Of Study. This research is chosen because it will enlighten the student about the risk of joining a cult or being a member of a cult, and help to critical essay streetcar desire excavate the what in a scholarship essay evolution and the remote cause of cultism on campuses and proffer and enduring solution to it. 1.8 Scope Of The Study. The study focuses on public relations strategies and the fight against cultism in Nigeria tertiary institutions. 1.9 Definition Of Terms. Publics; Communication of people at large whether or not organized as group that have a direct or indirect association. Public Relations; Is the strategic management of relationship between an organization and critical streetcar named desire, its diverse publics.
Strategies; A plan that is intended to achieve a particular purpose. Cultism; This is an association of people that comes together to form a religious body having common belief, mode of worship and activities are done in an isolated and private place. Institution; Is a social structure in on failure which people co- operate and influences the behavior of people and way they live. Tertiary; The area of critical essay of a streetcar desire industry that deals with services rather than materials or goods. The focus of this chapter is to review existing literature relevant to thesis on failure the subject matter of this study. The review covers conceptual, theoretical and empirical frameworks, which reviews past studies related to this research work. 2.1 Conceptual Framework. 2.1.1 Emergence of Public Relations. Public Relations is not new, what is new is the modern method of it. In the ancient world, Priests were believed to be endowed to persuade and mould opinion. Essay Streetcar? As a result, kings and what to write in a, queens consulted them before any major decision was taken or before any important ceremonial event took place .Public Relations projects were undertaken in ancient Egypt.
In Greece, the ruling class staged special event such as the Olympic Games to critical essay of a streetcar attract attention and to develop national spirit and sense of effects research unity. The First Organized forum of public relations history was during the reformation and counter-reformation period. The reformation was a religious revolution on the 17th century, which divided western and eastern Christendom into two camp namely catholic and protestant. The movement stressed the right of individual conscience. The reformation attacked the named desire absolute ecclesiastical authority of the catholic church and so separated itself from mainstream. IfedayoDaramola (2003;252). Lvy Ledbetter, lee can be considered as the father of thesis on failure modern Public Relations. His activities in the united states of American dated back to critical 1906.Lvy Lee’s activities as a public relations man started as a journalist at a time when a coal mining industry was experiencing shattering strikes and industrial disorder. Lee offered to restore peace in the industry to the striking coal miners on the contribution that he was allowed to communicate all facts as and thesis 2014, when necessary to the public. Lvy lee was later to issue his famous’’ Declaration of principles which he gave to all editors.
Lloyd (1980;3). In Great Britain, the activities of Sir Stephen Tallent who was the founder of the Britain institute of critical named desire public relations between 1926-1931 contributed immensely to thesis the birth and growth of public relations in the United Kingdom. Essay Streetcar? Colonial government employed public relations practice to persuade people to go into war. Public Relations started as an circulatory system information office which was an critical essay of a named desire arm of British government. What In A Essay? The purpose of information office was to make people go into war.
D.C Fletcher was the critical of a streetcar desire head of information office. Oriola (2009). In 1946, the information office was transformed into ministry of information. An army of the ministry of information was public relations department that carry out music belfast, public relations functions. 2.1.2 Concept Of Public Relations. Public Relations Society of America ( PRSA)(1982) Persist that Public Relations help our complex, Pluralistic society to reach decisions and function more effectively by contributing to of a streetcar named desire mutual understanding among groups and on failure, institutions.
It serves to bring private and public policies into critical essay named desire harmony. Public relations serve a wide variety of institutions in society, such as business, trade unions, government agencies, voluntary associations, foundations and hospitals, educational and religions institutions. Taye (2002), quoting News and Carel (2001) says that the first world assemble of public relations association regards public relations as the art and essays, science of analyzing trends, predicting their consequences, counseling organization leaders and implementing planned programmes of action which will serve both the organization’s and the publics interest. Tejuoso (2003) see public relations as a management function of a continuing and planned character through which public and essay of a streetcar named, private organization and institution seeks to win and retain the understanding, Sympathy and support of media effects those with whom they are. Johnstone and Zawawi (2004;6) define public relations as the’ ’ethical and strategic management of communication and relationships in order to build and critical essay of a, develop coalitions and policy, identify and manage issues and skins 2014, create and critical essay of a named, direct messages to achieve sound outcomes within a socially responsible framework. Meanwhile, Lvy Lee and skins 2014, Edward Louis Bernays (1990) describe public relations as a management function which tabulates public attitudes, defines the policies, procedures and interest of organization by named, executing a program of thesis action to earn public understanding and acceptance. Basically Public Relation is an act that can be seen to critical essay of a desire involved artistic skills, language, writing, and public speaking. It is a social science using social scientific instrument to understand and predict human behavior Nwosu (1968). 2.1.3 Public Relations Strategies. Generally, the public relations strategies for tertiary institution should be fashioned out of the corporate objectives of such institution from where public relations derive its objectives.
Press release; It serves as the data bank of institutions. It informs the external publics of the institutions about events that is skins, about to take place or have taken place, through press to the media. Media Relation; Public relations should maintain mutual relationship with the journalist through letters, personal calls on point of interest as a practice measure in order to effectively manage the reputation of the institution. Interviews; It is of a streetcar, veritable tools of getting the support and understanding of the student for their popular and unpopular policies and decision. Meeting; This is an important communication strategies that can be most effective if brilliantly used.
Sponsorship; By providing entertaining radio and television programmes to the publicity. 2.1.4 Public Relations Campaign Planning. Franks Jerfkins (1998) outline four point for public relations activities in the following order; Appreciation of situation; Although public relation activities are meant to place organization in thesis good state before its public in order for the organization to be able to achieve its corporation aims. 1.Appreciation situation involves tactical monitoring of trends within and around the campuses of the institution making use of formal and informal research techniques relevant to public relations practice. 2.Defining The Objective; Specific public relations campaign objective for critical of a streetcar named, higher institutions are; 1. To pass information to what scholarship community on the day to critical essay of a streetcar named day activities of the board, management staff, student union and other members of the community. 2. To fight against cultism in tertiary institution. 3. To correct misconception of management activities by staff, students and other members of the community. 4.Defining The Publics; Public relations programme are designed for different publics to the institution, for effectiveness of specific campaigns a clear understanding of the’’ Specific public’’ being targeted is essential for the success of campaign. Therefore, for every programme, a list of target public should be made.
5.Selection Of Media And Techniques; Public relations media serve as the instrument of communication used by an organization to disseminate information to the different publics and also provide feedback needed for further actions on the part of management, before selecting media, public relations must have deep knowledge of the to write in a characteristic of both the essay desire publics and media. 2.1.5 Public Relations For Tertiary Institutions. Currently, public relations practice in higher institution has been faced with enormous challenges. The focus of public relation has been directed lately towards getting the institution out of the woods and consequently repositions them to brazen up for the task of extinguishing the extraneous factors that have rotten the system. Adefolakan (2001).The presence of cultism in music belfast our citadel of learning has done a lot of havoc to of a named the nation’s educational systems just as it has negative impact on the socio-economic and political systems. The current state of higher institutions and higher education in Nigeria is the thesis combined responsibility of the governments of these institution, parent, lecturers, and the larger society Mojaye (2005). Public relations in tertiary institution have faced a lot of challenges in recent time. It is now evident that tertiary institutions in Nigeria are seeing the need of employ public relation services and strategies to tackle their image deficiencies but it is streetcar desire, also true that most manager of these institution often rebuff practitioner’s counsel in favor of the thesis 2014 use of contemporary public relations approaches for of a, solving most of the problems that plague the sector Nwosu (2002). 2.1.6 Public Relations As A Management Function In Tertiary Institutions. The dynamic nature of education and educational institution has made it somehow to defending a thesis have stereo-type public relations for educational institutions especially in essay of a named Nigeria .Nkwocha (2004).
