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Essay: Gene transfer techniques – pros and cons. Gene transfer is a technique to stably and efficiently introduce functional genes (that are usually cloned) into the target cells. Genetic transfer is the mechanism by which DNA is legit transferred from a donor to a recipient. Once donor DNA is inside the recipient, crossing over can occur. The result is a recombinant cell that has a genome different from either the donor or the sample, recipient. A recombination event must occur after transfer in order that the change in legit, the genome be heritable (passed on to the next generation).The genes are the blueprints essential to generate all the proteins in our bodies which eventually perform all the biological functions. Therefore, when a gene is efficiently introduced into a target cell of the host, the protein which is encoded by resume, that gene is produced . Gene transfer technologies developed initially as a research tool for studying the gene expression and its function.
A range of techniques and is megaessays.com, naturally occurring processes are utilized for the gene transfer. Techniques are available for the introduction of DNA into many different cell types in culture, either to study gene function and rubric, regulation or to produce large amounts of recombinant protein. Cell cultures have therefore been used on a commercial scale to synthesize products such as antibodies, hormones, growth factors, cytokines and viral coat proteins for immunization.The most important application of this technology is in vivo gene therapy, i.e. the introduction of DNA into the cells of live animals in order to is megaessays.com treat disease. Edexcel History. The extraordinary potential of legit altered DNA molecule is to give rise to new life-forms that are better adopted for survival. Change in base sequence of DNA leads to change in protein causing disease condition which can be corrected by manipulation of gene. Expert. Much emphasis has been given to is megaessays.com the gene manipulation in cardiovascular diseases, parkinson’s disease, lysosomal disorders, ocular gene therapy and osteoarthritis. Overview of gene-transfer strategies: Gene transfer can be achieved essentially via three routes. The most straightforward is direct DNA transfer, the physical introduction of foreign DNA directly into the cell.
For example, in cultured cells this can be done by microinjection, whereas for cells in vivo direct transfer is often achieved by bombardment with tiny DNA-coated metal particles. Essay. The second route is termed transfection, and this encompasses a number of techniques, some chemical and some physical, which can be used to persuade cells to take up DNA from their surroundings. The third is to package the DNA inside an. animal virus, since viruses have evolved mechanisms to naturally infect cells and introduce their own nucleic acid. Is Megaessays.com. The transfer of foreign DNA into a cell by this route is termed transduction. The choice of methods of DNA transfer depends upon rubric the target cells in which transformation will be performed.
It also depends upon the objectives of gene manipulation. The transfection may be either stable or transient. Although, choice of DNA transfer method is very important, the other important steps are selection of is megaessays.com gene, isolation of gene, preparing recombinant DNA and selection of bank po resume transformed cells. The regeneration of organism with new characteristics is also equally important. The delivery of genes in vitro can be done by treating the cells with viruses such as retrovirus or adenovirus, calcium phosphate, liposomes, particle bombardment, fine needle naked DNA injection, electroporation or any combination of legit these methods. These are the dissertation, powerful tools for research and have possible applications in gene therapy. FACTORS TO CONSIDER WHEN SELECTING A GENE DELIVERY METHOD. The advancement of new technologies has made gene delivery both more efficient yet more confusing given the formidable array of reagents and methods now available. Determining the is megaessays.com, best gene delivery approach for any particular experiment requires careful consideration of a number of different factors as stated below. 1. Cellular Context or Environment – The context or environment of the cells (i.e., in vivo vs. in.
vitro vs. ex vivo) to which nucleic acids will be delivered is the first factor to consider when. deciding upon a gene transfer method. The obstacles and challenges posed by delivery to in. vitro cell cultures are very different than those posed by in vivo or ex vivo cells, and require. different tools and techniques for overcoming them. For example, targeting nucleic acids to. particular cells while avoiding other cells is usually a major concern for expert in vivo gene transfer.
applications, sometimes a concern for ex vivo applications, but usually not a concern for in vitro. Another important issue that must be addressed when planning in is megaessays.com legit, vivo (but not in vitro) gene. delivery studies is the immunogenicity of the gene transfer system. This is particularly important when considering the use of essay certain viral vectors discussed previously, which may be highly immunogenic. Also related to legit immunogenicity is the issue of general safety, both for the experimenter and for the subject of any study utilizing transfection. Edexcel Essays. Almost always, the use of viral vectors requires very extensive safety precautions than does the use of synthetic transfection methods. 2. Cell or Tissue Type – The origin of the cells or tissue to which nucleic acids will be.
transferred is is megaessays.com typically the second parameter considered when selecting a gene delivery. method. Bank Po Resume. For a number of different reasons, the difficulty of cellular nucleic acid delivery varies. from cell type to cell type. Because of this, it is always important to review the literature to. determine if the cell type of interest has previously been utilized for gene transfer experiments, which exact methods have been used, and what delivery efficiencies were achieved, i.e., what. percentages of cells actually transfected or transduced, with each method.
Certain cell types are often described as ‘notoriously difficult to transfect’. These include primary cell cultures of many varieties. Successful gene transfer to such cells. usually requires a good deal of research before selecting any particular gene delivery method. 3. Delivery Efficiency – For most applications, transfecting or transducing as many cells as.
possible is is megaessays.com legit preferred, especially when it is necessary to expert resume sample detect the presence of rare transgene. products. Thus, it is important to determine the level of legit delivery efficiency required for a given. application before deciding on a particular gene transfer method. In most cases, it is found that. viral vectors provide the highest delivery efficiencies. For some commonly used and easily transfected cell lines, cationic lipids nearly match viral vectors in their gene transfer efficiency, while providing safer and much quicker procedures.
4. Sample. Stable vs. Legit. Transient Gene Delivery – Gene transfer procedures are frequently categorized. by whether the walden dissertation rubric, delivered gene remains separate from the host cell chromosome or whether it is integrated into the host cell chromosome. In the first case, known as transient gene delivery, expression of the transgene typically dissipates after a given period of is megaessays.com time – usually within. several days – because the expression vector is either degraded or expelled from the host cell. In the second case, known as stable gene delivery, expression of the transferred gene is.
prolonged, or stable, because the vector is integrated into the host cell chromosome. Obviously, different applications require different time periods of transgene expression. Thus, a careful. comparison between different gene delivery methodologies will allow a suitable choice for. generating the edexcel essays, desired transient or stable expression.
In the is megaessays.com legit, case of viral vectors, determining whether a particular virus is suited for stable or transient. transduction is simply a matter of learning the general characteristics of the vector. In the case. of chemical or physical/mechanical gene transfer, determining whether a given method is. suitable for moby dick essay transient vs. Legit. stable delivery may be as easy as reading sales literature from the. manufacturer or checking primary research literature.
5. Type of Delivered Molecule – Another factor to consider when selecting a gene delivery. method is what type of nucleic acid or other molecule is being transfected or transduced. For. example, a reagent that efficiently delivers plasmids may not efficiently deliver DNA. oligonucleotides. It is frequently easiest to simply review the walden, literature to learn what methods have been used successfully, and to contact other researchers who have experience delivering the molecule of interest. 6. Is Megaessays.com. Cytotoxicity – Another issue that comes up frequently when choosing among different gene. delivery methods is the cytotoxicity of the moby dick essay, various methods and reagents. Some methods, such.
as electroporation and gene guns, can be extremely harsh on cells and often result in the death. of a majority of is megaessays.com cells. Walden. Also, the is megaessays.com legit, DEAE-dextran can be quite harsh on some cell types, especially. when a DMSO or glycerol shock step is used as part of the procedure. In some applications, such as when a small number of transfectants are required from a recalcitrant cell type, this is.
not a problem. In the majority of applications however, a high percentage of cell death is simply. not acceptable. The plethora of available cationic lipids and polymer reagents have varying. degrees of moby dick essay toxicity with different cell types, and their concentrations during transfection can be. optimized as needed to minimize cell death. 7. Is Megaessays.com Legit. Suspension vs. Adherent cells – Most commonly transfected cells grow – and are. transfected – while attached to some type of support, whether that support is the walden, tissue from. which they are derived, some inert membrane or scaffolding, or the surface of a tissue culture. plate.
Less common are cells that grow while suspended in medium, such as those derived from. blood and is megaessays.com legit, other bodily fluids. Suspension cells are generally more difficult to transfect; therefore, it may be necessary to rely on harsher gene delivery methods, such as. electroporation, gene guns, microinjection, or viral vectors for walden dissertation acceptable transfection levels. Also, some cationic lipids can effectively transfect suspension cells, and should be tried when. possible due to their simplicity and cost-effectiveness. 8. Is Megaessays.com. Expertise – The degree of difficulty in performing the various transfection techniques can. vary significantly, and therefore the expertise and experience of the researcher is usually an. important factor to consider. For example, methods like microinjection viral transfection methods are invariably more complex than cationic lipids and polymer reagents. Also, of the chemical methods, calcium phosphate co-precipitation can be quite tricky due to its sensitivity to synthesis writing slight changes in is megaessays.com, experimental conditions.
9. Time – Another important factor to consider is the time required for gene delivery. Viral. methods, while highly efficient, can be quite time consuming, typically taking anywhere from two weeks to one month to complete. In contrast, chemical and physical/mechanical methods can usually be completed within a few days, but frequently provide lower transfection efficiencies. Thus, it is not uncommon to have to dissertation rubric weigh the benefits of legit faster results and less labor against the benefit of higher efficiency. 10 Cost – Finally, cost can be a major factor when deciding on expert resume sample the best gene delivery.
method for a given application. Is Megaessays.com. The most expensive methods tend to moby dick essay be the. physical/mechanical methods, such as electroporation and gene guns, due to the specialized. equipment they require.Viral gene delivery is perhaps the second most expensive method, since it requires the legit, vector reagents, extensive time and labor to edexcel history complete lengthy vector preparation procedures, as well as proper disposal of viral waste materials. The third most expensive gene delivery methods utilize polymers and legit, cationic lipids, which do not require any specialized equipment or lengthy viral vector preparation steps. Such reagents typically cost in the hundreds of dollars, depending on the number of transfections to teaching synthesis essay be completed.
Finally, the least expensive methods utilize calcium phosphate, which is a cheap and is megaessays.com legit, abundant mineral, and naked DNA, which obviously requires no transfection reagent cost, but can be highly inefficient. GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES. Transformation is the naturally occurring process of gene transfer which involves absorption of the genetic material by a cell through cell membrane causing the fusion of the foreign DNA with the native DNA resulting in the genetic expression of the received DNA. Transformation involves the teaching synthesis essay writing, uptake of is megaessays.com legit “naked” DNA (DNA not incorporated into structures such as chromosomes) by competent bacterial cells. Cells are only competent (capable of taking up DNA) at resume sample a certain stage of their life cycle, apparently prior to the completion of cell wall synthesis . Transformation is usually a natural method of legit gene transfer but as a result of technological advancement originated the artificial or induced transformation. Dissertation Rubric. Thus there are two types called as natural transformation and artificial or induced transformation. Legit. In natural transformation, the foreign DNA attaches itself to the host cell DNA receptor and with the help of the protein DNA translocase it enters the host cell. The presence of nucleases restricts the entry of two strands of the DNA, destroys a single strand thus allowing only one strand to enter the host cell. Any DNA that is not integrated into teaching writing the chromosome will be degraded. This single stranded DNA mingles with the is megaessays.com legit, host genetic material successfully.
The artificial or induced method of transformation is done under laboratory condition which is either a chemical mediated gene transfer or done by electroporation.. Genetic engineers are able to resume induce competency by putting cells in certain solutions, typically containing calcium salts. At the entry site, endonucleases cut the DNA into fragments of 7,000-10,000 nucleotides, and the double-stranded DNA separates into single strands. The single-stranded DNA may recombine with the host’s chromosome once inside the cell. This recombination replaces the is megaessays.com legit, gene in the host with a variant – albeit homologous – gene. DNA from a closely related genus may be acquired but, in general, DNA is synthesis essay not exchanged between distantly related microbes. Not all bacteria can become competent. Conjugation is a means of gene transfer in legit, many species of bacteria.
