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Written assignment ib english b

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Cars and second order consequences. There are two foundational technology changes rolling through the car industry at the moment; electric and written b autonomy. Electric is happening right now, largely as a consequence of falling battery prices, while autonomy, or at least full autonomy, is a bit further off - perhaps 5-10 years, depending on hard how fast some pretty hard computer science problems get solved. Both of these will cycle into written assignment, essentially the entire global stock of marriage classification, (today) around 1.1bn cars over a period of decades, subject to all sorts of variables, and both of them completely remake the car industry and assignment ib english b its suppliers, as well as parts of the tech industry. Both electric and autonomy have profound consequences beyond the car industry itself. Half of global oil production today goes to gasoline, and removing that demand will have geopolitical as well as industrial consequences. Over a million people are killed in car accidents every year around the world, mostly due to human error, and in dear letter, a fully autonomous world all of those (and many more injuries) will also go away. Ib English B? However, it's also useful, and perhaps more challenging, to think about second and third order consequences. Moving to electric means much more than replacing the gas tank with a battery, and moving to dear autonomy means much more than ending accidents. Written Ib English? Quite what those consequences would be is much harder to predict: as the saying goes, it was easy to predict mass car ownership but hard to predict Wal-mart, and the broader consequences of the move to electric and autonomy will come in dear, some very widely-spread industries, in complex interlocked ways. Still, we can at least point to where some of the b, changes might come.

I can't tell you what will happen to car repairs, commercial real-estate or buses - I'm not an expert on any of those, and determines swap world neither can anyone who is - but I can suggest that something will happen, and probably something big. Assignment Ib English? Hence, this post is determines papers swap u.s working world not a description of what will happen, but of where it might, and why, with some links to further reading. Assignment Ib English B? Moving to electric reduces the cover letter, number of moving parts in a car by written b, something like an order of magnitude. It's less about postgraduate thesis toolkit, replacing the fuel tank with a battery than ripping out the spine. Ib English? That remakes the car industry and in africa essay its supplier base (as well as related industries such as machine tools), but it also changes the repair environment, and the life of a vehicle. Assignment? Roughly half of US spending on car maintenance goes on things that are directly attributable to the internal combustion engine, and much of that spending will just go away. In the longer term, this change might affect the lifespan of a vehicle: in an on-demand world vehicles would have higher loading, but absent that, fewer mechanical breakages (and fewer or no accidents) might mean a longer replacement cycle, once the rate of toolkit, technology implementation settles down. Written Assignment B? Next, gas itself is bought in gas stations, of which there are about 150k in the USA. Those will also go away (unless there are radical changes in how long it takes to charge an EV). Since gas is essay sold at very low margins, these retailers make their actual money as convenience stores, so what happens to the products that are sold there?

Some of this demand will be displaced to other retailers, and some may be going online anyway (especially if an Amazon drone can get you a bag of Cheesy Puffs in 15 minutes). But snacks, sodas and written b tobacco sell meaningful proportions of their total volume as impulse purchases attached to gasoline. Some of letter, that volume might just go away. Tobacco in particular might be interesting - well over half of US tobacco sales happens at gas stations, and there are meaningful indications that removing distribution reduces consumption - that cigarettes are often an written b, impulse purchase and if they're not in front of toolkit, you then many smokers are less likely to buy them. Car crashes kill 35k people a year in the USA, but tobacco kills 500k. Gasoline is taxed, much less in the USA than in many other developed markets: it is 4% of UK tax revenue, for example. Ib English B? That tax revenue will have to letter be replaced, with other taxes on things that may be more elastic, and there will be economic and assignment b political consequences to that. The Benefits Of Extracurricular Essay? In the USA, for example, highways are funded partly from gas taxes that have not risen to match inflation since 1993 - if just keeping it flat in written assignment, real terms was politically impossible, how hard will it be to take that revenue from some other part of the is doing hard, economy? Conversely, in many places (especially emerging markets) fuel is subsidised by the state - coal, gasoline and assignment b kerosene (for light and heat - see for example kerosene subsidies in the benefits of extracurricular activities essay, India). EVs on one hand and solar on the other may change this as well.

Meanwhile, of course, we will still actually need to charge our EVs. Most estimates suggest that charging a fully electric fleet would lead to 10-20% more electricity demand. However, a lot depends on when they're charged: if they're charged off-peak this might not need more total generating capacity, though it would still change output and perhaps local distribution. The carbon impact of shifting electricity generation in this way is pretty complex (for example, over 75% of French electricity generation today comes from written assignment ib english b nuclear power), but in principle at least some grid generation almost always now comes from renewables. More speculatively (and this is part of Elon Musk's vision), it is possible that we might all have large batteries in the home, storing off-peak power both to bank papers spread world charge our cars and power our homes. Part of the aim here would be to push up battery volume and b so lower their cost for both home storage and in africa essay cars.

If we all have such batteries then this could affect the current model of building power generation capacity for peak demand, since you could complement power stations with meaningful amounts of stored power for the first time. The really obvious consequence of autonomy is a near-elimination in accidents, which kill over 1m people globally every year. In the USA in 2015, there were 13m collisions of written assignment, which 1.7m caused injuries; 2.4m people were injured and 35k people were killed. Something over 90% of all accidents are now caused by driver error, and a third of essay, fatal accidents in the USA involved alcohol. Looking beyond deaths and assignment injuries themselves, there is also a huge economic effect to bank determines swap these accidents: the US government estimates a cost of $240bn a year across property damage itself, medical and assignment b emergency services, legal, lost work and congestion (for comparison, US car sales in 2016 were around $600bn).

A similar UK analysis found a cost of ?30bn, which is roughly equivalent adjusted for bank determines world the population. This then comes from government (and so taxes), insurance and individual pockets. It also means jobs, of course. Even simple 'Level 3' systems would cut many kinds of accident, and as more vehicles with more sophisticated systems, moving up to Level 5, cycle into assignment ib english, the installed base over time, the collision rate will drop continuously. Hard? There should be an analogue of the 'herd immunity' effect - even if your car is still hand-driven, my automatic car is still much less likely to collide with you. This also means that cycling would become much safer (though you'd still need to live close enough to where you wanted to go), and that in b, turn has implications for public health. Thesis? You might never get to zero accidents - the deer running in front of a car might still get hit sometimes - but you might get pretty close.

That, in turn, has consequences for vehicle design - if you have no collisions then eventually you can remove many of the safety features in today's vehicles, all of which add cost and weight and constrain the overall design - no more airbags or crumple zones, perhaps. A decade ago the NHTSA estimated that the safety measures that it mandates collectively added $839 (in 2002 dollars so $1,136 now) and 125 pounds of weight, which was 4% of both average cost and average weight - this is probably a lower bound. That, of ib english, course, presumes that there are no other changes to the design as a result of removing the human controls - which is like removing the reins from dear a horseless carriage and thinking nothing else will change. What else, though? As more and more cars are driven by computer, they can drive in different ways.

They don't suffer from traffic waves, they don't need to stop for traffic signals and they can platoon - they can safely drive 2 feet apart at 80 mph. There is a whole range of human behaviors that reduce road capacity, especially on freeways: it's not just that people make mistakes, but that computers can drive in totally different ways to assignment b even a perfect human driver. The video below illustrates one of these issues, familiar to anyone who's been stuck in a traffic jam on a highway and got to the front to find no apparent cause - human behaviour causes traffic waves, which cause 'phantom jams'. Computers wouldn't do this, and postgraduate thesis toolkit if they did, we could stop them. A full autonomous road system changes traffic less from fluid dynamics than from circuit-switched to packet-switched, or, more precisely, from TDMA to CDMA. No lanes, no separation, no stopping distances, and no signals, (except of course for pedestrians to cross), means profoundly different traffic patterns.

Clearly, all of this will have some effect on congestion and road capacity. Written Assignment Ib English? Accidents themselves cause as much as a third of congestion (estimates vary a fair bit and depend whether you're talking about highways or city centres), even if there are no changes from different driving behavior. How much changes over all, though - how much more traffic can a highway hold? How much more quickly do you get to school in dear cover, the morning if you drive at the same speed but don't have to written assignment ib english b stop at every stop sign just in bank papers spread u.s working, case there's someone there? We'll find out. However, the impact of autonomy on written assignment traffic and congestion is more complex than just making driving itself more efficient. Though automatic driving should increase capacity, we have known for a long time that increased capacity induces more demand - more capacity means more traffic. Poverty Essay? If you reduce congestion, then more people will drive, either taking new trips or switching from public transport, and congestion might rise back to where you started. Conversely, removing capacity can actually result in written assignment ib english, less congestion (and there's more complexity here too - for thesis toolkit example, Braess' paradox).

So, autonomous driving gives us more capacity, and in a sense it does so for free, since we don't have to b build roads, just wait for everyone to buy new cars, but it also gives us more use. In Africa? Parking is another way that autonomy will add both capacity and demand. If a car does not have to wait for you in assignment ib english b, walking distance, where else might it wait, and is that more efficient? Does that enable better land use, better traffic routing and more or less congestion? And, in toolkit, parallel, everything that you do to written assignment make traffic, driving and thesis now also parking more efficient tends to generate more demand. Ib English B? So, the current parking model is the benefits of extracurricular activities clearly a source of congestion: some studies suggest that a double-digit percentage of traffic in dense urban areas comes from people circling around looking for a parking space, and on-street parking ipso facto reduces road capacity.

An autonomous vehicle can wait somewhere else and an on-demand one just drops you off and goes off to collect other people. On the other hand, both of these models create new trips as well - both your car and an on-demand car would have to come to written assignment ib english b get you (though, since cars will be automatic, they will form an orderly queue). But with enough density of on-demand, the car you get into is doing hard, might be the car that's already passing, or that dropped someone else off 50 feet away - it all depends on assignment ib english the load factor. Parking itself is important not just as a part of the traffic and congestion dynamic but as a cost and as a use for of extracurricular property. As mentioned above, some parking is on-street, and so removing it adds road capacity or allows you to add more space for written pedestrians. Some of it is at work or retail, or more generally in city centres, and so that land becomes available for other uses.

And some of poverty essay, it is at written b home, either on-street (again using capacity) or in drives and is doing hard garages, parking lots or parking structures, which add to the cost of housing. The extreme case here is written assignment ib english b Los Angeles: it has been estimated that 14% of the incorporated land of LA county is is doing hard used for parking. Adding parking to a new development pushes up construction costs: parking garages cost money, and so does leaving land vacant for ib english parking lots. A study in Oakland, in in africa, the San Francisco Bay Area, found that government-mandated parking requirements pushed up construction costs per apartment by written ib english b, 18%. Poverty? Back in LA, adding underground car-parking to assignment a shopping mall might double the construction cost. If you both remove those costs on new construction, and is doing a thesis make that space available for new uses, how does that affect cities? What does it do to house prices, or to written assignment b the value of commercial real-estate? Pretty much all of these themes feed into the potential of on-demand. If you remove the cost of the human driver from an on-demand trip, the poverty, cost goes down by perhaps three quarters.

If you can also remove or reduce the ib english b, cost of the insurance, once the accident rate has fallen, it goes down even further. So, autonomy is rocket-fuel for on-demand. Activities? This makes it much easier for many more people to dispense with a car, or only have one, or leave their car at written assignment ib english b home and marriage take an on-demand ride for b any given trip. Is Doing A Thesis? This obviously has consequences for parking - an on-demand ride to written assignment ib english b work or a restaurant removes parking in the city centre, and not owning a car and substituting on-demand entirely removes demand for papers spread residential parking. And, as mentioned above, using an assignment ib english b, on-demand ride instead of looking for parking gets rid of one kind of spread swap u.s working, traffic but creates a new kind - potentially a smaller one, through.

However, truly cheap on-demand has more consequences still. For example, it displaces demand from public transport - though the written assignment b, cost of dear, a bus driver is also large part of the cost of the trip, and those drivers might not be needed either, so buses might also be cheaper. Conversely, if congestion falls then buses could become more attractive than other forms of transport (both cars and also subways) because the ib english b, journey time would be shorter (or at least more predictable). This of letter, itself has all sorts of written, cascading effects. Do you end up with reduced bus schedules? Do marginal bus-routes close, pushing people onto on-demand who might not otherwise have used it - if they can use it? Does a city provide, or subsidise, its own-demand service to replace or to supplement buses in lower-density areas? Does your robotaxi automatically drop you off at a bus stop on the edge of high-traffic areas, unless you pay a congestion charge? This all then ripples back into congestion - buses carry people at higher density than cars, and so replacing a fully loaded bus with cars would inherently create more traffic volume, but buses do not in fact travel full all of the is doing, time, and can create their own congestion (an endemic issue in London's Oxford street, for example).

And, especially on Oxford Street, they carry more people than cars because they're aggregating people onto written b a single route who might otherwise have taken many other separate, more direct or more efficient routes. If 50 people on is doing hard a bus switch to cars, they won't all be on the same road at the same time. Meanwhile, the written assignment b, fixed cost of a bus creates a minimum loading level and density at which a bus is practical - breaking this apart into smaller vehicles - maybe with one passenger, maybe with 10 - might extend 'public' transport to many more people. Perhaps the most useful way to think about this is bank determines swap u.s working world that, just as on-demand erodes the ib english, difference between marked and mechanically metered taxis and car-services, so it also erodes the difference between both of those and buses. What exactly are the essay, differences in traffic dynamics between a Lyft Line shuttle with 5 passengers and a municipal bus with an off-peak load of assignment b, 10?

Recall, too, that buses weren't always municipal, and there are parallel commercial alternatives today - see Chariot, or matutus. The point here is not remotely to dear suggest that it is inherently good or desirable to ib english b replace public transport with cars, but that it now becomes possible to in africa do so, if we want, and that it might be cheaper and written assignment b more efficient in some circumstances. And, indeed, that the essay, distinction between 'car' and 'bus' might break down. Then, of written assignment ib english, course, there are the drivers. There are something over 230,000 taxi and thesis private car drivers in the USA and around 1.5m long-haul truck-drivers. The question of what happens to taxi and on-demand drivers has been discussed too widely and publicly for me to add anything here, but long-haul truck drivers have some interesting nuances (I'm here excluding local delivery drivers as they're often needed for written assignment ib english more than driving the truck itself and robotics is a whole other conversation). The average age of a long-haul driver is now 49, and around 90 thousand leave the dear letter, industry every year, half though retirement.

The industry thinks it has a shortage of ib english b, around 50,000 drivers, and growing - people are leaving faster than they can be replaced. Truck driving can be an unhealthy, uncomfortable job with a difficult lifestyle. Hence, on these numbers, over half the current driver base will have left in postgraduate, ten years, around the time that most people think full, level 5 autonomy might be working. In the written assignment b, short term, level 4 autonomy makes truck-driving more attractive, since you can rest in the back of the truck until you're needed instead of having to stop at mandated times. But on a 20-30 year view, which is really the timeline to think about this transition, effectively all current truck drivers will have quit anyway - you won't replace them, but you won't necessarily put anyone directly out of of extracurricular essay, work - until you start looking at ib english b truck stops, which takes us right back to the convenience store discussion at the beginning of this piece. And meanwhile, truck-stop operators are already starting to dear cover think about the fundamentally different trucking patterns that might come from a shift in the logistics industry away from serving traditional retail and towards serving ecommerce (i.e Amazon). I still think autonomous cars will create more billionaires in real estate and retail than in written b, tech or manufacturing. Is Doing Hard? Just as cars did. Pulling all of these threads together: if parking goes away, road capacity increases by, perhaps, several times, and an on-demand ride is the cost of a coffee, then one needs to start thinking much more generally, not just about cars, trucks and written assignment b roads but cities, land use and real-estate.

In fact, one needs to think about cities. Cars have remade cities over postgraduate thesis the past century, and if cars are now going to change entirely, cities will change too. So, big-box retail is based on written b an arbitrage of land costs, transport cost and people's willingness to drive and park - how does autonomy change that? How do cities change if some or all of their parking space, especially in town centres, is now available for bank determines papers spread swap world new needs, or dumped on the market, or moved to completely different places? Where are you willing to live if 'access to public transport' is 'anywhere' and there are no traffic jams on your commute? Does an hour-long commute with no traffic and no need to watch the road feel better or worse than a half-hour commute stuck in near-stationary traffic staring at the car in front? How willing are people to written assignment b go from their home in a suburb to cover dinner in a city centre on a dark cold wet night if they don't have to park and an on-demand ride is written assignment ib english b cheap? What happens to rural pubs if you don't have to worry about essay, drink-driving anymore?

And what do you DO in written assignment b, the car, while it's taking you somewhere? Long Netflix and brewers, short BAT - and medevac helicopters. One should presume autonomous vehicles change cities as much as cars did. That’s just a starting point for thinking about this. Finally, remember the cameras. Pretty much every vision of automatic cars involves them using HD, 360 degree computer vision.

That means that every AV will be watching everything that goes on around it - even the things that are not related to driving. An autonomous car is a moving panopticon. They might not be saving and uploading every part of that data. But they could be. By implication, in 2030 or so, police investigating a crime won't just get copies of the CCTV from cover letter surrounding properties, but get copies of the sensor data from every car that happened to written ib english be passing, and in africa essay then run facial recognition scans against known offenders. Or, perhaps, just ask if any car in the area thought it saw something suspicious. Ib English B? People in tech and media have been saying that ‘content is king’ for a long time - perhaps since the VHS/Betamax battle of the is doing a thesis, early 1980s, and perhaps longer. Assignment Ib English? Content and access to content was a strategic lever for technology. I’m not sure how much this is a thesis still true. Music and books don’t matter much to tech anymore, and TV probably won’t matter much either. How do we get beyond 'that's a toy!' and 'but everything looked like a toy!', and try actually to understand whether a new technology might matter?

What are valid lines of reasoning, and what statements are 'not even wrong'? Looking forward 10 years, there are three primary technology that will change everything - cars, augmented reality and machine learning. But in the meantime, there ere huge changes around advertising, TV and retail that come from consumer behavior and industry dynamics, not tech, but will change just as much. If augmented reality is the next multitouch - the next universal platform - what would that look like? What might we build? Electric and autonomy are rolling through the car industry, changing everything about it.

But though they transform gasoline and car accidents, they could change a lot more besides - everything from written ib english cigarettes to parking. It's the in africa, second-order consequences that are hardest to see, but most interesting. Smartphones are still evolving, but we're on the upper slopes of the S-Curve. This means innovation is slowing, but also that iOS and Android are now unassailable. It's time to focus on what's next - voice, machine learning and, especially, augmented reality.

The trap that some voice UIs fall into is that you pretend the users are talking to written assignment HAL 9000 when actually, you've just built a better IVR, and have no idea how to get from the the benefits of extracurricular activities, IVR to written assignment HAL. How can we find the mental models for this to work - to bring less rather than more friction? Where Facebook is surfing user behaviour, Snapchat is a thesis trying to written create entirely new experiences all the time, around camera, touch and mobile - around what makes mobile different to the PC. Ten years after the iPhone, what assumptions can we leave behind? What do we build if we assume a billion people have a high-end smartphone, and forget about PCs?

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objectstore resume Several introductory and tutorial articles on written, the Extensible Markup Language (XML) are referenced in the shorter XML Introduction document. Most articles are accessible online. The Extensible Markup Language (XML) is the universal format for structured documents and data on the Web. -- W3C XML Web site, 2000-07-06. The Extensible Markup Language (XML) is the benefits activities, descriptively identified in the XML 1.0 W3C Recommendation as an extremely simple dialect [or 'subset'] of SGML the goal of which is to enable generic SGML to be served, received, and processed on the Web in the way that is now possible with HTML, for written assignment ib english b, which reason XML has been designed for ease of implementation, and for interoperability with both SGML and HTML. Note that the HTML referenced in the preceding sentence ( bis ) means HTML 4.0 and 3.2 which were in common use as of 10-February-1998, when the XML 1.0 specification was published as a W3C Recommendation. In Africa Essay! The next version of 'HTML' is written ib english, expected to be reformulated as an XML application, so that it will be based upon XML rather than upon is doing a thesis hard, SGML. As of December 1998, 'Voyager' was the written assignment ib english W3C code name for HTML reformulated as an application of the benefits of extracurricular activities, XML. XML was initially developed by ib english b, a W3C Generic SGML Editorial Review Board formed under the auspices of the W3 Consortium in 1996 and chaired by Jon Bosak of Sun Microsystems, with the letter very active participation of a Generic SGML Working Group also organized by the W3C. An XML WG (Working Group) under W3C served initially as an editorial board, which received input from an XML Special Interest Group. As of late 1998, the XML design effort was re-chartered under the direction of an XML Coordination Group and XML Plenary Interest Group to be carried out in five new XML working groups: XML Schema Working Group, XML Fragment Working Group, XML Linking Working Group (XLink and XPointer), XML Information Set Working Group, and XML Syntax Working Group.

These working groups were designed to have close liaison relationships with the W3C's Extensible Style[sheet] Language (XSL) Working Group and Document Object Model (DOM) Working Group. Extensible Markup Language, abbreviated XML, describes a class of data objects called XML documents and partially describes the behavior of computer programs which process them. XML is an written assignment ib english b, application profile or restricted form of SGML, the Standard Generalized Markup Language. Of Extracurricular Activities Essay! By construction, XML documents are conforming SGML documents. XML is primarily intended to meet the requirements of large-scale Web content providers for industry-specific markup, vendor-neutral data exchange, media-independent publishing, one-on-one marketing, workflow management in collaborative authoring environments, and the processing of assignment ib english b, Web documents by poverty, intelligent clients. It is also expected to find use in certain metadata applications. Written Assignment! XML is fully internationalized for essay, both European and Asian languages, with all conforming processors required to support the Unicode character set in both its UTF-8 and UTF-16 encodings. Assignment B! The language is designed for the quickest possible client-side processing consistent with its primary purpose as an electronic publishing and data interchange format. [971208 W3C press release]

XML documents are made up of storage units called entities , which contain either parsed or unparsed data. Parsed data is made up of characters , some of which form the character data in the document, and some of which form markup . Markup encodes a description of the document's storage layout and poverty in africa essay, logical structure. XML provides a mechanism to impose constraints on the storage layout and logical structure. A software module called an written assignment ib english b, XML processor is used to read XML documents and provide access to marriage classification essay, their content and structure. It is assumed that an XML processor is doing its work on ib english b, behalf of postgraduate thesis, another module, called the application . This specification describes the required behavior of an XML processor in terms of how it must read XML data and the information it must provide to the application. [adapted from the Proposal] Valid XML documents are designed to be valid SGML documents, but XML documents have additional restrictions. The W3C XML WG has published a technical NOTE providing a detailed comparison of the written assignment additional restrictions that XML places on documents beyond those of cover letter, SGML: see http://www.w3.org/TR/NOTE-sgml-xml for written b, the details. The NOTE also includes an SGML declaration which describes the constraints of XML applicable to an SGML parser. Is Doing Hard! [local archive copy] [This paragraph is superseded by the technical NOTE 'NOTE-sgml-xml' referenced immediately above.] Features in SGML but not in XML include [as of November 5, 1996]: Tag omission; The CONCUR, LINK, DATATAG, and SHORTREF features; The connector in content models; Inclusions and assignment b, exclusions in content models; CURRENT, CONREF, NAME, NAMES, NUMBER, NUMBERS, NUTOKEN, and NUTOKENS declarations for attributes; The NET construct; Abstract syntax; Capacities and quantities; Comments appearing within other markup declarations; Public Identifiers; Omission of bank u.s working, quotes on attribute values.

For a more recent/complete comparison of features, see the relevant section in the language specification, or What else has changed between SGML and XML? in the FAQ, maintained by Peter Flynn. As of December 1997, the current and former members of the XML WG are: Jon Bosak, Sun (Chair); James Clark (Technical Lead); Tim Bray, Textuality and Netscape (XML Co-editor); Jean Paoli, Microsoft (XML Co-editor); C. M. Written Assignment Ib English! Sperberg-McQueen, U. of Ill. (XML Co-editor); Dan Connolly, W3C; Steve DeRose, INSO; Dave Hollander, HP; Eliot Kimber, Highland; Eve Maler, ArborText; Tom Magliery, NCSA; Murray Maloney, Muzmo and Grif; Makoto Murata, Fuji Xerox Information Systems; Joel Nava, Adobe; Peter Sharpe, SoftQuad; John Tigue, DataChannel. Historically: The W3C SGML Editorial Review Board, as of November 5, 1996, had the following members: Jon Bosak, Sun (jon.bosak@sun.com), chair; Tim Bray, Textuality (tbray@textuality.com), editor; James Clark (jjc@jclark.com), technical lead; Dan Connolly (connolly@w3.org), W3C contact; Steve DeRose, EBT (sjd@ebt.com), editor; Dave Hollander, HP (dmh@hpsgml.fc.hp.com); Eliot Kimber, Passage Systems (kimber@passage.com); Tom Magliery, NCSA (mag@ncsa.uiuc.edu); Eve Maler, ArborText (elm@arbortext.com); Jean Paoli, Microsoft (jeanpa@microsoft.com); Peter Sharpe, SoftQuad (peter@sqwest.bc.ca); C. Michael Sperberg-McQueen, U. of Ill. at Chicago (cmsmcq@uic.edu), editor. XML/XLink/XSL Specifications: Reference Documents. Extensible Markup Language (XML) [Formerly: 'xml-lang'] Extensible Markup Language as a W3C Recommendation.

[February 10, 1998] Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.0 . W3C Recommendation 10-February-1998. Editors: Tim Bray (Textuality and Netscape), Jean Paoli (Microsoft), and C. M. Sperberg-McQueen (University of Illinois at Chicago). Reference: REC-xml-19980210. [October 06, 2000] Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.0 (Second Edition) . W3C Recommendation 6-October-2000. Bank Determines Papers World! Edited by Tim Bray (Textuality and Netscape), Jean Paoli (Microsoft), C. M. Sperberg-McQueen (University of Illinois at Chicago and Text Encoding Initiative), and written, Eve Maler (Sun Microsystems, Inc. - Second Edition).

Reference: http://www.w3.org/TR/2000/REC-xml-20001006 . [December 13, 2001] XML 1.1 . The Benefits! W3C Working Draft 13-December-2001. Edited by John Cowan (Reuters). Version URL reference: http://www.w3.org/TR/2001/WD-xml11-20011213/. Latest Version URL: http://www.w3.org/TR/xml11/. Abstract: The Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a subset of SGML that is completely described in assignment, this document. The Benefits Essay! Its goal is to enable generic SGML to be served, received, and processed on the Web in the way that is now possible with HTML. Assignment! XML has been designed for ease of implementation and for interoperability with both SGML and postgraduate thesis toolkit, HTML. Sources: [see W3C for assignment ib english, additional translations] Other Links: [October 09, 2000] XML 1.0 Second Edition as W3C Recommendation.

The W3C's XML Core Working Group has published a new W3C Recommendation for Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.0 (Second Edition) . Reference: W3C Recommendation 6-October-2000, edited by Tim Bray, Jean Paoli, C. Postgraduate! M. Sperberg-McQueen, and written assignment ib english, Eve Maler. This REC specification follows the earlier publication of classification, a public Review Version. This second edition is not a new version of ib english, XML (first published 10-February-1998); it merely incorporates the changes dictated by the first-edition errata as a convenience to readers. Classification Essay! The errata list for this second edition is available at http://www.w3.org/XML/xml-V10-2e-errata. The document abstract, unchanged from the 1998 first edition, appears to validate the hermeneutical theory that a text's intent escapes from the author and passes immediately into the control of the community upon utterance: The Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a subset of SGML that is completely described in this document.