However the thesis skins 2014 following would serve as the basic for articulating function of public relations in tertiary institutions. 1.To serve as communication link between the institution and its internal and external publics. 2.To embark on critical essay streetcar desire, all activities and programs that would greatly reduce student’s agitation and crisis. 3.To secure the understanding and support of major donors and philanthropist for essay, the institution. 4.To secure the confidence and support of critical essay desire government. 5.To undertake community relations activities that will create lasting friendship between the institution and on children paper, the host communities. 6. To monitor trends in education as they may affect performance and fortunes of tertiary institutions. 2.1.7 Role Of Public Relations Officer In Higher Institutions. Operators and managers of higher institutions have since realized the importance of public relations in critical of a streetcar named desire the day to day running of the institutions. They have come to realized that the institutions cannot survive without the support of its crucial publics(internal and external), and in essays belfast order for them to function properly there is need to align their policies, goals and objectives with the interest of larger society .Nkwocha (2004).
Jubril (1997;22) opines that, public relations reduces industrial crises and critical streetcar desire, student unrest, help raise the quality of learning, and the acceptance of certificates, safeguards the thesis 2014 tenure of chief academic officers, enhances the critical of a employment of graduates, raises the profile of graduate and attract funding for the institutions. From the foregoing, it has become apparent that public relations in institutions strive to achieve what Jefkins (1988;9) calls the “transfer process” This entails transforming public perception from negative dimension to the positive. Specifically, public relation is considered as capable of converting public ignorance to knowledge and awareness; apathy to interest and support, prejudice to sympathy and lastly, hostility to on failure understanding and acceptance. Fayoyin (1992), underlie the national and philosophical basic of public relations which is primarily concerned with achieving understanding through knowledge. 2.1.8 Public Relations And Crisis Management In Tertiary Institutions. A crisis is an extreme situation of conflict, which has reached a turning point, Where critical decisions have to essay streetcar be taken or else the conflict escalates to a point of extreme violence. Sometimes, a crisis is defending a thesis, a degenerated state of critical essay of a streetcar named conflict, that serve as threats to system human security, intense violence characterized by fighting, death, injury, large-scale displacement of Populations, destruction of property, etc. Critical Of A Desire? Nwosu (2005). Once a crisis occurs, it is the responsibility of the 2014 government of a state or any other authority to de-escalate the situation and bring a cessation to violence.
This may be done through various means, including the use of the coercive state apparatus, where necessary(Best,2007;10). The Public Relations Executive should follow basic steps; identified by Lesly(1978) to avoid panic-baton crisis management. Premediate; This is the act of developing plans well ahead of crises situation. Streetcar Named Desire? The plan must be well understood, revised and updated. Coordinate; This involves letting staff know and understand his/her assignments should there be An emergency or crisis. Communication; All communications gaps should be bridged during crisis. Evaluation; The best way to avoid panic in crisis situation is for the public relations executive to learn from his/her past mistakes. This means that the public relations executive should be able to identify those things he did wrong the last time. 2.1.9 Evolution Of Cultism In Tertiary Institutions.
The origin of the secret cults in the Nigerian universities can be traced back to the Pyrates confraternity, also known as National Association of Sea Dogs, that was founded at the university college, Ibadan(now called the University of Ibadan),in 1953 when the institution was still a satellite campus of the University of London. It has the skull and crossbones as its logo. Professor Soyinka also explained that confraternities are not cults(Dixon 1994). According to him, Confraternity was part of the social life of the institution. Adebayo (2001) has pointed out essays, some evil minds have twisted the original aims of this noble tradition that was simply one of campus life. Critical Essay? According to Adelola (1997), the effects paper first notable departure came in 1968 with the essay named formation of the Eiye Confraternity at the University of Ibadan. According to Owoeye (1997) the Eiye Confraternity had sprung from the’ ’Buccaneers’’’ which also had sprung up from the sea dogs. Thesis System? The protestant groups which sprang up from the Pyrates Confraternity included Black eye, Vikings, Buccaneers, Mafia, dragons, Black beret and others. The female cults include, Temple of critical essay named Eden, Frigrates, Barracudas, Daughters of Jezebel and others.
Today in Nigeria, there is hardly any tertiary institution which has not suffered the adverse effects of the media paper activities of secret cults which have been characterized by violence. 2.1.10 Causes Of Cultism In Nigerian Tertiary Institutions. There are various causes of cultism on campuses some of critical of a named which are examined as follows, as identified by Eberendu (1999). 1.Influence of peer Group; There is skins 2014, no doubt that peer group influence is a potent factor that compels young undergraduates to join secret cults. Ibeh (2005) posited that, the period of adolescence is essay of a streetcar desire, marked by intense social relationship in any environment he/she finds himself. Akinfolarin (2003) and Omoegun and Akanle (2007) also reported in a thesis their studies that peer group influence is of a streetcar named desire, one of the reasons student join cultism. 2.Parental Background; Students, who come from homes where codes of good conduct and discipline are not strictly enforced, are found to be member of cultism. Olajuigbe (2001) reported that parental background, lack of moral instruction at home and what, the manner in which the child is brought could be a factor in enrolment as a member of a cult. According to Mgbekem (2004), some parents love their children to essay of a streetcar named the extent of pampering them. when they do wrong thing instead of scolding them, they allow the children to go free from the offence. Ayodele (2002) also identified family breakdown as one of the causes of thesis skins 2014 cultism on campuses. According to streetcar named him, a child who comes from broken home is exposed to parental negligence and frustration, such child is essays belfast, easily induced into cultism.
3.Societal Decadence; Ogunbameru (1997) lamented that the Nigerian society has willingly or Unwillingly provided an enabling environment for all forms of crimes among which is the problem of campus secret cult. Mgbekem (2005) also lamented that youths nowadays imbibed in immoral values instead of inculcating moral and decent values. 4.Erosion of Education Standards ;The economic downturn in the 1980s and early 1990s in the country encouraged corruption and erosion of standards in essay named desire the educational system. Most students gained admission into the institution with dubious credentials (Akinfolarin 2003). Such students, because of a thesis their low self-image find solace in cultism in order to survive the academic rigors at all cost. 5.Militarization of the Nigerian Polity; Adewale (2005) remarked that the culture of violence which has become part and parcel of Nigerian polity has many faces among which are military Coups, state sponsored violence, political assassinations, activities of ethnic militia and essay of a named, communal clashes. Ibukun (1999) also highlighted militarization of the Nigerian polity for decades as a factor for cultism in Nigerian Tertiary institutions. While the happenings in the institution are an offshoot of the larger society, violence became pressed into the psyche of an average Nigerian. Other reasons for cultism in tertiary institutions include lack of on failure recreational facilities, decay in social life and increasing materialism of the society (Omoegun and Akanle 2007).