Cell-to-cell contact by a specialized appendage, known as the F-pilus (or sex pilus), allows a copy of an moby dick essay, F- plasmid (fertility plasmid) to transfer to a cell that does not contain the plasmid. On rare occasions an F-plasmid may become integrated in the chromosome of its bacterial host, generating what is is megaessays.com known as an Hfr (high frequency of moby dick essay recombination) cell. Such a cell can also direct the synthesis of a sex pilus. As the is megaessays.com legit, chromosome of the Hfr cell replicates it may begin to cross the pilus so that plasmid and chromosomal DNA transfers to the recipient cell. Such DNA may recombine with that of its new host, introducing new gene variants. Plasmids encoding genes for virulence factors antibiotic-resistance are passed throughout populations of bacteria, and between multiple species of bacteria by walden rubric, conjugation. In the laboratory, conjugation can be used to transfer disrupted genes on a self-transmissible plasmid, to develop a mutant strain. A gene of interest from is megaessays.com legit, a recipient E. coli strain is cloned into a self-transmissible vector and maintained in a donor strain for genetic manipulation. The deleted gene construct is then transferred by conjugation from the donor strain back into the recipient strain. Transduction is another method for transferring genes from bank po resume, one bacterium to another; the transfer is mediated by legit, bacteriophages. A bacteriophage infection starts when the virus injects its DNA into a bacterial cell.
The bacteriophage DNA may then direct the synthesis of new viral components assembled in the bacterium. Bacteriophage DNA is replicated and then packaged within the phage particles. Early in the infective cycle the act generosity, phage encodes an enzyme that degrades the DNA of the host cell. Some of these fragments of bacterial DNA are packaged within the bacteriophage particles, taking the place of phage DNA. As the number of phages increases it breaks open (lyse) the cell. When released from the legit, infected cell, a phage that contains bacterial genes can continue to infect a new bacterial cell, transferring the bacterial genes. Sometimes genes transferred in this manner become integrated into the genome of their new bacterial host by homologous recombination. Such transduced bacteria are not lysed because they do not contain adequate phage DNA for viral synthesis and these phages can enter an alternate life cycle called lysogeny. In this cycle, all the expert resume, virus’s DNA becomes integrated into the genome of the host bacterium. Legit. The integrated phage, called a prophage, can confer new properties to history the bacterium. Researchers use transduction as a means of gene transfer as it requires a media like virus for transferring genes from one cell to the other.
Viruses are thus as a tool to introduce foreign DNA from the is megaessays.com legit, selected species to the target organism. There are two types of transduction called as generalized transduction in which any of the bacterial gene is transferred via the bacteriophage to the other bacteria and specialized transduction involves transfer of edexcel history essays limited or selected set of genes. Viral vectors for gene transfer: The use of is megaessays.com viruses as vectors for transduction, i.e. the introduction of moby dick essay genes into animal cells by exploiting the natural ability of the is megaessays.com legit, virus particle, within which the transgene is packaged, to adsorb to the surface of the rubric, cell and gain entry is being employed . Due to the efficiency with which viruses can deliver their nucleic acid into is megaessays.com legit cells and the high levels of replication. and gene expression it is possible to achieve, viruses have been used as vectors not only for gene expression in cultured cells but also for gene transfer to living animals.
Four classes of viral vector have been developed for use in human gene therapy and have reached phase 1 clinical trials. These are the retrovirus, adenovirus, herpesvirus and adenoassociated virus (AAV) vectors . Before introducing the individual vector systems,we discuss some general properties of viral transduction vectors. Transgenes may be incorporated into. viral vectors either by addition to the whole genome or by replacing one or more viral genes. This is generally achieved either by ligation (many viruses have been modified to incorporate unique restriction sites) or homologous recombination. For many applications, it is edexcel history favourable to legit use vectors from which all viral coding sequences have been deleted.These amplicons (also described as ‘gutless vectors’) contain just the cis-acting elements required for packaging and genome replication. The advantage of such vectors is moby dick essay their high capacity for is megaessays.com foreign DNA and walden rubric, the fact that, since no viral gene products are made, the vector has no intrinsic cytotoxic effects. The choice of vector depends on the particular properties of the legit, virus and the intended host, whether transient or stable expression is teaching writing required and how much DNA needs to be packaged. For example, icosahedral viruses such as adenoviruses and retroviruses package their genomes into preformed capsids, whose volume defines the is megaessays.com, maximum amount of foreign DNA that can be accommodated. Conversely, rod-shaped viruses such as the baculoviruses form the capsid around the bank po resume, genome, so there are no such size constraints.
There is is megaessays.com no ideal virus for gene transfer ‘ each has its own advantages and disadvantages. In recent years, a number of hybrid viral vectors have been developed incorporating the beneficial features of two or more viruses. 1) viral vectors that especially efficient at transducing the intended cell type but not other cell types. 2) retroviruses are particularly proficient at act generosity essay delivering genes to dividing cells, such as cancer cells or immortalized cell lines. 1) cannot deliver genes to terminally differentiated cells. 2) viral vectors may be highly immunogenic. TRANSFECTION BY CHEMICAL METHODS. One of the methods of gene transfer where the genetic material is deliberately introduced into the animal cell in view of studying various functions of proteins and the gene is transfection.
This mode of gene transfer involves creation of pores on the cell membrane enabling the cell to receive the foreign genetic material. When transformation is carried out in eukaryotic cells it is termed as transfection. 1) Calcium phosphate mediated DNA transfer. The process involves a mixture of isolated DNA (10-100ug) with solution of. calcium chloride and potassium phosphate. . When the two are combined, a fine precipitate of the positively charged calcium and the negatively charged phosphate will form, binding the DNA to be transfected on its surface .Cells are then incubated with precipitated DNA either in solution or in tissue culture dish. Is Megaessays.com. A fraction of cells will take up the calcium phosphate DNA precipitate by a process not entirely understood but thought to bank po resume be endocytosis. Transfection efficiencies using calcium phosphate can be quite low, in the range of 1-2 % . It can. be increased if very high purity DNA is used and the precipitate allowed to is megaessays.com form slowly. 1. Frequency is very low.
2. Integrated genes undergo substantial modification. 3. Many cells do not like having the solid precipitate adhering to them. and the teaching synthesis essay writing, surface of is megaessays.com legit their culture vessel. 4. Moby Dick Essay. Integration with host cell chromosome is random. 5, Due to above limitations transfection applied to somatic gene therapy.
This technique is is megaessays.com used for introducing DNA into mammalian cells. This process has been a preferred method of essay identifying many oncogenes. 2)DNA transfer by DAE-Dextran method: DNA can be transferred with the help of DAE Dextran also. DAE-Dextran may be used in the. transfection medium in is megaessays.com legit, which DNA is present. This is a polycationic, high molecular weight substance and is convenient for transient assays. The negatively charged DNA binds to the polycation and the complex is taken up by moby dick essay, the cell via endocytosis.
If DEAE (diethylaminoethyl )-Dextran treatment is coupled with Dimethyl Sulphoxide (DMSO) shock, then upto 80% transformed cell can express the transferred gene. The advantage of this method is that, it is is megaessays.com cheap, simple and walden rubric, can be used for transient cells. which cannot survive even short exposure of calcium phosphate. The major advantages of the technique are its relative simplicity and speed, limited expense, and remarkably reproducible interexperimental and intraexperimental transfection efficiency. Disadvantages include inhibition of cell growth and is megaessays.com legit, induction of heterogeneous morphological changes in cells. Furthermore, the concentration of serum in the culture medium must be transiently reduced during the transfection. It does not appear to be efficient for the production of stable transfectants. For cells that grow in suspension, electroporation or lipofection is usually preferred, although DEAE-dextran-mediated transfection can be used. Transfer of DNA by polycation-DMSO: As calcium phosphate method of DNA transfer is reproducible and efficient but there is narrow range of optimum conditions.
DNA transfer by. Another polycationic chemical,the detergent Polybrene is resume sample carried out to increase the adsorption of DNA to the cell surface followed by a brief treatment with 25-30% DMSO to increase membrane permeability and enhance uptake of DNA. In this method no carrier DNA is required and stable transformants are produced. This method works with mouse fibroblast and chick embryo. LIPOSOME MEDIATED GENE TRANSFER. Liposomes are spheres of lipids which can be used to transport molecules into the cells. Is Megaessays.com. These are artificial vesicles that can act as delivery agents for exogenous materials including transgenes.
They are considered as spheres of moby dick essay lipid bilayers surrounding the molecule to be transported and legit, promote transport after fusing with the synthesis writing, cell membrane. Liposomes for use as gene transfer vehicles are prepared by legit, adding an appropriate mix of bilayer constituents to an aqueous solution of DNA molecules. In this aqueous environment, phospholipid hydrophilic heads associate with water while hydrophobic tails self-associate to exclude water from within the edexcel essays, lipid bilayer. This self-organizing process creates discrete spheres of continuous lipid bilayer membrane enveloping a small quantity of legit DNA solution. The liposomes are then ready to be added to act generosity essay target cells. Germline transgenesis is possible with liposome mediated gene transfer.Lipofection is the most common and generally utilized gene transfer technique in the recent years and it utilizes cationic lipids. The combined DNA and cationic lipids act instantaneously to form structures called as lipoplexes that are more complex in structure than the simple liposomes. Cationic lipids have a positive charge and these form cationic liposomes which interact with the is megaessays.com legit, negatively charged cell membrane more readily than uncharged liposomes. This leads to a fusion between cationic liposome and the cell surface resulting in quick entry by endocytosis and the delivery of the moby dick essay, DNA directly across the legit, plasma membrane.
Cationic liposomes can be produced from a number of cationic lipids that are commercially available and act generosity, sold as an in vitro-transfecting agent, termed lipofectin. However this pathway would usually result in the fusion of lipoplexes with lysosomes and undergo degradation. This problem is overcome by utilizing the neutral helper lipids, which are generally included along with the cationic lipid. This allows entrapped DNA to escape the endosomes, reach the nucleus and get access to is megaessays.com legit the cell’s transcriptional machinery.The endosomal structure is destroyed by increasing the osmotic pressure created by the lipids’ buffering action within the endosomes and by the fusion of the lipid with the endosomal membrane. The ability of a lipid to destroy endosomes is one of the main characteristics of a transfection reagent. 2. Long term stability.
4. Protection of nucleic acid from resume, degradation. 5. Is Megaessays.com Legit. particularly proficient at delivering genes to dividing cells, such as cancer cells or immortalized cell lines. 6. cationic lipids effectively transfect suspension cells. 1) Cannot deliver genes to terminally differentiated cells. A rapid and simple technique for introducing genes into a wide variety of microbial, plant and animal cells, including E. coli, is electroporation. Electroporation uses electrical pulse to bank po resume produce transient pores in the plasma membrane thereby allowing macromolecules into the cells. These pores are known as electropores which allow the molecules, ions and water to pass from one side of the membrane to another. The electropores reseal spontaneously and the cell can recover. The pores can be recovered only if a suitable electric pulse is applied .The formation of electropores depends upon the cells that are used and the amplitude and duration of the electric pulse that is applied to them. When subjected to electric shock, cells take up exogenous DNA from the suspending solution. Once inside the cell, the DNA is integrated and the foreign gene will express.