Its goal is to ib english b, enable generic SGML to be served, received, and processed on the Web in papers u.s working world, the way that is now possible with HTML. XML has been designed for ease of implementation and for interoperability with both SGML and HTML. The specification is written, provided in the following formats: XHTML, XML, PDF, and XHTML review version with color-coded revision indicators. See also the (non-normative) Production Notes in Annex I: This Second Edition was encoded in the XMLspec DTD (which has documentation available). The HTML versions were produced with a combination of the xmlspec.xsl, diffspec.xsl, and REC-xml-2e.xsl XSLT stylesheets. Poverty In Africa Essay! The PDF version was produced with the html2ps facility and a distiller program. [August 15, 2000] Paul Grosso (Co-Chair XML Core WG) announced that the W3C XML Core Working Group has released a draft of the Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.0 Second Edition for public review: Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.0 (Second Edition) Review Version ; Reference: W3C Working Draft 14-August-2000. The second edition is not a new version of XML; it is designed to bring the XML 1.0 Recommendation up to date with the XML 1.0 Specification Errata (first edition).

Reviewers are asked to report errors to the 'xml-editor@w3.org' mailing list, which is publicly archived. Paul writes: At this time, we are making two versions of the draft Second Edition available for a four week public review, and written assignment b, all interested parties are invited to review the the benefits of extracurricular activities current drafts and submit comments. This review period ends September 11, 2000, and soon thereafter, the XML Core WG plans to make these documents (possibly as amended per written ib english, comments) the official XML 1.0 Recommendation Second Edition. All these public review documents are linked from the W3C TR page. Marriage Essay! The 'plain' draft Second Edition is at http://www.w3.org/TR/2000/WD-xml-2e-20000814.html, and this is the version that would become the official Second Edition.

We have also produced a 'review copy' which highlights changes between the first edition and this Second Edition, and it is at written ib english b, http://www.w3.org/TR/2000/WD-xml-2e-review-20000814. Dear Cover! This may be provided along with the official Second Edition if it is written assignment b, deemed useful and poverty in africa, appropriate, but the 'plain' version is the official one. Both versions contain embedded [Exx] references/links to the Errata document for each individual erratum that has been applied. (If we decide to maintain the 'review' version, we may decide to delete the [Exx] references from the 'plain' one.) Please note that this review period is to allow everyone a chance to check that the errata that have been applied to the Second Edition are correct and correctly applied. Reports of further errata or ambiguities in XML 1.0 are welcome, but they will likely be saved to be considered for possible application to a later edition, not added to assignment ib english, this Second Edition. [cache] Annotated Version of the XML specification, from is doing a thesis hard Tim Bray. B! See further description below.

Bob DuCharme. XML: The Annotated Specification. The Charles F. Goldfarb Series on marriage classification, Open Information Management. The Definitive XML Series from written assignment ib english Charles F. Goldfarb. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall PTR, 1999. Essay! [January 15, 1999] Michel Goossens (Président GUTenberg) posted an open invitation for assistance in assignment, the creation of a French translation of the XML 1.0 Specification and Peter Flynn's XML FAQ document. Alternately, if any readers are aware of the availability of such a translation already, or of a similar initiative, please communicate with Goossens about is doing it so as to avoid duplication of efforts. Press release: The World Wide Web Consortium Issues XML 1.0 as a W3C Recommendation. Written! Key Industry Players, Experts Collaborate to essay, Develop Interoperable Data Format for the Web. [local archive copy] Announcement on written assignment b, TEI-L, XML 1.0 Is Official.

From TEI Editor, C. M. Sperberg-McQueen. Quotes Allen Renear (ACH President), Susan Hockey, and others in the academic community. XML 1.0 Fact Sheet; ;[local archive copy] XML 1.0 Testimonials, - from ACCESS, Adobe, Agranat Systems, Alis Technologies, ArborText, Bitstream, CNET, DataChannel, IBM, Inso, Junglee, Lotus, Microsoft, Open Market, Open SoftwareAssociates, POET Software, SoftQuad, Texcel, Textuality, Unwired Planet, Vignette, and webMethods. The Benefits Of Extracurricular! [local archive copy] W3C Endorses First XML Standard for Global Use. By Dana Gardner. In InfoWorld Electric . Posted at written ib english, 11:40 AM PT, February 10, 1998.

Details on the German translation: Deutsche Übersetzungen der XML-Spezifikationen, von Henning Behme (iX) und Stefan Mintert (Universität Dortmund). Also available in .ZIP format. Extensible Markup Language as a Proposed Recommendation. [December 08 [12], 1997] Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.0, issued as a W3C Proposed Recommendation. December 8, 1997. Thesis Toolkit! Editors: Tim Bray (Textuality and written assignment, Netscape), Jean Paoli (Microsoft), and C. M. Papers World! Sperberg-McQueen (University of written, Illinois at essay, Chicago).

Reference: PR-xml-971208. Version URL: http://www.w3.org/TR/PR-xml-971208. Announced at the SGML/XML '97 Conference in assignment ib english b, Washington, D.C. See the press release, or a press release, alternate source. XML WG Chair Jon Bosak clarified the WG's new work focus in light of the publication of this PR. HTML Format Postscript format Postscript, .ZIP compressed RTF format XML format local archive copy (HTML) Japanese translation of the XML PR, in HTML format and in determines, XML format Associated and referenced NOTE: Comparison of SGML and XML.

By James Clark. Reference identifiers: World Wide Web Consortium Note 15-December-1997, NOTE-sgml-xml-971215. Extensible Markup Language - Other Earlier Working Draft Versions. [November 25, 1997] New draft specification for assignment b, the Extensible Markup Language (XML), published by the W3C. Poverty In Africa Essay! References: W3C Working Draft 17-November-1997, WD-xml-971117, Version 1.0. The version URL: http://www.w3.org/TR/WD-xml-971117; [local archive copy]. Written Assignment Ib English! Extensible Markup Language (XML). Version 1.0. Edited by Tim Bray, Jean Paoli, and C. Is Doing Hard! M. Sperberg-McQueen. W3C Working Draft 07-Aug-97. WD-xml-970807.

From W3C, HTML format, local archive copy in HTML format In XML format In Postscript format, local archive copy in Postscript format Part 1: Japanese translation Previous version: Draft 30-June-97. HTML version, Postscript; local archive copy in written assignment ib english, HTML, or Postscript. Previous version: Draft 31-March-97. from W3C, from Textuality, local copy Previous version: Draft 14-November-96. Classification! HTML version, from W3C. Extensible Linking Language (XLL/XLink) [Formerly: 'xml-link'] Note: A separate document xll.html with more complete information on the Extensible Linking Language (XLL) is under construction. Extensible Style Language (XSL) [Formerly: 'xml-style'] Note: A separate document xsl.html with more complete information on the Extensible Style Language (XSL) is under construction. Extensible Style Language Proposal [September 11, 1997].

Submission to the W3C by written b, Microsoft, Inso, and Arbortext for Extensible Style Language (XSL) based on DSSSL. August 27, 1997. Title: A Proposal for activities essay, XSL . Reference: NOTE-XSL.html. Submitted by: Sharon Adler, Inso Corporation; Anders Berglund, Inso Corporation; James Clark; Istvan Cseri, Microsoft Corporation; Paul Grosso, ArborText; Jonathan Marsh, Microsoft Corporation; Gavin Nicol, Inso Corporation; Jean Paoli, Microsoft Corporation; David Schach, Microsoft Corporation; Henry S. Thompson, University of Edinburgh; Chris Wilson, Microsoft Corporation. HTML version from written assignment b W3C.

XSL proposal local archive copy XSL submission: the overview, and Press release from Microsoft, or press release from poverty ArborText; local archive copy XSL submission: from Microsoft [January 23, 1998] Formation of a W3C Working Group for XSL. See XSL Information from W3C (Chris Lilley) Software implementations supporting the Proposal for XSL submitted to W3C: XSLJ - Jade-compatible XSL-to-DSSSL translator from Henry Thompson msxsl - Microsoft XSL Processor, Technology Preview XML Styler - ArborText tool for creating and modifying XSL stylesheets docproc - an XML + XSL document processor from written assignment Sean Russell ECMAScript is referenced in the XSL proposal. ECMAScript: ECMA-262 JavaScript Language Specification. A general purpose scripting language (GPSL), 1997. Dear Cover! Available as PDF, or MS Word, in Win 32 self-extracting binary. Alternately, from ECMA Early proposal (mid-1997): Announcement from ib english b Jon Bosak for the benefits activities, a draft document that puts the written existing DSSSL Online (dsssl-o) specification in a form that can easily be made into a Working Draft for XML Part 3. Draft for essay, discussion [Postscript]. Part 3 draft: local mirror copy [Postscript] XML FAQ Documents: Answers to Frequently-Asked-Questions See now the separate document for references to SGML/XML FAQs. This document cites the written earlier versions of the XML FAQ (1.5, 1.4, 1.3, 1.2, 1.1) and early translations into Japanese, Spanish, and Korean. XML Information Online: Other WWW Sites.

SGML, XML, and Structured Document Interchange - W3C activity statement Extensible Markup Language (XML) - W3C Overview Overview of SGML and XML Resources - W3C XML at Sun Microsystems - 'Standards and technologies driving the is doing hard DOT-COM world' XML Resources - James Clark XML.com - Seybold, O'Reilly, Songline. Includes an index of b, XML articles from Seybold Publications. XML Resources from Textuality (maintained by the benefits of extracurricular, XML Co-editor, Tim Bray) UNC Sunsite WWW [and FTP] Server, maintained by W3C XML Chair, Jon Bosak XML Community - An Inso XML Forum XML: Some hyperlinks minus the hype. By Philip Wadler (Bell Labs, Lucent Technologies). XML (Extensible Markup Language) is a magnet for hype: the successor to assignment ib english b, HTML for web publishing, electronic data interchange, and e-commerce. In fact, XML is just a notation for trees, little more than a verbose variant of Lisp S-expressions; and a way to cover, define tree grammars, a poor-man's BNF. Yet this simple basis has spawned scores of specialized sub-languages: for airlines, banks, and b, cell phones; for in africa essay, astronomy, biology, and chemistry; for written b, the DOD and the IRS. Marriage! This note is a brief guide to web resources that explain XML. XML Reference Guide - From Web Review InformationWeek XML Toolbox IBM XML Web Site XML Competence Center at GMD-IPSI - 'conducting active research on XML-based information systems' XML - Links from James K. Tauber's XML page XML Files - GCA's XML Magazine.

Edited by Dianne Kennedy, published by Norm Scharpf. Partially/provisionally online: Issues 1 (September 20, 1997) - 4(March 17, 1998). Written Assignment B! Xmlu.com Website XML Software Guide - WDVL xmlTree - Resource listing for a list of sites and resources which offer data according to XML formatting rules. By James Carlyle. Dear Letter! XML - Links from assignment ib english b The Virtual School of Molecular Sciences (VSMS) XML Resources - Links from ArborText finetuning.com - XML Resources collected by Lisa Rein XML School - Jan Egil Refsnes XML/XSL Resources - from Bryan Van Hook Cafe con Leche XML News and Resources - from Elliotte Rusty Harold Content-X. Focused on the application of server-side XML. XML Adam Rifkin's Collection of Links XML Links - From DataChannel. Poverty Essay! Including DataChannel's XML Technology Demo Microsoft's XML Support: Overview, XML White Paper, XML Parser in Java, CDF, XML-Data. Also: XML Object Model XML Francophone SGML Cafe (Japanese) XML Resources - Italian Language Site.

Paolo De Lazzaro. Korean XML site from Techno 2000 Project Inc. Chinese XML Now! = Chinese XML Web Site. Written B! 'A project to help developers of Chinese XML Software.' Chinese XML Site - Open China/Open XML. Korean XML Web site XMLis.com Contact: Kwangmin Lee. World Wide Weave - Weave allows people to publicize new XML-based web sites and marriage, documents Weave contains only sites that provide content in XML-based markup. XML Information in the Document Interchange Standards Page, OII Standards and Specifications List Section on XML Software Tools in the SGML/XML Web Page Internet Toolkit - XML. PC Magazine/ZDNet.

XMLshareware.com. XML: Proposed Applications and Industry Initiatives. The XML applications and announced industry initiatives listed below have not been evaluated according to any serious criteria for quality and genuineness. Since the written b various specifications documents for XML/XLink/XSL are still in some flux, it would often be unfair or difficult to make such a judgment. Obviously, many of these application areas provide exemplary models, having unquestioned integrity and high quality. Some already play a vital role in profitable commercial enterprise.

It is the benefits essay, also to be expected that some early XML/XLink/XSL applications may be merely demonstrations, toys, proof-of-concept applications; still others might be naive or ill conceived. It may be necessary to regard some of these ideas 'in draft' like some of the specifications documents themselves. The good news is this: Net users are seeing clearly that a fixed tag set (like HTML) is not the solution. . . Contents Listing for XML Applications and written ib english b, Industry Initiatives. W3C Specifications Documentation aka 'XML Spec DTD' See now the separate document IEEE Standard DTD. [June 30, 1999] A 'TEI Lite DTD in thesis, XML' was made available from the TEI Web site.

See the references for written assignment ib english b, TEI - the XML version in a separate document, and the section 'Academic Applications' for is doing a thesis, background on written b, the SGML version of the TEI DTD. Channel Definition Format, CDF (Based on XML) Channel Definition Format (CDF) is an application of the Extensible Markup Language designed for push technology. The proposal has been submitted to the World Wide Web Consortium. My Netscape Network (MNN) is a free Netcenter service that lets you create your own My Netscape channel.

Create an RDF Site Summary (RSS) 0.9 file that describes your content. See description and references in a separate document. Note 'OCS' below. W3C Document Object Model (DOM), Level 1 Specification. In early January 1999, a W3C Working Draft for the Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Specification Version 1.0 (WD-DOM-Level-2-19981228) was released. Postgraduate Toolkit! It defines the written Document Object Model Level 2, a platform- and language-neutral interface that allows programs and scripts to dynamically access and update the content, structure and style of documents.

The Document Object Model Level 2 builds on the Document Object Model Level 1. Level 2 adds interfaces for a Cascading Style Sheets object model, an bank determines papers spread swap u.s working world, event model, and a query interface, amongst others. On October 1, 1998, the World Wide Web Consortium published the Document Object Model (DOM) Level 1 Specification, Version 1.0 as a W3C Recommendation. The Document Object Model is a platform- and language-neutral interface that will allow programs and scripts to dynamically access and update the written assignment content, structure and style of documents. The document can be further processed and the results of that processing can be incorporated back into the presented page. The main database entry for the W3C DOM has been moved to a separate document. Web Collections are an is doing hard, application of written, XML - a meta-data syntax that fits easily within the framework of the bank spread swap u.s working World Wide Web. Web Collections are an application of XML, the Extensible Markup Language. Written Assignment Ib English! In addition, Web Collections can be expressed inside HTML documents or on bank papers world, their own. In addition they are stylistically similar to HTML to enable easy authoring. . Written Assignment Ib English! . Some of the anticipated applications of Web Collections include Web Maps, HTML Email Threading, PIM functions, scheduling, content labeling, and distributed authoring. [work in progress] Web Collections using XML - March 09, 1997.

By Alex Hopmann, with Scott Berkun, George Hatoun, Yaron Goland, Thomas Reardon, Lauren Antonoff, Eric Berman, and others. [mirror copy] Netscape Communications announced a new proposed XML application. A Thesis! According to the notice on the Netscape Developer's page: The Meta Content Framework, or MCF, provides a standard way to describe files or collections of information. A new Netsape document describes how to apply MCF using XML, the Extensible Markup Language. On January 5, 1998, a new (revised) submission on XML-Data was presented to the W3C by Microsoft, ArborText, DataChannel, and Inso. Ib English B! Reference: W3C Note 05 Jan 1998. Authors: Andrew Layman, Edward Jung, Eve Maler, Henry S. Thompson, Jean Paoli, John Tigue, Norbert H. Mikula, and Steve DeRose. Poverty! According to written assignment ib english, the introduction, XML-Data describes an XML vocabulary for schemas, that is, for defining and documenting object classes. It can be used for classes which as strictly syntactic (for example, XML) or those which indicate concepts and is doing, relations among concepts (as used in relational databases, KR graphs and RDF). The former are called 'syntactic schemas;' the latter 'conceptual schemas.' The text of this NOTE thus provides a specification (XML-Data) for describing and exchanging structured and networked data on the Web.

Such exchange is ib english, facilitated by dear, schemas defining the written characteristics of classes of objects. The objects can be syntactic constructs such as are used in XML instances, or may be more abstract such as are found in databases, information models or directed, labeled graphs. This paper describes an XML vocabulary for schemas. One immediate implication of these ideas is a substantive part of the functionalities of XML document types can now be described using the XML instance syntax itself, rather than DTD syntax. We expect XML-Data to marriage essay, be useful for assignment b, a wide range of applications, such as describing database transfers or remotely-located Web resources. [Previous draft:] On June 22 1997, Jean Paoli announced a draft specification of an XML application called XML-Data. The specification is documented in a Position Paper from Microsoft, written by Andrew Layman (Microsoft Corporation), Jean Paoli (Microsoft Corporation), Steve De Rose (Inso Corporation), and Henry S. Thompson (University of the benefits essay, Edinburgh), with contributions from Paul Grosso, Sharon Adler, Anders Berglund, François Chahuneau, and Edward Jung. XML-Data is an application of XML for exchanging structured data and metadata on the Internet. The paper outlines a number of XML-Data design features which are not in written b, the MCF specification. The position paper has been sent to multiple working groups in the W3C currently dealing with XML and meta-data.

XML namespaces provide a simple method for qualifying names used in cover, Extensible Markup Language documents by associating them with namespaces identified by URI. A W3C Working Draft Namespaces in XML was published on September 16, 1998 (WD-xml-names-19980916). Description of the XML namespace work and references are provided in a separate document. Resource Description Framework (RDF) The RDF section currently provides information and references for both the Resource Description Framework (RDF) Model and Syntax Specification and the Resource Description Framework (RDF) Schema Specification . The Australia New Zealand Land Information Council (ANZLIC) - Metadata. The Environmental Resources Information Network (ERIN) and ANZLIC Working Group on Metadata created a version 1 draft DTD using SGML. The ANZMETA DTD Version 1.1 (19th January 1998) now has been written to conform to written assignment, the requirements of XML 1.0. The Coastal Atlas Spatial Data Guidelines (ACA-STD-0001) now under development also by ERIN will use the same XML-based metadata language (e.g., metadata records for the 'Blue Pages' of the Marine and Coastal Data Directory of Australia, [MCDD], which is part of the Australian Coastal Atlas). XML Metadata Interchange Format (XMI) - Object Management Group (OMG) The design of the XML Metadata Interchange Format (XMI) represents an extremely important initiative.

It has a goal of unifying XML and related W3C specifications with several object/component modeling standards, as well as with STEP schemas, and more. Particularly, it would combine the benefits of the web-based XML standard for defining, validating, and sharing document formats on in africa, the web with the benefits of the object-oriented Unified Modeling Language (UML), a specification of the Object Management Group (OMG) that provides application developers a common language for specifying, visualizing, constructing, and documenting distributed objects and business models. Information on XMI is maintained in a separate document. Educom Instructional Management Systems Project (IMS) Metadata Specification. The IMS project has released XML-based technical specifications for how learning materials will flow over the Internet, and for how organizations and individual learners will manage the learning process, [which] have broad support among industry and among leaders in higher education, training, government, and K-12 schools. See IMS Metadata Specification. Fighting for written ib english, Standards in our Browsers is the motto of the Web Standards Project (WSP). The Web Standards Project is a collective effort of web developers and end users whose mission is to stop the fragmentation of the in africa essay web, by persuading the browser makers that common standards are in everyone's best interest. Assignment! Its goal is to postgraduate, support these core standards of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) and to ib english, encourage browser makers to do the same, thereby ensuring simple, affordable access to Web technologies for all. At the time of WSP's launch (August 10, 1998), standards for the Web included 'Structural Languages' (HTML 4.0, XML 1.0), 'Presentation Languages' (CSS, XSL), 'Object Models' (Document Object Model 1 Core HTML/XML), and 'Scripting' (ECMAScript). HTML Threading - Use of HTML in Email.

On January 27, 1998, the submission of a proposal for HTML Threading: Conventions for poverty in africa essay, Use of HTML in Email was made to the W3C by Microsoft Corporation, Lotus Development Corporation, and Qualcomm Corporation. Reference: W3C NOTE 05-Jan-1998. The document editor is Eric Berman (Microsoft), and authors include Pete Resnick (Qualcomm) and Nick Shelness (Lotus). According to the press release, the HTML Threading Proposal outlines how Extensible Markup Language (XML) can be used to enable data-rich features in HTML email applications. The document abstract clarifies: As [email] messages go back and forth between participants in a discussion, it is written assignment, interesting to be able to track properties of the text in bank papers spread swap world, the message and properties of the message itself, such as who wrote what or what message a quoted excerpt is originally from. This proposal defines a mechanism for embedding this information within an email message in a manner that degrades gracefully to b, downlevel mail clients. Appendix B of the poverty in africa NOTE provides some sample mail messages using the HTML Threading. Open Software Description Format (OSD) A joint submission was made to W3C on August 13, 1997 by Marimba Incorporated and Microsoft Corporation for a proposed Open Software Description Format (OSD). Written B! A document 'NOTE-OSD' written by Arthur van Hoff (Marimba, Incorporated), Hadi Partovi and Tom Thai (Microsoft Corporation) bears this abstract: This document provides an initial proposal for the Open Software Description (OSD) format. Hard! OSD, an application of the eXtensible Markup Language (XML), is a vocabulary used for describing software packages and written assignment ib english b, their dependencies for heterogeneous clients.

We expect OSD to the benefits activities, be useful in automated software distribution environments. The proposed specification has apparently been endorsed by other companies, including CyberMedia, InstallShield Software, LANovation, Lotus Development, and Netscape Communications. B! [from Net.Com article] And: The goal of the OSD format is to provide an postgraduate, XML-based vocabulary for describing software packages and their inter-dependencies, whether it is user initiated (pulled), or automatic (pushed). Written Assignment Ib English B! XML (eXtensible Markup Language) provides a general method of representing structured data in the form of lexical trees. Postgraduate Toolkit! Using this data model, markup tags in the OSD vocabulary are represented as elements of written b, a tree. Marriage Classification! The three basic relationships between elements are parent-of, child-of, and sibling-of. Distant relationships can be formed from recursive applications of the three basic ones. XLF (Extensible Log Format) Initiative.

This XLF project is written, [2001-06] apparently no longer active, but see references in the separate document. See also Log Markup Language (LOGML). WAP Wireless Markup Language Specification (WML) The Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) Wireless Markup Language (WML) is a markup language based on XML, and is intended for use in specifying content and letter, user interface for narrowband devices, including cellular phones and assignment ib english b, pagers. . . 'A tag-based display language providing navigational support, data input, hyperlinks, text and image presentation, and forms. A browsing language similar to Internet HTML.' HTTP Distribution and Replication Protocol (DRP) On August 25, 1997 a submission entitled The HTTP Distribution and Replication Protocol was tendered to the W3C by is doing hard, representatives of written ib english b, Marimba Inc., Netscape Communications Inc., Sun Microsystems Inc., Novell Inc., and At Home Corporation.

The goal of the DRP protocol is to significantly improve the efficiency and reliability of in africa essay, data distribution over HTTP. . . The DRP protocol uses a data structure called an index, which is currently specified using the eXtensible Markup Language (XML). Because the index describes meta data, we anticipate using the written assignment ib english Resource Description Format RDF), which was formerly called the Meta Content Framework (MCF), in a future versions of the DRP protocol specification. XML is used in the interim because the dear cover RDF standard was not finalized at the time of writing. . . Written B! The DRP defines the following new features: (1) Content identifiers, using the existing URI specification, which can uniquely identify a piece of content; (2) An index format which can be used to describe a set of files; (3) A new HTTP header field, Content-ID, which is used to obtain the correct version of a file by specifying a content identifier; (4) A new HTTP header field, Differential-ID, which is used to obtain a differential update for letter, a file. The Chemical Markup Language was documented (July 1998) as an application of XML and was demonstrated at WWW6 with the Jumbo Java-based browser for b, XML documents. One of the first interesting XML appliations. Cover! See the separate document for references: Chemical Markup Language (CML). Bioinformatic Sequence Markup Language (BSML) Description and assignment, references for the Virtual Hyperglossary (VHG) project are contained in a separate document Virtual Hyperglossary (VHG). Weather Observation Markup Format (OMF)

The Weather Observation Markup Format [or: Weather Observation Definition Format] is an application of toolkit, XML used to encode weather observation reports. The goal of the written ib english OMF system is to annotate and augment standard weather reports with derived, computed quantities, and to re-cast the of extracurricular activities essential information in assignment ib english, a markup format that is easier to the benefits of extracurricular activities essay, interpret, yet completely accurate. The data formats typically used in weather reports (FM 15-X Ext. METAR, FM 16-X Ext. SPECI, FM 51-X Ext. TAF, etc. [constituting] KAWN, WMO feeds . . .) are both incomplete and suboptimal for some processing objectives. According to assignment b, a summary from one of OMF's designers, the OMF application thus uses XML for annotating weather observation reports, forecasts and advisories as issued by Weather Meteorological Organization (WMO), the bank spread National Weather Center and Air Force Global Weather Center.

Currently, METAR/SPECI observational reports, Terminal Aerodrome Forecasts (TAFs) and SIGMET significant weather aircraft advisories are being analyzed and marked up. The incoming source of data are raw bulletins distributed by KAWN/ADWS or National Weather Service'sGateways. The bulletins are parsed, reports are decoded and stored into a database, which can then be queried. The results of the queries are XML-formatted into OMF documents. It is always possible to reconstruct original reports by b, stripping away the XML markup. The designers are also working on adding other types of reports - Upper Air reports, regional SIGMETs, AIRMETS, Bathythermographs, PIREPS, etc.

The markup system is in actual use to distribute the most current annotated weather observations, forecasts and advisories; the Navy's Joint Metoc Viewer is poverty in africa essay, one application that can ingest OMF documents and display the corresponding data. References for Open Financial Exchange (OFX) are provided in a separate document. Interactive Financial Exchange (IFX) Information on the Interactive Financial Exchange (IFX) is provided in assignment ib english, a separate document. The Internet Open Trading Protocol (OTP) provides an bank determines u.s working world, interoperable framework for Internet commerce. It is payment system independent and encapsulates payment systems such as SET, Mondex, CyberCash, DigiCash, GeldKarte, etc.

OTP is able to handle cases where such merchant roles as the shopping site, the payment handler, the written b Delivery Handler of goods or services, and a thesis hard, the provider of customer support are performed by different parties or by one party. OTP Messages are XML documents which are physically sent between the different organisations that are taking part in b, a trade. Information on the benefits of extracurricular essay, the [Internet] Open Trading Protocol (OTP) is written assignment b, contained in a separate document. XML Digital Signature (Signed XML - IETF/W3C) The XML-Signature WG is letter, a joint Working Group of the IETF and W3C. References are provided in a separate document. Digital Receipt Infrastructure Initiative. Information on the Digital Receipt Infrastructure Initiative and written assignment b, the Digital Receipt Consortium is referenced in a separate document.

A Network Working Group INTERNET-DRAFT by Hiroshi Maruyama, Kent Tamura, and Naohiko Uramoto (IBM) addresses how digest (hash) values should be defined for general DOM structures. The Benefits Of Extracurricular Essay! The document is intended to become a Proposed Standard RFC. Compare 'XHASH'. Digest Values for DOM (DOMHASH) draft-hiroshi-dom-hash-00.txt, January 1999 Local archive copy Similarly: 'XHASH' - XML canonical digest algorithm proposed by GlobeSet and documented in the XHASH proposal. Written Ib English B! This algorithm has been inspired by the DOM-HASH proposal, but operates closer to the surface string of the dear letter document.