2.2.11 Effects Of Cultism In Nigerian Tertiary Institutions. The attendant effect of cultism on the learning process cannot be exhausted as both intra and inter- cult clashes negatively affect the students in a very high proportion. It sometimes leads to incarceration, rustication or expulsion of both innocent and essay desire, student members (Opaluwah 2009). A lot of lives and properties have been destroyed through cult violence (Mgbekem 2004).Young undergraduates who are supposed to be leaders in future have fallen victims of trigger happy cultists (Jamiu 2008).Our youth population is being gradually decimated due to cult activities. The peace on campus is thesis on failure, adversely affected whenever there is cult invasion, this may result in critical essay streetcar suspension of academic activities for some time. Due to the activities of the essay cultists and their sponsors who supply them with sophisticated weapons to prosecute communal clashes or to gain upper hand in power struggles ,there are illegal weapons in essay streetcar desire all nooks and crannies of the tertiary institutions. The cultists who are in possession of such illegal weapons sometimes used them for music, perpetration of essay streetcar named desire crimes. Mgbekem (2005).Those who eventually enlist in secret cult group might have been compelled to do so because of “Sagging egos’’ that need to be boosted. Others join in order to have a sense of belonging and the need to be “well connected’’(Eneji 1996).Still others may join because of the need for financial assistance, to secure girl friends or for self protection (Ogunbameru 1997). 2.3 Theoretical Framework.
2.3.1 Persuasion Theory. Public relations people try to persuade audiences to learn new information, to change emotions, and act in certain ways. We use the following terms to talk about persuasion; Awareness; Accepting information for the first time. According to defending a thesis Folarin (1998), the theory holds that for a persuasive message to be considered effective, it must succeed in altering the psychological function of the recipients(students) in essay streetcar desire such a way that he/she will respond in tune with the behavior desired by the communication. Aina (2002) further said the theory appreciates new learning awareness through provision of information in scholarship essay order to manipulate the internal psychological structure of individuals which can result in behavioral change as the best ways to effective persuasion communication. It must be stressed that public relations as persuasive communicators must analyze and understand the audience that information /messages are directed to. 2.3.2 The Social Judgment Theory. Social judgment is proposed by Carolyn Sherif, Muzar and critical essay of a desire, Carl Hovand (1965) as the media effects paper perception and evaluation of an idea by comparing with current attitudes. It is a study that studies human judgment. This is a theory of persuasion that gives every public speaker a direction on how to set, and effectively achieve objectives. This theory based on essay, anchor which means the listeners pre existing positions, deposition about particular issues.
There are three Zones within the response to persuasive messages. They are; latitude of acceptance, latitude of rejection, latitude of non-commitment. Latitude of Acceptance; It refer to position or argument which audience will accept with little or no persuasion. Latitude of Rejection; This is on children, a position or argument that audiences oppose on which basic they would reject. Latitude of Non commitment; These are position or argument that listener neither accept non reject. 2.4 Empirical Framework. A research carried out by Public Relations Society of America (PRSA) November 6,1982. Public Relations help our complex, pluralistic society to reach decisions and function more effectively by contributing to mutual understanding among groups and institutions.
It serves to bring private and public policies into harmony. Public relations serve as a wide variety of institutions in society, such as business, trade unions, government agencies, voluntary associations, foundations and hospitals, educational and religions institutions. To achieve their goals, these institutions must develop effective relationships with many different audience or publics such as employees, members, customers, local communities, shareholders and other institutions and with society at large. The management of institutions needs to essay of a streetcar named desire understand the attitudes and valves of thesis on failure their publics in order to achieve institutional goals. The goals themselves are shaped by the external environment. The public relations practitioner acts as a counselor to critical management and as a mediator, helping to translate private aims into reasonable, publicly acceptable policy and action. This chapter focused attention on the method and procedure adopted in carrying out this study. 3.1 Research Design. The research design for this study is descriptive design type.
The descriptive design is what to write scholarship essay, a scientific method which involves observing and describing the critical essay of a streetcar behavior of a subject without influencing it in anyway Shuttleworth (2008).The descriptive design has a major function of describing accuracy and characteristics of a particular phenomenon Fagbohungbe (2003). 3.2 Sample And Sampling Techniques. The study adopted purposive sampling techniques to music belfast select student who fall within the critical of a streetcar named desire age range of 18-25,26-30,30 and skins, above. 3.3 Population of the study. The desired target population for this study consisted of all students in polytechnic and university. Adewale ,R. (2005).Violence in the Citadel; The menace of secret cults in of a named desire the Nigerian universities’’ Nordic, journal of African Studies, 14(1) 79-98. Adebayo, W.(2001,July 8).VCs use secret cults to thesis settle scores . Critical Of A Named Desire? Sunday Punch, PP.1-2. Adiamoh, G.(2003,Jan 12). Essays Music? Our citadel of knowledge , our dens of cults, Sunday Tribune, P .32. Aguda, A.S. Critical Desire? 1997.
The Environment of secret cults. Music Belfast? In; Reading on Campus Secret Cults, O.A. Ogunbameru (ed).Ile –Ife; Kuntel Publishing House. Best, S. G. (2007) The methods of conflict resolution and transformation in Best S.G.(ed).Introduction to peace and conflict studies in West Africa Ibadan; Spectrum Books. Biagi , S.(2003) Media impact; An introduction to mass media, Canada; Thomson Wadsworth. Black, S. (1989). Introduction to Public Relations Lagos; West African Books Publisher Limited. Brown, A.(1999). Shocker, Female Cultists on Rampage. Weekend Sketch, 2nd Jan, Pp 4-31. CAM Foundation (1982).
Guided Studies, London CAM. Daramola ,I . (2003). Introduction to mass communication, Lagos; Rothan Press Limited. Eberendu, A. C. Critical Of A Streetcar Desire? (1999). Arresting the 2014 Evil Called Campus Cult’’.
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Resume Format Guide - Reverse-Chronological, Functional, Combination Styles. By Resume Genius. Making a perfect resume needs more than just error-free spelling and grammar. A resume must be framed and formatted to present you in named desire, the best way possible, a process that requires combining creativity, composition, and marketing. Therefore, we’ve written this resume format guide to be a comprehensive resource to on failure those looking to format their own resumes. Named? We provide writing tips, expert advice, and sample images covering every resume format for your convenience. Looking for more resume samples? Click the link below. How to Choose the essays, Best Resume Format. Use the critical essay of a desire, chart below to get a quick idea of defending, which resume format will be best for presenting your unique job experience. As you may have seen above, job seekers have three options when it comes to formatting their resume: Chronological, Functional, and Combination . Each resume format has their own set of essay of a named, advantages and disadvantages for different kinds of thesis skins, job seekers, so be sure to choose wisely.
Check out the of a, in-depth writing guides below to to write get every bit of information needed to create the best resume for you: To get inspiration and of a streetcar named desire, an idea of what your resume can look like, we’ve created three huge libraries of resume format examples . The links below are separated by resume style and include industry-specific samples. Visit each library and find your industry. As the name suggests, a reverse chronological resume presents your work experience information from newest (most relevant) to oldest (least relevant). This means the resume will begin with your most recent job, and end with your oldest experience. This structure allows you to present yourself in terms of your promotions and upward career mobility , and is therefore particularly useful for what, entry to mid level applicants looking to boost their careers. I should use a reverse chronological resume format if… I want to demonstrate a vertical career progression. I want to apply to of a desire a job in a similar field.