A proportion of these cells become stably transformed and can be selected if a suitable marker gene is carried on the transforming DNA. The most critical parameters are the intensity and duration of the electric pulse, and these must be determined empirically for different cell types. Electric currents can lead to dramatic heating of the cells that can results in cell death. Heating effects are minimized by using relatively high amplitude, a short duration pulse or by using two very short duration pulses. However, once optimal electroporation parameters have been established, the method is simple to carry out and highly reproducible. Many different factors affect the efficiency of electroporation, including temperature, various electric-field parameters (voltage, resistance and capacitance), topological form of the DNA, and various host-cell factors (genetic background, growth conditions) and post-pulse treatment. General applications of electroporation. 1. Introduction of exogeneous DNA into animal cell lines, plant protoplast, yeast protoplast and bacterial protoplast. 2. Electroporation can be used to increase efficiency of legit transformation or transfection of bank po resume bacterial cells. 3. Wheat, rice, maize, tobacco have been stably transformed with frequency upto 1% by this method.
4. Genes encoding selectable marker may be used to introduce genes using electroporation. 5. To study the transient expression of legit molecular constructs. 6. Walden Dissertation Rubric. Electroporation of early embryo may result in is megaessays.com, the production of transgenic animals. 7. Hepatocytes, epidermal cells, haematopoietic stem cells, fibroblast, mouse T and B lymphocytes can be transformed by this technique. 8. Naked DNA may be used for gene therapy by applying electroporation device on animal cells. Advantages of electroporation. 1. Method is fast. 3. Applied for a number of cell types. 4. Simultaneously a large number of cell can be treated. 5. High percentage of stable transformants can be produced.
1)Limited effective range of. 1 cm between the act generosity essay, electrodes. 2)Surgical procedure is required to is megaessays.com legit place the electrodes deep into the internal organs. 3)High voltage applied to tissues can result in irreversible tissue damage as a result of thermal heating. The technique has high input costs, because a specialized capacitor discharge machine is required that can accurately control pulse length and amplitude.
4) Larger numbers of moby dick essay cells may be required than for other methods because, in many cases, the most efficient electroporation occurs when there is up to 50% cell death. Sonication is the act of applying sound energy to agitate particles in a sample. Legit. Ultrasonic frequencies (20 kHz) are usually used, leading to the process also being known as ultrasonication . Sonoporation, or cellular sonication, is the use of these ultrasonic frequencies for modifying the act generosity essay, permeability of the cell plasma membrane. This technique is usually used in molecular biology and non-viral gene therapy in order to allow uptake of large molecules such as DNA into the cell, in a cell disruption process called transfection or transformation. Sonoporation employs the acoustic cavitation of microbubbles to enhance delivery of such large DNA molecules. Although the legit, early results could achieve only 10- to moby dick essay 30-fold increases in transfection efficiency in vitro, technical refinements have lead to enhancements of up to several thousand fold in vitro ,sufficient to encourage ultrasonication mediated gene transfer in vivo. 1) It is non-invasive and well tolerated, 2)extraordinary safety record over a wide range of frequency and intensity. 3)high levels of public acceptability and understanding.
there are highly sophisticated, flexible, cost-effective and readily available diagnostic and therapeutic systems that can achieve site-specific transfer of ultrasound energy almost anywhere in the body, except perhaps the lung. 4) The bioactivity of this technique is similar to, and in is megaessays.com, some cases found superior to, electroporation. 5) in bank po resume, vivo is relatively nontoxic. 1)Extended exposure to low-frequency (MHz) ultrasound has been demonstrated to result in complete cellular death (rupturing) as well as microvascular hemorrhage and is megaessays.com, disruption of tissue structure, thus cellular viability must also be accounted for when employing this technique. 2) Whether ultrasound affects later steps in the transfection process, particularly plasmid entry into the nucleus, remains unclear. Sonoporation is under active study for the introduction of foreign genes in tissue culture cells, especially mammalian cells.
Sonoporation is also being studied for use in targetedGene therapy in vivo, in a medical treatment scenario whereby a patient is given modified DNA, and an ultrasonic transducer might target this modified DNA into specific regions of the patient’s body. In microinjection DNA can be introduced into cells or protoplast with the help of expert resume sample very fine needles or. glass micropipettes having the diameter of 0.5 to 10 micrometer. The DNA may be directly delivered into the nucleus or in the cytoplasm. Some of the legit, DNA injected may be taken up by the nucleus. The desired gene in edexcel, the form of is megaessays.com legit plasmid or alone is injected directly into the plant protoplast. Injection into the nucleus is more efficient than that into the cytoplasm. Micro-injection is carried out with automatic equipments (robotics) using a micro-needle. Computerized control of holding pipette, needle, microscope stage and synthesis, video technology has improved the legit, efficiency of this technique.
Advantages of microinjection. 1. Essay. Frequency of is megaessays.com legit stable integration of DNA is far better as compare to history other methods. 2. Method is effective in transforming primary cells as well as cells in established cultures. 3. The DNA injected in this process is subjected to less extensive modifications. 4. Mere precise integration of recombinant gene in is megaessays.com, limited copy number can be obtained.
2. Skilled personal required. 3.Has not been successful for many plant cells . 4. Embryonic cells preferred for manipulation. 5. Knowledge of bank po resume mating timing, oocyte recovery is essential. 6. Method is useful for protoplasts and is megaessays.com legit, not for the walled cells. 7. Process causes random integration. 8. Rearrangement or deletion of host DNA adjacent to site of edexcel essays integration are common.
9. The technique is laborious, technically difficult, and limited to is megaessays.com the number of cells actually injected. Applications of walden dissertation microinjection. 1. Process is applicable for is megaessays.com legit plant cell as well as animal cell but more common for animal cells. 2. Technique is ideally useful for bank po resume producing transgenic animal quickly. 3. Procedure is is megaessays.com legit important for gene transfer to embryonic cells. 4. Applied to inject DNA into plant nuclei. 5. Method has been successfully used with cells and protoplast of. tobacco, alfalfa etc. Fig: microinjection in mouse egg. Biolistics or particle bombardment is a physical method that uses accelerated microprojectiles to.
deliver DNA or other molecules into moby dick essay intact tissues and cells. Biolistics transformation is legit relatively new and novel method amongst the physical methods for artificial transfer of moby dick essay exogenous DNA. The nucleic acid is delivered through membrane penetration at a high velocity, usually connected to microprojectiles like microscopic particles of tungsten or gold coated into cells using an electrostatic pulse, air pressure, or gunpowder percussion. As the particles pass through the cell, the legit, DNA becomes free to bank po resume integrate into the plant-cell genome. The gene gun is a device that literally fires DNA into target cells . The DNA to be transformed. into the cells is coated onto microscopic beads made of either gold or tungsten. Is Megaessays.com Legit. Beads are carefully. coated with DNA.
The coated beads are then attached to the end of the plastic bullet and moby dick essay, loaded into. the firing chamber of the gene gun. An explosive force fires the bullet down the barrel of the gun. towards the legit, target cells that lie just beyond the end of the barrel. When the bank po resume, bullet reaches the end of. the barrel it is caught and stopped, but the DNA coated beads continue on toward the target cells. Some of the beads pass through the cell wall into the cytoplasm of the target cells.
Here the bead and. the DNA dissociate and the cells become transformed. Is Megaessays.com Legit. Once inside the target cells, the DNA is. solubilised and may be expressed. 1. Biolistics technique has been used successfully to expert transform soyabean, cotton, spruce, sugarcane, papaya, corn, sunflower, rice, maize, wheat, 2. Genomes of subcellular organelles have been accessible to genetic. manipulation by biolistic method. 3. Mitochondria of plants and chloroplast of chlamydomonas have been. 4. Method can be applied to filamentous fungi and yeast (mitochondria).
5. The particle gun has also been used with pollen, early stage. embryoids, meristems somatic embryos, plant cells, root section, seeds and pollen. 6. This approach has been shown to is megaessays.com legit be effective for transferring transgenes into mammalian cells in vivo . 1. Requirement of protoplast can be avoided. Unlike electroporation and microinjection, this technique does not require protoplasts or even single-cell isolations and is applicable to even intact plant tissue. 2. Walled intact cells can be penetrated. 3. Manipulation of genome of subcellular organelles can be achieved. 4. This is expert sample also a highly mechanized or robotic mediated technique in which the. speed of the micro-projectile particles is controlled by foolproof mechanisms.
5) It is also gaining in use as a method for transferring DNA construct into whole animals. 6) This technique is fast, simple and safe, and it can transfer genes to is megaessays.com legit a wide variety of tissues. 7)there appears to be no limits to the size or number of genes that can be delivered. 1. Integration is random. 2. Requirement of equipments. 3.It can be a challenge to obtain a sufficient number of cells modified by this method to see a biologically significant effect. A new technique is presented to incorporate exogeneous gene materials (DNA) into expert resume cells with a microbeam irradiation from an uv pulsed laser. A frequency-multiplied Laser, 355 m wavelength, 5 ns pulse duration, punches a self-healing hole of submicrometer aperture in cell membrane under selected irradiation conditions.
At the is megaessays.com legit, site of the beam impact, due probably to local temperature changes, the cell membrane modifies its permeability. As a consequence of the hit, circular areas, whose radius may be apparently regulated by changing the irradiation time and/or the radiation intensity (energy), appear on the wall, last for essay a short time and fade spontaneously . It takes a fraction of a second for the aperture to close, long enough to allow the foreign DNA, contained in the medium, to is megaessays.com legit slip into the cell. It is well established that a strong pressure wave, known as a laser-induced stress wave (LISW), accompanies laser-induced plasma. We have extended their method to history essays deliver macromolecules, such as genes. Legit. Plasmid DNA (circular DNA residing in act generosity, bacterial cytoplasm) is is megaessays.com used as a vector of the essay writing, gene of interest. We inject the plasmid into target tissue, on which a laser target is legit placed, and subject the target to irradiation with a high-intensity, nanosecond laser pulse to induce plasma and hence an LISW. By placing optically transparent material on sample the target, the plasma is confined, resulting in an increase in legit, the LISW’s impulse.
Interaction of tissue cells with the LISW allows plasmid to enter the cytoplasm. 1) it only takes advantage of the presence of moby dick essay phenol-red, a normal cell medium component, with no need of addition of extraneous substances; (2) it is is megaessays.com legit a very mild treatment virtually suitable for any cell type and. (3) it allows transfection of selected cells even in the presence of moby dick essay cells of legit different type (providing that they are morphologically distinguishable). 4) . it is rapidly replacing virus mediated techniques as they have serious side effects caused by immune response and limited targeting characteristics rendering them inappropriate for clinical application. 5) The method offers a clear advantage over existing methods: increases the success rate of DNA transfection as well as the walden rubric, efficiency of cell modification by orders of is megaessays.com legit magnitude. 6) . It enables minimally invasive tissue interaction. Thus there are a number of essay ways by which the genes can be introduced into the cells. With the advent of is megaessays.com molecular tools and technologies it is now comparatively easy to introduce gene into history cells without losing its integrity and biological activity. Moreover the recent development in molecular biology has made the transfer of gene with great accuracy to the target cell. The transfer of is megaessays.com legit gene through different gene transfer technologies has cured a number of diseases. Research is on progress to cure those diseases which cannot be cured by using drugs.
Moreover the treatment of diseases by gene transfer provides better result for walden dissertation a prolong period of time. It is the legit, need of hour to sample discover new and cheap method of gene transfer technologies so to make the treatment of the diseases a little easier and affordable. Improvements in gene transfer are required in terms of legit transfection approaches to allow improved transgene uptake efficiencies. 1)Society of Applied Sciences. Gene Transfer Technologies and their Applications: K.H.KHAN.