Elements and attributes are subject to formalization in a way quite similar to the one proposed by DOM-HASH - XML delimiters are represented by binary values and entities are replaced by their actual values. However, formalization happens as elements are acquired. Furthermore, this algorithm has been tailored for explicit support of the XML Namespaces and it takes into account some specifics of written assignment ib english b, this specification ( e.g. , dsig:eval attribute). See also: Digital Signatures for XML. By Richard D. Brown (GlobeSet, Inc.). January 1999.

A syntax and procedures for the computation and verification of thesis, XML digital signatures is specified. [local archive copy] See also (earlier): Digital Signatures for XML. From the IETF TRADE Working Group. Richard D. Brown, GlobeSet, Inc. November 1998. - The objective of this document is to propose syntax and procedures for the computation and verification of digital signatures applicable to general XML documents. [local archive copy] Signed Document Markup Language (SDML) Bank Internet Payment System (BIPS) The BIPS specification includes a protocol for sending payment instructions to written ib english, banks safely over the Internet and a payment server architecture for processing those payment instructions. On August 24, 1998, a specification for poverty essay, the Bank Internet Payment System (BIPS) was published: Bank Internet Payment System Specification Version 1.0.

Public Review Draft, August 24, 1998 . Written Ib English B! Appendix G of the toolkit specification supplies the 'XML Structure and Document Type Definition (DTD)'. BIPS instruction messages and their responses conform to the Extensible Markup Language (XML) standard which can be verified and interpreted by freely available XML parsers. The Bank Internet Payment System (BIPS) is a project of The Financial Services Technology Consortium (FSTC). FSTC is a not-for-profit organization whose goal is to enhance the b competitiveness of the United States financial services industry; members of the consortium include banks, financial services providers, research laboratories, universities, technology companies, and government agencies. Details: Network Payment Protocol (NPP): BIPS requirements result in a set of functions that must be carried out in the client software. Hard! In order to assignment b, ensure that the client software interfaces with the payment processing systems at letter, each bank in a standard manner, the NPP has been defined and is described in this chapter.

The NPP is a non-proprietary standard that will ensure that any BIPS-enabled client software can initiate BIPS payment instructions. The BIPS model is ib english, shown in Figure 4.1. All BIPS messages conform to the World Wide Web Consortium's (W3C's) XML specification. NPP Message Specification, Message Formatting, and Data Encoding: NPP messages will be specified and formatted according to is doing, standards described in the XML Version 1.0 specification. Assignment Ib English! XML is a simplified subset of the Standard Generalized Markup Language [SGML, International Standards Organization (ISO) 8879].

XML provides a standard format to describe different types of data so that the information can be decoded, manipulated, and displayed consistently and correctly. XML also provides a file format for dear letter, representing data, a schema for describing data structure, and a mechanism for extending and annotating Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) with semantic information. NPP-specific messages are documented in Appendix G, along with the BIPS DTD. Some characteristics of NPP messages are: 1) all messages are in XML; 2) all messages start with a BIPS XML header; 3) all fields are self-identifying; 4) all messages are signed; 5) all messages include the originator's certificate; 6) all request messages include a user-supplied transaction number; 7) all response messages include the signature of the user on the original request, and written b, 8) all response messages include both a bank-supplied transaction number and the user-supplied transaction number. BIPS messages contain blocks that describe the request or response (a block is an XML element or conglomerate of elements). Each BIPS message begins with an XML header that includes the of extracurricular activities essay XML version number, document type, a reference to written ib english, the BIPS DTD file, and the BIPS version number. A sample BIPS message is shown in Appendix G. FSTC Home Page Financial Services Technology Consortium BIPS Main Page [August 24, 1998] FSTC Publishes the Bank Internet Payment System (BIPS) Specification. - FSTC announced today that its Bank Internet Payment System (BIPS) specification has been released for public review and comment. . . BIPS instruction messages and their responses conform to dear cover letter, the Extensible Markup Language (XML) standard which can be verified and interpreted by freely available XML parsers.

Download BIPS Specification [local archive copy, 980824] XML Structure and Document Type Definition (DTD), from the spec 980824. smartX ['SmartCard'] Markup Language (SML) The goal of SML (smartX Markup Language) is to enable automation of all interactions with XML documents providing general methods to represent a set of smart device functions. XML supports the creation of marker content that preserves data structure and promises web documents to be machine-readable. The SML is an implementation of XML for the smart card industry. SML also brings to the smart device applications many IDL features that have been implemented in distributed computed and transaction processings.smartX defines a complete framework that encapsulates the development of both the smart card and ib english b, terminal application. By separating the application process from the application protocol that is spread u.s working, card-specific, smartX makes possible to port quickly an assignment ib english, application to a new smart card. The innovation of smartX technology relies on a strong description of the smart device data and of extracurricular activities, attached processes. Assignment Ib English B! The semantics and grammar of the description do not equate a programming language with arithmetic and conditions.

On the contrary, the data and protocol description is built upon the familiar foundations of the smart card industry, which simplifies programming for the developer. Postgraduate Thesis Toolkit! smartX introduces a new description language to describe the application protocol: SML (Smart Markup Language) that implements the written assignment Extensible Markup Language (XML) for the smart card industry. OpenMLS and RELML - Real Estate DTD Design. Information on OpenMLS and toolkit, RELML (Real Estate Listing Markup Language) is written assignment b, provided in a separate document. Founded in 1992, the postgraduate thesis toolkit Customer Support Consortium is a group of over 70 leading technology companies who work together to significantly improve customer support by developing innovative new strategies, standards, and programs. Its mission is to develop ways to leverage and written assignment b, share knowledge within and among support organizations. The development of open exchange standards is one of the three principal consortium initiatives. A subgroup is developing a set of mappings from standards specifications to XML. XML for the Automotive Industry - SAE J2008.

In response to requirements from the 1990 US Clean Air Act, The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) has adopted a number of standards under the 'SAE J2008' family of standards designed to provide easy access to emission-related automotive service information. At the heart of this SGML standard is a relational Data Model for cover, Automotive Service Information rather than any particular document model. The SGML definition set forth within J2008 provides a hierarchical representation of the Data Model. Ib English! In addition, this standard provides models for common text constructs such as tables, paragraphs, lists, and marriage classification essay, procedures which are found within automotive service information. Recently, as explained by Dianne Kennedy in the presentation XML and the Automotive Industry (XML the Conference 98, Seattle 1998), effort has been made to assignment, convert the SGML DTD into a version compatible with XML. Marriage Classification! The current chairperson of the SAE J2008 Working Group is assignment ib english, Dianne Kennedy, founder and principal consultant for poverty in africa essay, XMLXperts. [adapted from Dianne Kennedy's overview] [March 09, 1999] A communiqué from Dianne Kennedy reported on recent efforts by the DTD Working Group for SAE J2008. The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) J2008 DTD Working Group met on March 3, 1999 in Detroit. Among the written ib english b work items was the development of an official XML version of the SAE J2008 DTD for posting automotive service information on the Web. Poverty In Africa Essay! The XML version of the DTD can be found at XMLXperts Web site along with a description of how the XML version was created and sample data with a CSS style sheet as a prototype for Web viewing. X-ACT - XML Active Content Technologies Council.

[May 04, 1998] On May 4, 1998, an announcement was issued by DataChannel and ib english, OASIS concerning X-ACT: DataChannel Transfers X-ACT Council to OASIS. Is Doing! XML Market Receives Enhanced Services Through Vendor-Neutral Management of Leading Industry Council. According to the press release, OASIS, the written assignment Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (formerly SGML Open), announced today that it will take the helm of the XML Active Content Technologies Council (X-ACT) to provide vendor-neutral management and enhanced industry services. A press release was issued on March 4, 1998 announcing the formation of a new industry technology council, X-ACT - XML Active Content Technologies Council. X-ACT is an industry council formed to provide a communications venue for corporations working to develop real-world XML-based solutions to meet today's business needs, increase awareness about Active Content Technologies and their benefits, and maintain an index to Active Content software. Aligned with all standards bodies, X-ACT specifically focuses on promoting the usage and adoption of XML in real-world applications. . . Active Content represents all the possible forms of XML as documents, data and meta-data, and the new class of information systems that will allow data or objects to be re-used and re-purposed by in africa essay, any application. The new industry group recognizes that XML, a groundbreaking new technology, will spawn a new class of computer applications and transactions (Active Content Technologies) that will enable active content at all levels of networked computing (Desktop, Server, Internet, Intranet, Extranet, VPNs, LANs, WANs).

The eighteen (18) members include, to date: Allaire, Andersen Consulting, Arbor Text, BTG, DataChannel, Daylight Software, Informix, Inso, NexGen SI, OmniMark Technologies, Online Computing Library Center, PLATINUM Technology Solutions, Poet Software, NC Focus, Sybase, Thomson Corporation, Wall Data and assignment b, WebMethods. Mathematical Markup Language (MathML) The Mathematical Markup Language (W3C Working Draft) is a specification which defines the Mathematical Markup Language, or MathML. Cover Letter! MathML is an XML application for describing mathematical notation and capturing both its structure and content. The goal of assignment b, MathML is to enable mathematics to be served, received, and processed on the Web, just as HTML has enabled this functionality for of extracurricular activities essay, text. The document begins with background information on mathematical notation, the problems it poses, and the philosophy underlying the solutions MathML proposes. MathML can be used to encode both mathematical notation and mathematical content. About 25 of the MathML tags describe abstract notational structures, while another 75 provide a way of unambiguously specifying the intended meaning of an expression. Additional chapters discuss how the MathML content and written assignment b, presentation elements interact, and how MathML renderers might be implemented and bank papers swap, should interact with browsers. B! Finally, the determines spread u.s working document addresses the written assignment b issue of cover, MathML entities (extended characters) and written assignment, their relation to hard, fonts.

[February 24, 1998] MathML (Mathematical Markup Language) specification issued by W3C as a Proposed Recommendation. Editors: Patrick Ion and Robert Miner. Reference: PR-math-19980224. Abstract: MathML is written b, a low-level syntax for marriage classification essay, representing structured data such as mathematics in machine-to-machine communication over the Web, providing a much-needed solution for including mathematical expressions over the Web. Written Assignment! In developing MathML, the goal was to define an XML-compliant markup language that describes the content and classification essay, presentation of assignment, mathematical expressions. This was achieved with MathML.

As an effective way to include mathematical expressions in Web documents, MathML gives control over the presentation and the meaning of poverty in africa essay, such expressions. Assignment Ib English! It does this by providing two sets of markup tags: one set presents the notation of mathematical data in the benefits of extracurricular essay, markup format, and the other set relays the semantic meaning of mathematical expressions, enabling complex mathematical and written assignment b, scientific notation to be encoded in an explicit way. As an XML application, MathML capitalizes on XML features and benefits from the papers world wide support of XML. Unlike HTML which was intended as a markup language for use by people, MathML is intended to be used by machines, facilitating the searching and indexing of mathematical and scientific information. Assignment Ib English B! Software tools that work with MathML render MathML into classification formatted equations, enabling users to edit mathematical equations much as one might edit HTML text.

Several early versions of such MathML tools already exist, and written assignment ib english, a number of others, both freely available software and in africa, commercial products, are under development. See the press release. Links: [April 07, 1998] Announcement for written b, MathML as a W3C Recommendation Mathematical Markup Language (MathML) specification as Recommendation - REC-MathML-19980407, W3C Recommendation 07-April-1998. [local archive copy, .ZIP] Fact Sheet - for MathML as W3C Recommendation Testimonials - for MathML as W3C Recommendation MathML (Mathematical Markup Language) specification issued by W3C as a Proposed Recommendation. Classification Essay! February 24, 1998. Mathematical Markup Language - W3C Working Draft. January 06, 1998. B! WD-math-980106. MathML DTD (Working Draft 6-Jan-98); [local archive copy] Syntax highlighted version of the MathML DTD (Pankaj Kamthan) 'Htpertext' version of MathML DTD (dtd2html) [June 25, 1998] Mathematics On the Web. By Rockford J. A Thesis! Ross [Computer Science Department, Montana State University]. In ACM SIGACT NEWS Volume 29, Number 2 (June 1998) [Education Forum], pages 33-41.

Review of MathML from the ACM Special Interest Group on Algorithms and Computation Theory. See: Mathematical Markup Language (XML) - Main entry [August 14, 1998] Note from Eitan Gurari: work done to configure TeX4ht for XML and MathML. Written Assignment Ib English! See: http://www.cis.ohio-state.edu/ gurari/temp/xml/ml.html; [local archive copy] Also, the determines spread u.s working world collected documentation. Assignment! MathML Files: DSSSL style sheet for MathML MathML Files: DSSSL style sheet for marriage classification essay, MathML. (David Carlisle) MathML in Mozilla (Roger B. Sidje, David Fiddes, P. S. Written Assignment B! Karthikeyan). The priority of the project will be to provide a compact and fast engine that will process MathML and enable Gecko to render mathematical expressions. Another goal is to dear cover letter, provide a WYSIWYG interface to MathML. This will be a graphical equation editor with an internal representation in standard MathML text. TtHMML, a TeX to MathML translator. Assignment! See Try out TtHMML. NB: 'You need a browser such as Amaya, with MathML support, to see equations.' See: OpenMath Standard.

PICS-NG Metadata Model and Label Syntax (W3C WD-pics-ng-metadata-970514.html), with Appendix A: Correspondence to the XML Web Collection Proposal. One proposal for the metadata syntax is XML: the Extensible Markup Language . . .is attractive because of papers swap u.s working, its political appeal and assignment ib english, the fact that it may find other uses in the Internet arena. The full definition of an XML syntax for PICS-NG will be included in a future version of this document. [mirror copy] CDIF (CASE Data Interchange Format) attempts to address a problem faced by both users and vendors of determines swap u.s working world, Visual Modeling tools and Computer Aided Software and Systems Engineering (CASE) tools: interoperability. Written Assignment B! Users need to be able to move information from one CASE tool to another in order to develop systems efficiently. They need to move information from a tool to a repository and back. They need to world, exchange data between repositories. CDIF is a Family of Standards that lays out written ib english, a single architecture for postgraduate, exchanging information between modelling tools, and written assignment ib english b, between repositories, and defines the interfaces of the components to implement this architecture.

CDIF has been defined by the CDIF Division of the EIA, an industry standards committee. CDIF is also being standardized at an international level through ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7/WG11. Many of the major modeling, CASE and repository vendors, and some large user organizations have pooled their expertise and dear, resources to develop this Family of Standards. Currently, the written CDIF Family of hard, Standards has 10 standards as members and more will be added in the future. Assignment B! The CDIF standards development process is classification, open-ended, and driven by the interests of the CDIF member organizations. Written Assignment Ib English! Any organization can become a CDIF member and thus influence current and essay, future CDIF work. The CDIF Technical Committee is preparing a specification called the written assignment ib english CDIF XML-based Transfer Format . The Working Group Chair is Woody Pidcock (Boeing Company) and the standards draft editor is Johannes Ernst (Aviatis Corporation). A June 1998 draft (CDIF-DRAFT-XML-V3, EIA-PN-XXX, CDIF XML-based Transfer Format, EIA/CDIF 1998) edited by Johannes Ernst outlines the ongoing work of the CDIF Technical Committee on the transfer format.

The CDIF (CASE Data Interchange Format) family of Standards is primarily designed to be used as a description of a mechanism for transferring information between CASE tools. Is Doing A Thesis! It facilitates a successful transfer when the authors of the importing and exporting tools have nothing in common except an agreement to conform to CDIF. Assignment Ib English! The language that is defined for the Transfer Format also has applicability as a general language for Import/Export from repositories. Is Doing A Thesis Hard! The CDIF Integrated Meta-model also has applicability as the written assignment ib english b basis of standard definitions for use in repositories. The XML-based CDIF Syntax which allows the exchange of meta-models and models using the emerging XML standard is being provided in addition to the CDIF Transfer Format based on SYNTAX.1 and ENCODING.1. In the version 3 draft document, (Section 5.2 of the Transfer Format Overview), the bank determines papers spread u.s working world relationship of the CDIF Transfer Format to XML is explained: The primary application of the XML standards is document markup. Compared to the HTML document type definition, XML-based document type definitions allow for a more strict definition of the written b content and the benefits of extracurricular activities essay, content structure. On the other hand, the exchange of modeling information according to written b, the CDIF architecture requires an even stricter set of rules to be followed than even in a strict application of XML. This has two consequences: (a) any CDIF Transfer file employing the XML-based CDIF Transfer Format is also a legal XML file; (b) the rules to be followed by activities, files employing the XML-based CDIF Transfer Format cannot be fully captured in an XML DTD alone; instead, this standard defines rules that are mandatory for ib english b, such an a thesis, XML-based CDIF Transfer beyond those defined in the DTD. As an example for the latter, consider the rich set of data types for meta-attributes and meta-meta-attributes required to exchange modeling information, and compare them to the significantly smaller set of data types provided by XML.

When exchanging models with the XML-based CDIF Transfer Format that employ any of the richer data types, additional rules have to be obeyed. CDIF Man Page Introduction to ib english b, CDIF. July 1998. By Johannes Ernst, Aviatis Corporation. The Benefits Of Extracurricular! Draft 3 of XML-based CDIF Transfer Format.

The XML-based CDIF Syntax allows the exchange of meta-models and models using the emerging XML standard. This is in addition to the CDIF Transfer Format based on SYNTAX.1 and ENCODING.1. XML-based CDIF Transfer Format DTD -- DRAFT 3 [local archive copy] CDIF XML-Based Transfer Format. Draft 'standard' version 3. CDIF-DRAFT-XML-V3, EIA-PN-XXX, CDIF XML-based Transfer Format, EIA/CDIF 1998. Assignment B! [local archive copy, 980622] Draft version 2. Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language (SMIL) Precision Graphics Markup Language (PGML)

On April 03, 1998, a submission was made to cover letter, the World Wide Web Consortium concerning a proposed Precision Graphics Markup Language (PGML) . References: W3C NOTE-PGML-19980410, World Wide Web Consortium Note 10-April-1998, URL http://www.w3.org/TR/1998/NOTE-PGML-19980410. The W3C NOTE was submitted by representatives of written assignment, Adobe Systems Incorporated, International Business Machines Corporation, Netscape Communications Corporation, and Sun Microsystems, Inc. The abstract: This document is the specification for the Precision Graphics Markup Language (PGML). PGML is a 2D scalable graphics language designed to meet both the simple vector graphics needs of dear cover, casual users and written, the precision needs of graphics artists. PGML uses the imaging model common to the PostScript(R) language and Portable Document Format (PDF); it also contains additional features to satisfy the needs of poverty essay, Web applications. The NOTE is characterized as a working document. It is not meant to be a complete definition for PGML. Ib English! Many sections have been left open or have been labeled Ideas for Consideration so that the bank spread working group can develop the strongest possible language specification and ensure that it is fully compatible with other W3C standards efforts. Among the 'Design Principles': PGML should be an XML application and the imaging model is an instance of the written assignment ib english b RDF data model. . . PGML should be compatible with and fully leverage all related W3C standards efforts. . .in particular, PGML will be an application of XML. Of Extracurricular Activities Essay! . Written Ib English! .[provision for ] exporting the imaging model to the DOM. A W3C 'Comment on poverty in africa essay, PGML Submission' asserts: PGML is expressed in XML, which allows PGML graphics to be modified with style sheets along with the document in which they are contained. A sample from Appendix B (minus the pretty-printing): ?XML version=1.0?!DOCTYPE PGML SYSTEM pgml1.0.dtdpgml boundingbox=0 0 300 300path fill=1 fillcolor=100 0 0moveto x=100 y=100/lineto x=200/lineto y=200/lineto x=100/lineto y=100//path/pgml . See the (extracted) Document Type Definition for written assignment, the Precision Graphics Markup Language, PGML from Appendix D of the bank determines papers world document.

On May 28, 1998, the W3C acknowledged receipt of a submission for a proposed Vector Markup Language (VML) from Autodesk Inc., Hewlett-Packard Company, Macromedia, Inc., Microsoft Corporation, and Visio Corporation. References: NOTE-VML-19980513, World Wide Web Consortium Note 13-May-1998. The submission defines the Vector Markup Language (VML), which is an application of written ib english b, Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.0 which defines a format for letter, the encoding of vector information together with additional markup to assignment b, describe how that information may be displayed and edited. According to bank determines u.s working, the Introduction in written assignment ib english b, the NOTE, The Vector Markup Language (VML) supports the markup of cover letter, vector graphic information in the same way that HTML supports the markup of textual information. Within VML the content is assignment, composed of paths described using connected lines and essay, curves.

The markup gives semantic and presentation information for the paths. VML is written using the syntax of written assignment ib english b, XML just as HTML is written using the syntax of SGML (the Standard Generalized Markup Language, [ISO 8879]) - XML is a restricted form of SGML. VML uses Cascading Style Sheets, Level 2 in the same way as HTML to determine the bank swap u.s working world layout of the vector graphics which it contains. Normative references cited in the NOTE include HTML 4.0, CSS1/2, XML 1.0, XML Namespaces, XLink, IEC 61966-2, PNG, and ISO 10918-1 (JPEG); VML is said to be based on well-established vector graphical techniques. From the W3C Comment on the VML Submission: VML is expressed in XML, which allows VML graphics to written assignment, be modified with style sheets along with the document in which they are contained. The submitters have clearly given thought to poverty in africa essay, style sheet binding, to assignment ib english, the necessary stylistic differences between editors and viewers, and to marriage classification essay, containment in HTML; they have also taken care to address the points in the W3C Requirements document. WebBroker: Distributed Object Communication on the Web. On May 12, 1998, the W3C acknowledged a WebBroker submission from written assignment b DataChannel. DataChannel, Inc. had submitted a proposed specification to the W3C for WebBrokering, governing 'Distributed Object Communication on the Web.' WebBroker, which falls under the W3C HTTP-NG Activity, represents an attempt at unifying interface technology used in in africa, existing distributed object systems like CORBA, DCOM, and RMI but is based on XML, HTTP/1.1 and traditional CGI technology for easier integration into the existing Web model. The submission is composed of five separate documents: WebBroker: Distributed Object Communication on assignment ib english b, the Web (NOTE-webbroker-19980511, authored by John Tigue and Jon Lavinder) ObjectMethodMessages DTD AnonymousData DTD TerseAnonymousData DTD InterfaceDef DTD. The abstract: This document provides a specification (WebBroker document type definitions, or WebBroker DTDs) for describing and exchanging structured messages between software components on the Web.

Such exchange is facilitated by the DTDs which describe the structure of the messages (method requests and method responses) and which also describe the cover letter interfaces of the software components themselves. The AnonymousData DTD describes a simple way of assignment, expressing the data type of structures which works within XML 1.0 and marriage essay, is designed to work with XML-Data. The ObjectMethodMessages DTD describes how to represent, in XML documents, the serialized messages between software components. Assignment Ib English! ObjectMethodMessages uses the spread AnonymousData DTD and is modeled after DCE RPC Request and Response PDUs. The InterfaceDef DTD describes software component interfaces much like CORBA IDL and Microsoft IDL. Written! One immediate implication of these ideas is that there can now be a unified Web publishing and traditional client/server programming model which work over HTTP 1.1. We expect the WebBroker DTDs to be useful for enabling many organizations to implement a mature yet simple and easy to reproduce model of the benefits of extracurricular essay, distributed computing on written b, the Web. Web Interface Definition Language (WIDL) The Web Interface Definition Language (WIDL) consists of six XML-compliant HTML extenders that define a universal schema for HTML documents based on the Document Object Model (DOM) as it is being defined by the World Wide Web Consortium. Submission of a specification for the Web Interface Definition Language [WIDL] to W3C by webMethods, Inc. According to postgraduate toolkit, the abstract, the document provides the specification for the Web Interface Definition Language (WIDL), a metalanguage that implements a service-based architecture over the document-based resources of the written b World Wide Web.

WIDL is an determines papers swap, application of the eXtensible Markup Language (XML); it allows interactions with Web servers to be defined as functional interfaces that can be accessed by remote systems over standard Web protocols, and provides the assignment ib english structure necessary for determines swap u.s working world, generating client code in languages such as Java, C/C++, COBOL, and Visual Basic. WIDL enables a practical and assignment, cost-effective means for diverse systems to be rapidly integrated across corporate intranets, extranets, and dear, the Internet. Short Take: WIDL submitted to written assignment ib english, W3C as standard. By Tim Clark. Determines Swap U.s Working! CNET News.com , October 13, 1997, 2:15 p.m. PT. [August 29, 1997] Announcement from webMethods Inc. that the core of its Web Automation technology has been built around the eXtensible Markup Language (XML). webMethods' Web Automation product suite now uses XML to define automated access to Web data and services, and can be used against existing HTML or new XML-based Web resources. . . Web Automation technology is based on webMethods' Web Interface Definition Language (WIDL) 2.0, an XML application that defines Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) to assignment, Web data and services. [local archive copy] WIDL Description See also: Building Blocks: Turning the Web Into a Data Source, by Leslie Marable.

From Web Week , Volume 3, Issue 11, April 21, 1997. [mirror copy] [March 04, 1998] Free Web Automation Toolkit for XML HTML - from webMethods Inc. Submission - local archive copies. XML and EDI (Electronic Data Interchange). Bank Determines Papers U.s Working! EDI works by ib english, providing a collection of standard message formats and element dictionary in a simple way for businesses to poverty essay, exchange data via any electronic messaging service. . . XML/EDI provides a standard format to written ib english b, describe different types of data -- for example, a loan application, an invoice, healthcare claim, project status -- so that the marriage classification essay information can be decoded, manipulated, and displayed consistently and correctly by implementing EDI dictionaries. Written Assignment Ib English B! Thus by combining XML and EDI we create a new powerful paradigm! (Dubbed by the designers as An idea almost as good as peanutbutter and chocolate!) In March 1998, the XML-EDI Group become an organization of the Graphic Communications Association Research Institute (GCARI). GCARI, an affiliate of Graphic Communications Association (GCA) in Alexandria, Va. GCA is a technical management association in postgraduate thesis toolkit, the publishing and printing industries that has supported XML since its creation. XML/EDI Overview Main XML/EDI Page for the XML/EDI Group -- an ad hoc group of professionals and volunteers in written assignment ib english, various industries.

Redix XML/EDI Authoring Tool - The XML/EDI Authoring Tool gives you ability to define your own interface between your application software and XML formats, regardless of whether your application format is EDI based or proprietary. Several examples are provided in this tool. These include X12, EDIFACT, HIPAA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996), Oracle ERP, and SAP. We also provide a tutorial that guides you through the steps to interface with the XML/EDI Authoring Tool. Is Doing Hard! Another XML/EDI Home Page XML/EDI Frameworks - The Executive Summary Guidelines for Using XML for Electronic Data Interchange, edited by Martin Bryan.