I don’t have large work experience gaps. I shouldn’t use a reverse chronological style if… I have multiple gaps in essays music, my employment history. I am considering working in critical desire, a new industry I frequently change jobs. To learn more about to write in a, what should be in included in a reverse-chronological resume, click here. The functional resume format frames the candidate in terms of the skills and named, abilities he/she believes are most relevant to the job opening . Unlike the reverse chronological resume, the functional resume ignores when and where the thesis skins, candidate learned or performed those skills . The candidate and simply lists them at critical streetcar desire the top of the resume in order of most relevant to least relevant skills. Even the “least relevant” skill should still be relevant to the job you are applying for. “Least relevant” here really means “the least relevant of in a scholarship, your most relevant skills.” Warning: Many human resources professionals have negative impressions of functional resumes precisely because they do not reveal chronological information, making it seem like the essay of a named desire, candidate is to write hiding something. By using the functional format, job candidates can achieve three big goals:
provide evidence that they are strong candidates for the job, and hide work experience gaps (if they haven’t been working for periods of essay of a named, time.) help hiring managers quickly locate specific skills that are required for on children paper, a particular position, which is beneficial. I should use a functional resume format if… I have unusually large gaps in my employment history. Critical Essay Streetcar Desire? I am in thesis system, the midst of a big career change into a new industry. I want to promote a specific skill set. I shouldn’t use a functional style if: I want to highlight my upward career mobility. I am a student or entry-level candidate that lacks experience. I lack relevant or transferable skills.
To learn more about what should be in included in a functional resume, click here. A combination resume is literally a combination of the reverse-chronological and functional resume formats. Combination resumes will often begin with a professional profile or summary of qualifications that includes skills, abilities, and achievements relevant to the job opening. (This is the functional part.) This introductory section is then followed by your reverse-chronological professional experience, education, and additional sections. Of A Streetcar Named? (This is the defending, reverse-chronological part.) I should use a combination resume format if… I want to showcase a relevant and well-developed skill set. I want to transfer to a different industry. I am a master at what I do. I shouldn’t use a combination resume format if…
I am a student or entry level candidate. I want to emphasize my educational experience. I lack relevant qualifications and skills. To learn more about what should be in critical, included in a combination resume format, click here. If you have any specific questions not answered in this guide please feel free to what in a post them in critical essay of a named desire, the comments at belfast the bottom of the page and one of our Senior Resume Experts will be glad to critical streetcar named desire answer them for effects research, you! PS. Of A Streetcar Desire? Need that job?
Be sure to download our Resume Checklist to ensure that you’ve written a complete, professional resume. Click Here to Download. Our Resume Checklist. If I apply a admin. job but I only what scholarship, have relevant experience several years ago, and now in school learning social service. How can I make my resume?
Emphasize old skills and transferable skills from social service in critical essay of a named, a combination or functional resume. Good luck on the job hunt! Yes, if you have several impressive awards/honors then they can definitely be place above your professional experience. Good luck on the job hunt! We suggest using a combination format. Belfast? Best of luck on critical named the job hunt! We suggest that you stick with the traditional reverse-chronological format. Good luck! I did a career shift recently to teaching after having a graduate degree and 10 years experience in planning and development. Essays? I have recently completed a graduate degree in of a, education and have 2 years of teaching experience in to write scholarship, a preschool setting and trying to now make the critical essay of a streetcar named desire, shift to elementary age. Do you think I should use a combination resume?
A combination resume should work for your situation. Check out our combination format writing guide for more info: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/combination-resume-samples. For a chronological resume, if I completed an internship with a past employer — while simultaneously being employed by them — does the defending a thesis, internship go above or below the of a named desire, primary employment experience? (E.g., I worked at HSBV from thesis skins, 8/2013 – 12/2015, with my internship — also at HSBV — from 1/2015 – 5/2015, so right in the middle of my employment with them. Should the internship be listed before, or after?) You should list you internship after your employment. Good luck!
I have what I perceive to be a unique situation (I understand everyone thinks they are different). I am an army veteran of essay of a, nearly 7 years and now I am studying to get my BS is Homeland Security. I joined the army at 19 in 2006 and got out in 2013. On Children Paper? From 2013 until January of this year, I have been trying to make my own way as an critical essay of a desire entrepreneur. I was largely unsuccessful and in order to stay on a thesis top of essay named desire, my bills I ended up taking odd jobs during the day while working as a bouncer at various bars and on failure, clubs at night. Essay Streetcar Named Desire? I am currently looking for an internship as part of my degree program so i need to create a resume. I thought a functional resume would be ideal so as to blur the past 3 years. However, I understand from thesis on failure, this article that students should use a chronological resume. I need to of a named know how firm that rule is. Also, if anyone has any specific guidance for my resume I am very willing to accept advice.
Thanks. In your situation, we would suggest using a functional format. This will allow you to skins 2014 focus on your skills that are relevant to the internship you are applying for. Good luck on the job hunt and thank you for your service! Okay so I am a third year college student looking for a part-time job that fits my class schedule and isn’t in the fast-food industry to help me pay rent next year. I have never had to write a resume for any of my other jobs so I’m at a loss as to what to do. I am applying as an entry-level applicant but I also didn’t work during my freshman year and about half of my sophomore year. Critical Streetcar Named Desire? Therefore I’m not really sure how to approach this and I really need this job. Please help! Thanks!
Good luck on the job hunt! Consider adding a ‘Publications’ section to include your research and writing experience. Good luck on the job hunt. Several positions require a chronological resume be included. I am over 40, most recent position was over 5 yrs ago as a Seasonal Tax Professional with HR Block. What To Write In A Scholarship? Recently received my AA degree. I do not include employment start – end dates on essay named desire my resume for many reasons but I am not trying to look like someone who can not or will not follow directions either. Please share your thoughts. Hi I used to be a pediatric nurse for skins 2014, two years till moved to this country on 2012 and have been working at Walmart since then, recently got my RN license and want to critical essay streetcar desire start working as a nurse…what type would you recommend me? In your case, we suggest using a functional resume.
Best of luck on the job hunt! Hi, I am presently working as Project Manager in construction company and essays music belfast, before this I worked as Operations Manager in a different company. Now I want to apply for a job (Title : Plant Manager). I am confused which format I should choose to post for this job opportunity. Please recommend. We suggest sticking with the essay of a streetcar, traditional reverse-chronological format.
Best of luck! Detailing all 18 years of thesis circulatory, your experience might be overdoing it. Essay Of A Streetcar Desire? With three pages, there is media effects research likely some redundant information that you could cut. However, if you truly feel that all of your content is relevant and of interest to the employer, then stick with what you have. Best of luck on the job hunt!
I am now trying to rejoin the critical essay of a, full-time workforce after almost a 17 year absence. Prior to marriage mother hood I was a very successful Director of Public relations for a well known beauty company in NYC (1990-1996). After that I joined a small firm on Long Island as their first ever Director of PR and advertising (1997-1999). Effects Paper? Then babies came. 6 years later I joined a local firm as their Director of Operations (office manager) from 2006-2009. Then my family and I moved to Switzerland and just returned after 7 years. I was a teacher of English as a Second Language. I am looking for streetcar desire, work in almost any capacity: From Communications manager to administrative assistant. I am struggling with how to present my resume. I’ve been letting my cover letters explain the history and what essay, why I would be a good fit for any given position, but I’m sure my resume is holding me back.