Medical Biotechnology Division, School of Biosciences and Technology, VIT University, Vellore-632014, Tamil Nadu, India. 2)Principles of gene manipulation: R.W.Old ,S.B. Primrose and R.M.Twymann ‘ sixth edition,chapter 10 and 11. 3) BIOTECHNOLOGY 2020-From the Transparent Cell to. the Custom-Designed Process–Prof. Edexcel History Essays. Gerhard Kreysa Dr.-Ing. Is Megaessays.com Legit. E.h. Teaching. Dr.h.c.
Dr. R??diger Marquardt. 4) INTRODUCTION TOBIOTECHNOLOGY AND GENETIC ENGINEERING. 5)From genes to legit genomes- concepts and applications of DNA technology–Jeremy W Dale, Malcom von Schantz. Search our thousands of resume sample essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Science essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to is megaessays.com legit a high level in our area of expertise, and edexcel history, we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Science work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Science essay was submitted to us by legit, a student in synthesis essay, order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words.
If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to legit provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Essay: Gene transfer techniques – pros and cons . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/science/essay-gene-transfer-techniques-pros-and-cons/ [05-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and no longer wish to teaching have it published on our website then please click on is megaessays.com the link below to request removal: 13-09-17 - The Human Genome project (HGP) 22-08-17 - Adeno associated virus (AAV) vectors 01-08-17 - Test methods on dissertation the alkali carbonate reaction in concrete - fluxonic diode - Identifying an unknown organism from a cell phone 05-07-17 - Risk factors for alcohol abuse in men who have sex with men 01-06-17 - Monsanto vs. the world 19-05-17 - Patterns formed by increasing the is megaessays.com legit, scale factor – maths 12-05-17 - Swine influenza infections 24-04-17 - Medicinal plants and wound healing. We offer professional custom essay writing, dissertation writing and coursework writing service.
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What do CEOs do? A CEO Job Description. The Chief Executive Officer is one of the is megaessays.com legit most coveted titles, and least understood jobs in a company. Moby Dick Essay. Everyone believes that CEOs can do whatever they want, are all powerful, and is megaessays.com legit, are magically competent. Nothing could be further from the truth. By its very nature, the job description of a CEO means meeting the needs of employees, customers, investors, communities, and the law. Moby Dick Essay. Some of a CEO’s job can be delegated. But several elements of the job must be done by the CEO. Read on for the details of what makes a CEO.
What is is megaessays.com legit intrinsic to the CEO’s job? This isn’t a traditional job description; it’s an examination of the actual roles that a CEO plays (legally or de facto) within a company. The principle components of act generosity a CEO’s job description includes the following areas. Any individual CEO may take on any tasks that they wish, but these are the things that can’t be delegated: While a CEO may get input for some of those duties, it is the CEO’sand only the CEO’sresponsibility to legit, perform those well. Being the dissertation rubric CEO, they can spend the legit rest of their time doing whatever they decide they want to spend their time on. But ultimately, everything else about a given CEO’s job is optional.
Admit it. Moby Dick Essay. We all feel a touch of awe when someone has it: the CEO title. The power, the salary, and the chance to Be The Boss. It’s worthy of awe! Too bad so few CEOs are good at is megaessays.com legit what they do. History. In fact, only 1 in 20 are in the top 5%. Is Megaessays.com. Many don’t know what their job should be, and few of those can pull it off well. The job is simplevery simple. Sample. But it’s not easy at all. Is Megaessays.com Legit. What is a CEO’s job?
More than with any other job, the responsibilities of a CEO diverge from the duties and the measurement . A CEO’s responsibilities: everything, especially in bank po resume a startup. The CEO is responsible for the success or failure of the company. Operations, marketing, strategy, financing, creation of company culture, human resources, hiring, firing, compliance with safety regulations, sales, PR, etc.it all falls on the CEO’s shoulders. Being responsible means that the CEO is the one held accountable for the success of the is megaessays.com company’s efforts, across the edexcel history board. But of course, the is megaessays.com legit CEO doesn’t actually do all that work. The CEO’s duties are what she actually does , the responsibilities she doesn’t delegate. Some things can’t be delegated. Expert. Creating culture, modeling values, building the senior management team, financing road shows, ultimate approval of how money gets spent, and, indeed, the delegation itself can be done only by the CEO. What is the CEO’s main duty? Setting strategy and vision.
The senior management team can help develop strategy. Investors can approve a business plan. The Board can approve, advise, or ask the CEO to is megaessays.com legit, revise a business strategy. But at the end of the day, it’s the CEO who ultimately sets the direction: Which markets will the company enter? Against which competitors? What will the company’s product lines be? How will the company differentiate itself? Will it be low cost?
High service? Convenient Locations? Flexible financing? High-touch? Mass produced? The CEO decides, sets budgets, forms partnerships, sells off incompatible product lines, makes acquisitions, and sample, hires a team to steer the company accordingly.
Modeling and setting the company’s culture, values, and behavior. The CEO’s second duty is building culture. Work gets done through people, and people are profoundly affected by culture. A lousy place to work can drive away high performers. After all, they have their pick of is megaessays.com legit places to work.
And a great place to work can attract and retain the very best. Culture is built in synthesis writing dozens of ways, and the CEO sets the tone. Is Megaessays.com. Her every actionor inactionsends cultural messages (see Life Under a Magnifying Glass). Moby Dick Essay. Clothes send signals about how formal the workplace is. Who she talks to signals who is and isn’t important. How she treats mistakes (feedback or failure?) sends signals about risk-taking. Who she fires, what she puts up with, and what she rewards shape the culture powerfully. This can not be emphasized enough! People imitate a CEO’s behavior when deciding how to act. The book Pre-suasion by Robert Cialdini, documents at length the ways in which, for example, a dishonest CEO makes employees feel as if they can cut corners, steal from the is megaessays.com company, and generally behave according to those same standards.
A project team worked weekends launching a multimedia web site on a tight deadline. Walden Dissertation Rubric. Their CEO was on is megaessays.com, holiday when the site launched. She didn’t call to congratulate the team. To her, it was a matter of keeping her personal life sacred. To the team, it was a message that her personal life was more important than the weekends and evenings they had put in to meet the edexcel history deadline. Next time, they may not work quite so hard. Is Megaessays.com. The emotion and effect on the culture was real, even if it wasn’t what the CEO intended. Moby Dick Essay. Congratulations from the CEO on legit, a job well done can motivate a team like nothing else.
Silence can demotivate just as quickly. If vision is bank po resume where the company is going, values tell how the company gets there. Values outline acceptable behavior. The CEO conveys values through actions and reactions to is megaessays.com, others. Slipping a ship schedule to meet quality levels sends a message of valuing quality. Not over-celebrating a team’s heroic recovery when they could have avoided a problem altogether sends a message about prevention versus damage control. People take their cues about interpersonal valuestrust, honesty, opennessfrom CEO’s actions as well. Building and moby dick essay, leading the senior executive team. Team-building is the CEO’s #3 duty.
The CEO hires, fires, and is megaessays.com legit, leads the senior management team. They, in turn, hire, fire, and lead the rest of the organization. The CEO must be able to hire and fire non-performers. She must resolve differences between senior team members, and walden, keep them working together in is megaessays.com legit a common direction. She sets direction by communicating the strategy and vision of where the company is going.
Strategy sets the sample direction for the senior team, who in turn set it for the rest of the company. Is Megaessays.com Legit. With clear direction that everyone understands, the team can rally together and make it happen. Don’t underestimate the power of bank po resume setting direction. In 1991, at legit Intuit’s new employee orientation, CEO Scott Cook presented his vision of Intuit as the center of computerized personal finance. Intuit had just 120 employees and one product. Ten years later, it’s a billion-dollar company with thousands of teaching synthesis essay employees and dozens of products. Worldwide, it is the winner in legit personal finance, bar none.
The success is due in no small part to every Intuit employee knowing and sharing the essays company’s vision and strategy. Allocating capital to the company’s priorities. Capital allocation is the CEO’s #4 duty. The CEO sets budgets within the firm. Is Megaessays.com. She funds projects which support the strategy, and ramps down projects which lose money or don’t support the strategy. She considers carefully the company’s major expenditures, and bank po resume, manages the firm’s capital. If the company can’t use each dollar raised from is megaessays.com investors to produce at least $1 of shareholder value, she decides when to return money to the investors. Some CEOs don’t consider themselves financial people, but at the end of the day, it is their decisions that determine the moby dick essay company’s financial fate.  Pay no attention to the math background peeking from behind the legit curtain… back.
Knowing the job description is a good first step for a CEO, but to know how she’s doing, she needs to design her own measurement system. Unlike inconvenient lower-level jobs, no one tells the Chief Executive how she’s doing. Do managers let her know she’s undermining their authority, making poor decisions, or communicating poorly? Not likely. Expert. Even when a CEO asks for honest feedback, the fear is there: non-flattering feedback may stall a promising career. Even when a company uses 360-degree feedback, no one penalizes the CEO if she doesn’t act on the feedback. The Board of legit Directors supposedly oversees the CEO, but they are far removed from day-to-day actions. Over time, they can evaluate performance, but they look mainly at share price and company strategy. They are rarely interested in(or qualified to comment on!)the CEO’s daily behavior. But the CEO’s daily behavior will make or break the company!
The CEO’s duties don’t change because they are unmeasured. Indeed, lax measurement makes it easy for the CEO to feel confident, even when she shouldn’t. Good feedback is the only way to know what’s working, but share price simply doesn’t do it. External measures measure the dissertation rubric company, not the link between the is megaessays.com CEO’s actions. A low share price tells her something’s wrong, but it doesn’t help her figure out what. By measuring her performance based on her duties, a CEO can learn to do her job better.
As explained in part 1, the edexcel CEO’s job is setting strategy and vision, building culture, leading the senior team, and is megaessays.com legit, allocating capital. The last of these is easy to measure. The first three are more of a challenge. How does a CEO know she’s doing the vision thing? It’s hard.
Having vision isn’t enoughthat just takes a handful of mushrooms and a vision quest. Resume Sample. Communicating the vision is the key. When people “get it,” they know how their daily job supports the vision. If they can’t link their job to the vision, that tells a CEO that her communication is legit faulty, or she hasn’t helped her managers turn the vision into essay actual tasks. Either way, a CEO can monitor her success as a visionary by questioning and listening for employees to link their jobs with the legit company vision. Culture building is subtle, the culture a CEO sees may be very different from the culture of the rank-and-file. One company had a facilities policy that all equipment within 450 feet of the senior management offices was kept in top working order. Senior managers saw a smoothly running company, while everyone else saw neglect and carelessness. Surveys about openness, values, and morale can be used to develop a measure of culture. The questions to ask aren’t rocket science. The book First, Break all the Rules gives a great questionnaire for measuring overall culture.
Also, check turnover. When 95% of your workforce says they can’t wait to get to work, something is going right. If people rarely leave, and if it’s easy to attract top talent at below-market prices, you can be sure the culture plays a large role. If people leave (especially your top performers), againlook to culture. And don’t underestimate the power of walking around and counting smiles. If people are having fun, it will show. The CEO’s success at team-building can often be measured through the team. Edexcel. Teams usually know when they’re effective. They can also rate their team using assessments that measure specific behaviors. For example, “I can trust my teammates.” “My teammates deliver their part of the project on time.” “Every member knows what is legit expected of them.” Regular team self-assessments can help the CEO track the team’s progress and hone her abilities to keep the teaching synthesis essay writing team running smoothly. Easiest to measure is a CEO’s capital allocation skill.
In fact, financial measures are the ones made public: earnings and share price. But how can a CEO link those to her actual decisions? Working with her CFO, a CEO can devise financial measures appropriate to her business. Sometimes traditional measures are most appropriate, such as economic value added or return on assets (for a capital-intensive company). Other times, the CEO may want to invent business-specific measures, such as return on training dollars, for a company which values state-of-the-art training for employees. By monitoring several such measures, a CEO learns to link her budget decisions with company outcomes. Legit. Ultimately, the CEO’s should be creating more than a dollar of value for every dollar invested in the company. Otherwise, her best bet is to return cash to sample, the shareholders for is megaessays.com, them to invest in more productive vehicles.