Contributors: Members of the XML/EDI working group, including Benoít Marchal, Norbert H. Mikula, Bruce Peat, and David R. R. Webber. Version 0.04, 23rd December 1997. [local archive copy, version 0.04]; [archive copy, version 0.02] The Role of Document Type Definitions in written ib english, Electronic Data Interchange. The Benefits Of Extracurricular Essay! By Martin Bryan. Written Assignment B! Internet Explorer 5.0 XML/EDI Demonstration using Intelligent XSL Stylesheets. By Martin Bryan. Guidelines for the benefits of extracurricular essay, using XML for Electronic Data Interchange [variant of preceding document] Answers to Frequently Asked Questions, by Martin Bryan. Written Assignment B! [archive copy] EDI and XML time for poverty, a dual approach?, by Bruce Peat; [archive copy] Advantages of including Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) entities with eXtensible Markup Language (XML), by Bruce Peat with XML assistance from Richard Light. [archive copy] Using XML for Electronic Commerce, by Martin Bryan Electronic commerce topic page Contact form [August 29, 1997] Accelerating Electronic Commerce: Making EDI Accessible with XML, by Mary Fletcher Laplante (Director, Document Software Strategies Group, CAP Ventures). Published in written b, Document Software Strategies Analysis 2/29 (August 15, 1997); [local archive copy] [February 02, 1998] XML/EDI XML/XSL Example - Fill-In-Form (Betty Harvey) A form developed as a test scenario for ordering product and creating an XML/EDI message. [March 11, 1998] XML-EDI Group Becomes a GCARI Organization. GCARI: Graphic Communications Association Research Institute, and affiliate of the Graphic Communications Association (GCA). [local archive copy] According to a press release of July 27, 1998, the objectives of the working group are to: 1) Develop draft standards on repositories for submission to the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), Object Management Group (OMG), and UN/EDIFACT working groups; 2) Establish a formal working group to coordinate proposal development; 3) Provide a technical forum for individuals involved in bank u.s working, repository development to ib english, participate; 4) Offer links among disciplines and poverty, standards such as W3C's XML, as well as OMG's UML (Unified Modeling Language) and written assignment ib english b, MOF (Meta-Object Facility); 5) Provide a means for vendors who have announced products based on open standards on this topic to offer their ideas. The first draft is anticipated for an availability date of September 30, 1998.

For the purposes of thesis, this discussion group, the term EDI shall include business-to-business, business-to-consumer, and consumer-to-business exchanges of XML formatted and assignment ib english b, structured data or information. Home Page [July 27, 1998] Press release: New XML Electronic Commerce Repository Proposal Announced. Adapted from the press release in dear cover, RTF format Announcement - Press release from written assignment ib english b GCA Project Overview and the benefits of extracurricular activities essay, Focus [local archive copy] Project Goal, Objectives, and Discussion Topics; [local archive copy] Press releases Position Statement on Global Repositories for XML. - By The XML/EDI Group. Version: 0.98, July, 1998. Authors and Contributors: Betty Harvey, Denis Hill, Ron Schuldt, Martin Bryan, Will Thayer, Dick Raman and David Webber. The XML/EDI Guidelines identify the written b need for effective use of Global Repositories and bank papers u.s working, document structure grammars.

This paper discusses the implementation of such technologies and the bringing together of related ongoing efforts in this field. See also http://www.xmledi.com/repository/xml-rep.htm Preliminary Findings and Recommendations on assignment ib english, the Representation of thesis, X12 Data Elements and Structures in XML X12C Ad Hoc Task Group on the use of XML with X12 EDI. DRAFT Version 0.03a, July 31, 1998. Editors: Bob Crowley, Rik Drummond, David Webber, Christine Pellar-Kosbar. Written! Contributors: Denis Hill, Ken Steel, Mike Rawlins, Dan Codman, John Hathaway, Martin Bryan, Robert Miller, Betty Harvey, William Kammerer, John Kevlin.

UN/CEFACT/TMWG OO-Edi Compatibility With XML/EDI. Essay! The XML/EDI Group. Version: 0.92. July, 1998. Authors and written assignment ib english b, Contributors: David Webber, Klaus-Dieter Naujok.

The international EDI community has developed OO-edi over the past three years as an implementation neutral framework for the future architecture of EDI. XML/EDI has emerged over the last twelve months as the implementation and deployment method of choice for next generation of electronic business facilitation via the bank determines spread world Internet. This paper shows how these two technologies are completely compatible and strongly complimentary. XML/EDI emerges as the implementation method of choice for FVS (Functional Service View) of Open-edi, and written assignment ib english b, Open-edi BOV (Business Operational View) provides the means to underpin the physical implementation methods of XML/EDI with design, process and logic verification to ensure robust and efficient systems development and architectures. Two representation methods provide the link between the two: Universal Model Language (UML), and determines spread world, Extensible Markup Language (XML). UN/CEFACT/TMWG OO-edi Compatibility With XML/EDI. From the XML/EDI Group.

July 1998. [local archive copy] The European XML/EDI Pilot Project is being run as part of the Information Society Standardization System within the European Committee for Standardization (CEN/ISSS) open workshop on ib english, Electronic Commerce. [The objective of the project is] to test the applicability of XML for interchanging data, between SMEs and their business partners, of the type currently exchanged using EDI messages. The project will build on the findings of in africa, existing and proposed European initiatives on ib english, the use of XML for EDI data interchange. The EEMA EDI Work Group would like to poverty essay, propose to CEFACT the establishment of written assignment b, a Global Repository for the translation of the benefits of extracurricular activities essay, XML tags in UN/EDIFACT and human language on the Internet. The EEMA EDI Working Group is prepared to assist in the set up and written ib english, operation of marriage essay, such a repository, which could be crucial in ib english, the advancement of the use of EDI over the Internet. . Marriage! . . When the fusion between ANSI X12, EDIFACT and all other EDI standards takes place in a proper way it should be under the auspices of the UN so it is global, public domain, open and available for anyone. Today this is not the case with the ANSI standards and many other EDI standards that are only available at considerable cost. Written B! Of course today the determines spread world EDIFACT standard is already in the public domain and ib english, can easily be obtained through the Internet. . . .there could be a relatively easy fusion between EDIFACT and ANSI X12. Essentially every data-element one can find in is doing hard, ANSI or in EDIFACT could be placed inside the XML/EDI file.

What would be required is to set up a repository in which the written assignment ib english tags for the XML files are listed with the dear letter corresponding EDIFACT data-element number, the corresponding ANSI X12 element number, and a description. . . By setting up one global repository on written ib english, the Internet, CEFACT can assume responsibility for the creation of new tags based on a corresponding EDIFACT data-element number and the standard description, while other organizations can assume responsibility for a language code or the corresponding element number in spread swap world, different standards. Even if XML/EDI is not the ultimate solution, a global repository would be extremely useful for ib english b, conventional EDI and other forms of EC, because it would provide an independent Data Dictionary which could be used by in africa, applications. As of Fall 1999, there was a proliferating activity of X12-XML initiatives [which] reflects the essential foundation the X12 standard provides to a multitude of assignment b, emerging e-commerce technologies. See the hard separate document. Information and assignment b, Content Exchange (ICE) On October 26, 1998, the W3C acknowledged receipt of a submission from Adobe Systems Incorporated, CNET Incorporated, Microsoft Corporation, Sun Microsystems Inc., and bank determines papers spread swap u.s working world, Vignette Corporation, in the form of a NOTE: The Information and Content Exchange (ICE) Protocol.

Other information on the Information and Content Exchange (ICE) Protocol is provided in a separate document. In an announcement made today by Patrick Gannon, Executive Director of CommerceNet's Information Access Portfolio, at the XML Developers' Day program being held in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, CommerceNet gave its full support to the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) development of the ib english b Working Draft Requirements for dear letter, the Extensible Markup Language (XML) and launched its international industry initiative to ib english b, demonstrate commercial viability of XML in poverty in africa, Internet Commerce. Written Assignment Ib English B! The CommerceNet initiative is designed to close the time gap between the development of industry standards and implementation of open, interoperable applications in the electronic commerce arena. The multifaceted program involves development of examples, demonstrations and a showcase of member applications. Poverty In Africa! The goal is to accelerate the adoption of XML as a key technology for the realization of efficient Internet Commerce. . . The CommerceNet program is made up of three strategic projects: (1) XML Catalogs DTDs; (2) iMarkets; (3) XML/EDI. RosettaNet is a global business consortium creating the electronic commerce framework to align processes in the IT supply chain. See the written assignment independent document for essay, references. IETF Internet Draft draft-kristensen-xml-map-00.txt. By Anders Kristensen. Hewlett-Packard Laboratories.

This document proposes an assignment, XML encoding for sets of named values. The primary application is activities, as a transmission format for written assignment b, form values being submitted to a processing agent over the Web. Classification Essay! The main advantage over other form value encodings is that it allows field names to be associated with structured values without resorting to written assignment ib english, non-XML encodings. The multipart/related MIME type is used for carrying non-XML media. Capability Card: An Attribute Certificate in XML. This IETF INTERNET DRAFT for a 'Capability Card' describes basic ideas and data components of 'Capability Card,' which is a kind of attribute certificates designed from the standpoint of a secure communication framework on poverty in africa, the Internet. Similar to the SPKI certificates, a capability card can be used to grant a person particular access privileges to resources like WWW pages, IRC channels, and message boxes. In addition, it can carry a variety of descriptive information about the ib english issuer, the resources, and of extracurricular essay, the privileges specified in it.

A capability card is written in written assignment ib english, XML, which is becoming a standard format rapidly for the internet data exchange. Consequently, users can handle various information in capability cards visually with an XML viewer. This is hard, a fairly desirable feature for the existing internet services. Written Assignment Ib English! In this document, following the motivation and the basic concepts, the elements of XML DTD of poverty essay, capability cards are described. Telecommunications Interchange Markup (TCIF/IPI)

The recent revision of the TIM DTD toward version 2 has been motivated, in part, by a desire of the subcommittee to assignment ib english, make this news industry DTD XML compliant. Information Products Interchange (IPI) is a working committee of the Telecommunications Industry Forum. IPI was established to select standards and cover, guidelines capable of allowing the written ib english interchange of a variety of information products for marriage essay, the telecommunications industry . . . Most of the IPI Committee's published work has to do with the Telecommunications Interchange Markup (TIM, an SGML DTD) and the Telecommunications Electronic Document Delivery Package (TEDD). The TIM Document Type Definition (DTD) is a specification for describing the structure of written assignment ib english b, telecommunications and poverty in africa essay, other technical documents . . . based largely on early versions of the DocBook DTD developed by the Davenport Group. TIM 1 was approved as a TCIF Guideline in b, December 1995, and revisions for TIM 2 were begun in December 1996. As described in dear, the TCIF Information Publication TCIF-IPI-97-004 (Issue 1, 10/24/97), several of the written assignment DTD changes were aimed at making the TIM 2 specification XML compliant. These included changes to the SGML declaration, removal of inclusion and dear cover, exclusion exceptions from written ib english content models, implementation of external cross-references through URLs, restricting the attribute data types to the XML-valid AttType values ('TokenizedType' -- in particular, NMTOKEN for NAME, NUMBER, and NUTOKEN), and restriction of PCDATA to content models having repeatable 'OR groups'. Thus: except for changes to adapt to the not-yet-finished XLL linking specification, TIM is already XML-complaint and ready for the next generation of browsers. Main database entry, with summary and bibliographic references: TCIF/IPI (Telecommunications Industry Forum Information Products Interchange) Telecommunications Industry Forum Information Products Interchange (TCIF - IPI) Committee Home Page TIM DTD Telecommunications Interchange Markup, alias Technical Information Markup DTD [March 06, 1998] Comments from essay Don Pratt, Technical Team Leader on the XML DTD issues (v. 203, 204).

Version 2.0.4 has introduced all-lower-case names (a decision based upon XML case-sensitivity rules) and implemented other minor changes to allow (optionally) better compatibility with TEDD and XML. B! [March 06, 1998] See http://bigbird.bellcore.com/TCIF/lib/sgml/ as of this date for TIM DTD draft version 2.0.4. Marriage Classification! Alternate locations: ftp://ftp.bellcore.com/pub/world/TCIF/ or http://www.atis.org/atis/tcif/. The change history describes the written b `XML compliance' issues in 2.0.4. A PE reference %m-; appears: - mapped to - - for the 'SGML only' DTD marked sections, mapped to marriage classification essay, nil for XML. B! The ZIP archive for the DTD. [April 21, 1998] Note from Don Pratt, Technical Team Leader on the Availability of XML-compliant TIM. Dated 1998-03-06.

Further details on XML-compliant version of TIM (2.1.1) as of in africa, April 21, 1998; [2.1.1 local archive copy, 19980421] Electronic Component Information Exchange (ECIX) and Pinnacles Component Information Standard (PCIS) ECIX - 'For Internet and XML-based Component Information Exchange'. The Electronic Component Information Exchange (ECIX) project is dedicated to designing standards for creation, exchange and use of written assignment ib english, electronic component information, including ASIC cores. The ECIX architecture and standards are extensible, unambiguous, well documented and are maintained under the direction of Si2. Bank Spread! The current ECIX specifications are QuickData (QuickData Protocol and Quick Evaluation Data Specifications), PCIS, CIDS, and TDML. Details on written assignment ib english, the new ECIX QuickData specifications for real-time business-to-business Internet transactions (based on XML) are accessible [via the a thesis Web site]. A new, XML-based version of PCIS (Version 1.5) was announced in June at written assignment ib english b, DAC '99. ECIX Component Information Dictionary Standard (CIDS)

The aim of the Component Information Dictionary Standard is to provide authors and users of component information with a computer sensible dictionary of dear cover, characteristic properties of components, allowing for a common and unambiguous understanding of those characteristics. ECIX has created a CIDS dictionary in support of the written assignment b ECIX Quick Evaluation Data Specification, and is working with NIST, IEC (61360) and JEDEC organizations to realize CIDS dictionaries for those industry standard dictionaries. A new XML-based version of is doing a thesis hard, CIDS (Version 1.9) was announced in written assignment, June at DAC '99. The US Library of Congress and several research level institutions have been engaged in the collaborative work of the EAD (Encoded Archival Description) initiative for several years. Activities Essay! These institutions use the EAD DTD, and currently encode their archival finding aids using the Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) or in assignment ib english, XML.

The EAD Document Type Definition (DTD) represents the formal part of a standard for encoding archival finding aids using the Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) and the Extensible Markup Language (XML). This standard is maintained by in africa essay, the Network Development and MARC Standards Office of the written assignment b Library of essay, Congress (LC) in written assignment ib english, partnership with the of extracurricular activities Society of American Archivists. See the written assignment ib english dedicated page for information on the Encoded Archival Description (EAD). A communique from spread u.s working Junichi Suzuki (The Graduate School of written b, Computer Science, Keio University) describes an XML application proposed as the UML eXchange Format (UXF). The UML (Unified Modeling Language) is an emerging standard modeling language for the description of software systems. UXF is postgraduate thesis toolkit, a XML-based format to interchange software analysis/design models with UML (Unified Modeling Language), which is an object-oriented analysis/design methodology. B! According to the description on the UXF Web site, the project addresses how UML (Unified Modeling Language) models can be interchanged and proposes an application-neutral format called UXF (UML eXchange Format), which is an classification, exchange format for UML models based on XML (Extensible Markup Language).

It is a format powerful enough to express, publish, access and exchange UML models, and a natural extension from the written b existing Internet environment. It serves as a communication vehicle for developers, and as a well-structured data format for development tools. With UXF, UML models can be distributed universally. UXF is thus expected to support intercommunications between software developers, interconnectivity between development tools, and a natural and transparent extension from the existing Web environment. Several related DTDs are now available or in draft: Parent DTD for toolkit, all subset DTDs, DTD for class diagrams, DTD for collaboration diagrams, DTD for statechart diagrams, UXF DTD for sequence diagrams.

The designers are using 'XSL' stylesheets for UXF data. Links: UML - Unified Modeling Language Version 1.4 of the assignment UML Documentation set was scheduled for release in April of 1999. Main UXF Page UXF Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) Making UML Models Exchangeable over the Internet with XML: UXF Approach. By Junichi Suzuki and Yoshikazu Yamamoto. The Benefits Of Extracurricular! Paper presented at the International Workshop UML'98 (3rd-4th June 98, Mulhouse - France). Available in Word97, PDF, and Postscript formats. [local archive copy] Managing the written assignment ib english Software Design Documents with XML. By Junichi Suzuki and dear cover, Yoshikazu Yamamoto, Keio University. Ib English B! Presented in Session 11: 'Working with XML', Thursday, September 24, 1998, Loews Le Concorde Hotel, Quebec City, Canada, ACM SIGDOC 1998. Is Doing! In the software engineering community, Unified Modeling Language (UML) has been widely accepted as an object-oriented software analysis/design methodology, since it provides most of the concepts and notations that are essential for documenting object oriented models. UML, however, does not have an assignment b, explicit format for interchanging its models intentionally. This paper addresses this lack and proposes UXF (UML eXchange Format), which is an hard, exchange format for UML models, based on XML (Extensible Markup Language). [local archive copy] [September 16, 1999] Leveraging Distributed Software Development.

By Junichi Suzuki and Yoshikazu Yamamoto. In IEEE Computer [IEEE Computer Society] Volume 32, Number 9 (September), pages 59-65, with 6 references. Ib English B! Toward the Interoperable Software Design Models: Quartet of UML, XML, DOM and cover, CORBA. By Junichi Suzuki and Yoshikazu Yamamoto. Second draft, presented to ISESS '99 (Fourth IEEE International Software Engineering Standards Symposium, May 17-21, 1999). This paper addresses a standard-based UML model interchange and presents our effort to make UML interoperable. We developed a XML-based exchange format called UXF (UML eXchange Format) and a distributed model management system for assignment, UML. The system leverages the team development, reuse of design models and tool interoperability by determines papers spread swap u.s working, interchanging the model information with XML through the Document Object Model (DOM) interface that is implemented on top of CORBA (Common Object Request Broker Architecture). Written Assignment! DOM provides a platform and thesis, programming language neutral interface to manipulate the content, structure and style of documents. [local archive copy] Making UML Models Interoperable with UXF. By Junichi Suzuki and Yoshikazu Yamamoto.

This paper addresses the UML model interchange and assignment b, presents our efforts to bank determines papers u.s working world, make UML highly interoperable. We developed an interchange format called UXF (UML eXchange Format) based on XML (Extensible Markup Language). [local archive copy] Archived Samples (DTDs, instances, stylesheets) in b, a .ZIP collection, 19980528 Contact: Junichi Suzuki. Email suzuki@yy.cs.keio.ac.jp; WWW: http://www.yy.cs.keio.ac.jp/ suzuki/jsuzuki.html Compare: UML-Xchange from Normand Rivard, 07-09-98. UML-Xchange is a SGML DTD for exchanging data models between CASE tools that use the UML language. All of the six kinds of UML diagrams are supported.

See the DTD, [local archive copy] Compare: Object Management Group (OMG) and XML Metadata Interchange Format (XMI). Related: Pattern Markup Language (PML) - an XML-based format to postgraduate, describe software patterns. . . Written Assignment Ib English B! PML internally uses UXF. Information on the LISA/OSCAR 'TMX' DTD for translation memory exchange is provided in a separate document. P3P Syntax Specification: Platform for Privacy Preferences. [March 23, 1998] Frontier 5 is the benefits of extracurricular, now an XML database with a programming and storage model. . .; see http://www.scripting.com/frontier5/xml/code/.

[January 1998] In one of a series of articles on XML, Frontier 5 and XML: Scripting News in XML, Dave Winer describes how he puts Scripting News in XML. Written Ib English! The [publication] format is regular enough so that with a reasonable script I can also generate a new format called scriptingNews format, that could be read by a new kind of browser, specially designed to carry news items with links, a possible picture, and a rare comment from poverty essay my evilTwin. [. ] I also converted all the back issues of Scripting News, dating back to April 1997, each in its own XML file. Through the InterX.org initiative, SGML Open and its members pledge to promote: (1) open standards; (2) elimination of proprietary extensions; (3) complete interoperability. Written Assignment Ib English! The name 'InterX.org' embodies the determines papers spread swap world concepts of XML and serves as an abbreviation for interchange, interactivity, interoperability, internet and written assignment b, international. Press Release: SGML Open Launches InterX.org Initiative in Support of XML. Monday September 22 3:14 PM EDT. Lead paragraph: SGML Open, the international consortium dedicated to promoting structured document and postgraduate toolkit, data interchange based on the SGML family of assignment, standards, today announced the adoption of a new initiative, InterX.org.

Serving as a forum and resource center for developers and users of XML tools, InterX.org will work to bridge the gap between the XML specification and tool interoperability. 'InterX.org' represents the concepts of interchange, interactivity, interoperability, internet and international -- together with XML. Information on 'InterX.org' from SGML Open. NuDoc is the benefits essay, a technology for describing, editing, and viewing highly designed pages for print and on-line distribution. NuDoc supports applications for WYSIWYG page layout, online XML browsing, and database driven, variable-data publishing. In NuDoc, a document object is made of style, content, and page layout sub-objects. A style object contains rules that govern the form (or visual appearance) of the document. Content elements such as words, images, movies, etc. are organized into a tagged tree structure that represents the logical organization of the information (sections, sub-sections, etc.). The W3C's Extensible Markup Language (XML) is the written b default content data representation. XML files are the default representation for the structured, tagged content. Postgraduate Thesis Toolkit! NuDoc reads and b, writes XML content files during the authoring process. The Benefits Of Extracurricular Activities Essay! NuDoc's TSL files are used to define the style sheets.

For rapid saving and restoring of the entire document object's state, NuDoc can save to written b, disk (and re-read) the marriage classification essay post-composition document containing the style, content, and resulting page layouts (including all user edits and mark-up) to an external XML-format checkpoint file. Finally, if the written assignment ib english shared content feature is required, external shared content is toolkit, stored in yet another XML format file. [from the Technology Briefing, August 1997] PageFlex is a NuDoc-based Application under development as of written b, mid-1998. PageFlex is a high-end solution built from modular components and open standards. It is the first solution to use XML as the spread swap u.s working intermediate data format between databases and the page composition process. The output formatter is assignment ib english, based on Bitstream's revolutionary NuDoc page composition engine, NuDoc offers unprecedented control over the graphic design of page templates while maintaining a strict separation of form from the input XML content. Coins: Tightly Coupled JavaBeans and XML Elements. Coins is a programming project undertaken by postgraduate toolkit, Bill la Forge. Description: A coin has two faces, an XML element and an instance of a JavaBean: a) the XML element is the persistent form, an written ib english b, b) the JavaBean instance is the runtime form.

One of the is doing a thesis primary operations of a coins program is the written assignment ib english b binding of XML element types to specific Java classes. In some cases (runtime program composition), an initial set of bindings is assumed and the XML document being processed uses that initial set to specify additional bindings in a bootstrapping process. The bindings used to process a document are not always fixed, but are often determined by the application or server processing the postgraduate thesis toolkit document. In these cases, the XML document is written b, simply a vehicle for moving information between applications, and cover, the coins technology simply provides the means for processing that document. Written Assignment! A particularly interesting feature of coins is its use of hyper-links. Is Doing! Java serialization has no equivalent capability, forcing the .ser files generated by Java serialization to written b, be self-contained. . . Coins Web site: http://www.jxml.com Coins Overview XML-Based Components: Coins.

Presentation to ACM Greater Boston Web Tech Chapter, by Bill la Forge Source and Documentation Contact: Bill la Forge. [June 21, 1998] Two-faced Coins Catching On. By Jeff Walsh. In InfoWorld Electric (June 19, 1998) Posted at 4:56 PM PT. A new programming paradigm called Coins is gaining momentum with developers as a way to deliver JavaBeans using the Extensible Markup Language (XML) without the the benefits of extracurricular need for Java serialization. DMTF Common Information Model (CIM) On October 19, 1998, The Desktop Management Task Force, Inc. (DMTF) announced the written assignment ib english b availability of its XML Encoding Specification for the encoding of the Common Information Model (CIM) schema in XML. Information on is doing hard, DMTF's CIM and WBEM technology solutions is held in written ib english, a separate document. Process Interchange Format XML (PIF-XML) On June 12, 1998, Jeffrey Ricker posted an announcement for postgraduate thesis toolkit, an initial design of PIF-XML (Process Interchange Format XML). PIF is an interchange format designed to help automatically exchange process descriptions among a wide variety of written assignment ib english b, business process modeling and support system such as workflow software, flow charting tools, process simulation systems, and process repositories. PIF itself is of extracurricular activities essay, based on the Knowledge Interchange Format (KIF), which is in turn based on assignment ib english b, LiSP.

Since both LiSP and poverty in africa, XML are text-based and nested trees, the translation is relatively straightforward. However, PIF also includes an object-oriented design with inheritance, which does not directly translate into XML. The initial work attempts a direct translation of PIF version 1.2, and is not optimized for economy in XML; a provisional DTD and example encoded PIF-XML document are available. Ontology and Conceptual Knowledge Markup Languages. QAML is a new language created using XML. The purpose of QAML is to provide a more specific format for written assignment ib english, documents dealing with questions and answers.

Why use QAML instead of HTML? Because unconstrained HTML is too powerful and loose! In particular QAML is meant for FAQs, or Frequently Asked Questions. QAML was originally meant to be a broader language, but we have decided to focus it specifically on FAQs. The Benefits Of Extracurricular Activities Essay! We are programming a CGI which will format QAML documents and convert them to HTML, so it will be possible to implement QAML without having to worry about written assignment ib english when XML browsers are commonplace. Rick Jelliffe (ricko@gate.sinica.edu.tw) has helped us to make QAML fully XML-compliant. We have posted the new, full XML QAML DTD. [October 07, 1999] New version of the marriage DTD.

[February 26, 1999] A recent communiqué from Rick Jelliffe (Academia Sinica Computing Centre) announces a 'Call for Comments' on a proposed XML DTD for 'Frequently Asked Questions' documents. The new QAML 2.0X XML DTD is based on the QAML 1.0 SGML DTD, with backwards-compatible augmentations for XML, I18N (internationalization), XLL [XLink] hypertext linking, style, accessability and written assignment, tracking. Comments on the proposed DTD are solicited by the authors, Justin Higgins of poverty, digitalNation Network Services, and Rick Jelliffe. The XML DTD is written b, available online from the FAQ.org website (http://www.faq.org/qaml/) and from the 'Chinese XML Now!' website (http://www.ascc.net/xml/). LACITO Projet Archivage de données linguistiques sonores et textuelles [Linguistic Data Archiving Project] Boyd Michailovsky (LACITO/CNRS, project coordinateur) forwarded a communique concerning a linguistic data archiving project which uses XML and bank papers swap world, SGML encoding. Principal investigators include Boyd Michailovsky, John B. Lowe, and assignment, Michel Jacobson. The 'Projet Archivage de données linguistiques sonores et textuelles', under the auspices of the larger LACITO programme (Laboratoire de langues et civilisations à tradition orale) and direction from bank swap CNRS, concentrates on the encoding, archiving, and distribution of written assignment, speech data, particularly for rare languages that are researched within the unit. Of Extracurricular Essay! The main source of data for assignment ib english b, the project is the dear cover mass of documents recorded and transcribed in the field by members of the LACITO over the last thirty years. These unique recordings, mainly of spontaneous speech in unwritten languages, serve as the basis for research on the languages and the cultures concerned. Some of the transcriptions and written ib english, translations have been published, but the original sound recordings have never been published or properly archived. . . An explicit XML (Extensible Markup Language) markup has been adopted for is doing hard, the text materials.

In many cases, older documents whose structure is implicit are marked up automatically by program. The interlinearized text (annotated and glossed) is displayed using XSL stylesheets. Audio portions corresponding to the encoded text are aligned using XML linking elements. . .The structure of the XML documents prepared by the project is defined by a DTD (Document Type Definition); all project documents are validated using public-domain tools. c/o Boyd Michailovsky. 44 rue de l'Amiral Mouchez.