Any ideas. Thanks in advance! If you’re looking to get back into communications or office management, then it might be better to use a functional format. This will allow you to emphasize your skills instead of the dates of critical of a streetcar desire, your work experience. As far as explaining work gaps in what in a scholarship essay, your cover letter, check out this how-to guide: https://resumegenius.com/cover-letters-the-how-to-guide/cover-letter-red-flags-solutions. While I was in high school I did my internship at critical essay streetcar for State Farm.
After I graduated I was offered a job there and stayed there for 2 years. I have recently worked at the National Instituted of Health for what to write essay, a year. I currently want to go back to critical essay of a streetcar named desire finding an thesis circulatory system office job or something related and need help deciding what type of resume I should use? Based on the info you’ve given us, a ‘Chronological’ format would still be appropriate. Critical Essay Of A Streetcar Desire? Best of thesis skins, luck! If the the position you are applying for is also an of a named desire administrative job, then stick with the traditional Reverse-Chronological resume format. Good luck on the job hunt! Glad you liked it! Hi there!
This is great. I was just wondering, if I’ve been at the same position for 3 years (2014-present) but did a second job for 6 months in 2015 that I would like to list, would I put that first (since technically 2015 is more recent than 2014)? Or would I list that after my current position, since I’m still presently in this role? Thanks! List your current position first.
Best of a thesis, luck! A combination or functional resume would be suitable. Best of luck! It sounds like a functional format would be a good choice. Good luck on the job hunt! Hi there Elizabeth, You have a bit of critical essay, flexibility with the resume format, but when in defending, doubt go with reverse-chronological. Because you’re lacking in transferable skills, I’d recommend working on critical of a streetcar named desire your resume objective to defending a thesis get your application started on of a streetcar named desire the right foot. https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume/career-objective-writing-guide. Also consider the soft skills you’ve built during your time working in a call center.
Many of these could potentially be transferable. https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume/skills-section-writing-guide. Good luck with your job application! Yes, a combination resume is perfectly suited to someone of your experience, even with the defending, career change. Good luck making the shift back into your previous field! If you are aiming for a new industry, you can’t go wrong with the classic “reverse-chronological” resume format.
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Need a resume template? Feel free to download one, but be sure to on failure make small modifications to unlock your. Would You Rather Work for essay named, a Man or a Woman? Do people still care whether they work for a man or woman, or do most people simply look for a nice job. Resume Builder Comparison | Resume Genius vs. LinkedIn Labs. What are the differences between the major online resume builders?
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Analysis of critical essay streetcar named desire, Disability by Nancy Mairs. Author of disability Nancy Mairs who’s a feminist and on children research, a cripple, has accomplished a lot in writing and critical essay streetcar named desire, teaching. Circulatory System! Her remarkable personality shows in many of critical essay streetcar named, her essays especially in Disability which was first published in 1987 in the New York Times. In this essay, Nancy Mairs shows how disabled people are constantly excluded, especially from the media. By giving out thesis, facts and including her personal experiences, Mairs aims for making some changes regarding the relationship between the critical of a, media and people with disabilities.
Mairs thesis is defending shown implicitly in the first and last paragraphs. Streetcar! Her main goal is to show everyone that people with disabilities are just like everybody else and they should be included and defending, accepted in all daily activities. By using irony, intensity, humor and self-revelations, Nancy Mairs succeeds to get her message through. Nancy Mairs starts her essay by describing herself as a crippled woman with multiple sclerosis. She talks about her condition and critical named, how she’s never seen a crippled woman like her in thesis 2014 the media.
Then she mentions some television shows about disabled people that focus almost entirely on disabilities and neglect the person’s character. Mairs states that although disability changes a lot in one’s life, it doesn’t kill him/her. She for streetcar named example, can do what every other woman her age can do. And although she’s a great consumer, advertisers never choose someone like her to represent their products publicly; and the reason for that, according to Mairs, is a thesis that people cannot yet accept the fact that disability is something ordinary. The consequences of this situation are hash on disable people, for they might feel like they don’t exist. Finally, Nancy Mairs says that anyone might become disabled. But if one sees disability as a normal characteristic then it won’t be hard on him/her psychologically. And then once again, Mairs mentions that disabled people should be included in daily activities.
Nancy Mairs starts “Disability” with self-revelations which show through her entire essay, like for instance: “I am a forty-three-year-old woman crippled with multiple sclerosis…”; “take it from me…”; “I’m the advertisers’ dream…” The fact that Nancy Mairs mentions herself a lot makes her essay lack objectivity. But the reason behind this is that few are the people who can relate to this topic. So no one really knows what this is about as much as Mairs and all disabled people who form a minority do. This tells us that the author knows what she’s talking about. Since this essay is addressed to people who don’t know much about disability, its purpose is not merely to inform us about the physical disability itself but also about the psychological effects of the constant isolation and exclusion of people with disabilities. This makes the essay persuasive rather than argumentative since the author only mentioned her attitude towards this subject.
But what a better way to do it than having a person with disability talk about critical streetcar named, his/her personal experiences? Persuading people of Mairs point of view which is that disabled people should be included in the daily activities couldn’t be done by just stating objective facts. This kind of persuasion needs examples. To prove that disabled people are unfairly treated, Nancy Mairs gives an example of effects on children research paper, a crippled women who was stopped from doing what she wanted to do, though she was still physically able to do it. She also gives examples of products to of a desire prove that she’s regular consumer and that there’s no reason there’s no reason why people with disabilities couldn’t get the opportunity to appear in the media and represent these products. What Scholarship! Nancy Mairs is well known for her style in essay named desire writing. She uses irony to show that the reason why media always excludes disabled people is ridiculous: “if you saw me pouring out puppy biscuits, would you think these kibbles were only for the puppies of the cripples.
She also uses humor: “she got as far as a taxi to the airport, hotly pursued by the doctor. Defending! ” Intensity is also shown when she says: “advertisers who determine… deny the existence of me and my kind absolutely”. This intensity is nothing but the result of a strong anger caused by the mistreatment of critical essay streetcar named, disabled people. This style gives the essay a kind of vivacity, sparkle and even strength. It shows that Mairs is not afraid of effects on children paper, making fun of the advertisers. Of A Streetcar! So basically, Nancy Mairs refers to emotions: “you might feel as though you don’t exist, in any meaningful social sense at all. Thesis! ” While in critical of a named desire some cases appealing to emotions can be inappropriate, in this particular essay it’s not. It is only inappropriate when a certain topic requires logic and reason. Actually getting people to accept disability and people carrying it requires neither logic nor reason. They’re just human beings who deserve to be treated like anyone else.
This essay lacks some evidence though: “I once asked a local advertiser…”; “one of those medical dramas” which makes these two stories less credible and 2014, leaves us wondering whether they are true or simply made up. But as for critical of a streetcar the rest of the essay, the essays music, information is based on personal experiences and emotions that don’t require much evidence. As for the audience, this essay is named addressed to all people who read the New York Times, while it should have been addressed specifically to advertisers so they can make a change regarding the inclusion of essays music belfast, disabled people. Of A Named! Nancy Mairs in her “disability” has done a good job in delivering her message. I believe she managed to persuade the audience that there is defending a thesis no reason to critical desire exclude disabled people from the media.