In startups, earnings begin low to moby dick essay, nonexistent, and share price is more about salesmanship and vision than earnings. So the is megaessays.com CEO gets almost no useful feedback about her capital allocation wisdom. She doesn’t know whether a dollar spent on a slightly nicer-than-necessary copy machine is wasted or is a wise investment in a long-term. Careful attention to the design and tracking of financial measures can help her prepare for bank po resume, the transition to an earnings-driven company. In his 1988 Annual Report, Berkshire Hathaway chairman Warren Buffett included an excellent essay on CEO accountability.
Click here to is megaessays.com, read Mr. Buffett’s observations on CEO measurement.  The CEOs don’t help the problem. Many of my CEO clients highlight the walden dissertation value of honest feedback from their coach. Yet they complain about employees who disagree with them, just don’t “get it” or don’t have enough information “to understand the real issues.” In a coaching call, they can hear feedback and consider it. At work, they treat disagreement as dissension, and then wonder why everyone’s a “Yes man.” back. Pitfalls and Solutions for legit, the CEO.
A CEO can tank a company by not understanding their duties, or failing to set up good measurement systems. But it’s also true that the job itself can screw up the teaching synthesis writing person, as well. It’s said that power corrupts, and few positions are more powerful than CEO. While the USA may be a democracy, our companies are legal dictatorships with the CEO calling the is megaessays.com shots(1). While she may be having a great time playing Boss, the position may be taking a very human toll. It’s all too easy for the CEO to teaching synthesis essay, become a …; jerk(2) …; without realizing it. Legit. They can forgetif they ever knewwhat it was like to have a boss.
They are free to ignore feedback that they don’t want to hear, and no one will call them to task for it. They can bypass the chain of command when they want to edexcel history essays, meddle. They can give themselves raises and legit, genuinely believe they deserve it. Dissertation Rubric. And most dreadfully, they can forget what it is like to be “one of the little people”: don’t you have your nanny do that? The worker was an incredibly productive person. She worked harder than the CEO, got more done, yet couldn’t have afforded a nanny if her life depended on is megaessays.com legit, it.
The CEO didn’t intend to bank po resume, be a jerk, but his lack of empathy didn’t win many supporters. A CEO can become arrogant by is megaessays.com legit externalizing blame. Having no day-to-day accountability for her actions can also turn a CEO sour. When things go wrong, she can blame everyone around her without facing her own shortcomings. “My employees just don’t get it,” proclaims the CEO, never thinking for synthesis essay, a moment that she is the one who hired them. Did she hire incompetents? Or has she failed to communicate goals consistently and clearly? “Market conditions have changed.” she declares. A nice excuse, but isn’t it the CEO’s job to anticipate the market and position the company for success under a variety of is megaessays.com scenarios?
Without someone to keep her honest, she can gradually absolve herself of bank po resume all responsibility. Believing in a title can lead to overconfidence. Arrogance also threatens a CEO. “Because I am CEO, I must know the business better than anyone else.” It has been said, but it just isn’t true. No CEO can be an expert in is megaessays.com legit all functional areas. A CEO who is essay writing doing her job is spending time with the big picture. If she knows the details better than her employees, she’s either hiring the wrong people or spending her time at the wrong levels of the organization. It’s appropriate for a CEO to is megaessays.com legit, manage operations if absolutely necessary, but she should quickly hire good operational managers and return to leading the whole business.
If she also comes to believe that the CEO title grants infallibility, watch out. Even the Pope is only infallible a couple of edexcel history times each century. But CEOs can reinforce their delusions of grandeur by giving themselves higher salaries (surely she deserves it! After all, salary benchmarks show how underpaid she is) and legit, more perks. Then when layoffs come, the CEO wants applause for having the moral strength to make “hard choices,” quietly overlooking how her own poor decision making led to the need for layoffs. Of course, once infallible, there’s no more to learn, and a CEO may quietly stop learning. Resume. Without daily oversight and is megaessays.com legit, high quality feedback on how she does her job, she can mistakenly believe her actions lead to success.
In reality, she may be doing the wrong thing, but her staff may be working around the clock to cover for her. Furthermore, sins of omission aren’t penalized. A CEO who does an adequate job, but far less than she could/should have donegoes unnoticed. In hindsight, XYZ Software(3) could have had a $1 billion market niche, and resume sample, gone public with a valuation of tens of billions. Instead, it stuck to one product, had little understanding of its markets, and is megaessays.com, ignored competition. Yet it still went public in a $300-million IPO. Was management penalized for a lack of vision and market responsiveness? Hardly! The top managers walked off with $60 million apiece, reinforcing the edexcel history essays notion that they had done a great job. Yet with a slightly grander vision, the legit company might have been 10 or 100 times its size. Setting vision is the CEO’s job, but nothing tells her if her sights are too low.
She isn’t penalized for missing the edexcel essays grander vision. Such sins of omissions are a CEO’s worst enemy. She can be lulled into mediocrity by is megaessays.com not knowing what would have been possible. The four-minute mile was considered impossible…until Roger Bannister ran it. Now, it’s commonplace. Likewise, a CEO may limit herself by not realizing she can do her job better.
Though salary benchmarks are common, performance benchmarks are surprisingly rare. Quality learning demands a CEO benchmark herself against synthesis writing, other superb CEO’s. Her central learning question is not “are you doing a good job?” but “are other CEOs doing a better job and if so, how can you learn to measure up?(4)“ (1) Ok, ok. Is Megaessays.com Legit. Technically the Board of edexcel history Directors has hire/fire authority over the CEO, but the Board can’t control day-to-day operations. And while there are certainly boards that replace inept CEOs, it takes sustained incompetence over a long time to move a board to action. So for practical purposes, the buck stops with the CEO. back.
(2) Her employees may use less diplomatic terms. back. (3) Names are changed to protect the innocent. back. Coaching tips to stay sane and skillful at the top of the is megaessays.com legit heap. These coaching assignments will help an executive avoid some of the pitfalls of the CEO job. They are simple, easy, and bank po resume, won’t take much time.
They’ll help a CEO stay connected with workers, keep herself humble, and increase her learning while becoming more successful. The suggestions strive to be quick and easy to do, while still producing real results. Make Space to Practice These Assignments. Set aside 5 to 10 minutes, daily, to developing as a leader and human being. This will be the time you think about the below topics and set your mind for the day. Schedule the time if necessary. Just make sure that you do what’s right for your growth. Pace yourself. Life is long. Adopt these suggestions one or two at a time, and practice until you make them your own. Then move on.
Forcing won’t help; this is about developing at your own natural rhythm. Do one assignment for a few weeks, then move on to another. Keep the ones that work for you and drop those that don’t. Staying connected with “the little people” Cultivate an attitude of is megaessays.com legit respectyour respect for act generosity, them.
The “little people” are the ones turning your vision into reality. Legit. Meditate on history, this for a few minutes and ask yourself whether you can their jobs as well as they can. If you can, then you’re not hiring the is megaessays.com right peoplego change that! Otherwise, once a day, go talk to one of act generosity essay your low-level employeessomeone more capable than you in their area of expertiseand learn from them. Choose a different person each day. Legit. Get as close to walden dissertation rubric, the front line workers as possible. Listen with an legit, open mind and learn. Learn about their job.
Ask what works for them and what doesn’t. Above all, listen to their comments without judgment. Your goal is to connect with their experience of the world, not impose your own. Learn about their life. Find out edexcel history what motivates them. Why did they come work for you instead of somewhere else? Simply by spending a few minutes understanding their life, you can greatly increase your appreciation of how they’re different (and similar!). Share your vision and job with them, from a position of service. Pretend that your job is to make this person a success. Ask them how their job fits into the work the company does.
If they don’t know, take on the responsibility of helping them understand how their job links to is megaessays.com legit, the vision. Clarify any confusion they may have about where the synthesis company is going. Is Megaessays.com Legit. And ask them what you can do to help them succeed at act generosity essay doing their best. Then do it. Acknowledge, often! Without your employees, your dreams and legit, plans wouldn’t amount to teaching synthesis essay writing, much. Take every available opportunity to is megaessays.com legit, acknowledge the contribution of those around you and dissertation, give them credit, especially in public. Feedback is rare in most companies, and positive feedback is rarest of all(1). “Get” that it’s all your responsibility. Is Megaessays.com Legit. When things don’t go the way you want, take responsibilitywhether or not it’s your fault. The mindset of responsibility will put you in a much more powerful place than the mindset of writing blame.
Regularly review circumstances asking, “What could I do differently (or stop doing) to make a positive difference?” Identify the action and legit, then take it. You’ll be surprised how much more power you have over externalities, operating from responsibility rather than blame. Gather honest advisors to hold you accountable for your behavior. Sometimes a Board of dissertation rubric Directors will give honest feedback, but they are removed from legit your day-to-day behavior. Actively solicit feedback from walden dissertation rubric third parties: friends, peers, associates. Share your issues and how you’re handling them, and ask for an honest assessment. Everyone in a company is legit accountable to writing, someone for their behavior, except the CEO. Make yourself accountable as best you can. Identify your limits. Ask, “can someone else in is megaessays.com legit the world do my job better than I am currently doing it?” If the act generosity answer is legit Yes, seek out that person and ask for their guidance in getting better. Act Generosity Essay. If the answer is No, validate that answer by asking your advisors, competitors, suppliers, customers, and employees.
Many companies have crashed and burn because they believe they were the best, for no good reason but pride and ego. Create measurable performance criteria for is megaessays.com, your executive team, including yourself. Make sure people within the organization know your goals, and know what you can be counted on to do. Hold yourselves accountable. Moby Dick Essay. If you don’t meet your goals, withhold your bonus, take no raise, and legit, treat yourself exactly as you would treat an bank po resume, employee who missed their targets. It sends a powerful message to the company that you’re serious about performance.
Ask your direct reports, your Board of Directors, and legit, anyone else you work with for feedback a couple of times a year. You can use a 360-degree feedback process or simply ask in an e-mail. It’s a lot easier to edexcel essays, hear feedback on your performance if you’ve explicitly asked for legit, it. Videotape yourself receiving bad news. Watch the videotape and decide whether or not you would want to work for that person. Essays. If the answer is is megaessays.com No, learn to chill when you hear bad news. Study excellent CEOs . Call a CEO you admire and invite them to lunch. Bank Po Resume. Exchange tips and adopt tactics that others have found useful. Read books like First, Break All the Rules, which are broad-based studies of habits of top-performers.
Adopt at least one new habit a month. Create systems for gathering feedback. Interview customers, competitors, analysts, and legit, others in your industry to know how your company and products are perceived. Make sure you’re gathering feedback that will disconfirm your beliefs about the world, as much as confirms it. For example, if you think you’re #1 in your market, don’t just ask customers why they like your products. Ask what other products they use, and how your products fall short. Spend time learning about the bank po resume fundamentals of a CEO’s job: Setting strategy. The strategy and legit, vision for walden dissertation, the company determine where everyone will focus their efforts.
Find a vision and strategy and use it to align your entire company. Creating the corporate culture. Your culture will determine what people do and don’t try, who will stay, who will leave, and how business will get done. Culture starts with you. Decide how you want people to act and start modeling the legit behavior publicly. Essay. Capital allocation. Every dollar you raise and spend should produce more than $1 of return for the company, or it’s a waste of money. Learn how to legit, make these judgements.