75014 Paris, FRANCE. GedML: [GEDCOM] Genealogical Data in XML. GedML is a way of encoding genealogical data sets in XML. It combines the well-established GEDCOM data model with the new XML standard for encoding complex information. The result is a representation that can easily be converted to and from GEDCOM, but can be manipulated much more easily using standard tools. See now the document Genealogical Data and XML for information on GedML and other specifications using XML for written ib english b, genealogical information. Newspaper Association of the benefits of extracurricular, America (NAA) - Standard for Classified Advertising Data. The NAA Classified Advertising Standards Task Force was organized by the NAA Technology Department to facilitate the written assignment electronic exchange of classified ads. References to the commmitte work and the XML DTD are provided in a separate document. The International Press Telecommunications Council (IPTC) has made an XML version of the NITF (News Industry Text Format) DTD available from its Web site. Description and references are found in a separate document.

As of is doing a thesis hard, January 1999, a News Markup Language (NML) was under development through the effort of the American Press Institute's Media Center. In a meeting of written ib english b, April 1999, it was decided to incorporate the requirements for NML into the NITF design and development work. Further information is provided in marriage classification, a separate document. An announcement for a new XML application initiative (Notes Flat File Format Initiative) was posted by Sean McGrath on May 14, 1998. NFF is an XML based interchange format for the Lotus Notes/Domino platform. The NFF DTD supports the majority of the written assignment ib english constructs that can occur in Lotus Notes data such as structured fields, rich text, doclinks, import objects and so on. Once data is in XML conforming to the NFF DTD it can be imported using an import filter (NINFF.DLL) into Lotus Notes using a simple 'File-Import'. The download package includes the is doing necessary software along with a sample application - Timon Of Athens by William Shakespeare in NFF format.

Java Help API: The structure of a HelpSet is XML-encoded (Extensible Markup Language) data. Written Ib English B! . . See Byte Magazine (May 1998) page 108, sidebar So, Help Me, Java. The HelpSet formats in XML were presented in: Introduction to the JavaHelp API. By Eduardo Pelegrí-Llopart, Roger Brinkley, and Nancy K. Lee (Sun Microsystems, Inc.) Presented at JavaOne (Sun's 1998 Worldwide Java Developer Conference). So, Help Me, Java. From Byte , May 1998: . . . The new Java Help API, currently in beta testing, is an all-Java 'über alles' help system for JavaBean components, applications, desktops, and HTML pages. Postgraduate! . . [it's] written purely in Java, [which] means you can embed a help system within an application or compress it into written assignment ib english a Jar file for transport to another destination. . Cover Letter! . Written B! Java Help permits a single help system to support varying navigational views of help content. . Is Doing! . The data structure that carries all the information needed to provide a view into a help system is bundled into a HelpSet file. Written Ib English B! Note that there are two loose terms at use here. First, a HelpSet file isn't necessarily a file, in the same sense as files that you store on your hard disk. Postgraduate Thesis Toolkit! A HelpSet file could be bound into an application, for example. Second, it's probably more accurate to say that the information is rooted in the HelpSet file. The structure of a HelpSet is XML-encoded (Extensible Markup Language) data.

The data points to the URLs from written assignment ib english which you can find the in africa essay info necessary to build the help system. Cold Fusion is a general-purpose Web development system for rapidly building Web applications that integrate browser, server and database technologies. It consists of the Cold Fusion Markup Language (CFML), the Cold Fusion Application Server (NT UNIX) and written b, the forthcoming Cold Fusion Studio, a visual tool for building dynamic Web applications. . . Is Doing A Thesis! In essence, CFML provides a generalized markup language for handling the richness of programming, logic and ib english, integration required to build full-scale applications on the Web platform. It achieves this based on poverty essay, the same inspiration that is driving interest in XML -- simplicity and power. . . Syntactically, Custom Tags are XML compliant custom markup language elements that allow developers to build reusable components that can be easily dropped into a dynamic Web application. These tags are processed by the Cold Fusion server, and can dynamically generate and execute client and server-side code. Press release, September 15, 1997: Allaire Introduces Online Exchange for Cold Fusion Custom Tags. Written Ib English B! Third-party Custom Tags Extend the Cold Fusion development system with cross platform XML-compatible components. Cold Fusion and Custom Tags FAQ The Allaire Tag Gallery [August 04, 2000] ColdFusion Markup Language. By Mark Cyzyk. In WebTechniques Volume 5, Issue 8 (August 2000), pages 74-77. Consider the selection of server-side scripting languages: The big contenders in determines spread swap u.s working, this arena are Active Server Pages (ASP) and JavaServer Pages (JSP).

Hypertext Preprocessor (PHP) is also starting to edge in on the market. While each is powerful in its own way, neither of the environments is written assignment, particularly aesthetic by Gelernter's definition. Performing simple tasks with these technologies often requires a lot of is doing a thesis, overhead, resulting in code-heavy, convoluted programs. If you're choosing a server-side scripting language, you should consider a fourth option: ColdFusion. B! Because it acts more like a markup language than a programming language, ColdFusion is an elegant solution for embedding code in HTML files. Poverty In Africa Essay! Allaire, the company that also makes the popular HomeSite HTML editor, has a whole suite of ColdFusion technologies consisting of an application server, an integrated development environment, and assignment, of course, the markup language.

It is this ColdFusion Markup Language (CFML) that competes directly with ASP and JSP. Within CFML you'll find all the dear letter usual conditional logic constructs, data structures, and b, utility functions available in most mature programming languages. Further, CFML provides tags to easily implement email interactions, LDAP integration, and FTP and HTTP agent creation -- functions that other Web application development platforms require third-party modules to support. Finally, the Web application developer can create custom tags in CFML, thereby extending the language's power. Of Extracurricular Essay! Contact: Jeremy Allaire.

Document Content Description for XML (DCD) [August 10, 1998] International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) and Microsoft Corporation have submitted a proposal to the World Wide Web Consortium defining a vocabulary for describing constraints upon XML documents: Document Content Description for XML. References: NOTE-dcd-19980731, Submission to written ib english b, the World Wide Web Consortium 31-July-1998. The document proposes a structural schema facility, Document Content Description (DCD), for specifying rules covering the structure and content of XML documents. The DCD proposal incorporates a subset of the XML-Data Submission and expresses it in a way which is consistent with the of extracurricular essay ongoing W3C RDF (Resource Description Framework) effort; in particular, DCD is an written assignment, RDF vocabulary. Dear Cover! DCD is intended to assignment ib english, define document constraints in an XML syntax; these constraints may be used in the same fashion as traditional XML DTDs. DCD also provides additional properties, such as basic datatypes.

The abbreviation 'DCD' is used to describe both the general facility described in this document and individual schema instances that conform to the benefits activities, it. Editors listed for the document include Tim Bray (Textuality), Charles Frankston (Microsoft), and Ashok Malhotra (IBM). Other credits: The specification has benefited greatly as a result of written ib english b, input from hard David Fallside and David Singer, both of IBM, Andrew Layman and written assignment ib english, Jean Paoli both of Microsoft, and from Lauren Wood of dear letter, SoftQuad. We also wish to thank Henry Thompson of the University of written assignment b, Edinburgh and all the authors of the XML-Data specification. XSchema is the name of a collaborative effort hosted on the XML-DEV mailing list. The principal goal of the XSchema project is to produce an postgraduate toolkit, XSchema specification which, when complete, will provide a means for XML developers to describe their XML document structures using XML document syntax. The target date for a complete initial XSchema 1.0 proposal is June 30, 1998. As of written b, June 1, 1998, discussion had resulted in papers spread swap u.s working world, the creation of a list of twelve XSchema Goals, as refined through four draft documents. This XSchema work was initiated by Simon St.Laurent with the publication of a paper A Proposal for the Representation of XML DTDs as XML Documents and by several supportive postings, including a position paper authored by Paul Prescod.

During the initial period of assignment b, discussion on XML-DEV, the is doing a thesis hard project proposal went under the written assignment ib english b name XSD (Extensible or XML Structure Definitions). [November 03, 1998] Simon St.Laurent and Ronald Bourret report that a final draft of the XSchema Specification, Version 1.0 is cover letter, now available (November 1, 1998). Written Assignment Ib English! Public comments on the draft should be posted to the XML-DEV mailing list. General information on the XSchema project is available at http://purl.oclc.org/NET/xschema. Note that this borderlands effort is not part of the W3C work (it parallels work already begun within the W3C, e.g. , XML Data). Its authors declare that XSchema is not intended to compete with proposals from the World Wide Web Consortium, and they envision that the results may profitably feed into the W3C activity on XML schemas. According to Jon Bosak (XML WG Chair), design work by the XML WG on XML schemas using instance syntax is likely to be re-chartered. Of course, it also bears note that concrete proposals for poverty in africa essay, enhanced 'DTD's using instance syntax have been made by many individuals over the past decade or so. See, for example, references in chapter 8 of The SGML FAQ Book: Understanding the Foundation of HTML and assignment b, XML by Steve DeRose: SGML: It's 3, 3, 3 Languages in One. Document Definition Markup Language (DDML)

The Document Definition Markup Language (DDML) a schema language for XML documents, and bank spread u.s working, a the successor to XSchema. WEBDAV (Extensions for written b, Distributed Authoring and Versioning on the World Wide Web. WebDAV stands for 'Web-based Distributed Authoring and Versioning. It is a set of extensions to the HTTP protocol which allows users to collaboratively edit and manage files on remote web servers. WebDAV uses XML. See references in hard, a separate document. Graphic Communications Association - GCA 'Paper' DTD. For several years, the Graphic Communications Association (GCA) has requested (or required) that papers for GCA conferences be prepared according to guidelines in SGML/XML DTDs. Conference proceedings volumes, both paper and electronic, are generated from the SGML/XML source provided by assignment, the authors. DocBk XML is an XML version of the DocBook DTD.

DocBook is an SGML DTD maintained by the DocBook Technical Committee of OASIS. It is particularly well suited to books and papers about computer hardware and software (though it is by letter, no means limited to these applications). References are provided in assignment ib english, a separate document. SABLE: A Standard for Text-to-Speech Synthesis Markup. SABLE is an XML/SGML-based markup scheme for text-to-speech synthesis, developed to address the need for of extracurricular, a common TTS control paradigm.

The SABLE specification evolved as an initiative to combine three existing speech synthesis markup languages: 1) SSML, the Speech Synthesis Markup Language; 2) STML, the written assignment ib english b Spoken Text Markup Language; 3) JSML, the Java Synthesis Markup Language. The draft SABLE specification is an initiative to establish a standard system for marking up text input to speech synthesizers. The current draft is being circulated for comment by users, developers and researchers of speech synthesis. Java Speech Markup Language (JSML/JSpeech) The JSpeech Markup Language is referenced in thesis toolkit, a separate document. SpeechML from IBM's alphaWorks Laboratory is a[n XML] markup language for building distributed network-based conversational applications. Together with Guillaume Belrose, W3C's Dave Raggett (on assignment from HP Labs) is developing a voice browser to test out ideas for using context free grammars for more flexible voice interaction dialogs. Assignment! The applications are written in XML and CSS using a language we are calling TalkML. We plan to extend this work to look at how to deal with existing Web content developed for desktop browsers. Some ideas for this are covered in dear cover, a W3C NOTE ['Voice Browsers'] I wrote last year with Microsoft's Or Ben-Natan. The goal is to make it easy to ib english b, create dual access Web-sites which can be accessed via visual or voice browsers.

See also my talk on Style sheets for a thesis, Voice Browsers, as presented at written b, the Developer's Day at WWW8. TalkML is an experimental XML language for voice browsers, and is being developed by HP Labs for use in the following markets: (1) Call centers (IVR++) -- sales and support services accessed via 800 numbers, adding speech recognition to today's DTMF (touch tone) systems; (2) Smart phones with displays; (3) Access to email, appointments, news and travel services etc. while your are on bank spread u.s working world, the road (in-car systems); (4) Mobile devices too small for decent displays or keyboards, WCDMA palmtop organizers/pagers with low enough cost to assignment ib english, be a must-have (like cell-phones). Guillaume Belrose helped to poverty, devise TalkML and develop the sofware. A NIST project cordinated through MEL (The Manufacturing Engineering Laboratory) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology, under Project Leader Joshua Lubell. The objective of this NIST-sponsored project is to written assignment, explore the use of XML (eXtensible Markup Language), a standard for structured document interchange on the Web, for exchanging complex data objects between tasks in a distributed workflow application. In details: The WebWork workflow application development tool kit, created by the University of swap world, Georgia with funding from NIST's Advanced Technology Program, supports the b building of distributed, web-based workflow applications. NIST has demonstrated the essay benefits of XML for ib english, representing highly structured documents such as product data standard specifications and poverty, has shown that WebWork can be integrated with an XML repository. Leveraging this implementation experience, NIST will extend WebWork to support the exchange of ib english, XML-structured objects between workflow tasks. NIST will demonstrate the efficacy of this approach by building a small application to postgraduate, manage a subset of the workflow in ISO TC184/SC4 (International Organization for written b, Standardization Technical Committee 184, Subcommittee 4), an international standards body developing specifications for the representation and exchange of industrial data for which NIST serves as Secretariat. SWAP - Simple Workflow Access Protocol.

The SWAP (Simple Workflow Access Protocol) working group has submitted a charter to the ETF Application Area Directors and is expected to become authorized by bank determines papers spread, the IETF. Assignment Ib English! SWAP is a protocol designed to thesis toolkit, allow for interoperability between workflow systems and between workflow systems and other applications. SWAP allows for written assignment ib english, the programmatic initiation of a workflow process by an application, and the exchange of bank determines swap u.s working, process data and state information between the the workflow process and application. The proposed SWAP protocol defines four primary interfaces, which are used to manage, monitor, initiate and control the execution of processes on ib english b, external workflow systems. . . Classification Essay! SWAP is not intended to overlap with the WebDAV in any way. They are designed to be complimentary, use the same basic encoding (XML), and in fact use the same commands where appropriate for the same things (getting object properties). The goals of the two specs are different. WebDAV is for document management: how to check out ib english b, check in, handle multiple versions, lock, unlock, and move documents. There is nothing in WebDAV about applications. SWAP is for poverty in africa essay, starting, monitoring, controlling, and receiving notifications from a remote asynchronous service. Written Assignment B! The idea is that you have some application out there that takes a long time to complete, you want to pass it some data and invoke it. This is all about applications development, and almost nothing to postgraduate thesis, do with document management. Written Ib English! [adapted from the FAQ and main Web page, by Keith Swenson]

See: SWAP references in Asynchronous Transactions and Web Services. SWAP Working Group Simple Workflow Access Protocol (SWAP) The Simple Workflow Access Protocol is dear cover, a proposed way to ib english, solve this problem through use of HTTP protocol, and by papers swap u.s working, transferring structured information encoded in b, XML. A Thesis Hard! A new set of HTTP methods is defined, as well as the information to be supplied and the information returned in XML, that accomplish the control of generic asynchronous services. - draft-swenson-swap-prot-00.txt SWAP Main Page SWAP FAQ document SWAP Issues and Action Items. VSI (V-Systems Inc.), an industry 'Leader in Integrated Fax,' has recently proposed an XML Interface for FAX. XML-F ('XML for FAX'), under VSI's new proposal, would be used for for connecting fax servers to applications, other fax servers, and written assignment, fax service providers. VSI has outlined a simple method for integrating applications to fax servers using XML, the latest Internet technology for data interchange between applications. Launched at a time when both network fax and XML are coming into the mainstream, VSI believes that their proposal, called 'XML-F', has the potential to poverty essay, solve a major issue facing the fax service community. XML-F Specifications (including DTDs) have been written, and are to be released in the near future. The XML-F interface provides a simple framework for software applications to use in assignment, employing a network fax service to send an electronic document to a terminating fax machine.

The XML-F interface supports three basic features: 1) Submit a Fax for bank determines papers swap u.s working, Transmission; 2) Get Status of a Fax Transmission; 3) Cancel a current Fax Transmission or Request. XML-F employs six XML document types to implement these three features: three requests and written assignment ib english, three responses. Using a simple request/response model, each feature has a corresponding request and essay, response document. The request/response model lends itself well to internet transports and to applications which might require off-line use. All data is formatted as text and binary data is encoded using Base64 encoding.

XML-F can be coupled with internet transports such as TCP/IP and HTTP and security mechanisms such as SSL to ib english, provide secure transactions over the benefits essay, public networks. XML-F does not imply or require any particular transport, however. XML-F is an open specification that anyone can implement: any fax server or fax service provider, any application software developer, or other party. It is assignment ib english, recommended that any public implementation of a server representing this interface fully implement all of the interface, while client systems might opt to implement only those portions which are relevant to the application. [from the 0.1.90 draft] VSI (V-Systems Inc.) Home Page Press release: VSI Proposes New XML Interface for Fax. Fax over the benefits of extracurricular essay, XML Could Solve Key Issues in the Fax Service Community. - Announcement for XML-F. [also from VSI] Fax Integration using XML. August, 1998. 6 pages. Ib English B! - VSI has created a document that explains how application vendors, fax service providers, and fax servers can integrate using XML and XML-F. Of Extracurricular Activities! [local archive copy] XML-F Specifications. XML-F Preliminary Specification.

Revision 0.1.90, August 1998. 23 pages. Written Assignment! - VSI has also created a document that outlines the XML-F DTD's and marriage classification, recommendations for use by application developers, integrated and fax server vendors. [local archive copy] Email discussion forum: discussion@xml-f.com VSI Contact: Lydia Loizides (Product Marketing Manager) [January 11, 1999] VSI Announces VSI-Fax Gold Series 3.5 -- Introduces Faxing From Outlook. New Outlook Fax Integration Brings Proven Enterprise Fax Capabilities to written assignment ib english, Popular Messaging Client -- Allows Faxing Right from the postgraduate toolkit Inbox. - XML-F Integration: As the first step in written b, VSI's implementation of XML for fax communications, VSI-FAX 3.5 features the ability to use XML Documents to marriage essay, send, receive, and cancel faxes, as well as obtain status information. What is XML? - From VSI. [local archive copy] [February 15, 1999] Fax Integration Using XML Technology. By Dave Droman and Gila Jones [V-Systems, Inc.]. In Computer Technology Review Volume XVIII , Number 1(January 1999), pages 28, 32-33. Written! As it stands today, there is of extracurricular activities, no standard means of communicating between (1) fax servers and the applications that need faxing services and ib english, (2) among various fax servers or fax service providers across a network, including the Internet. Marriage! . . Written Assignment Ib English! To solve these problems, VSI has created a common faxing interface using XML, called XML-F. As many people now know, XML is a markup language, like HTML, with a vocabulary that consists primarily of 'tags.' HTML was specifically designed for marking up documents to communicate how they should be formatted for display on the World Wide Web. The purpose of XML is far more open-ended, but in general it is a 'meta-language' intended to thesis toolkit, be used to define other standard markup languages (known as Document Type Definitions or DTDs) that can be used to allow different systems to exchange information in a standard, process-readable format. Ib English B! Businesses can define their own vocabulary of poverty in africa, XML tags and rules that are embedded within the DTD inside the XML document or made publicly available to any program that wants to comply with the agreed-upon information exchange format. The use of XML-specific parsers eliminate the burden of parsing and validating XML interchange documents, reducing the work and assignment, support required to implement an application reading XML. [local archive copy]

Extensible Forms Description Language (XFDL) The main entry for bank swap u.s working world, the Extensible Forms Description Language (XFDL) is b, found in a separate document. Broadcast Hypertext Markup Language (BHTML) The ATSC T3/S17 specialist group is in the process of defining the application programming interfaces for a Digital Television Application Software Environment (DASE) compliant receiver. As this process evolves, the of extracurricular activities essay elements, attributes, properties, and written ib english, values of BHTML will solidify. T3/S17 has selected the Java virtual machine (VM) as the application execution engine. Thesis Toolkit! As specified by T3/S17, the Java VM will be found on all DASE-compliant receivers. Aninda DasGupta, the T3/S17 chairman, proposed [what] he called 'Broadcast HTML' [which] uses Internet technologies favored by many T3/S17 members: it is written in written ib english, XML, scales back HTML elements and attributes, and integrates synchronization functionality as new elements, attributes, and style properties. BHTML is an XML compliant language based on a reduced set of HTML 3.2 elements and attributes.

Media synchronization functions from postgraduate SMIL and style elements from CSS 1 and CSS 2 are added to this base functionality (into Broadcast CSS or BCSS). Appendix C of the August 6, 1998 draft (XML-Data Specifying BHTML using the XML-Data Syntax) represents 'a first pass at defining the BHTML elements and assignment ib english b, attributes using the XML-Data (XMLD) notation'. xHTML specifies a collection of document type definition (DTD) sets that can be combined to cover letter, specify an xHTML-based platform. Three such platforms are used as examples throughout this specification: w3HTML, bHTML, and ib english b, cHTML. xHTML is designed to meet the toolkit requirements of ib english b, consumer electronic and computer manufacturers that wish to produce a broad range of products with various levels of Internet connectivity and product features. xHTML started with HTML 4.0 and HTML 3.2. These elements and attributes were converted to XML, in line with the dear stated goals of the written assignment b W3C for future HTML. The XML-based markup language was partitioned into DTD sets that correlated with the needs of platform developers to marriage classification essay, differentiated based on internet connectivity, memory footprint, and power management. xHTML is written in XML, therefore element names are case-sensitive. Digital-TV Application Software Environments (DASE) - Main Page BHTML Draft Specification - BHTML Draft #2. Document Number ATSC T3/S17 092, prepared for ATSC T3/S17 (DASE) by Ted Wugofski, Gateway. A Modular Hypertext Markup Language for Broadcast Applications.. Prepared by Ted Wugofski. 1 Oct 98, Draft #4. [local archive copy] Synchronization and Transitions in Broadcast HTML.

Ted Wugofski, Over the Moon Productions. This is an addendum to the Broadcast HTML (bHTML) Proposal in the area of specifying timing, synchronization, and special effects. The design is based on functional requirements specified in the Advanced Television Systems Committee (ATSC) specialist group (T3/S17) that is defining the assignment b digital television application software environment (DASE). [local archive copy] Broadcast HTML Specification - General Information DASE Introduction [August 25, 1998] As Intel-led group sideswipes standards body, Thomson and dear cover letter, Microsoft roll spec of assignment, their own - Debate rages over poverty essay, how to bring data to TV. By Junko Yoshida. In EETimes Issue 1022 (August 24, 1998). Excerpt: The debate over how to bring data and Internet technologies to digital television will bubble up this week, as a key industry group reconvenes here to discuss a set of proposals that has come under fire. . . Where the ATVEF's technology is based on standard Internet specifications such as HTML 4.0, BHTML is written in the emerging Extensible Markup Language (XML), a new language for advanced Web applications. BHTML scales back HTML elements and assignment b, attributes by using parts of HTML 3.2, while it integrates synchronization functionality. The biggest difference between the two lies in the use of the a thesis hard Java software technology. BHTML is designed to be tightly integrated with the written ib english b Application Execution Engine, or Java Virtual Machine, and thesis toolkit, with the Java framework.

See the database entry, Broadcast Hypertext Markup Language (BHTML). [September 24, 1998] Group Seeks Integrated Multimedia, DTV. By Junko Yoshida. In CMPNet TechWeb News (September 20, 1998). With a goal to integrate 2-D, 3-D, and streaming content for written ib english b, digital TV (DTV) programming, leaders from toolkit key international technology-development forums gathered [in Leidschendam, Netherlands] last week to written assignment b, launch a new initiative to harmonize the dear cover various multimedia streams. Taking part in the AIC meeting were representatives from the Motion Picture Experts Group, Virtual Reality Modeling Language organization, and Advanced Television Systems Committee (ATSC). The initiative will 'write an open specification to integrate and harmonize VRML, MPEG-4, and Broadcast HTML BHTML into a seamless stream,' said Rob Glidden, co-chairman of written assignment b, VRML 3-D Integrated Media Working Group and one of 12 founding members of AIC. BHTML, written in the emerging Extensible Markup Language (XML), is designed for tight integration with the Java framework. Pointing to longstanding integration efforts between VRML and in africa essay, XML, as well as between MPEG-4 and VRML, Glidden said, 'This is a natural extension of what we have been doing at written assignment, each of the groups'.

The International Standard 12083 presents a reference document type definition which facilitates the authoring, interchange and archiving of a variety of publications. This document type definition is deliberately general. It is a reference document type definition which provides a set of building blocks for the structuring of books, articles, serials, and similar publications in print and electronic form. This International Standard is postgraduate thesis, intended to provide a document architecture to facilitate the creation of various application-specific document type definitions. [January 25, 1999] ISO 12083 (AAP, EPSIG) DTDs for assignment, article, book, serials, and math are being edited for XML compatability. [November 06, 2000] ISO 12083 is available free in a thesis, PDF format from NISO: ANSI/NISO/ISO 12083 Electronic Manuscript Preparation and Markup (The standard specifies the SGML declaration defining the syntax used by the document type definitions [DTD] and written assignment b, document instances, and a definition for mathematics which may be embedded in other SGML applications). Extensible User Interface Language (XUL) XUL stands for 'extensible user interface language'.

It is an XML-based language for describing the contents of windows and a thesis, dialogs. Ib English! XUL has language constructs for all of the typical dialog controls, as well as for widgets like toolbars, trees, progress bars, and menus. User Interface Markup Language (UIML) The User Interface Markup Language (UIML) allows designers to describe the user interface in generic terms, and then use a style description to thesis toolkit, map the written interface to various operating systems (OSs) and appliances. Thus, the universality of UIML makes it possible to thesis toolkit, describe a rich set of interfaces and written assignment ib english b, reduces the work in bank spread world, porting the ib english user interface to another platform (e.g., from a graphical windowing system to a hand-held appliance) to changing the style description. See the separate document. Commerce XML (cXML) is an open Internet-based standard for e-commerce. Toolkit! cXML reduces on-line business trading costs by facilitating the exchange of content and transactions over the Internet. Developed in concert with more than 40 leading companies, cXML is a set of lightweight XML DTDs -- based on the World Wide Web Consortium's XML standard -- with their associated request/response processes. XML DTD for Phone Books was published as a Network Working Group Internet-Draft (draft-ietf-roamops-phonebook-xml-00.txt) in February, 1999. The authors are Max Riegel (Siemens AG) and b, Glen Zorn (Microsoft Corporation). In addition to providing a DTD, the document describes the information to the benefits of extracurricular essay, be included in b, the standard phone book for toolkit, roaming applications.

All data is described in assignment, XML (Extensible Markup Language) syntax leading to a concise XML DTD (Document Type Declaration) for the phone book. Marriage Classification! The goals of this document include: 1) Creating a flexible, extensible and robust framework upon which to build a standard phone book; 2) Promoting a standard phone book format, to enhance interoperability between ISPs and written assignment ib english b, roaming consortia. XML DTD for Phone Books. Proceedings URL. Postgraduate Thesis Toolkit! XML DTD for Phone Books, February 1999. This version expires on August 15, 1999. Assignment Ib English B! Local archive copy, draft-ietf-roamops-phonebook-xml-00.txt See also: XML DTD for Roaming Access Phone Book.

IETF RFC 3017. December 2000. This document defines the activities syntax as well as the semantics of the assignment ib english information to be included in poverty in africa, the phone book for written assignment b, roaming applications. It comprises the information necessary to select the most appropriate ISP and to configure the dear host to written assignment ib english, get access to is doing hard, the network of the provider. The specification consists of a small set of required information elements and written assignment b, a variety of postgraduate, possible extensions. Assignment Ib English B! All data is specified in XML (Extensible Markup Language) syntax leading to a concise XML DTD (Document Type Declaration) for the phone book. The Data Documentation Initiative. The Data Documentation Initiative is a Project to Develop an XML Document Type Definition for Data Documentation [germane to essay, datasets in the social and behavioral sciences.] See Data Documentation Initiative: A Project of the Social Science Community. XML General Articles and Papers: Surveys, Overviews, Presentations, Introductions, Announcements.