Her information was clear and made sense, her examples were enough to effects on children paper support her thesis and her tone added a certain flavor to her essay. “Disability” can actually make certain changes if it is critical essay named desire addressed to its right audience and I certainly recommend it to my friends and anyone who might be interested in this topic. Nancy Mairs is media paper a writer afflicted with multiple sclerosis. In her essay, #8220;Disability#8221;, she explains how the media fails to accurately portray individuals living with a debilitating disease. This causes people with a handicap to feel inadequate, isolated, and lonely. #8230; Nancy Mair’s “Disability” shows us the essay streetcar desire, view a disabled woman has on how the world perceives people with disabilities. Thesis Skins 2014! Nancy is “a forty- three year old crippled woman.”(Bedford Reader 13).Nancy is a woman who spends most of her time in #8230; The essays that Nancy Mairs and critical streetcar, Rosie Anaya wrote discuss the thesis, media’s lack of critical of a streetcar, proper representations for on failure those with disabilities. Mairs speaks about how people with disabilities have the same sense of normality as those who do not. Of A Streetcar Named! Anaya talks #8230; According to Mairs, the only thing #8220;normal#8221; about seeing disabled people on thesis on failure, TV was their daily appearance on a medical drama. As the time went by since 1987, Anaya wrote on how disabilities have become more normal in our everyday #8230; In her essay, “Disability,” Nancy Mairs argues that our society must take the disability as normal. She describes her own experience where she finds the people taking disability as abnormal especially in media.
She says, “I once asked a local #8230; “And yet the advertisers, who determine nowadays who will be represented publicly and who will not, deny the existence of me and my kind absolutely.” (paragraph 4) In this passage, Mairs displays her emotions of named, frustration and anger towards the a thesis, #8230; David from Healtheappointments: Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about critical essay of a streetcar, receiving a customized one? Check it out thesis skins, https://goo.gl/chNgQy. Haven’t found what you want? 10 Dorrance St #700, Providence, RI 02903, USA. Copyright © 2003 - 2017 - Healtheappointments is critical streetcar desire a trading name of thesis on failure, All Answers Ltd, a company registered in England and Wales. Company Registration No: 4964706. VAT.
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European Union (Withdrawal) Bill: Paving the way towards a very uncertain future. Professor of EU law, University of critical of a named desire Bristol. (This post was first published on the University of Bristol Law School Blog. It is reproduced here with kind permission of the author.) The stated aim of the, then Great, Repeal Bill was to provide clarity and certainty for citizens and businesses, and to ensure a functioning statute book on exit from the circulatory system, EU. The key statement of of a named desire principle in the White Paper was as follows: ‘In order to achieve a stable and thesis on failure smooth transition, the Government’s overall approach is to convert the body of existing EU law into domestic law, after which Parliament (and, where appropriate, the devolved legislatures) will be able to decide which elements of that law to keep, amend or repeal once we have left the critical named desire, EU. System. This ensures that, as a general rule, the critical streetcar, same rules and laws will apply after we leave the EU as they did before’ (for analysis, see here ). However, the continuity provided by what is now the defending a thesis, European Union (Withdrawal) Bill , published last week, must be seen in the context of the reality that leaving the EU will also require major constitutional and policy changes in critical essay a relatively short, and currently uncertain, time frame (see here ). After all, the Government’s aim is on failure, that, as a result of critical streetcar desire Brexit, the UK will be able to what essay decide which parts of EU-derived law to keep, and which to essay streetcar named desire amend or repeal.
A number of defending Brexit Bills, which will change the law in relation to, among others, immigration, trade, customs, agriculture and fisheries, were promised in the Queen’s speech . The clarity and certainty promised in the White Paper, which at first glance appear to provide comfort to citizens and businesses concerned over the effects of critical essay of a streetcar Brexit, are more elusive than ever. Continue reading → Brexit Negotiating Terms of Reference. At their first meeting in Brussels today, Michel Barnier and David Davis agreed overall Terms of thesis skins 2014 Reference for the forthcoming Brexit negotiations. The Terms of reference set out of a streetcar named, a general structure and schedule for negotiations between now and October 2017. 2014. After today’s formal opening, actual talks will begin in July. Round 1 will take place in the week commencing July 17 th followed by Round 2 in the week of August 28th, Round 3 in the week of September 18 and Round 4 in the week of of a named October 9 th . We do not yet know what happens beyond that date.
Setting the what essay, pattern for future negotiations, the joint post-meeting press conference was held in English and French, with interpretation provided by the European Commission. All negotiations and working documents will be produced in these two languages. The negotiations themselves will take place on two levels – general plenary sessions and critical essay of a named desire smaller group meetings. The document states that each round of negotiations ‘should’ comprise public officials of both sides only however this leaves scope for others, such as business leaders and thesis on failure bankers, to also take part. Names are not given, but Politico has helpfully produced a list of the critical essay of a named desire, key players on each side. Plenary negotiating sessions will be co-chaired by so-called ‘Principals’ and/ or ‘Co-ordinators’ – presumably from the what to write in a scholarship, central team on each side. These persons will have overall responsibility both for keeping the process on track and providing advice.
They will also have responsibility for a specific dialogue on Ireland/ Northern Ireland, launched today. It is not clear who will lead/co-ordinate the smaller group meetings or how many there will be – the ‘Principals’ have discretion to create additional working groups, sub- groups or indeed organise ‘breakout sessions’ as required. In total, just 3 negotiating groups were created today. Two are very specific: Citizens’ Rights and Financial Settlement. Of A Named. The latter will clearly deal with the Brexit Bill and the former will focus on the situation of EU citizens in the UK and essays music belfast UK citizens in other parts of the EU. It is critical essay streetcar, also to be hoped that it will deal with the situation of Zambrano carers whose rights to remain in the UK to look after their British citizens children also derive from thesis circulatory system EU law. The final negotiating group created today has a general remit and of a named will focus on other Separation Issues. The basis of the negotiations will be texts created by thesis skins 2014 either side. There is of a desire, no specific timeframe for to write in a scholarship essay, sharing these materials – the document simply rather limply states that ‘Negotiation texts that are intended for discussion at any negotiating round should be shared at least one week in advance wherever possible.’ This is surprising – given the ever-decreasing timeframe, tighter rules on the exchange of documents might have been better. The timeframe is also loose – the above-mentioned ‘Negotiation rounds’ will ‘in principle’ take place during one week in every month. However, this is a loose arrangement which can be departed from by mutual consent.
Negotiators may also meet informally in between formal sessions to prepare negotiations. Continue reading → Brexit: a separate citizens’ rights agreement under Article 50 TEU. Why a separate citizens’ rights agreement under article 50 is streetcar desire, required. The European Council Guidelines for the Brexit negotiation adopted on 29 th April 2017 (further referred to as Negotiation Guidelines), as well as the Council Directives for the negotiation adopted on 22 nd May 2017 (further referred to as Negotiation Directives), show a clear EU commitment to defend the rights of the nearly five million people whose lives are most directly affected by Brexit, namely the EU citizens residing in thesis 2014 the UK, and British citizens residing in the EU. Essay Streetcar. The Negotiation Directives clearly state that the withdrawal negotiations should ensure ‘the necessary effective, enforceable, non-discriminatory and comprehensive guarantees’ and they favor a rather maximalist defense of the rights of these citizens (including judicial protection by the CJEU). The UK’s promises to protect the rights of these citizens are comparatively vague. However, both the EU and on failure the UK have agreed that dealing with the rights of these citizens is the first priority of negotiations.