Hiring and Firing. The job of executives is primarily team and teaching synthesis essay, culture building. Hiring and firing are must-have skills. Read, take classes, and review past hiring successes and mistakes. Do whatever you can to hone your abilities. Hold yourself to higher standards next year than you did this year. Is Megaessays.com Legit. Challenge yourself to bank po resume, learn to is megaessays.com legit, get more done with fewer hours and edexcel essays, fewer resources while creating a more balanced life for is megaessays.com legit, yourself. These are just a few of the things you can do to increase your chances for success as a senior executive.
I also believe in dissertation rubric working with a coach to identify and overcome (or compensate for) blocks in your performance. Success can be had with many different skill sets. The more you learn about is megaessays.com, yourself and your capabilities, the better you will be able to shape a job that works for you. Essay Writing. The more you learn about the capabilities of those around you, the better you will be able to build teams that produce spectacular results. (1) Social psychology has shown that rewarding desired behavior is legit far more effective than punishing bad behavior or non-performance. For reasons that aren’t entirely clear, our culture has evolved around using punishment as the main way of controlling behavior. Bank Po Resume. Unfortunately, punishment doesn’t work very well. Interestingly, animal trainers have known this for is megaessays.com, years. For an excellent book on the subject, check out bank po resume Don’t Shoot the Dog by Karen Pryor. back. Whether you’re a C-suite executive or just starting your career, you need to be able to legit, produce results fast.
Stever gives simple, practical advice for eliminating distractions, honing in on what’s most important, and reaching your goals faster and with more fun. Put his advice into action and increase your impact! 1996-2017, Stever Robbins, Inc. Act Generosity Essay. All rights reserved in legit all media. Essays. | Terms Privacy.
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Andy Rooney: In Praise of Older Women. Claim: 60 Minutes commentator Andy Rooney wrote an is megaessays.com legit essay #8216;In Praise of Older Women.#8217; Example: [Collected via e-mail, 2003] In Praise of Older Women. As I grow in age, I value women who are over 40 most of all. Here are just a few reasons why: A woman over 40 will never wake you in the middle of the night to walden rubric ask, #8220;What are you thinking?#8221; She doesn#8217;t care what you think. If a woman over 40 doesn#8217;t want to watch the game, she doesn#8217;t sit around whining about it. She does something she wants to do. And it#8217;s usually something more interesting.
A woman over is megaessays.com, 40 knows herself well enough to expert sample be assured in who she is, what she is, what she wants and from whom. Is Megaessays.com. Few women past the age of act generosity essay 40 give a damn what you might think about is megaessays.com legit her or what she#8217;s doing. Expert Sample. Women over 40 are dignified. They seldom have a screaming match with you at the opera or in the middle of an expensive restaurant. Of course, if you deserve it, they won#8217;t hesitate to is megaessays.com shoot you if they think they can get away with it#8230; Older women are generous with praise, often undeserved. They know what it#8217;s like to teaching essay writing be unappreciated. Women get psychic as they age. You never have to confess your sins to a woman over 40. They always know.
A woman over 40 looks good wearing bright red lipstick. This is not true of younger women or drag queens. Once you get past a wrinkle or two, a woman over 40 is far sexier than her younger counterpart. Older women are forthright and honest. They#8217;ll tell you right off you are a jerk if you are acting like one. You don#8217;t ever have to wonder where you stand with her#8230;. Yes, we praise women over 40 for a multitude of is megaessays.com reasons.
Unfortunately, it#8217;s not always reciprocal. For every stunning, smart, well-coiffed, hot woman of 40+, there is a bald, paunchy relic in yellow pants making a fool of himself with some 22-year-old waitress. Ladies, I apologize for all of history essays us. Origins: Andy Rooney, the legit curmudgeonly commentator who for many years closed every Sunday broadcast of television#8217;s 60 Minutes news magazine with a (typically sardonic) essay about synthesis writing some aspect of everyday life, was thanks to the Internet as well known for legit, what he hasn#8217;t said as he is for what he really had said. The piece quoted above, an act generosity essay essay #8220;In Praise of Older Women,#8221; is another portion of his #8220;hasn#8217;t said#8221; fame.
This item was not penned by Andy Rooney (who passed away at is megaessays.com the age of rubric 92 on 4 November 2011); it is an embellished version of a piece created by Frank Kaiser, a columnist whose Suddenly Senior articles are published on his web site and syndicated to a variety of newspapers across the legit U.S. Baltimore Sun writer Susan Reimer contacted Andy Rooney, who told her: #8220;It just bugs me that anybody would put my name on bank po resume something I didn#8217;t write,#8221; said Rooney from is megaessays.com, his New York office. He#8217;s been the object of this kind of hoax before, and another, he said, had just crossed his desk. I asked him if he shared the author#8217;s affection for walden rubric, older women, and he said, #8220;Not particularly.#8221; In October 2005, in his weekly 60 Minutes commentary, Andy Rooney said this of the piece: A saccharine collection of comments called ‘ANDY ROONEY ON OLDER WOMEN’ has had wide circulation. Is Megaessays.com Legit. I was pleased by how many people wrote to say they didn#8217;t believe I wrote it. Expert. The true author, Frank Kaiser, had this to say about the misattribution: I actually wrote it in 2000 but about a year ago [i.e., in 2002], I started seeing it come back to legit me in e-mails attributed to expert resume Andy Rooney. Is Megaessays.com Legit. It didn#8217;t bother me too much.
That#8217;s sort of the nature of the bank po resume Internet. I wrote him and made a joke about it and he called me. You know, he#8217;s just as cantankerous on is megaessays.com legit the phone as he is on the air. Frank Kaiser#8217;s original piece read as follows: One of the perks of dufferdom is an increased capacity to appreciate people. Friends. Spouses. And, for me, women.
All women. Synthesis Writing. When I was 20, I had eyes only for girls my age. Any woman over legit, 30 was ancient, over 40 invisible. Today, at 65, I still appreciate the 20-year-old for act generosity, her youthful looks, vigor, and (occasional) sweet innocence. Legit. But I equally enjoy women of expert sample my own age and beyond, and every age in between. I’ve learned that each has its own special wonders, attractions, magic and beauty. Legit. As I grow in age, I value older women most of all. Here are just a few of the reasons senior men sing the walden dissertation praises of older women: An older woman will never wake you in the middle of the night to ask, #8220;What are you thinking?#8221; An older woman doesn#8217;t care what you think. An older woman knows herself well enough to be assured in who she is, what she is, what she wants, and from whom. By the legit age of 50, few women are wishy-washy. About anything.
Thank God! An older woman looks great wearing bright red lipstick even in glaring sunlight. This is not true of walden younger women or drag queens. And yes, once you get past a wrinkle or two, an older woman is far sexier than her younger counterpart! Her libido’s stronger. Her fear of pregnancy gone. Her appreciation of experienced lovemaking is honed and reciprocal. And she#8217;s lived long enough to know how to legit please a man in ways her daughter could never dream of. (Young men, you have something to look forward to!) Older women are forthright and resume, honest. They#8217;ll tell you right off that you are a jerk if you#8217;re acting like one. A young woman will say nothing, caring what you might think of her.
An older woman doesn#8217;t give a damn. An older, single woman usually has had her fill of #8220;meaningful relationships#8221; and #8220;commitment.#8221; Can#8217;t relate? Can#8217;t commit? She could care less. Is Megaessays.com. The last thing she needs in edexcel history essays her life is another dopey, clingy, whiny, dependent lover!
Older women are dignified. They seldom contemplate having a screaming match with you at the opera or in the middle of an expensive restaurant. Of course, if you deserve it, they won#8217;t hesitate to shoot you if they think they can get away with it. Is Megaessays.com Legit. Most older women cook well. They care about cleanliness. They#8217;re generous with praise, often undeserved.
An older woman has the self-assurance to act generosity essay introduce you to her women friends. A young woman with a man often will ignore even her best friend because she doesn#8217;t trust the guy with other women. The older woman couldn’t care less. Women get psychic as they age. You never have to confess your sins to an older woman. They always just know. Yes, we geezers praise older women for a multitude of is megaessays.com legit reasons. These are but a few. Unfortunately, it#8217;s not reciprocal. For every stunning, smart, well-coifed babe of 70 there#8217;s a bald, paunchy relic in dissertation rubric yellow pants making a fool of is megaessays.com himself with some 22-year-old waitress. Ladies, I apologize for us.
That men are genetically inferior is no secret. Count your blessings that we die off at sample a far younger age, leaving you the best part of your lives to enjoy and legit, appreciate the bank po resume exquisite woman you#8217;ve become. Without the distraction of some demanding old fart clinging and whining his way into is megaessays.com, your serenity. Another celebrated encomium to older women was penned by a famous American statesman over 250 years earlier, when Benjamin Franklin wrote the piece known to us as #8220;Old Mistresses#8217; Apologue#8221;: I know of no Medicine fit to diminish the violent natural Inclinations you mention; and if I did, I think I should not communicate it to you. Marriage is the expert resume proper Remedy. It is the most natural State of Man, and is megaessays.com, therefore the State in which you are most likely to essays find solid Happiness. Your Reasons against entring into it at present, appear to me not well-founded. The circumstantial Advantages you have in View by postponing it, are not only uncertain, but they are small in comparison with that of the Thing itself, the is megaessays.com being married and settled. It is the Man and moby dick essay, Woman united that make the legit compleat human Being. Separate, she wants his Force of Body and Strength of Reason; he, her Softness, Sensibility and acute Discernment. Resume Sample. Together they are more likely to succeed in the World.
A single Man has not nearly the Value he would have in that State of Union. He is an incomplete Animal. He resembles the legit odd Half of a Pair of history essays Scissars. If you get a prudent healthy Wife, your Industry in is megaessays.com legit your Profession, with her good Economy, will be a Fortune sufficient. But if you will not take this Counsel, and persist in thinking a Commerce with the Sex inevitable, then I repeat my former Advice, that in bank po resume all your Amours you should prefer old Women to is megaessays.com young ones.
You call this a Paradox, and demand my Reasons. They are these: 1. Act Generosity Essay. Because as they have more Knowledge of the World and their Minds are better stor#8217;d with Observations, their Conversation is is megaessays.com legit, more improving and more lastingly agreable. 2. Dissertation. Because when Women cease to legit be handsome, they study to be good. To maintain their Influence over Men, they supply the Diminution of Beauty by an Augmentation of Utility. They learn to do a 1000 Services small and teaching essay writing, great, and are the most tender and useful of all Friends when you are sick. Thus they continue amiable. And hence there is hardly such a thing to be found as an old Woman who is not a good Woman. 3. Because there is legit, no hazard of Children, which irregularly produc#8217;d may be attended with much Inconvenience. 4. Because thro#8217; more Experience, they are more prudent and moby dick essay, discreet in legit conducting an Intrigue to prevent Suspicion. Act Generosity Essay. The Commerce with them is therefore safer with regard to your Reputation. Is Megaessays.com. And with regard to theirs, if the Affair should happen to be known, considerate People might be rather inclin#8217;d to excuse an old Woman who would kindly take care of a young Man, form his Manners by her good Counsels, and dissertation rubric, prevent his ruining his Health and Fortune among mercenary Prostitutes.
5. Because in every Animal that walks upright, the Deficiency of the Fluids that fill the Muscles appears first in the highest Part: The Face first grows lank and wrinkled; then the Neck; then the Breast and Arms; the lower Parts continuing to the last as plump as ever: So that covering all above with a Basket, and regarding only what is is megaessays.com, below the synthesis essay Girdle, it is impossible of two Women to know an legit old from a young one. Bank Po Resume. And as in the dark all Cats are grey, the Pleasure of corporal Enjoyment with an old Woman is at least equal, and frequently superior, every Knack being by Practice capable of Improvement. 6. Because the Sin is is megaessays.com, less. Act Generosity Essay. The debauching a Virgin may be her Ruin, and make her for Life unhappy. 7. Because the Compunction is less. The having made a young Girl miserable may give you frequent bitter Reflections; none of which can attend the making an old Woman happy. 8thly and Lastly They are so grateful!! Thus much for my Paradox. But still I advise you to marry directly; being sincerely Your affectionate Friend. Last updated: 23 January 2014.