The document with Current XML Articles/Papers represents a more mixed collection of references: articles in professional journals, slide sets from presentations, press releases, articles in trade magazines, Usenet News postings, etc. Some are from written assignment ib english experts and some are not; some are refereed and dear cover letter, others are not; some are semi-technical and others are popular; some contain errors and others don't. Discretion is strongly advised. Written Assignment B! The articles are listed approximately in the reverse chronological order of their appearance. Publications covering specific XML applications may be referenced in the dedicated sections rather than in the main reference lists. Books on XML are referenced only briefly in postgraduate, the following section. They are described more fully in the SGML/XML Books section, and in the main SGML/XML bibliography. For now, only assignment, books already published are listed. See the section on planned and rumored works for books apparently not yet available.

A collection of Introductions to XML is provided in a separate document. A more complete XML book list is maintained by Charles F. Goldfarb in All the XML Books in Print. Henning Behme and Stefan Mintert. XML in der Praxis: Professionelles Web-Publishing mit der Extensible Markup Language. Bonn: Addison Wesley Longman, [June] 1998.

Extent: 328 pages, CD-ROM. Essay! ISBN 3-8273-1330-9. Written Assignment B! Price: DM 69,90. Neil Bradley. The XML Companion . Harlow, Essex: Addison Wesley Longman, 1998. Extent: 464 pages. ISBN: 0-201-41999-8. Dan Connolly (guest editor).

XML: Principles, Tools, and Techniques . World Wide Web Journal [edited by Rohit Khare] Volume 2, Issue 4. Sebastopol, CA: O'Reilly Associates, Inc., Fall 1997. Extent: xii + 248 pages. ISBN: 1-56592-349-9. Marriage Classification! ISSN: 1085-2301. Steven J. DeRose. The SGML FAQ Book: Understanding the written assignment Foundation of HTML and XML . Electronic Publishing Series, Number 7. In Africa! Dordrecht/Boston/London: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997. Extent: xxiv + 250 pages, appendices.

ISBN: 0-7923-9943-9. [Chapter 8. XML: A Simple, Standard Subset.] Bob DuCharme. XML: The Annotated Specification. The Charles F. Goldfarb Series on Open Information Management. The Definitive XML Series from Charles F. Goldfarb. Written Ib English B! Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall PTR, 1999. Extent: xx + 339 pages. ISBN: 0-13-082676-6. Peter Flynn. Understanding SGML and XML Tools. Practical Programs for Handling Structured Text. . Foreword by Steve DeRose.

Kluwer Academic Publishers SGML Bookshelf, Electronic Publishing Series. Dordrecht, Boston, London: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1998. Extent: xxvi + 432 pages, CDROM. ISBN: 0-7923-8169-6. [description] Charles F. Goldfarb and Paul Prescod. Poverty In Africa Essay! The XML Handbook. Written! Foreword by Jean Paoli. The Charles F. Goldfarb Series on Open Information Management.

The Definitive XML Series from Charles F. Goldfarb. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall PTR, 1998. Extent: xlvi + 642 pages, CDROM. ISBN: 0-13-081152-1. Ian S. Graham and Liam Quin. XML Specification Guide . Poverty! New York, NY: John Wiley Sons, 1999. Extent: xiv + 432 pages; with [technical online] 'Supplementary Material and Resources'. ISBN: 0-471-32753-0. Has a supporting Web site.

Elliotte Rusty Harold. Written B! XML: Extensible Markup Language. Structuring Complex Content for the Web. Foster City/Chicago/New York: IDG Books Worldwide, 1998. Poverty In Africa! Extent: xxiv + 426 pages, CDROM. ISBN: 0-7645-3199-9. Rick Jelliffe.

The XML and SGML Cookbook. Recipes for Structured Information. The Charles F. Goldfarb Series on written b, Open Information Management. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall PTR, May 1998. Extent: 650 pages, with CD-ROM. ISBN: 0-13-614223-0. [provisional description] Michael Leventhal, David Lewis, and Matthew Fuchs; with contributions from postgraduate thesis toolkit Stuart Culshaw and Gene Kan. Designing XML Internet Applications. The Charles F. Goldfarb Series on written b, Open Information Management. [Subseries:] The Definitive XML Series from Charles F. Goldfarb.

Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall PTR, [May] 1998. Extent: xxxii + 584 pages, CD-ROM. ISBN: 0-13-616822-1. Thesis Toolkit! Price: $44.95 U.S./$63.00 Canada. Henning Lobin. Informationsmodellierung in XML und SGML . Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, [May] 1999. Assignment Ib English! 250 pages. ISBN: 3-540-65356-2. Richard Light, Simon North, Charles Allen ( et al. ). Presenting XML . Indianapolis, IN: SAMS.NET [Sams Publishing, Macmillan Publishing USA], 1997.

Extent: 400+ pages. Activities Essay! ISBN: 1-57521-334-6. Sean McGrath. XML by ib english b, Example. Building E-Commerce Applications. The Charles F. Goldfarb Series on Open Information Management. The Definitive XML Series from Charles F. Goldfarb. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall PTR, [June] 1998. Extent: xlviii + 476 pages, CDROM.

ISBN: 0-13-960162-7. David Megginson. Structuring XML Documents . Cover Letter! Charles F. Goldfarb Series on assignment b, Open Information Management. The Definitive XML Series from Charles F. Goldfarb. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall PTR, [March] 1998. Extent: xxxviii + 425 pages, CDROM.

ISBN: 0-13-642299-3. Murata Makoto, Atsuhito Momma, and letter, Kyoichi Arai. XML Nyuumon [Introduction to XML. Written Assignment! In Japanese] . Tokyo: Nihon Keizai Shimbunsha, 1998. Extent: 224 pages. ISBN: 4-532-14610-0. Details: see the abstract in English, or the Fujixerox Web site, or bookseller descriptions (1), (2). Simon St.

Laurent. XML: A Primer . Foster City, CA: MIS Press/IDG Books, 1998. Extent: xx + 348 pages. ISBN: 1-5582-8592-X. Is Doing Hard! Also in ib english b, Korean, Japanese, and Italian translation. Simon St. Laurent and poverty in africa, Robert Biggar. Ib English B! Inside XML DTDs: Scientific and of extracurricular activities essay, Technical . New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 1999. Extent: xii + 468 pages, CDROM. ISBN: 0-07-134621-X.

Simon St. Laurent and assignment ib english b, Ethan Cerami. Building XML Applications. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, (May) 1999. Extent: 512 pages, 150 illustrations. Determines Papers! ISBN: 0-07-134116-1. Ed Tittel, Norbert Mikula, and Ramesh Chandak XML for Dummies. Foreword by Dan Connolly. [Series: For Dummies.] Foster City, CA: IDG Books Worldwide, Inc., 1998. Extent: xxviii + 367 pages, CDROM. ISBN: 0-7645-0360-X. XML Mailing Lists, Discussion Groups, Newsgroups.

A more complete reference list of discussion groups, mailing lists, and hyer-mailed fora appears in the dedicated document. Discussion groups focused upon style languages are referenced in the main XSL document. XML-DEV, an XML development mailing list, maintained/organized by assignment b, Peter Murray-Rust and Henry Rzepa. See the text of the announcement. To subscribe to the digest, mailed on Monday of each week, send email to majordomo@ic.ac.uk with the message line 'subscribe xml-dev-digest'. [October 3, 1997] The XML-L mailing list was set up on September 30, 1997 as a general discussion of the Extensible Markup Language. Bank Determines Papers Spread U.s Working World! The list owner is Peter Flynn, University College Cork. To subscribe to the list, send email to listserv@listserv.hea.ie with the assignment b command 'subscribe xml-l [your name]' in the body of the message. For questions about the list, write to the list owners: XML-L-request@LISTSERV.HEA.IE. [July 15, 1998] [Provisional/planned Usenet Newsgroup], comp.text.xml . See the draft RFD (Request for Discussion): http://www.jtauber.com/xml/CTX_RFD.txt, [local archive copy, 980408.] The first call for votes was issued on June 23, 1998.

On July 14, 1998, Neil Crellin published the results of the Call for Votes (CFV) for a new unmoderated Usenet Newsgroup comp.text.xml . The voting period closed at 23:59:59 UTC, July 14, 1998. The vote passed, 365:22. On December 01, 1998, Ralph Ferris of Fujitsu Software Corporation posted an announcement for a new XLink/XPointer Developer's List. Is Doing A Thesis Hard! This email forum has been launched in order to promote wide discussion of assignment, XLink/XPointer development issues. To subscribe to the new xlxp-dev list, send an email message to majordomo@fsc.fujitsu.com with the following in the body of the essay message: subscribe xlxp-dev . Information on the W3C's XML Linking Language is accessible in written assignment ib english, the XLink/XPointer document. [July 20, 1998] A German language discussion group for XML has been set up: XML-DE. The list is hosted by GMD and DFN, two German national research institutes; this host arrangement is meant to determines papers swap u.s working world, help ensure neutrality in commercial questions and professional maintainance.

The goals of assignment b, this group are to provide a native German language forum for general XML discussion, to poverty in africa essay, promote XML in the German industry, and to build a pool of experts for know-how transfer. Topics for discussion include core technologies (XML, XSL, XLink, DOM), related standards (SMIL, . ) and software (browsers, parsers, . ). To subscribe to the group, send a mail to listserv.gmd.de with the message subscribe xml-de [firstName lastName] in the body of the message. See further information in the main entry: XML-DE. xml-litprog-l: Literate Programming with XML List. Assignment! A mailing list for discussions about how best to use XML/XSL/XLink/XPtr for constructing literate programming frameworks and tools. Organized initially by Anthony B. Cover Letter! Coates (Educational Multimedia Services, TEDI, The University of Queensland). As of September 25, 1998, the list moved to written assignment ib english, an Allette server. See: http://www.allette.com.au/xml-litprog/. Postgraduate Thesis Toolkit! To subscribe, send email to xml-litprog-l-subscribe@egroups.com. See [the database entry XML and Literate Programming, the list entry xml-litprog-l - Literate Programming with XML List and] the document SGML/XML and ib english b, Literate Programming. JXML: Java--XML, the Java and XML mailing list.

This list is intended for classification essay, discussions relating to Java and assignment b, XML, particularly with reguard to the benefits of extracurricular, the following: 1) Java Class and Bean metadata expressed as XML documents; 2) Conversion of Java Class metadata to bytecodes defining simple, data-only classes; 3) Reversable conversion of assignment ib english, Java Object Streams to essay, XML documents while maintaining type safety (JSXML); 4) Description of Jar Resources as an XML document; XML document-driven construction of Jar files (etc.). See the more complete description: http://www.camb.opengroup.org/ Related discussion and written ib english, development forum: DSSSList, with the DSSSList Archive, sponsored by Mulberry Technologies, Inc. and managed by Tony Graham. XSL-List is provided by in africa essay, Mulberry Technologies as a service to written assignment b, the XSL user community and the XSL standardization effort. It hosts discussion of XSL (Extensible Style Language) itself, XSL applications and implementation, and XSL user questions. Python XML-SIG: A Special Interest Group for XML Processing in letter, Python. The SIG was created to assignment b, provide a forum for discussion and implementation of tools to make Python an the benefits activities, excellent choice for XML processing. Written! The goal of this SIG is to decide what software is required for bank determines spread u.s working world, this purpose, and coordinate its implementation and documentation. See the announcement and the main list entry for details.

The Python XML-SIG Status page describes project deliverables and the resources page describes some Python Software for XML. Ib English! See also the dedicated database section Python for XML/SGML Processing. Perl-XML list, a mailing list is dedicated to the benefits activities, the discussion of enhancing Perl's ability to work with XML and for written ib english, using Perl with XML documents. Send 'SUBSCRIBE Perl-XML' to listmanager@activestate.com. Dear! Send list contributions to: Perl-XML@ActiveState.com. XML: Working Groups, SIGS, Design and written assignment, Development Initiatives. [January 28, 2000] SAX 2/Java (beta). David Megginson has posted an announcement for the beta release of SAX2-beta. SAX is the Simple API for XML, a very-widely implemented event-based interface for processing XML documents. The beta release of SAX2/Java is now available for is doing, download at http://www.megginson.com/SAX/SAX2/.

Highlights of the release: (1) Namespace support; (2) Configurability and extensibility through features and properties; (3) A new interface and base class for SAX filters; (4) Adapters for using SAX1 parsers with SAX2 and vice-versa; (5) Way too much JavaDoc documentation; (6) Public domain (even less restrictive than Open Source). Written Ib English B! SAX2 adds standard methods to essay, query and assignment ib english b, set features and properties in an XMLReader. It is cover, now possible to request an written assignment ib english b, XML reader to validate (or not to validate) a document, or to internalize (or not to internalize) all names, using the getFeature , setFeature , getProperty , and poverty in africa, setProperty methods. There is no fixed set of features or properties available for SAX2: implementors are free to define new features and written assignment ib english, properties as needed. All feature and property names are fully-qualified URIs (often URLs), such as http://www.acme.com/features/foo; as with Namespace URIs, people should always define feature and property names based on URIs that they control. Bank U.s Working! All XML readers are required to recognize the http://xml.org/sax/features/namespaces and the http://xml.org/sax/features/namespace-prefixes features (see below), and to support a true value for assignment, the namespaces property and a false value for the namespace-prefixes property: these requirements ensure that all SAX2 XML readers can provide the minimal required Namespace support for higher-level specs such as RDF, XSL, XML Schemas, and XLink. XML readers are not required to classification essay, recognize or support any other features or any properties, even the core ones. [. ] WRT SAX version 1: Of the core classes and interfaces, only Parser, AttributeList, DocumentHandler, and HandlerBase (which is really a helper anyway) are deprecated. All of the rest -- InputSource, Locator, EntityResolver, DTDHandler, ErrorHandler, SAXException, and b, SAXParseException -- are left untouched. [June 01, 1999] David Megginson has announced that an alpha version of SAX2 for Java is now available for download. A Thesis Hard! SAX2 is an written ib english, update to the widely-implemented SAX 1.0 interface for XML parsers. Dear! SAX2 consists of two parts: (1) a new, extensible mechanism for querying and ib english b, setting features and marriage essay, properties in SAX parsers in a standard way; and ib english b, (2) a set of recommended core feature and postgraduate thesis, property names.

SAX Home Page, and Microstar mirror site [May 12, 1998] Announcement for the public release of SAX 1.0. B! See: http://www.megginson.com/SAX/. A Thesis Hard! [May 14, 1998] SAX Parsers and Applications Quick Start for SAX Application Writers [September 25, 1999] SAX C/C++ Implementations: I have just successfully completed a C++ implementation of SAX/SAX2 and DOM, based upon expat. Currently I'm in assignment ib english b, the process of testing the is doing a thesis hard whole thing ;). Eventually I will make it available to written assignment b, the public; however, some parts of the a thesis implementation use my company's proprietary C++ class library, so certain things need to be sorted out first. Written! Feel free to contact me for more information. Guenter Obiltschnig, Sat, 25 Sep 1999 20:11:21 +0200, XML Developers' List. Update 2000-08-10: the XML class library for postgraduate toolkit, C++ is now available as open source at http://www.cpointc.com/XML. saxlib, a Python version of SAX, with drivers (Lars Marius Garshol) [April 27, 1998] For developers only: SAX 1.0 beta, almost ready for announcement. Ib English! [April 10, 1998] For developers only: test re-release beta version of SAX, and essay, demo which does the identity transform What is an Event-Based Interface? By David Megginson. Draft Interface Specification for SAX [March 20, 1998] , per the posting from David Megginson SAX - Simple API for XML.

The SAX API was developed collaboratively during a month (December 1997 - January 1998) of discussion on the XML-DEV mailing list. SAX is a simple, common, event-based API for written b, XML parsers written in object-oriented languages like Java, C++, or Perl5 (the reference implementation is in Java). SAX is cover, similar in philosophy to JavaSoft's JDBC -- it allows you to write an application once, then plug in any XML parser that has a SAX driver, just as the JDBC allows you to plug in any SQL database that has a JDBC driver. See the assignment b main database entry, the announcement from David Megginson [980112], or the Microstar Web site. References for 'XML and in africa essay, Literate Programming' have been moved to a separate document under the title SGML/XML and Literate Programming.

This document provides a collection of references for assignment b, literate programming techniques and style in the context of descriptive markup languages, e.g. , SGML, XML, DSSSL, HyTime, etc. Numerous researchers have observed that the goals of information re-use and papers spread world, data normalization embraced by b, both literate programming and SGML-based markup languages provide the basis for using the two technologies together. GNOME (GNU Network Object Model Environment) XML Library. References for 'XML and cover letter, Python' are provided in a separate document, XML and Python. XML in Microsoft Internet Explorer. A press release of October 13, 1998 clarified Microsoft's plans for XML support in the MS Windows operating system and in Microsoft Internet Explorer 5. 'XML 1.0, XSL, XML DOM, and XML Namespaces'. Support features as announced include: Direct viewing of XML; High-performance, validating XML engine; Extensible Style Language (XSL) support; XML Schemas; Server-side XML; XML document object model (DOM). Description of Microsoft's XML support is provided in a collection of references accessible from a separate document.

[December 17, 1998] Sun Microsystem's Java Project X: Java Services for XML Technology is the new name for assignment b, the Java services formerly released as the Sun XML Library. On December 01, 1998, this development project was renamed Java Project X, and postgraduate toolkit, moved to Early Access 2 with API updates, some speedup, and minor bug fixes. Java Project X is the codename for a set of core XML-enabling services written completely in assignment b, the Java programming language. With Java Project X's extensible Java services, developers can build robust yet flexible XML-oriented network services and applications that are internet-ready. This release requires JDK 1.1.6 or later or JDK 1.2, and approximately 3.5M bytes of disk space. Sun's Java services in this new release provide full XML processing capabilities, including a fast XML parser with optional validation, an in-memory object model tree that supports the W3C DOM Level 1 recommendation, and basic support for JavaBeans integration with XML. The development tools in the Java Project X are freely available, but one must register through the Java Developer Connection. The second early access release is addressed to Java developers who want access to Sun's fast and fully conformant core XML software for their development. Cover Letter! The library supports an written, optional in-memory object model tree for manipulating and writing XML structured data. The library is 'core' in the sense that significant XML based applications can be written using only this functionality, and that it is intended that other XML software be layered on top of it. That is, it is a building block for developers.

According to the Release Notes, the Java Project X library conforms fully with open standards: 1) the parsers conform to the W3C's XML 1.0 recommendation; 2) the parse tree supports the XML (core) part of W3C's DOM Level 1 recommendation; 3) in combination, the two also support the current W3C XML Namespaces proposed recommendation; 4) the parser supports the SAX 1.0 API; 5) the entity resolution used within the parser normally conforms to the IETF's RFC 2376 registration for XML-related MIME content types, [but] this can be overridden as required. [September 25, 1998] On September 16, 1998, Sun Microsystems, Inc. released an 'Early Access 1' version of The Sun XML Library. As described by David Brownell at the Montréal XML Developers' Conference, the XML Library is a highly modular XML library that has been developed by the Java Software Division of a thesis hard, Sun. The XML library is written in the Java programming language and provides support for the latest version (July) of the W3C DOM APIs and for the SAX 1.0 API. The XML package includes fast validating and nonvalidating XML parsers, preliminary support for XML Beans , and examples, including an XML Validation Service . Written Assignment! The September 16th version is the first early access release, addressed to Java developers who want access to Sun's fast and fully conformant XML library core for their development of extensible, conformant XML-enabled services and applications. That library supports fast parsing of XML documents, including optional validation, and is doing, supports an optional in-memory object model tree for written ib english, manipulating and writing XML structured data.

In addition, the core functionality supports an implementation of the W3C DOM APIs and the XML Namespaces proposal. The library is poverty essay, 'core' in the sense that significant XML based applications can be written using only assignment ib english b, this functionality, and that it is poverty essay, intended that other XML software be layered on top of it. Written Assignment Ib English! All classes are written exclusively in the Java[tm] language, and accordingly may be used with any JDK 1.1 conformant system, including JDK 1.2 conformant systems. Developers have expressed strong interest in seeing XML enabling technology emerge from Sun because of the key role Sun has played in developing the XML specification and in in africa, creating the Java platform. The Java technology's 'portable code' along with XML's 'portable data' are valuable complements in creating truly platform-independent applications. Ib English B! Through the early access release, developers have an classification, unique opportunity to participate in defining and evolving the XML Library. [adapted from the assignment ib english b XML Library 'README' and 'FAQ' documents] References: Java Project X Early Access 2 Release Notes Introduction README document FAQ Document. [local archive copy, 1998-09-25] Library Installation Developer feedback: xml-feedback@java.sun.com The Sun XML Library. Presented by David Brownell at the Montréal XML Developers' Conference. How fast is Sun's XML parser included in the core toolkit? In Sun's testing using JDK 1.1.6, the validating parser (doing lots of error testing) was significantly faster than the majority of the non-validating parsers tested and was an order of magnitude faster than other validating parsers.

Of course, Sun's non-validating parser is faster still. [December 08, 1998] XML and Java Technology - An Interview with Dave Brownell. [Part One] From java.sun.com ['The Source for Java Technology']. December, 1998. XML, the eXtensible Markup Language, is the universal syntax for describing and structuring data independent from bank papers swap u.s working application logic. This past February, XML 1.0 became a Technical Recommendation of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). From this milestone, numerous applications of XML are popping up far and wide - and more often than not they're using Java technology. We asked David Brownell, designer of Sun's Java Project X, for some perspective. [Excerpt:] Q: Is there some special, natural affinity between Java technology and written b, XML? A: You bet. Java software is portable code . XML is portable data.

By themselves, neither of these technologies provides such a solution. To get portable data, you need to pick a representation that is usable in most programming languages . like XML, which is structured text. To get portable behavior, you need a maintainable program standard that runs on most computer systems . like Java language class files. Use Java and XML together, and you get both. . . A Standardized XML API in Java (Xapi-J) Collaborative project for A Standardized XML API in Java (Xapi-J). Includes: (1) Statement on Informal Work on a Standardized XML API in Java (Xapi-J), and (2) Collected Suggestions -- ideas for post XAPI-J 1.0 W3C XML/XLL/XSL Working Groups and SIGs. Generally, documents produced by W3C editorial boards, working groups, and SIGS are available only to W3C members. See, however: XML Development: Technical Documents and Development Resources.

Comparison of SGML and XML. Poverty Essay! By James Clark. Reference identifiers: World Wide Web Consortium Note 15-December-1997, NOTE-sgml-xml-971215. The document provides a detailed comparison of SGML (ISO 8879) and XML under three section headings: 1) Differences Between XML and written ib english b, SGML; 2) Transforming SGML to XML; 3) SGML Declaration for XML. [local archive copy] Annotated Version of the XML specification, from XML co-editor Tim Bray. This resource presents the unaltered text of the letter XML specification in one pane (frame) of the display, augmented by graphically distinct note markers of five types: (1) Historical or cultural commentary; some entertainment value; (2) Technical explanations, including amplifications, corrections, and answers to Frequently Asked Questions; (3) Advice on how to use this specification; (4) Examples to illustrate what the spec is saying; (5) Annotations that it's hard to find a category for. A second pane provides the text of the commentary for each linked annotation. The resource also features a linked list of assignment ib english, Terms Defined in XML 1.0, and links to poverty, relevant sections of the assignment ib english XML specification from bank swap u.s working a list of EBNF productions. The annotations (some 308) are accessible from their titles as well. [March 26, 1999] Supplementary Resources and Tools - A collection of additional resources, not found in the book [ The XML Specification Guide ], that are useful for understanding the XML specifications and assignment, using XML.

These include [1999-03-26]: (1) A searchable index of all XML specifications (2) A searchable index of EBNF productions (3) A set of XML design patterns -- based on the approach of the same name introduced in object oriented design -- applied here to modeling document architecture; (4) Extracted EBNF for XML - defines, along with the well-formedness and validity constraints, the cover letter rules for written ib english b, writing well-formed or valid XML documents; (5) A list of toolkit, useful online resources. [February 10, 2000] Hyperlinked EBNF Productions Available for XML Standards. A recent posting from Dan Vint reports on a new Web site which contains all the EBNF productions, validation and well-formedness constraints for the following specifications: XML, Namespaces, XPath, XSLT, XPointer, XML Stylesheet PI, and XML Fragments. I have linked together information where the Namespaces or Fragments specification have modified the written b basic XML productions and I have included all of the postgraduate toolkit constraints for each of these productions. The symbols within the productions are linked to their descriptions and assignment, all the references to poverty in africa essay, a production are also listed so you can follow the logic in written ib english b, both directions. Poverty Essay! The menu on the left side needs a little time to build, but once available you can get to any production in alphabetical order by written assignment, the specification.

Let me know what you think about the site and if there is anything I should add. [October 01, 1998] Stylesheet Linking. Associating Stylesheets With XML Documents . Version 1.0 WD-xml-stylesheet-19981001. Edited by James Clark. Activities! World Wide Web Consortium Working Draft 1-October-1998. This document allows a stylesheet to be associated with an XML document by including one or more processing instructions with a target of xml-stylesheet in the document's prolog. Pseudo-attributes are used in a processing instruction (href, type, title, media, charset, alternate), or in multiple xml-stylesheet processing instructions. Examples: ?xml-stylesheet href=mystyle.css type=text/css? and ?xml-stylesheet alternate=yes href=mystyle.css title=Medium type=text/css? . Written Assignment Ib English! [local archive copy] XML Catalog proposal. Bank Spread Swap! By John Cowan.

This is a proposal for XML Catalogs, a system based on written ib english b, SGML/Open catalogs (Socats) for translating XML public identifiers to XML system identifiers, which are Uniform Resource Identifiers [URI]. Note (1999-04-06): 'XCatalog' is now called 'XML Catalog'. [May 11, 1998] An earlier proposal [see preceding item] for a standard mechanism to associate a stylesheet with an the benefits activities, XML document by means of an written b, XML processing instruction is bank determines papers spread swap, documented in written b, a recent W3C NOTE, Associating Stylesheets with XML Documents. The NOTE, authored by James Clark, has been submitted to the W3C at the request of the XML Working Group. Essay! The proposed syntax and semantics are analogous to written assignment, the HTML LINK element used to identity stylesheets, as illustrated in is doing a thesis, the following example: LINK rel=stylesheet href=mystyle.css type=text/css ?xml:stylesheet href=mystyle.css type=text/css? . The XML processing instruction uses pseudo-attributes like href, type, title, etc. The examples shown in b, the NOTE are for CSS client-side stylesheets.

Document identifier: NOTE-xml-stylesheet-19980405, W3C Note 5 Apr 1998. [local archive copy] [December 01 [13], 1997] Announcement from James Clark for the benefits activities, a test suite of files for XML processors. The collection of ib english, XML test cases in the ZIP archive contains 141 small files that (in my view) fail to be well-formed XML documents, and should therefore cause any conforming XML processor to postgraduate toolkit, report a fatal error. See: ftp://ftp.jclark.com/pub/test/xmltest.zip. Updated December 13, 1997 to bring the assignment test suite into alignment with the Proposed Recommendation of 1997-12-08. Also updated apparently February 9, 1998; [local archive copy] [April 03, 1998] David Megginson's book Structuring XML Documents (1998) devotes all of cover letter, Part 4: DTD Design with Architectural Forms to architectural forms. Specifically: Chapter 9. Architectural-Forms Concepts; Chapter 10.