However, there is no procedural guarantee that these citizens would not end up as a bargaining chip. The Negotiation Guidelines and Directives provide for critical essay of a named desire, a phased approach to the negotiations. However, this phased approach aims primarily at separating the to write, negotiation of the critical of a named desire, withdrawal settlement under Article 50TEU (phase 1) from the negotiation of an agreement on the future relationship between the UK and the EU (phase 2). In addition to thesis circulatory that, it provides for a second stage within the first phase (Article 50 withdrawal settlement). In that second stage, the withdrawal negotiation can start to reflect on the potential scenarios for the future UK-EU relationship. Article 50 requires ‘taking account of the framework for its [withdrawing Member State’s] future relationship with the Union’ when dealing with the withdrawal agreement. Essay Of A. However, the Guidelines state clearly that this second stage of the first phase will only start when the thesis, European Council has decided that there is ‘sufficient progress’ on the issues identified as priorities of the first phase.
Citizens’ rights have been identified as the first item on essay desire, the agenda of the first phase of the a thesis, negotiation process. The proposed ‘phasing’ thus gives some level of separating citizens’ rights from of a streetcar other parts of the negotiation. However, this is far from ring-fencing. Thesis System. The EU has taken the approach that as far as the withdrawal issues (phase 1) are concerned ‘nothing is agreed until everything is agreed’. This at critical named least means that citizens’ rights issues might be traded off against other topics of the first phase of negotiation, such as the effects on children research paper, financial settlement and the Ireland-Northern Ireland border issue. Essay. Moreover, they may even be influenced by the reflections about the essays music belfast, future UK-EU relationship which will appear on the negotiation table as issues ‘to be taken into account’ prior to the finalisation of the Article 50 withdrawal agreement. Hence, EU citizens in the UK and critical essay named desire British in the EU remain fully at risk of becoming bargaining chips. The proposed negotiation procedure entails two additional dramatic consequences for on failure, the 4.5 million citizens directly affected.
The principle ‘nothing is of a streetcar desire, agreed until everything is agreed’ unnecessarily prolongs the uncertainty these people are living in. Moreover, in thesis the case that the withdrawal agreement fails, citizens will find themselves in a legal limbo with dramatic consequences. The only solution to solve the uncertainty of 4.5 million people is to critical essay of a streetcar desire adopt an agreement on citizen’s rights at the start of the Article 50 negotiation, independently from other withdrawal issues. So why has it not happened so far? One can understand the EU’s reluctance to negotiate on citizens’ rights PRIOR to the triggering of Article 50. The UK referendum was merely an internal affair as long as Article 50 had not been triggered. Moreover, if negotiating a citizens’ rights agreement prior to Article 50 had been attempted, it would not have profited from the decision-making procedure of Article 50 (which allows for the agreement to be adopted via Qualified Majority in Council and consent by the EP, and on failure thus not requiring ratification by national parliaments in the EU 27). Negotiation outside Article 50 would be more cumbersome since it may require ratification by all national parliaments. Hence the ‘time advantage’ of starting negotiation prior to triggering Article 50 would immediately have been lost as the procedure itself would slow down the process. Finally, the EU feared that negotiation on critical essay of a desire, partial issues prior to thesis circulatory the triggering of critical named Article 50 would undermine the what to write in a scholarship essay, unity of the of a desire, EU 27. However, now that Article 50 has been triggered, there is no reason why a separate agreement on citizens’ rights cannot be negotiated prior to all other issues.
The moral argument in favor of that remains as strong as ever before. The strategic argument of the EU that it would encourage ‘cherry-picking’ is what scholarship essay, also hardly convincing. The EU has by now set out its institutional framework, priorities and strategy for the negotiations. It is no longer unprepared, and has the institutional mechanism in critical place to ensure unity in response to essays belfast the UK in negotiations. Critical Essay Desire. Moreover, arguments that a separate citizens’ rights agreement opens the way for cherry-picking are based on the wrong assumption. Accepting ring-fencing for citizens’ rights does not create any obligation to do the belfast, same for critical essay named desire, other issues.
There is a strong moral argument to state: ‘a separate agreement will only be done on citizens’ rights given the music, human costs involved’. As will be shown below that does not create any legal precedent for critical streetcar desire, the EU to accept separate agreements on thesis, other issues. The only critical streetcar named remaining question then is whether it is legally possible. More precisely, the question is whether the thesis, rights of post-Brexit EU citizens can be legally ring-fenced from essay of a streetcar named other negotiation topics and be safeguarded prior to the end of the withdrawal negotiation, and in a way that it stands even in failure of the latter. To show whether ring-fencing is legally possible we need to address three questions: Is it possible to adopt a separate agreement on citizens rights signed under Article 50? How to thesis system ensure procedurally that the negotiation of these citizens’ rights, and critical essay named of this separate agreement, is not mixed up with other Brexit negotiation issues (ring-fencing in what in a scholarship essay the strict sense).
How to ensure that the agreement comes into force even if other aspects of the critical of a streetcar named, Brexit negotiation fail (safeguarding) Is a separate agreement legally possible under Article 50 TEU? As confirmed in Article 5 of the Negotiation Guidelines, Article 50 TEU confers on the Union an ‘exceptional horizontal competence to cover in this agreement all matters necessary to arrange the withdrawal. This exceptional competence is thesis on failure, of a one-off nature and strictly for the purposes of arranging the withdrawal from the Union.’ There is no doubt that addressing the rights of the 4.5 million is inherently an issue of withdrawal, and can thus be dealt with via Article 50. These are issues on which the critical of a streetcar desire, EU has been able to in a scholarship act on behalf on the Member States so far, and this competence extends (thanks to Article 50) to dealing with all withdrawal aspects related to it.
However, Article 50 TEU talks about a withdrawal agreement in the singular. The question is then whether a separate agreement on citizens’ right under Article 50 is possible. I will argue that the use of the singular in relation to ‘agreement’ does not exclude legally that the withdrawal could be composed of several agreements, as long as the objectives and spirit of Article 50 TEU are respected. Continue reading → For the critical essay of a streetcar, first time since sending the Article 50 Letter, the Prime Minister met with European Council President Tusk in effects paper what was described as a positive meeting where it was agreed to de-escalate the row over critical essay desire Gibraltar. Wider response to the activation of Article 50 has been dismissive. In Germany, a Bundestag debate about Brexit was hardly reported. In the European Parliament, EP President Verhofstadt described Brexit as a “catfight in the Conservative party that got out of hand – a loss of time, a waste of energy and thesis 2014 a stupidity.” Unity and the future of the 27 remaining member states was stressed as the critical of a, EP endorsed the European Council draft negotiation guidelines. The Commission launched its Brexit website – this lays out the organization of the scholarship essay, Taskforce that will conduct negotiations with the UK. General enquiries about the work of the taskforce can be sent to firstname.lastname@example.org. Critical. Head of the EU Taskforce, Michel Barnier, presented his three pre-conditions for a Withdrawal Agreement – unity of the 27, removal of uncertainty and finally ‘doing things in the right order and circulatory system putting them into perspective’ ie. Essay Of A Named Desire. agreeing the exit before the future relationship.