Reimer, Susan. Legit. #8220;For Andy Rooney, It#8217;s a War of Words.#8221; Milwaukee Journal Sentinel. 22 May 2003. Rooney, Andy. #8220;60 Minutes: Weekly Commentary.#8221; CBS. 23 October 2005. Got a tip or a rumor? Contact us here. Bank Po Resume. Published: Jan 23rd, 2014. Did Jared Kushner Register to Vote in New York as a Woman?
Sep 28th, 2017 The New York City Board of Elections has said that their computer system is to blame for a mix-up over Jared Kushner’s gender in New York’s voter rolls. Snopes Facebook Group. Are NFL Players Required to is megaessays.com Stand on essay the Field During the National Anthem? Sep 24th, 2017 Confusing claims about whether the NFL's rulebook or game operations manual specifically requires players to stand on the sideline during the pre-game playing of the U.S. national anthem. Rock Legend Tom Petty Suffers Cardiac Arrest at 66. Oct 2nd, 2017 His collapse came a week after he and his group the is megaessays.com Heartbreakers concluded their 40th anniversary tour. Did Donald Trump Bankrupt a Golf Course, Leaving Puerto Rico with $33 Million in edexcel essays Debt? Sep 27th, 2017 A viral string of tweets gets some facts right about a failed business venture involving a Trump company, but it also leaves out some important context. #8216;Nothing, Nothing.#8217; Aid Lags in Hurricane-Torn Puerto Rico. Sep 27th, 2017 Many of the more than 3.4 million U.S. Is Megaessays.com Legit. citizens in Puerto Rico were still without adequate food, water and fuel five days after Hurricane Maria hit.
Are Facebook Users Secretly Following You? Updated Instructions for blocking Facebook users who are supposedly furtively following you are spurious. Updated What appears to be a $100 (or $50) coupon giveaway by Lowe's is actually a scam. Bank Po Resume. Was a Protester Throwing Explosives Into a Berkeley Crowd Before She Was Punched? Apr 20th, 2017 There's no evidence Louise Rosealma was using a glass bottle she appeared to is megaessays.com be holding as an incendiary device. Did a 1950s TV Episode Feature a Character Named Trump Who Offered to Build a Protective Wall? Jan 9th, 2017 An episode of the 1950s western TV series 'Trackdown' featured a character named Walter Trump who claimed he would build a wall in order to expert sample protect a town from the end of the world. Did Jeff Sessions Say He#8217;s Amazed a Judge #8216;On an Island in the Pacific#8217; Can Block Executive Orders? Apr 20th, 2017 The Trump administration's Attorney General expressed his amazement on a radio talk show.
Updated Rumor holds that conservative rocker Ted Nugent evaded the Vietnam-era draft by taking drugs and acting crazy during his pre-induction physical.
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Is megaessays com a scam or legit - …
essay on clays quilt Freedom’s Story is made possible by is megaessays.com, a grant from the rubric Wachovia Foundation. Rooted in is megaessays.com legit Africa, Raised in America: The Traditional Arts and Crafts of. African-Americans Across Five Centuries. John Michael Vlach. Professor, American Studies and essay Anthropology. The George Washington University. National Humanities Center. Rarely do studies of slavery mention the valuable skills and tangible creations of the is megaessays.com legit millions of Africans brought to the New World. Much is moby dick essay, madeand rightly soof African talents in storytelling, music, and dance but these modes of creative performance do not adequately describe the full range of Africa’s contributions to American culture.
The Africans brought to the New World to toil their lives away as slaves were generally cultivators. They also possessed a wide range of skills that they had used for is megaessays.com legit, generations to wrest a living from the land and among these millions of unwilling immigrants were many skilled artisans. They included builders who erected houses for their families and other structures that sheltered their annual harvests. Moby Dick Essay? When confronting the challenges of living in the dense tropical forests of their homelands, they turned to their local blacksmiths who forged the necessary iron tools that allowed them to clear and maintain their garden plots. Basket makers provided them with various containers that allowed crops to be harvested and legit stored until needed. Edexcel? Potters turned local clays, found most often along the banks of numerous rivers and streams, into useful cooking and legit storage vessels. Moby Dick Essay? Other domestic implements, items like serving bowls and legit drinking cups, could be fashioned from gourds of varying sizes and baskets were made from walden rubric, reeds, palm leaves, and a wide variety other vegetal materials. Over the course of several millennia African populations developed the means to live successfully within a challenging environment of is megaessays.com legit, extreme heat, prolonged rain, and dense forest cover. Labeled by essay, Europeans as savages, these people possessed a wide array of tangible skills that would ultimately prove to be precious immigrant gifts that they would contribute to the making of the Americas. Unfortunately for them, they were within easy reach of legit, slave traders whose ships made regular calls along almost five thousand miles of edexcel essays, Africa’s coastal shores. Asante-style drum.
The well-documented horrors of captivity in the foul holds of legit, slave ships drive from our minds any images except those of horrible misery and suffering. Yet objects of considerable creativity, on occasion, also made the walden dissertation rubric same voyage from Africa to is megaessays.com legit the Americas. Essay? There is today in the British Museum a drum carved from a section of a tree trunk that was collected in Virginia some time between 1730 and 1745. The drum’s shape, materials, and mode of decoration are so distinctive that the instrument can confidently identified as one made by a person belonging to the Akan-speaking peoples who still reside in is megaessays.com legit the modern nation of Ghana. Act Generosity Essay? There can be little doubt that this musical instrument was used in legit some plantation context almost half a century before the American Revolution. The presence of such an act generosity essay unquestionably African object in the Americas indicates that the captives who were taken far from their homeland were still able to retain selected aspects of their native identities. It was more often the case that elements of their culturelanguage, religion, and foodways to name a fewwould over time become blended or creolized expressions as Africans evolved into African-Americans. Banjo being played at legit, slave.
quarter with a drum. accompaniment. Walden Dissertation Rubric? 18th Century. In plantation societies the playing of legit, drums was generally outlawed due to the fear by slave owners that such instruments could be used to teaching synthesis writing send messages related to rebellion and escape. Legit? Such prohibitions did not however apply to teaching essay writing other African musical instruments such as the banjo. Is Megaessays.com? In fact, the appealing sound of the banjo would, by the dawning of the nineteenth century, ignite a national fascination for its compelling combination of melody and percussion.
As a player’s fingers plucked a lively tune on the strings, he would simultaneously mark the song’s beat when his hand tapped the teaching synthesis essay skin stretched over the sounding chamber. Functionally the banjo joined the lute to the drum, an act that fused melody with a strong rhythmic punctuation. This combination of tune and percussion in a single instrument proved to be so appealing that banjo tunes that were first heard in is megaessays.com plantation contexts are played today. Essays? However, the is megaessays.com banjo is now so thoroughly associated with the Appalachian highlands and Anglo-American musicians that only a handful of enthusiasts are aware of walden dissertation, either the banjo’s African origins or its long history among African-American players. African Potter and Colonoware samples. 2005 African Diaspora Archaeology Network. Archaeologists, who have probed the grounds on old plantation sites dating back to the seventeenth century, regularly turn up fragments of unglazed earthenware pottery. Seeming to be very crude when compared to the stoneware vessels commonly in use in Euro-American households, these items were initially presumed to have been made by Native Americans of the colonial period who perished shortly after the arrival of the is megaessays.com legit first European settlers.
Initially labeled as Colono-ware, it is now clear that many of these pieces were fashioned by expert resume sample, Africans. Consequently these rough earthenware vessels should be recognized as Afro-Colono pieces if not, in is megaessays.com some cases, simply as examples of African pottery. During the moby dick essay colonial era South Carolina’s enslaved blacks outnumbered white people by a ratio of four to one and, given this numerical dominance, planters found that they could only effectively supervise their slaves when they were out in the fields. Legit? Consequently, the act generosity essay routines carried out in their domestic quarters couldand didreconnect them to some of the is megaessays.com practices of their African homelands as they fashioned their own clay vessels and used them to cook their meals according their own preferences. Sample? The African quality of their domestic routines was so evident to one eighteenth-century visitor that he would write that “Carolina looks more like a negro country than like a country settled by white people.” At plantation sites across the Carolina lowcountry archaeologists have discovered that over ninety percent of the is megaessays.com ceramic evidence consists of moby dick essay, fragments of Colono-ware, a finding that suggests that slaves controlled far more of their domestic routine than was previously suspected.
Given that Africans were the largest population group in South Carolina during the colonial era, it should not be too surprising that black Carolinians would continue to is megaessays.com legit use their African languages when conversing among themselves. But even when they had developed a creolized variant called Gullah, this new language still retained many African elements. They also developed an Africanized spatial “language” that was used in the design and layout of their quarters. To some white observers these buildings were too small and thus seemed uncomfortably crowded. This is because when English rules of measure were employed, room sizes were generally in range of 264 square feet (16 feet x 16 feet). In West African buildings rooms are considerably smaller being, on average, closer to edexcel history 100 square feet (10 feet x 10 feet). The Afro-Carolinian average room size, based on a sample of excavated foundations, was 120 square feet (approximately 11 feet x 11 feet). These proportions suggest that slaves continued to employ a sense of proportion that recalled the traditional house types found all along the Guinea Coast region from Sierra Leone to Cameroon. Filming “Digging for legit, Slaves.” Wall trench and act generosity post holes.
in slave quarter. Whenever African-Americans were able to is megaessays.com legit exert a degree of moby dick essay, control over is megaessays.com, their working or living conditions, there usually emerged interesting tangible signs of essay, their concerns 1859 Jar. (a.k.a. Dave the is megaessays.com legit Potter). 25-Gallon Jar. (a.k.a. Dave the Potter). and values. As early as the 1820s in Edgefield District of edexcel, western South Carolina, for example, slave labor was used extensively in the manufacture of stoneware pottery. Legit? The most noteworthy black potter in the area was David Drake, an extraordinarily skilled man who is credited with producing the largest vessels ever made during the teaching essay writing antebellum periodhuge crocks with holding capacities of almost fifty gallons. Beyond the achievement of is megaessays.com, creating vessels that were so monumental in scale, Drake also added inscriptions in the form of edexcel essays, witty rhymed couplets like “A large jar which has four handles/ pack it full of fresh meatthen light candles” or “Good for is megaessays.com, lard/ or holding fresh meat/ Blest we were when/ Peter saw the folded/ sheet.” But he could also offer more sobering statements on his captivity: “Dave belongs to Mr.
Miles/ wher[e] the oven bakes the walden dissertation pot biles.” That he would display his literacy in public was a dangerous gesture since South Carolina law required that any slave who was literate was to be sold out of the state because of is megaessays.com legit, his ability to send secret messages to other slaves who might be plotting escapes or even rebellions. But because Drake was so skilled and could clearly make the sorts of large storage jars required by the bigger plantations, the criminal penalties for his literacy were apparently overlooked. That Drake’s craft skills had evidently earned him a rare dispensation from the penalties of the local slave codes would signal to other slaves that skill was a potential pathway to rubric privilege. Is Megaessays.com Legit? Face jugs attributed to a slave potter in. Edgefield, South Carolina, about 1850. While the potteries of the Edgefield District were established to satisfy planters needs for utilitarian wares, by edexcel history essays, the middle decades of the nineteenth century some African-American potters were making small vessels that were sculpted into the form of human heads. Generally about five inches tall (although one example measures less than an inch-and-a-half), their purpose has never been discovered and thus remains open to speculation. It is, however, worth noting that these small face pots strongly resemble wooden sculptures known in the Congo region of is megaessays.com legit, central Africa which also have shiny white material inserted in them to mark eyes and teeth in exactly the same manner as the teaching synthesis essay writing Edgefield vessels. The opportunity to develop pottery skills allowed African-Americans to develop new skills even as they as retained some aspects of an ancestral tradition. Sherry Byrd and her “Home-grown/ Hand-made/Passed-on-Family” quilt.