Basic Architectural-Forms Syntax; Chapter 11. Advanced Architectural-Forms Syntax. [June 10, 1998] XAF is XML Architectural Forms Processor. Accompanying David Megginson's XAF software package is detailed, tutorial-oriented documentation about XAF and architectural forms (Using the XAF package for Java), appropriate for both XML document designers and XML software designers. Adding Strong Data Typing to SGML and XML, by Tim Bray. May [21,] 1997. archive copy, May 21, 1997; or: previous archive copy, May 15, 1997]. Note: Jean Paoli of Microsoft has submitted a related proposal in connection with the XML discussion XML for Structured Data [December 06, 1997] Why I Demand Schemata: Element Type Hierarchies for b, Transparent Document Structure Definition. By Henry S. Thompson (Language Technology Group, University of Edinburgh).

Draft date: October 15, 1997. Overview: In this paper I describe the XML-Data schemata proposal, concentrating on the motivation for and nature of the provision of an the benefits of extracurricular, element-type hierarchy, in which element types can inherit attribute declarations and positions in content models from ancestors in written ib english, the hierarchy. I argue that this represents a major improvement over the use of parameter entities to structure and maintain DTDs. [local archive copy] [April 24, 1998] xml:lang resources for parser writers. Postgraduate Thesis! Contributed by Murray Altheim (Sun Microsystems, SunSoft). Currently there are XML versions of files providing the ISO 639 (language), ISO 3166 (country), and IANA charset values required for support of the xml:lang attribute values in XML 1.0.

Please direct comments and corrections to Murray Altheim. These 'xml:lang resources' will be made available later on Sunsite. Written B! See other language-code information in the dedicated section, Names of marriage, Languages - ISO 639. [May 08, 1998] The 'standalone document declaration' in XML 1.0. Some questions were raised about b its design/use in the XML 1.0 specification. See the collection of XML-DEV postings. [October 02, 1997] Architectural Forms handout from a presentation Java Beans and Architectural Forms, (August 21, 1997 - XML Dev Day), by David Megginson: Proposal: Architectural Forms for XML.

See the accompanying XML-DEV posting (October 2, 1997); [archive copy] [December 13, 1997] Architecture processing in XML: at the WG4 meeting in Alexandria, Virginia (December 1997), WG4 N1957 was accepted as the proposed text of an amendment to ISO/IEC 10744:1997 (HyTime). As a subclause to Annex A.3 (A.3.4.4 Architecture Use Declaration Processing Instruction), the essay proposed architecture use declaration (arch) processing instruction would provide an alternative form of architecture use declaration for use in environments where notations or data attributes are not supported. The amendment was sponsored by Charles F. Goldfarb, Steven R. Newcomb, W. Eliot Kimber, and Peter Newcomb. See the related posting by Eliot Kimber Architectures, Schemas, and XML: Proposed Amendment to ISO/IEC 10744:1997, with followup by written, David Megginson. [N1957, local archive copy] [November 01, 1997] A new submission to the W3C from is doing a thesis hard Electricité de France, Research and assignment b, Development Division. The STTS2 submission for Simple Tree Transformation Sheets 2 would in principle govern the transformation of activities, well-formed XML documents in written b, order to render them in a HTML browser.

The submission abstract: This document describes a proprietary specification of Electricité de France. In Africa! It specifies the format of written, STTS2 transformation rules that can be applied to a HTML document (without CSS styles) in order to take advantage of the Cascading Style Sheets and remove deprecated HTML elements or attributes in favor of CSS. Even if the specification deals only with HTML, this kind of transformation, or an extension of this specification, can be easily applied on the fly to well-formed XML documents in order to render them in a HTML browser without any XML plug-in or internal knowledge. The grammar of this specification is mainly based on papers u.s working, the CSS2 grammar and extends it in written assignment ib english b, some ways. [December 18, 1997] Reports from the W3C SGML ERB to the SGML WG and from the is doing hard W3C XML ERB to written assignment ib english b, the XML SIG. Complied by C. M. In Africa Essay! Sperberg-McQueen for the use of the WG and assignment, SIG. Covers October 9, 1996 through December 1, 1997.

Date: 4 December 1997. [local archive copy] [June 19, 1997] A proposal written by John Tigue of DataChannel for collaborative effort toward XML Java API Standardization. The document title is Informal Work on XML API Standarization for Java. Since the announcement of this proposal, other leading XML developers have registered their willingness to cooperate. The proposal's first goal is to find a lowest common denominator for the current implementations and postgraduate thesis toolkit, abstract that to a set of interfaces such that a developer could use this new API independent of an underlying implementation of the XML processor and/or invest in learning the particular benefits a specific implementation provides. See: http://www.datachannel.com/ChannelWorld/XML/dev/.

[January 23, 1998] SGML Exceptions and XML, by Eve Maler (ArborText) - briefly describes SGML exceptions (inclusions and exclusions) and discusses how 'exception users' can handle their DTDs and ib english b, data in XML, which does not allow exceptions. See the database section: Use (and Non-use) of marriage essay, Exceptions in DTDs. [July 26, 1997] XML-ized ISO 8879 entity sets, by Rick Jelliffe of Allette Systems. The postings were made to the XML Development list. A typical header comment: This version of the entity set can be used with any SGML document which uses ISO 10646 as its document character set. This includes XML documents and ISO HTML documents.

This entity set uses hexadecimal numeric character references. Please report any errors to written assignment ib english, Rick: ricko@allette.com.au. The entities mapped to hex are in the following files: ISOgrk4.pen, ISOtech.pen, ISOdia.pen, ISOlat1.pen, ISOgrk1.pen, ISOlat2.pen, ISOgrk2.pen, ISOnum.pen, ISOgrk3.pen, ISOpub.pen. Available in a concatenated file, or archived as separate files in a .ZIP package. Note the disclaimer. See also the alternate source for XML entity sets, from James Tauber. XML BNF, generated by Henry S. Thompson [March 7, 1997] [August 29, 1997] David G. Durand's Five Paragraphs on essay, 'Whitespace in XML', posted to XML-DEV. See also the discussion thread: http://www.lists.ic.ac.uk/hypermail/xml-dev/9708/0147.html.

Revised SGML Declaration for XML 1.0, submitted by Rick Jelliffe [June 27, 1997]. Probably out-of-date. TEI Extended Pointers (Links) tutorial, by Lou Burnard. February 4, 1997. Part 2 of the XML specification (link) is based in part upon this TEI extended pointer syntax. If you prefer, see this unofficial archive copy as a single-file document. See also chapter 14 of the TEI Guidelines, and the alternate location of the tutorial on the UIC TEI server, as a single document.

[August 28, 1997] Steve DeRose on TEI Extended Pointers vs. XML-LINK. Clarifies the relationship. XML Notes by assignment ib english b, Dan Connolly,W3C SGML ERB member, and W3C contact for the XML effort. Toolkit! Python module for XML, Perl script for checking XML well-formedness [xml-check.pl], Converting XML to Lout, XML Typing, XML Modules, etc. Date: 1997/05/22. W3C Notes - Some thoughts and software on assignment ib english, XML, by Bert Bos. The Benefits Activities! A simpler XML. Date: May 23, 1997. [August 09, 1997] ADT and assignment ib english, Marshalling for XML, by Bert Bos. Abstract: This is an attempt at defining XML ( i.e. , XML proper, not the meta-grammar for dear letter, defining XML applications, nor the hyperlinking conventions) in a formal, mathematical way, that hopefully takes away all ambiguity as to what an XML document contains, or what the relation is between the ib english b document and its linearized, textual representation. [archive copy] [October 23, 1998] XML and Semantic Transparency.

By Robin Cover. [op - comments requested] The notion of XML conformance is addressed directly in the XML specification (Version 1.0, REC-xml-19980210) section 5. Conformance, which includes a discussion on 5.1 Validating and Non-Validating Processors and another on 5.2 Using XML Processors. Information on the OASIS XML Conformance Subcommittee and Testing and Validation Resources is provided in a separate document. See the XML/XSL/XLink Software entries in the Public Software section of the SGML/XML Web Page for marriage essay, more complete descriptions of these tools. The software tools listed below are free or available for use under nominal constraints, sometimes as evaluation/demo versions. Written B! Software tools specific to XLink and to XSL are listed in their respective sections. Is Doing A Thesis Hard! Some 'query language' tools are referenced in the document XML and Query Languages.

Commercial XML/XSL/XLink software support is written assignment, provided by the vendors, of course. For other listing of XML software tools, see also: Steve Pepper's Whirlwind Guide to SGML Tools and Vendors , the Free XML Tools and Software from Lars Marius Garshol [ANN], and the XML Software Guide from WDVL. A list of SAX 1.0 Parsers and Applications is available on David Megginson's Web site. [ This section under revision ] [January 14, 2001] How to validate XML. This is not an XML parser, but a note of potential importance to developers contemplating XML parser design. Cover! From Joe English. Written Assignment Ib English B! XML validation is an instance of the regular expression matching problem. The most commonly-used technique to is doing a thesis, solve this problem is based on written assignment, finite automata.

There is another algorithm, based on derivatives of regular expressions, which deserves to be more widely known. In this connection, see the discussions referenced in SGML/XML Notion of Ambiguity (non-deterministic content models). Ælfred XML Parser. From Microstar. A small, fast, DTD-aware Java-based XML parser, especially suitable for dear, use in written assignment ib english b, Java applets. Free for both commercial and non-commercial use. Updated to version 1.2 May 02, 1998. [Updated to version 1.1: 980309]. [cache copy] Larval. Larval is a validating XML processor built on the same code base as Lark. From Tim Bray.

[October 06, 2000] expat - XML Parser Toolkit. See the announcement for the release of version 1.2 [2000-10-06]; see also two entries following. expat is a high-performance, fully conforming, non-validating XML 1.0 parser toolkit written C. Described by Clark Cooper 1999-09-03. Comes with Win32 binaries and an xmlwf application. Test version 19990626 supports parsing external DTDs and parameter entities. Updated to version 1.1 29-May-1999.

Pre-1.1 test release 1999-04-25. Classification! From James Clark, released 980405. Updated to version 1.02, January 11, 1999. Version 1.0, August 14, 1998 (first production release). Previously updated June 21, 1998; Updated May 14, 1998; and updated 19980504. expat is the successor to written assignment b, xmltok.

See the description on Clark's server, or in the software page. Note 2000-07, The Thai Open Source Software Center as a source for expat. [July 02, 2000] expat - 12-May-00 01:11 145k [cache] [October 05, 2000] expat development on SourceForge. According to a note from Clark Cooper: Maintenance of the expat XML parser has been delegated by James Clark to a team that includes James, Fred Drake, Paul Prescod, and determines papers spread swap, [Clark Cooper]. SourceForge is hosting this project. [March 21, 2002] A posting from Dare Obasanjo of Microsoft announces the release of written b, MSXML 4 SP 1 (Microsoft XML Core Services).

This version 40SP1 (14-March-2002) release offers a number of new features and improvements over postgraduate toolkit, the MSXML 3.0, including support for the XML Schema language and substantially faster parser and XSLT engine. MSXML 4.0 SP1 is a complete replacement for MSXML 4.0 RTM. [July 21, 2001] Microsoft XML Parser (MSXML) 4.0 July 2001 Technology Preview. The Beta 2 release offers a faster SAX and written ib english, XSLT, complete XSD, etc. XSD validation with SAX; XSD validation with DOM, using the schemaLocation attribute. DOCTYPE replacement using a Java FilterReader/FilterStream. From Simon St.Laurent. DOCTYPEChanger and DOCTYPEChangerStream are Java classes that allow you to change the poverty in africa essay DOCTYPE declarations as a document is being read into an XML parser. This may be useful in several cases: (1) You want to add a default DOCTYPE declaration to documents that arrive without one to feed them to a validating parser. (2) You want to assignment ib english b, test documents against bank determines swap, a different DOCTYPE declaration than the one they arrived with. Written B! (3) You want to prevent document creators from making changes to the DOCTYPE your application understands. These classes allow you to set a root element, public identifiers, system identifiers, and an internal subset independently, and also let you specify whether the DOCTYPE declaration should be changed if present. ['It's not real sophisticated, but you might want to check out my DOCTYPEChanger, which lets you specify a DOCTYPE.

It's a Java FilterReader (or FilterStream) which strips out the old DOCTYPE (if you insist) and puts in a new one. You can put it in front of an XML parser if you want, or just run documents through it.'] ElCel Technology XML Validator. The ElCel Technology XML Validator is a free command-line utility built using our C++ XML Toolkit. As its name implies, this is a validating XML processor. It contains complete and up-to-date support for XML 1.0 (second edition and errata) and XML Namespaces. It has been designed to highlight some of the strengths of the determines papers spread underlying XML Toolkit, allowing you to judge its speed and written assignment, accuracy for in africa, yourself. Features include: fast and accurate, proven against the OASIS/NIST conformance suite; XML catalog support for resolution of public identifiers; any number of files can be validated in assignment ib english b, one go; validating or well-formedness mode; will report and recover from multiple errors, even 'fatal' ones; user-friendly error messages with optional location arrow; options to postgraduate thesis, support batch processing; input can be via pipes, the local file system or HTTP URLs; freely available for both Windows and Linux. See the online manual. Canonical XML Processor. The ElCel Technology Canonical XML Processor is a free command-line utility built using the SAX 2.0 interface of our C++ XML Toolkit.

It implements the canonicalization algorithm as described by the W3C's Canonical XML recommendation. It also implements the original Canonical XML specification from James Clark. This is a very useful program for converting valid XML with a DTD into a standalone document. We also use it internally to check the conformance of written ib english, our XML Toolkit against the OASIS/NIST conformance tests. ObjectStore XML Parser - Microsoft's Java-based XML Parser integrated with ObjectStore PSE PSE Pro for Java. XJParser From DataChannel. Also has advanced query language support through emerging W3C standards support like data typing, XSL pattern matching, and node transformation. The DataChannel - Microsoft XML Parser for Java (Beta 2). Includes a validating XML engine, XSL support, and transformations of data. In Africa! December 1998 and later. See the written assignment FAQ document.

[May 07, 1999] Redistributable 'Microsoft XML Parser' - Microsoft Corporation announced the letter release of the Microsoft XML Parser for incorporation by third-party developers into their applications. DataChannel XML Development Environment (DXDE) and DXP XML Parser. DXP is a validating XML parser written in Java. It is written assignment, specifically aimed at the benefits of extracurricular essay, providing a utility for server-side applications that need to integrate XML capabilities into existing systems and for out-of-the-browser Java-based software. Updated 980211 or later.

IBM XML for Java. Written! XML for Java is a validating XML parser written in 100% pure Java. The package ( com.ibm.xml.parser ) contains classes and methods for is doing a thesis hard, parsing, generating, manipulating, and validating XML documents. Last updated 1999-02-10 (version 2.0.0). Written! Updated July 28, 1998 for bug fixes, new samples, additional command line options, and updated API documentation.

Released with a free commercial license Version 1.0.0 June 23, 1998. In Africa! Updated 19980612. Previously updated May 13, 1998, and updated 1998-04-16. [December 07, 2000] miniXML parser. David Cox presents a tree-based miniXML parser for XML that is written in C++ using the Standard Template Library for strings and various containers. Written Assignment B! The parser works with canonical XML, and in africa, is very fast, though limited to smaller XML documents. See the January 2001 issue of Dr. Dobb's Journal . With code listings and the complete and source code; [cache listings, [cache sources] [June 29, 1999] XML Parser for the C++ Language (XML4C). IBM alphaWorks' XML4C is a validating XML parser written in a portable subset of C++. XML4C makes it easy to give an application the ability to read and write XML data. Assignment Ib English! It is a single shared library that provides classes for dear cover letter, parsing, generating, manipulating, and validating XML documents.

XML4C is faithful to the XML 1.0 Recommendation and associated standards (DOM 1.0, SAX 1.0). Source code, samples and ib english, API documentation are provided with the parser distribution. Version 2.2.0 released 1999-06-25. Version 2.3.1 released August 26, 1999. SP Parser.

SP 1.3.4 released 1999-10-13. SP version 1.3 has better support for bank papers spread swap, XML based on the Web SGML Adaptations Annex to ISO 8879. Written Ib English! SP adds support for (XML) documents that are merely well-formed. This is enabled by using -wno-valid . There's also a -wxml switch that warns about various things that are legal SGML but not XML. Update 971013: test release of SP with much more XML support. xmlwf - Clark's XML well-formedness checker, [now] part of XMLTok.

A program built with the XML tokenizer that checks the cover well-formedness of XML entities. See: ftp://ftp.jclark.com/pub/test/xmltok.zip. [971201] And, note that the WebTechs' Validation Service now supports 'XML' - (possibly using this code?). XXX: eXperimental Xml leXer - from Rick Jelliffe (Academia Sinica). Assignment Ib English! experimental software. the basic idea of XXX is that XML can be parsed using a recursive descent parser made from a highlyparameterized general-purpose lexical analyser. See also XXX Notation Processors. Sun Java Project X [XML Library] parser - a fast XML document parser with optional validation in the core of the Sun Java Project X toolkit. OpenXML Parser - Version 1.0.5 introduces the is doing a thesis X3P Publisher API, provides support for XHTML 1.0, and assignment ib english, offers and the benefits activities essay, major performance improvements. [February 24, 2000] Java pull parser built on SAX. This (XP) package contains a wrapper that converts a pushing SAX parser into a pulling parser and some related classes.

Namespace support added 2000-01. Written Ib English! From Stefan Haustein. John Cowan announced the availability of a preliminary version of postgraduate thesis, DOMParser (alpha source code). DOMParser is a compliant SAX parser, except that its input (elements, attributes, and so on) comes from a DOM implementation rather than an InputSource (XML source code). Silfide XML Parser (SXP), a parser and assignment ib english b, a complete XML API in Java. Withe other client.server components.

XSilfide is bank determines papers u.s working, a client/server. P. Bonhomme: I have developed an assignment b, XML Parser in Java and a tree based API which works fine. Bank World! I have implemented the whole XML 1.0 (REC 10-02-1998), the XML Namespaces (WD 27-03-1998, the Document Object Model Level 1 (DOM Core and XML, WD 16-04-1998) and both XML links and XML pointers. Updated 980731. RXP - RXP, a GPL'd validating XML parser in C. Assignment B! The parser program reads and parses XML from the postgraduate thesis toolkit (or standard input if none is provided) and writes it to standard output, optionally expanding entities, defaulting attributes, and translating to a different output encoding. Ib English! Available also with MSDOS/Windows32 binaries.

Version 1.0.7 released May 1999. Version 1.0 released 1999-02-17. See also the postgraduate toolkit LT XML entry. Updated 980526, and previously 980216. Xparse: A JavaScript XML Parser - work in progress; in JavaScript (ECMAScript).

Watch for 'Sparse, a companion XSL parser.' Updated 980219. HXP - Hubick's XML Parser. 'Work in progress' by Chris Hubick as of July 23, 1998. See the associated 'HXA - Hubick's XML Analyzer' tool. Sam Blackburn's freeware C++ XML parser. In the WFC package (Win32 Foundation Classes). In Release 35, entity resolution was added to the XML classes.

XMLCheck - a new sample utility that loads an XML file and tells you if it is valid or not. XMLParser class and xmllib module in the Python distribution. Expat (XML Parser Toolkit) Module for Ruby. The XML Parser Module for written assignment b, Ruby uses James Clark's expat XML toolkit, Version 1.0. It has two kinds of interfaces (event handler and iterator) and supports several encodings (UTF-8 and UTF-16, and with the 'Uconv' module, EUC-JP, Shift_JIS, and ISO-2022-JP). Version 0.3.3 description.

RUWF - XML well-formedness Syntax Checker with HTML interface, from XML.com. Built with Tim Bray's Lark parser. XML Syntax Checker - from a thesis Frontier 5. Use the blox XML parser based on expat, or the Frontier 5.1.3 built-in XML parser to check well-formedness of an XML document. 'XML-by-hand' (a (non-validating) XML parser written in Java) and written ib english, parser take two (variant of the earlier parser above which may be more suitable for certain kinds of XML data . . .). XML software from Bert Bos. ISO-to-UTF [UTF-8 or UTF-16] XML Conversion Tool. Essay! From Richard Goerwitz, Brown University, STG. Use this utility to convert an existing XML document in an ISO format ( e.g. , ISO-8859-1) to written assignment ib english b, UTF-8 or UTF-16.

To facilitate autodetection of the document's existing format (as per appendix F to the W3C XML spec), please be sure to prepend a valid XML declaration to your document. See the Open eBook Validator from Brown University, Scholarly Technology Group. Toolkit! The Open eBook Validator, a free service provided by Brown University's Scholarly Technology Group (STG) and NuvoMedia, Inc. HEX - The HTML Enabled XML Parser. From Anders Kristensen (HP Labs, Bristol). HEX is a simple, 100% Java, non-validating XML parser with some hooks for mostly correct parsing of HTML pages.

It doesn't understand either SGML or XML DTD's but the parser API allows the application to control its operation in ways that facilitate HTML parsing. Assignment! It implements the DOM core level one API and the SAX event-driven API. The HEX parser is hard, freely available, with source code for non-commercial use. It comes with a couple of sample applications. See: the HEX main page. Delphi XML parsers. 1) CUESoft version ['CUESoft is offering free Delphi and ActiveX XML components for a limited time. . . CUESoft will be adding XML capability to its powerful CUEBase database for assignment ib english, providing the the benefits activities essay ability to written ib english, index and search large XML document databases']; 2) ICOM Datenverarbeitungs GmbH 'XML Parser Component for Delphi'. Dear! . . the written assignment b first version of postgraduate thesis toolkit, a XML Parser component for the Borland Delphi development environment. The current version supports all major features of the XML standard. Written Ib English B! We will enhance the component to support the the benefits of extracurricular full XML standard as soon as possible. Contact: xml@icom-dv.de.

Whisper Mac/Win32 C++ application framework - 'The Esoterica [layer] includes automata classes, a regular expression class, a compression class (based on zlib), a simple text parser, a more complex parser (it builds parse trees), and a validating XML parser.' MuXML - An XML Document Multiplexor. MuXML is a prototype Perl module that implements configurable multiplexing of ib english, XML document streams accessed via the a thesis LWPng module and parsed using the assignment ib english b XML::Parser module. Its returns its results using the is doing hard XML::Grove module. Its primary purpose is to serve as a demonstration of the use of non-blocking design approaches with XML and written assignment ib english b, Perl. . . The Benefits Of Extracurricular Activities Essay! MuXML is a demonstration of the utility of the partial parsing capability that Clark Cooper added to written b, the 2.22 release of XML::Parser. From Gabe Beged-Dov. [local archive copy] PHP XML Parser Functions. PHP - Hypertext Preprocessor. PHP Version 3.0 is an HTML-embedded scripting language. Much of its syntax is borrowed from C, Java and Perl with a couple of unique PHP-specific features thrown in. The goal of the language is to essay, allow web developers to write dynamically generated pages quickly.

See the PHP Manual [Section] XLVIII. XML Parser Functions. This PHP extension implements support for James Clark's expat in PHP. This toolkit lets you parse, but not validate, XML documents. Assignment Ib English B! It supports three source character encodings also provided by PHP: US-ASCII, ISO-8859-1 and UTF-8. UTF-16 is not supported. This extension lets you create XML parsers and then define handlers for determines papers swap world, different XML events. Each XML parser also has a few parameters you can adjust. Assignment B! See further the PHP3 Manual. Erlang XML parser. - (pre) release of an experimental XML parser. Toolkit! . . This parser has 5 Erlang modules. By Joe Armstrong. Written Assignment Ib English B! ['Erlang is a concurrent functional programming language suitable for implementing large systems with soft real time demands.']

XML Document Editing, DTD Editing, Stylesheet Editing, Formatting, Browsing, and Delivery Tools. XML in dear letter, MS Internet Explorer - XML Browser support in Internet Explorer. XML in Mozilla - XML Browser support in Netscape. XED - A WYSIWYG XML instance editor. B! From Henry S. Thompson, 980318. Updated 1999-09-13 [FreeBSD, Linux, WIN32, and Solaris 2.5 versions]. Of Extracurricular Activities Essay! Updated to version 0.5 1999-07-20 [local archive copy]. Updated to beta July 12, 1998.

Updated to 'final alpha' 980427. Updated to written ib english b, alpha version 0.2.1.4 980402. XML Editing Mode in PSGML. XML patches from thesis toolkit David Megginson. Version 1.2.0 (XML support, beta) 1999-10-13. See: 'PSGML Tricks', by Bob DuCharme. . . . [including] an Acrobat file with the 99-page chapter on using Emacs with PSGML, the SGML/XML mode for Emacs.

The Web page also has a link to a page of PSGML tricks contributed by b, various users, and essay, I'm always happy to add new ones. [1999-10-14] Kai Grossjohann described a problem with incompatible system identifiers when using psgml to edit XML documents; David Megginson supplied the ib english lisp code for is doing, a provisional fix. Note: Unicode encoding for GNU Emacs - If your file is encoded in UTF-8, you can use the Unicode encoding package for Emacs (http://www.cs.ust.hk/ otfried/Mule/) so that characters beyond US-ASCII are displayed properly. (I keep meaning to write a hook for written assignment ib english b, psgml so that it can use the the benefits activities XML declaration to written assignment b, set the encoding automatically, but for now it's easy enough to use `C-x C-m c' before opening the is doing a thesis hard file to set it manually. [XSL List] See the source for PSGML version 1.2.2. [PSGML version 1.2.3, November 8, 2001, cache] [December 06, 1999] XFA Edit - An Advanced XML Editor. Ib English! A new XML editing tool with source code is poverty essay, available, as announced: XML For All Announces XFA Edit, an Advanced XML Editor. - XML For All, Inc. Written Ib English! today announced the dear cover letter release of XFA Edit, an advanced text editor for assignment ib english b, XML and HTML documents that runs under Microsoft Windows operating systems. AuthorIT - According to the AuthorIT folks, the next version, to be released in about two weeks [ca 2001-01-19], is dear, supposed to have full XML output implementation. XRay from Architag International. (1) Can be used to create any XML document: [XML documents, XSL Stylesheets, XML Schemas, Document type definitions (DTD)]; (2) Support for XSLT: [XSLT transformation window updates with every keystroke See changes as you type Multiple windows are allowed for each XML document Full XPath support]; (3) Fully validating XML editor: [Verifies well-formedness, Validates structure according to DTD, Validates structure and b, datatypes according to XML Data schema]; (4) HTML Viewing Window. Interactive Authoring and the benefits, Display System (IADS). The IADS program distribution includes an XML DTD. The IADS Software is classified as a Class 3 IETM package, however, IADS has the capability of producing a Class 4 and 5 IETM. IADS uses SGML as its underlying text format. WYSIWYG editing is written assignment ib english, now provided which allows text entry, graphic manipulation, tag insertion, and modification within the context of the formatted display. This mode is turned on or off using the 'Edit mode' option under the 'Authoring' menu.

The DTD (if specified in hard, the DOCTYPE) is loaded, processed, and its rules stored for use when inserting or editing tags in the document. The tag editor dialog box will only allow tags and tag attributes to be inserted that are defined in ib english, the DTD. Classification! 'Currently [2001-10], IADS is the written ib english only software able to parse and display IETMs meeting MIL-STD-40051A.' Contact: iads@redstone.army.mil ([Neil Frazier] IADS / Publications Services, US Army AMCOM). jEdit for XML - jEdit has an activities essay, easy to use interface that resembles that of many other Windows and MacOS text editors. jEdit is extremely customizable, and assignment, has an is doing a thesis hard, extensive feature set, that includes, among other things: Syntax highlighting for 46 file types; Auto indent with support for intelligent indent in Java, C and Python source; Search and replace with support for regular expressions, and searching in multiple files; Bracket matching; Abbreviations; Multiple clipboards; Rectangular editing; Split-window operation; Word wrap; Macro recording; BeanShell scripting. See also Thomas Passin's comments. XMetaL from SoftQuad Software. Is shipping as of 1999-05-26.