In an interview during her trip to Jordan, Theresa May confirmed this, saying that a final trade deal between the defending, UK and critical of a streetcar named the EU will only take place after the UK has left and is a non-EU country. Thus within the first seven days of Brexit, the UK retreated from key aspects of its negotiating position. All seem agreed however that negotiations must be completed by March 29 2019. May’s claim that “no deal is skins 2014, better than a bad deal” was also challenged by the Parliamentary Brexit Committee. Essay Named. It published a Report which asked for an impact assessment of what the economic fallout would be. It seems that the Treasury has not carried out a detailed economic forecast of Britain’s Brexit options since the referendum. Defending A Thesis. Regardless, the Government has agreed to underwrite Erasmus+ programme contracts signed while the of a named desire, UK is still in the EU. Beyond 29 March 2019 is uncertain – UK participation in the programme may continue subject to negotiation between the Government and the EU. Finally, don’t be surprised if there are delays at some borders: EU plans to start border checks on defending, everybody entering and leaving the EU came into force on April 7. Now EU and non-EU citizens will be checked in a bid to increase security. Critical Essay Desire. EU Commissioner for Security, Julian King, is also pushing for thesis on failure, the introduction of a fingerprint identification service for inclusion in streetcar named desire the increasingly used Schengen Information System – 4 billion queries were made to SIS in 2016, a 40% increase from 2015.
Competition Law : AG Opinion in Case C-671/15 President of the Autorite? de la concurrence v Association des producteurs vendeurs d’endives (APVE) and Others. Agricultural producer organisations and their associations may be held liable for research, agreements, decisions or concerted practices contrary to EU competition law. That is the case, in critical streetcar desire particular, where concertation on prices or on the quantities placed on the market and exchanges of information occur between several (associations of) producer organisations or between such bodies and other types of operators on the market. Area of Freedom, Security and Justice : Case C-544/15 Sahar Fahimian v Germany. National authorities may refuse, for reasons of public security, to grant a visa for study in a sensitive field – such as information technology security – to thesis skins 2014 an Iranian national with a degree from a university subject to restrictive measures.
Although the essay of a, national authorities enjoy a wide discretion determining the existence of a threat to public security, the decision to refuse a visa must state proper reasons. The phoney war is over. Theresa May has triggered Article 50. The clock is ticking. But clarity and legal certainty remain elusive. Prof Phil Syrpis , Professor of EU Law (University of Bristol Law School) In her letter to Donald Tusk the Prime Minister outlined the UK’s starting position in negotiations with the EU. The EU Council of Ministers responded by to write in a essay producing draft negotiating guidelines (to be confirmed by the European Council at the end of streetcar named April). These guidelines create the framework within which negotiations on withdrawal, and those on the future relationship between the UK and the EU, will occur.
Meanwhile, a White Paper on the Great Repeal Bill was presented to Parliament, promising on the one hand to repeal the European Communities Act (ECA) and end the supremacy of EU law in the UK, and on the other to convert the acquis communautaire into UK law, so that ‘EU-derived rights’ (as we will need to get used to calling them) will, as far as possible, be unaffected. The opening exchanges between the UK and EU have generated a lot of comment. Much of it has focused on effects research, the unlikely subject of critical essay of a streetcar desire Gibraltar (Michael Howard’s crass evocation of the Falklands conflict will have done nothing to lower simmering tensions). In relation to the White Paper, most attention has been devoted to the role of what in a essay Parliament and the devolved assemblies. Rather less attention has been paid to many of the critical essay of a desire, EU law aspects. In this short note, I focus on thesis, those. I first consider what new light has been shed on streetcar named, the way in which the Article 50 negotiations will proceed, drawing attention to the host of issues which remain unanswered.
I then consider the EU law questions raised by the repeal of the ECA, and the conversion of the acquis into UK law. Michael Ford has already commented on this blog on the applicability of judgments of the European Court of media effects paper Justice in the post-Brexit era; so there is no more on that subject here. My overarching concern is that the Government, in particular in the White Paper, has failed to provide a clear sense of the size of the task which lies ahead. It is impossible to know whether this is because the Government itself does not appreciate the magnitude of the challenge, or because it is trying to conceal the difficulties. The Government has, for months, struggled to articulate just what Brexit might mean, and has made a series of disparate promises which a range of different constituencies have, if so minded, been able to rely on, or cling to. Critical Essay Named Desire. It will now start making hard choices.
It has not prepared the ground well. Theresa May’s letter set a conciliatory tone, using much more constructive rhetoric than hitherto. She emphasised her desire to build a ‘new deep and special partnership’ with the EU. Skins 2014. She expressed the belief that ‘it is necessary to agree the terms of our future relationship alongside those of our withdrawal from the EU’. And she made it clear that the ‘no deal’ scenario is ‘not the outcome which either side should seek’. This is not the tone avid Brexiteers had been expecting. The EU responded with a draft of the negotiating guidelines which are to ‘define the framework for negotiations under Article 50’ (though note that the European Council, a little ominously, reserves to itself the power to ‘update these guidelines in the course of the negotiations as necessary’). Article 50 does not afford a role to the withdrawing state in the drafting or scope of these guidelines; like them or not, the UK will have to essay of a streetcar abide by them. The Council repeated ‘its wish to have the UK as a close partner in the future’. But it is immediately clear that the relationship will be very different to the one we have all become used to.
In the essays music, very first paragraph of the draft guidelines there are references to ‘the integrity of the Single Market’ and to the fact that there ‘can be no “cherry picking”’, and a clear statement that a non-member of the critical essay of a streetcar desire, Union ‘cannot have the same rights and enjoy the thesis circulatory system, same benefits as a member’. The guidelines go on to say that withdrawal negotiations ‘will be conducted as a single package’; ‘individual items cannot be settled separately’; and ‘there will be no separate negotiations between individual Member States and the United Kingdom’ on matters pertaining to its withdrawal. The disagreement relating to the sequencing of the negotiations will be one to watch over the coming weeks and months. Article 50 provides some guidance here, with paragraph 2 providing that the withdrawal agreement with, in this instance, the UK, shall be negotiated and concluded ‘taking account of the framework of its future relationship with the Union’. On the basis of this wording, I have argued that the European Council should have agreed to commit to essay of a streetcar named desire negotiations with the system, UK in relation not only about a narrow withdrawal agreement, but also about a broader agreement on the future relationship between the essay of a desire, UK and the EU (so that the substantive reality of Brexit is known by the end of the two year negotiating period). The EU has, however, opted for a phased approach to the negotiations, seeking first to defending ensure that there is an orderly withdrawal. In the light of the wording of Article 50, perhaps reluctantly it has conceded that ‘an overall understanding on critical essay of a named desire, the framework for the future relationship could be identified during a second phase of the negotiations’, adding that the EU and thesis its Member States ‘stand ready to engage in preliminary and preparatory discussions to this end in the context of negotiations under Article 50 TEU, as soon as sufficient progress has been made in critical essay streetcar named the first phase’ (see para.4). In this instance it appears as though the UK has the law on its side; but there is little it can do to force the EU to a thesis broaden the scope of the negotiations before it is ready to do so. Continue reading → The Five Crises in Europe and of a the Future of the EU.
Annual Lecture by Jean Claude Piris. 28 October 2013, Strand Campus, King's College London.