While quilted bedcovers were not used in the tropical homelands of enslaved Africans, they soon learned how to is megaessays.com make them. Requiring thousands of tiny stitches to dissertation attach the colorful quilt top to a plain back, assembling a quilt could take months to complete. Fannie Moore, who was still a child when slavery was abolished, recalled how her mother quilted in is megaessays.com legit her cabin making bedcovers for “the white folks” as well as for her own family. One particularly noteworthy quilt decorated with images of moby dick essay, chalices was made in 1860 by some of the legit enslaved women of essay writing, Mimosa Hall plantation in East Texas. Created on the occasion of a visit by is megaessays.com legit, an Anglican bishop, the quilt is today a high prized work of art owned by the American Museum in Britain located at Claverton Manor in Bath, England. Act Generosity? Bedcovers of this sort rigorously follow a strict grid pattern typical of most Anglo-American quits and in this instance black quilters contributed only their labor as the legit quilt was assembled. But over their years of walden dissertation, captivity, black quilters evolved their own approach to quilt-making by is megaessays.com legit, developing a style open to imaginative patterns that break away from the usual Euro-American patterns based on a strict repetitive geometry.
Contemporary African-American quilter Sherry Bryd actually rejects old patterns saying “I don’t like to do the same things over and over again, and so I just kind of build my own quilts as I sit at walden, the machine.” The improvisatory mode that she describes has led many quilters to experiment with novel notions of legit, quilt design. The most adventuresome proceed intuitively working out ideas that they have never tried before although they still seem to be, in moby dick essay some way, familiar. African-American Quilter Wanda Jones explains that “It’s nothin’ about makin’ it a little different. It’s still the same pattern. You just add somethin’ of your own to it.” A fusion of past and present occurs while a quilter is legit, sorting out some of the various ways that she might assemble her quilt. Edexcel Essays? This review process has led ultimately to a preference for a set of constantly evolving patterns. The fluid design process seen in so many contemporary African-American quilts is analogous to is megaessays.com the open-ended approach to musical composition that can be heard in blues and jazz performances where improvisational technique constantly interrupts regularized notions of tone and time. Mary Lee Bendolph, Mary Lee Bendolph.
and Ruth P. Mosely. Recently there has been much public acclaim for act generosity essay, the quilts produced in legit the small central Alabama town of Gee’s Bend. These exciting bedcovers have been displayed, so far, at twelve major museums all across the country and can be seen on a host of websites. Act Generosity Essay? Marked by bold color choices and patterns that break away from the expected regularized patterns of repeated blocks, these quilts strike most viewers as works of are equivalent to abstract paintings. Actually the Gee’s Bend quilts derive from so-called “throw together” quilts known to is megaessays.com legit southern blacks as far back as the sharecropper era and, in some cases, even to slavery times.
While they are now widely hailed as outstanding works of art, for the Gee’s Bend community they are necessary items grounded in the experience of the self-reliant forebears. Moby Dick Essay? Some quilters see in the quilting process an expression of is megaessays.com, homage to ancestors who survived conditions much worse than what they may have to bank po resume confront today. Contemporary Gee’s Bend quilter Mary Lee Bendolph acknowledges a feeling for the past in her work when she selects the materials for her quilts: “Old clothes carry something with them. You can feel the presence of the person that used to wear them. It has spirit in them. Even if I don’t even know the person, I know someone wore those pants, and it feels lovely and warm to me.” But the past is only one of the influences that she brings together with her own personal insights and preferences as she creates a quilt: “I never try to quilt altogether like anybody It’s better if you do what you are supposed to do than to try and copy somebody else.” In the hands of an artist like Bendolph an legit old art form like quilting remains fresh and relevant. Contemporary African-American folk artists find themselves faced with the possibility of honoring the legacy of the past even as they look for a way to make their own mark. Philip Simmons, a renowned blacksmith who worked in Charleston, South Carolina for seventy years, was trained by Peter Simmons (no relation), a man who was born a slave. Peter Simmons’ history in synthesis essay ironwork traces back at is megaessays.com legit, least as far as the first decades of the nineteenth century. But when asked about the importance of this history in carrying on his ancient trade, Philip Simmons suggests that the future always held more of an attraction for him because of the appeal of the unknown: “After all those many years [of working], I’m still learning things.
I’m still doing things I have never done before. There is always something you can learn. Blacksmithing, there’s always something new to learn.” So often the edexcel essays dominant interest in history is is megaessays.com, focused on looking back over time in order to answer questions related to origins. While the study of the historical record is important, Simmons encourages us to alter our perspective and to rubric consider how the great arc of history also reaches forward to contemporary generations.
He suggests that if we have a good understanding of older precedents and the desire look at them with care, we might be able to see how historical influences can move beneficially on into the future. Simmons’s suggestion about the utility of traditional knowledge in the present can be seen daily in the streets of Charleston, South Carolina. Philip Simmons, 1982. Photographed by Tom Pich, for the National Endowment for the Arts, National Heritage Fellows. Every morning African-American basket sewers return to their chosen street corners where they ply their centuries-old trade of making coiled baskets. As early as 1690s, their ancestors made rice fanners, three-foot-wide trays fashioned with thick coils that were used to clean the rice before it could be cooked. Is Megaessays.com Legit? They also made a wide assortment of containers that were used both in bank po resume their homes and in the fields.
The baskets made for home use tended to be smaller and thus their coils were thinner and is megaessays.com their shapes more elegant than the rubric baskets used for field tasks. When a series of hurricanes at the end of the nineteenth century destroyed the vast rice fields that stretched from North Carolina to Florida, there was no longer a need for most work baskets but the is megaessays.com more resourceful basket makers began to focus on act generosity essay, flower baskets and other decorative forms that might be sold to is megaessays.com tourists. Known as “show baskets” because they allowed a basket maker to show-off her particular talent, thousands of them can be seen most often at small stands along the coastal highway (Route 17). Consequently, the public presence of basket sewers has become an exotic feature of the local scene that can lure tourists to Carolina lowcountry. During the last quarter of the twentieth century, sweetgrass basket sewers (and there are hundreds of them) were celebrated in several museum exhibitions, both locally and nationally, and as a result of this attention their baskets have come to be celebrated as the product of an unbroken tradition that has endured into its fourth century. One of the great contemporary stars, among many highly talented basket sewers, is Mary Foreman Jackson who has placed her works at an impressive list of notable museums that include: the act generosity essay Smithsonian American Art Museum, the legit Boston Museum of Fine Arts, and the Philadelphia Museum of Art. Edexcel History? Jackson’s baskets are so highly regarded that when prominent figures visit South Carolina they presented with one of is megaessays.com, her baskets as a remembrance of the event. Included among these dignitaries are: Pope John Paul II; Charles, Prince of Wales, and the Emperor and Empress of Japan.
That a humble tool for cleaning rice could give rise to a prestigious art form used to honor the essay world’s most noteworthy figures, speaks volumes about the creative energies embedded in legit the African-American community and the enduring power of their traditions. Clearly a community that can produce such talented artists deserves closer study so that their hidden virtues might, one day, become a source of walden rubric, national pride. Guiding Student Discussion. Deriving history from artifacts is a tricky proposition for most scholars because they are so used to gathering information by reading written documents. But objects and spaces, the tangible record of human experience, also have the ability to mark and express the record of human actions if they can be accurately placed in a geographic context and a historical sequence. Once archaeologists can link a dusty sherd of legit, pottery to a person from a specific location during particular period, they can use that fragment to carry our minds back to that very same moment. By attending carefully to the materials, size, construction, decoration, and use of an object, whether it is as small as a pin or a large as house, a detailed biography can be constructed of any artifact (see Fleming’s cited below for a model). With that profile in synthesis essay writing hand, one can turn then to a particular type of artifacta quilt, for exampleand compare it to others of the is megaessays.com legit same class and then make useful observations of similarities and differences over time or across regions. What emerges from such an inquiry is synthesis essay writing, something of the life history of the legit object that might indicate the virtues or flaws of a particular quilt pattern. If enough quilts are sampled as group, it may be possible to expert learn something about the artistic direction followed by a particular community. My book The Afro-American Tradition in Decorative Arts samples a wide array of topics that might be considered for class or individual projects: basketry, woodcarving, weaving, quilting, pottery, boatbuilding, blacksmithing, carpentry.
Since we live an era where most people are consumers rather than producers of the things they use every day, life in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries is bound to is megaessays.com legit appear very alien, if not irrelevant. Students might be benefit from assignments that require them to inspect aspects of the daily routines of synthesis, slaves. Reading selected slave narratives, particularly those collected by interviewers working for the Federal Writer’s Program, will take students directly into the slave quarters and their work areas (see Yetman). Often filled with memories of harsh treatment and cruel exploitation, their accounts also describe instances of legit, diligent work and craft skills. The evident pride that some people express indicates that their statements made by material means served as a partial therapy for expert resume sample, their cruel treatment. Legit? By creating a wide array of domestic items that they could use in their quarters, enslaved African-Americans proved that they were more the mere property. Gabe Lance, who worked for many years in expert the rice fields of South Carolina, when asked about legit, life during the years before the Civil War, responded with apparent pride and a measure of bravado “Missus, Slavery time people done something!” It would be very therapeutic if students could understand that enslaved people were more than the sum of their brutalizationand further that a legacy, rooted in African aesthetic that continues to live on, can still be witnessed via a considerable number of tangible signs. John Michael Vlach is Professor of American Studies and Anthropology at edexcel, The George Washington University and Director of the university’s Folklife Program. His scholarship has focused on aspects of the African Diaspora, conducting field research in is megaessays.com legit Africa (Ghana, Nigeria), the Caribbean (Haiti, Jamaica), and across the sample southern regions of the United States. Legit? Author of ten books, his titles include The Afro-American Tradition in Decorative Arts , Common Places: Readings in Vernacular Architecture (with Dell Upton), By the Work of moby dick essay, Their Hands: Studies in Afro-American Folklife , Plain Painters: Making Sense of is megaessays.com legit, American Folk Art , Back of the Big House: The Architecture of Plantation Slavery , The Planter’s Prospect: Privilege and Slavery in Plantation Paintings, and Barns (winner of the essay 2003 Kniffen Prize for Best Book on North American Material Culture). Address comments or questions to is megaessays.com legit Professor Vlach through TeacherServe “Comments and Questions.”
Vlach, John Michael. Bank Po Resume? “Rooted in Africa, Raised in America: The Traditional Arts and Crafts of African-Americans Across Five Centuries.” Freedom’s Story, TeacherServe. National Humanities Center. DATE YOU ACCESSED ESSAY. Legit? http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/tserve/freedom/1609-1865/essays/africa.htm 7 Alexander Drive, P.O. Bank Po Resume? Box 12256. Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709. Phone: (919) 549-0661 Fax: (919) 990-8535.
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When referencing our work, you must use a proper citation. i Revisions are offered within seven (7) days of a completed order and are free with a three-day deadline. For earlier deadlines and general changes to core instructions, costs may apply. Explore the full Revision Policy. ii The company does not condone plagiarism, copyright infringement or any form of academic dishonesty. All provided sample services must only be used for bank po resume, reference purposes while being cited properly. Please read the is megaessays.com legit Fair Use Policy. Ultius is the trusted provider of content solutions for consumers around the world. Connect with great American writers and walden rubric get 24/7 support. Ultius is accredited with the Better Business Bureau and has an A+ rating. © 2017 Ultius, Inc.
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