Was in beta (1999-03). [October 14, 2000] [Star Division / Sun] StarOffice. See StarOffice and assignment ib english, XML for anouncement of source code and StarOffice XML DTDs. Earlier StarOffice entry (1999): The Sun product is postgraduate toolkit, expected to assignment ib english, support XML -- in light of thesis, a Webcast statement by assignment ib english, Star Division's Marco Boerries to the effect that XML specifications created as part of the StarPortal initiative would be submitted to the W3C, and that the APIs would be submitted to ECMA. An article by Stephen Shankland in CNET News.com offers the same hint from an interview with Marco Boerries: In line with the plan to become more open, Star Office file formats eventually will become XML, and the standard for interacting with it will become published openly and contributed to the benefits activities essay, the ECMA standardization group. Possible hints of some SGML pedigree in a couple help files: one shows that the ib english b color of SGML can be changed for display purposes, and another shows that SGML is in the glossary. Bank Determines Spread U.s Working! [credits kd] Note: As of 2000-07, OpenOffice.org is the open source project through which Sun Microsystems is written assignment ib english, releasing the technology for the popular StarOffice productivity suite. a principal goal is the establishment of marriage, open, XML-based standards for office productivity file formats and language-independent bindings to component APIs. [January 04, 2000] epcEdit - A full-featured SGML/XML editor, which makes extensive use of the TkSGML library included in the epcEdit package. Written Assignment B! The epcEdit package consists of: (1)the source code of epcEdit, which is written entirely in Tcl/Tk.

If you have some programming experience, it will be easy for you to the benefits of extracurricular, adapt epcEdit to your needs; (2) the written assignment ib english TkSGML widget library (binary) and documentation. TkSGML is an SP-based SGML system that could best be described as a generic toolkit for is doing, building integrated SGML applications. epcEdit supports Unicode for SGML and XML documents; internally handles all data as UTF-8; Release 0.92 contains a very early version of a WYSIWYG editor for CALS tables. Support for HTML tables will be added later. See the technical description. XMLware - Java based editor that ses the parser XML4J from IBM; a validating and specifying editor based on the DTD definition. Download evaluation version. EditML - EditML is written assignment ib english b, a windows based editor for creating well-formed/valid XML documents.

The document can be a data file, schema file or a stylesheet. It is based on Microsoft's MSXML parser conforming to determines swap u.s working world, XML specification 1.0 (W3C standard). By Saravanan Lakshmanan. DocZilla XML/SGML Browser. See the announcement for DocZilla SGML/XML browser for WinNT/95/98 and Linux [1999-06-03]. Envision XML - An industrial strength XML schema development tool.

Has a fully graphical interface and a central data dictionary; well suited to larger development teams; designed to reduces the need to learn complex syntax. Written Ib English B! Contact: James Knowles. GO. GO is a [GNOME] word processor with a plugin system, hyphenation and justification, undo system, an xml file format, printing, and other features. From Chris Lahey. AbiWord - a full-featured word processor, he first application in a suite from AbiSource, Inc. which is developing a cross-platform, open-source office suite called AbiSuite. 'Why does AbiWord use XML as its native file format?

Because we like XML.' See the AbiWord DTD, cache; also XML Schema for AbiWord Markup Language, cache. KWord - a Linux-based word processor that uses XML for its native file format. A FrameMaker-like wordprocessor of the KOffice. Frame oriented, not page oriented. Morphon XML Editor, based on Java. The Benefits Of Extracurricular Activities! From Lunatech Research. Beta 1 version 1999-06-28.

Also: http://www.morphon.com/. Documentor from Excosoft AB. Evaluation version available for written assignment ib english, download. See screenshots. [September 30, 1999] Stilo recently announced an introductory offer [reduced price, 'try and buy'] for spread u.s working world, its Stilo WebWriter, described as a comprehensive editor for ib english, creating XML. sxml-mode for (X)Emacs. From Philippe Le Hégaret. This emacs mode uses psgml-1.0.1 and the benefits essay, font-lock (with a Java Virtual Machine) to 'validate' XML documents with SAX (The Simple API for assignment b, XML) in Emacs. LiveDTD. Poverty! a perl program which converts an SGML/XML Document Type Definition (DTD) into a hypertext document. Assignment Ib English! See the announcement.

Visual XML - alpha version 980406, designed to bank papers world, assist in the creation and editing of XML documents, including DTDs. From Pierre Morel. An application written in Java, with support for internationalization and customization ( e.g. , Metal, Windows, Motif interfaces) features. Adobe 'ReadXML' for FrameMaker Sample Code. 'ReadXML' is a sample plug-in that demonstrates reading XML into FrameMaker+SGML 6.0. Assignment B! This plug-in parses XML and outputs an SGML document. The resulting SGML document is passed to FrameMaker+SGML's built-in SGML parser. Note opnly a sample as of 2001-01-05, not fully functional and will not correctly handle most XML files; its purpose is to illustrate how a developer could create a robust XML-based solution. XML Authority - a graphical design tool accelerating the creation and enhancing the management of schemas for XML. With support for the benefits activities essay, data typing, solutions for data interchange and b, document oriented applications converge.

XML Authority includes a toolset to of extracurricular, help convert existing application and document structures to schemas, defining the basis for ib english b, well formed XML documents and enabling valid XML. Beta, 1999-03-25. Zveno Swish XML Editor - Swish is postgraduate thesis, a non-validating XML document editor. It allows the written assignment ib english b user to view and edit a XML document in cover letter, both a tree-mode and a document-mode simultaneously. Linux, Windows 95/98/NT and Macintosh PPC. Written Assignment Ib English! Version 1.0 beta 1 released 1999-03-27. Emilé - XML Editor for Macintosh. Version 1.0 1999-06-10. An introductory price of determines world, $79.

A demo copy of the editor can be downloaded from the company's website. HyBrick SGML/XML Browser. HyBrick is an advanced SGML/XML browser developed by Fujitsu Laboratories, the written assignment b research arm of Fujitsu. HyBrick is marriage essay, based on written assignment, an architecture that supports advanced linking and formatting capabilities. HyBrick includes a DSSSL renderer and XLink/XPointer engine running on top of James Clark's SP and the benefits activities, Jade. Ib English B! See also the determines spread announcement. SixPack - an open source code XML editor for Macintosh designed in REALbasic. includes an XML parser (that complies to the XML 1.0 specification as a well-formed processor), a set of classes that emulate the written assignment DOM, and bank swap, a variety of visual components for editing and displaying XML documents. all in assignment, 100% native REALbasic. Microsoft XML Notepad. The Benefits Of Extracurricular Activities Essay! A simple prototyping application for written b, HTML authors and developers that enables the rapid building and editing of small sets of XML-based data. Validates instance against an XML DTD at load time.

First released 980722. DTDGenerator - XML DTD Generator. From Michael Kay (ICL). SAXON DTDGenerator is a program that takes an XML document as input and produces a Document Type Definition (DTD) as output. Is Doing Hard! The aim of the program is to ib english b, give you a quick start in writing a DTD. [19980505.] Note 2000-01-05: DTDGen is now part of toolkit, SAXON. DTDGenerator Frontend - A perl script written by written ib english, Paul Tchistopolskii, as a frond end to Michael Kay's DTDGenerator. Near Far Designer. - An XML and SGML DTD authoring tool; visual, drag-and-drop interface. tdtd - Emacs Major Mode for editing SGML/XML DTDs. Updated [version 0.7] March 15, 1999 or later.

Previously updated (version 0.6) 980801. Postgraduate Thesis Toolkit! Previously updated (version 0.5) 980524. XML Spy - a professional validating XML editor that provides three integrated views on XML documents: an enhanced grid view for structured display and editing, a low-level source view with syntax coloring, and an integrated browser view that supports CSS and written ib english, XSL style-sheets. Detailed find, replace, and toolkit, print options are available in all views. Complete Unicode and character-set encoding support is included. XML Styler - ArborText tool for creating and written assignment ib english, modifying XSL stylesheets. MIOW browser - miow can render XML documents, using CSS style sheets; XSL is not yet supported [soon-to-be-released, 1998-08-26] XSL Authoring Studio, from determines papers spread swap u.s working ContentWare.

Soon to be available in alpha version on the Web. It was demonstrated by assignment ib english b, Ray Cromwell and Shawn O'Connor at 'XML: The Conference' Developers' Day, March 27, 1998. The tool as shown also supported an XML document instance editor from which the XSL stylesheet editor may be launched. It uses Lark and DocProc. XSLJ - Henry Thompson's XSL-to-DSSSL translator. Updated: 980112. PrismEd. Essay! A configurable metadata editor which will cope with structured metadata values; reads and writes RDF. Written in Java 1.1 (1.1.6), and can be run either as an applet or as an application. Announced 1998-09-05.

Link - The tool ' Link is an XML-XSL-XLL browser'. Assignment B! Link is a simple application written in Java that allows a user to hard, view XML documents with XSL stylesheets and written ib english b, XLL hyperlinking. [April 09, 1998] JBX - Java XML Browser - JXB is a project to create a web browser in Java for the Extensible Markup Language (XML). Under development by Chris Hubick [now discontinued?]. [May 14, 1998] IRIS XML EDITOR, beta 1 and IRIS XML DTD GENERATOR, from innovation Partners and CEI (Cabinet d'études Informatiques).

Demo/Beta-1-ware. Jade - DSSSL engine. The latest distributions include SP and other applications with XML support. XML Flow Object Tree backend: The -t xml option makes empty elements and is doing hard, processing instructions use the assignment b XML syntax. Jade 1.2.1 updated October 13, 1998. SGML/XML Kit - The SGML/XML Kit is a browser add-on that transforms SGML/XML documents into displayable entities; [it] is based on a DSSSL script engine. XML Application Environments, Development Toolkits, Conversion.

SAX - the Simple API for is doing a thesis hard, XML. SAX is a common event-based XML API now in use by many parsers and assignment, applications. David Megginson is the project leader. See also the postgraduate references above. Ib English! Version 1.0 released May 12, 1998. SAX 2/Java (beta).

Released by David Megginson 2000-01-28. DAE SDK and DAE Server SDK (w/ XML processor for building groves from in africa essay XML documents) - Copernican Solutions. [SAXDOM renamed 'FREE-DOM' as of written assignment, 19980505] - see the dear following entry] SAXDOM - An implementation of W3C Document Object Model (DOM) API using Simple API for XML (SAX). From Don Park. See the main page. Written Ib English! Updated 980504 to support the 04/16/98 DOM spec. Updated 980406 to support the DOM specification of is doing a thesis hard, 03/18/98, WD-DOM-19980318. Docuverse DOM SDK. Supersedes FREE-DOM, above From Don Park. Docuverse DOM SDK is an implementation of W3C Document Object Model (DOM) API in written assignment ib english b, Java. Formerly 'FREE-DOM' and before that, called SAXDOM.

Updated September 06, 1998. Updated July 21, 1998 to support the dear cover DOM version of 19980720. C++ LGPL'ed Implementation of the b Document Object Model (DOM) - From ÁNOQ of the Sun [Johnny Andersen]. Activities Essay! 980818 DOM spec, . . Assignment Ib English B! . written for the Berlin project. Berlin uses CORBA, but this DOM implementation can be used both with and the benefits of extracurricular activities essay, without CORBA. . . . implements most of the written ib english core DOM API according to the DOM specification from marriage classification 1998-08-18. There are still a few methods missing and some components doesn't behave correctly yet. The document type components are not implemented yet.

It should however be possible to build a usable DOM tree with this implementation. XML Testbed. An XML application environment written in assignment, Java. Poverty Essay! From Steve Withall. Written Ib English! . Is Doing! uses an XML configuration file to define the (Swing-based) user interface; includes its own non-validating XML parser (though it can use any SAX parser instead), a nascent XSL engine (to the old submission standard - just in time to be out of date), and a few other odds and ends. SAXON - a Java class library for written ib english, XML Applications. Thesis Toolkit! The SAXON package is a Java interface for processing XML documents. B! It provides a set of services that are particularly useful for applications performing XML- XML or XML- HTML transformations. Poverty Essay! From Michael Kay. Version 4.4, 1999-07-14; Version 4.3, 1999-06-15. Assignment! Updated 1999-02-16. Letter! Earlier: Updated October 20, 1998.

Updated September 01, 1998. Updated 980721 to written ib english b, use the the benefits activities essay new Free-DOM release of July 21, 1998. Was updated 19980616. [Previously updated: 980513.] XAF - an XML Architectural Forms Processor. XAF is a Java-based XML architectural forms processor that acts as both a SAX application and a SAX parser. . . the client application sees the (virtual) architectural document instead of the actual XML document. From David Megginson. ExCost. Written Ib English! ExCost is for 'Expat and Cost'. Uses an extension to TCL that allows it to parse ESIS file and handle output in a event or tree driven behaviour. It provides about the bank papers swap world same functionality as Cost [Copenhagen SGML Tool, from Joe English], but for XML. XML-DBMS - a set of Java packages you can use to transfer data between XML documents and relational databases.

DB2XML - a tool for transforming relational databases into XML documents. Delta XML - Monsell's standalone tools for comparing XML documents and comparing complex data in XML. Assignment Ib English B! identify and bank swap world, monitor changes to XML documents and b, data files. Similar tools from IBM alphaWorks: (1) XML Diff and Merge Tool; (2) XML TreeDiff. WebBroker: XML for Distributed Computing - under development by John Tigue. The goal is to come up with a unified software object model for the Web. See slides from XML'98 in Seattle and the database entry. PLSXML From Oracle. a set of activities essay, PL/SQL-based XML utilities and demonstrations. The PLSXML Suite consists of: (1) DBXML - For generating rich, nested XML documents from SQL queries; (2) DBDOM - For creating, parsing, traversing, and searching XML Documents using the Document Object Model API; (3) DBXSL - For generating a database-driven XSL stylesheet for a tree-rendering of data.

LT XML - XML toolset. LT XML is a set of C programs for manipulating XML files and a C application program interface (API) designed to ease the writing of C programs which manipulate XML documents. Assignment Ib English! Updated to version 1.0 980624. Previously updated 980508. OmniMark LE 4.0 Preview - a special early release (for Windows 95/NT only) that previews the of extracurricular activities essay enhanced XML functionality in assignment ib english, the new, soon-to-be-launched full version of OmniMark 4.0; LE is a free product. XML Script - an XML compliant language designed to handle XML with a minimum of overhead. X-Tract is a freely available XML Script processor. Papers Swap U.s Working! From DecisionSoft Ltd. Assignment Ib English B! Contact: Paul Warren. [Notice posted for] a [script] conversion from RTF to 'XML' [viz., SGML] that uses OMLE, rather like Rainbow, plus CALS tables support. The RTF2XML filter, formerly RTF2SGML, has been enhanced in version 0.4 for handling XML, including built-in support for Unicode RTF.

Requires OmniMark or OmniMark LE from OmniMark Technologies, Inc. See RTF2XML, or the marriage classification local archive copy. MajiX - Java compliant tool from Tetrasix, automatically transforms RTF files (Microsoft Word files) into XML. converts RTF styles and some document characteristics into a XML file conforming to a document type definition DTD. The names of the assignment ib english tags may be changed by is doing a thesis hard, the user. Majix version 1.1 is the third release; it corrects some bugs from version 1.0 and ib english b, provides support for XSL through James Clark's XT. With online documentation. xtr2any - 'configurable filter, easy-to-use XML transcoder for cover letter, prepress departments.' A Linux command or as a Win32 console application. Download the (restricted) demo version. masterplan - a convertor generator; you'll need gcc, bison and flex or equivalents to build both the executable and the convertors.

Version 0.0.1 (1999-03-29). From: Paul Janssens. XML Enabler - a Java Servlet that converts XML-tagged data into HTML using different stylesheets for different browsers. From IBM. Written Ib English B! See the white paper, Accessing XML on the Client.

XTAL (XML Translation for AntLr) is a general conversion tool for XML and marriage essay, SGML. ANTLR and Java serve as basis and description language. From Oliver Zeigermann. MetaMorphosis - SGML/XML Tree Transformer. Written B! MetaMorphosis is a target-driven SGML/XML tree transformer that uses a declarative language. Ace utility program. Ace is a freely available scripting language which allows powerful manipulation of SGML and XML documents.

XTL - A C++ XML toolkit with DOM SAX support. OpenXML - An open source, pure Java, commercial-grade, fully featured framework for XML-based applications. Is Doing A Thesis! OpenXML covers the written ib english b entire cycle of XML documents production, processing and bank determines swap, delivery for dynamic content publishing and application to application communication. Assignment Ib English! Updated 1999-04-01. Latex to XML Converter - This converter takes a latex file (*.tex) from your directory and outputs an XML file (*.html) to the browser.

The math modes in latex are converted to cover, MathML (Mathematical Markup Language). To view the output, you will need to download the W3C test-bed browser Amaya. From Ashes Dhanna Ganguly. Extensible Protocol (XP) - a bidirectional protocol on which XML documents are exchanged between two endpoints. The com.thinlink.xp package implements XP draft 00 using stream sockets and ib english b, the IBM xml4j processor.

It uses an event-listener interface and the Document Object Model to send and receive XML documents. From Tom harding. Implements IETF 'draft-harding-extensible-protocol-00.txt'; [local archive copy]. See: Extensible Protocol. See also: XML tools in Steve Pepper's Whirlwind Guide to SGML Tools and Vendors , SGML TOOLS - By Tool Category Main entry for W3C Recommendation 'Namespaces in essay, XML' (REC-xml-names-19990114) and its commentary: Namespaces in written assignment, XML

A Proposal for bank, Namespaces in XML, by Henry S. Assignment! Thompson. A Thesis! Language Technology Group, HCRC, Edinburgh. Assignment B! May 27, 1997. Overview: . . .a quite simple proposal for cover, namespaces, lighter weight than those seen heretofore, but admittedly NOT valid SGML as things stand. Written Ib English! I think its light weight, flexibility and functionality commend it. See also a free-form XML version submitted to the W3C SGML WG list. [HTML mirror copy] [June 06, 1998] A Proposal to Introduce 'Module' Structures into SGML.

By Toru Takahashi. ISO/IEC JTC1/WG4 N1987. Of Extracurricular Activities Essay! 98-05-15. B! Supersedes WG8 N1873. From the Introduction: Designing a large, complex DTD is a very difficult job. One reason of this difficulty comes from SGML's restriction on namespaces. For element type names, SGML allows only one name space throughout a document.

This restriction means, that if you intend to design a new DTD, you have to be familiar with all the element types you wish to use to construct the DTD, and have to select their names very carefully to avoid name conflicts. This lack of modularity makes difficult to use separately designed declaration sets (DTD fragments) in mixture to build up a complete DTD. For example, if you want to cover, use pre-defined declaration sets for 'tables' and 'math expressions' together to construct your own 'report' DTD, you have to written, examine whether there are any name conflicts between them or not. If there are any such conflicts, you have to modify several declarations. This restriction in name space makes impossible to treat these declaration sets as public (read only) texts. Similar problems may occur on the parameter entity names. Of Extracurricular! To solve these problems, I propose to introduce the concept of 'Module' into SGML. Written Ib English B! [local archive copy] [See preceding entry] Relative (also) to letter, 'namespaces' in ib english b, XML: A Proposal to Introduce 'Module' Structures into SGML [namespaces], by Toru Takahashi.

12 November 1996. Marriage! From the written b Introduction: Designing a large, complex DTD is a very difficult job. One reason of this difficulty comes from determines papers spread swap world SGML's restriction on name spaces. For element type names, SGML allows only one name space per document. . . Ib English B! [mirror copy], also available as http://www.ornl.gov/sgml/wg8/document/1873.doc. Web Architecture: Extensible Languages. W3C Note 10 Feb 1998. NOTE-webarch-extlang. By Tim Berners-Lee and marriage classification essay, Dan Connolly (W3C). Assignment! This document is poverty in africa, meant to be a fairly explanatory synthesis of the requirements for written b, namespace extension in languages on the web, and in particular for the general language planned to be the common basis of many future applications, XML. It was originally written as part of the 'Design Issues' series of dear cover, notes.

Whilst technically the personal opinion of the authors, it their best attempt as technical coordinators at written assignment ib english, outlining common architectural principles for in africa essay, W3C development. [local archive copy] xml-bind - XLinks from Types and Names. By Rick Jelliffe. Reference: Note 13 March, 1998 (Note-xml-bind-19980313). This document is a NOTE for written assignment ib english b, discussion by the W3C XML-related groups. It is primarily an alternative to the namespace proposal and a contribution to defining XLink requirements. RDF and the benefits of extracurricular activities essay, XML-data designers may also find it relevant. [Abstract:] Current linking systems are based on links from elements ( i.e. , instances of element types in a document). This paper holds that several of the technologies under development by the W3C working groups are better characterized as links from types and names. Suggestions are made for a general architecture to handle this, and for how this can be integrated into XLink. Written Assignment! Namespaces, parts of RDF, and dear cover letter, SGML Open Catalogs are re-characterized as XLinks from assignment ib english b types and bank determines papers spread, names. [local archive copy]

A Cut and Paste Infrastructure for XML. By Rick Jelliffe. Reference: Note-xml-cnp-19980131, Note 1-February-1998. This document is a NOTE for discussion by the W3C XML-related groups. It is a personal critique of XML 1.0 PR, especially in the light of the namespace proposal, RDF and XML-data. It may be seen as a contribution to user requirements for an XML 1.1. XML Cut'n'Paste is a proposal for various conventions which address many sophisticated uses in Extensible Markup Language (XML) while retaining true to its underlying model, as an application of SGML. B! [local archive copy] Comparison of SGML and XML. By James Clark. Reference identifiers: World Wide Web Consortium Note 15-December-1997, NOTE-sgml-xml-971215. Is Doing! The document provides a detailed comparison of SGML (ISO 8879) and XML under three section headings: 1) Differences Between XML and SGML; 2) Transforming SGML to XML; 3) SGML Declaration for XML, in two variants: (a) one which takes advantage of the Extended Naming Rules Technical Corrigendum to ISO 8879, but does not make use of the Web SGML Adaptations Annex; (b) one which takes advantage of the Web SGML Adaptations Annex to written, ISO 8879. Is Doing! [local archive copy]

The new (informative) ISO 8879 Annex L: Added Requirements for XML illustrates the relationship of SGML declarations to 'added requirements' by means of a real-world example, XML. The annex has a prose application summary and sample SGML declaration. Some of the written Recent Changes to ISO 8879 (Annex K, Web SGML Adaptations; also Annex L, Added Requirements for XML) are motivated by the goal of bringing SGML and XML into alignment. See Bob DuCharme, SGML: Changing to Accommodate XML. [July 19, 1998] Converting an SGML DTD to XML. Cover! By Norman Walsh [ArborText]. Norm Walsh itemizes the steps in ib english b, SGML-to-XML DTD conversion in a couple categories: Many of these changes are straightforward and, for a large number of SGML DTDs, they will be fairly easy to accomplish. Bank Determines Papers Swap U.s Working World! . Written Assignment B! . There are also some changes that may have a large impact on the semantics of the DTD. Luckily, these are mostly infrequently-used SGML features so they don't turn up often in essay, most DTDs. Also at XML.com [XML QA] (July 08, 1998). [September 17, 1999] XML/SGML: On the Web and Behind the assignment b Web.

By Alfred Attipoe and of extracurricular activities, Philippe Vijghen [The SGML Technologies Group]. In InterChange: Newsletter of the International SGML/XML Users' Group Volume 5, Issue 3 (July 1999), pages 25-29. There is some confusion as to assignment, when [to] use SGML and when to use XML. In this paper we argue that both have their rightful place in publishing systems. We discuss the impact of the new Web technologies on publishing systems by a thesis, clarifying the relationship between XML and SGML. We describe available features of both markup languages and evaluate them empirically, taking into consideration several distinct points of view. Ib English! Our analysis should help you decide which (SGML or XML) to use where (behind or on the Web). Papers Swap U.s Working World! . . we argue that XML, devoid of SGML complexity, is assignment b, ideally suited for determines world, the exchange and publication of documents/information on the Web. However, XML lacks some features which are very useful when creating behind-the-Web systems where reqirements stress the need for expressive information models and data-processing functionality. Written Assignment Ib English B! SX , a converter from bank determines swap SGML to XML.

Part of James Clark's SP parser toolkit; new in assignment, the distribution of SP version 1.3 [980309]. SX converts SGML to essay, XML. SX parses and validates the SGML document contained in written assignment, sysid. . . and writes an equivalent XML document to the standard output. SX will warn about SGML constructs which have no XML equivalent. [local archive copy] Using an XML Audit to Move SGML Data towards XML. By Charlie Halpern-Hamu, Incremental Development, Inc. Presented at XML'98 in Chicago. Essay! This paper describes, at a technical level, how to assignment ib english, assess the XML-readiness of your SGML data as a first step towards moving it towards XML. This paper suggests an 'XML audit': a technical review of essay, current markup practice with eye towards simplification. The goal of an XML audit is to understand which portions of your current SGML application are not XML. The next step might be to written assignment b, start deemphasizing your use of those features. Postgraduate Thesis Toolkit! . . [November 06, 1998] Automating SGML-to-XML DTD Conversion (Part 1).

By Bob DuCharme. In TAG Volume 11, Number 10 (October 1998), pages 9-10. DuCharme introduces his serialized article by noting that a DTD conversion might not be just a one-time affair, and by categorizing DTD editing/conversion tasks into assignment ib english ranked groupings. [December 09, 1998] Automating SGML-to-XML DTD Conversion (Part 2). By Bob DuCharme. In TAG Volume 11, Number 11 (November 1998), pages 5-7. In this second part of a two-part TAG article, the author discusses SGML-XML DTD conversion in the case of mixed content models, RCDATA, CONREF, and the benefits activities essay, SUBDOC.

SGML, XML, and HTML Document Components Compared. From a poster session, by Dennis J. O'Connor, Consultant, Mulberry Technologies, Inc. MicroStar Ltd. is written assignment ib english b, developing a set of heuristics (and software) for automatic conversion of SGML DTDs to bank papers u.s working world, XML DTDs. Steph Tryphonas presented a paper on ib english b, DTD Conversions at marriage classification, the Seattle XML '98 conference. TCIF/IPI (Telecommunications Industry Forum, Information Products Interchange) has provided a record of its recent efforts to XML-ize the TIM Telecommunications Interchange Markup DTD, version 2.0.4. See provisionally the March 06, 1998 entries. One now also encounters the phrase XML-compliant HTML . . . [May 13, 1998] W3C published a NOTE entitled XML in HTML Meeting Report.

This report, edited by Dan Connolly (W3C) and Lauren Wood (SoftQuad), addresses a number of issues relating to assignment b, the use of XML encoding within HTML documents. At a meeting of February 11-12, 1998 (San Jose, California, Sun Microsystems), participants from a variety of W3C working groups met to discuss these issues, and in particular, concerns relating to the support of MathML and RDF written in XML and intended to thesis toolkit, be used in written b, HTML documents. The W3C NOTE (NOTE-xh-19980511, W3C Note 11 May 1998) summarizes the discussion and conclusions of this meeting. [local archive copy] [July 27, 1998] IBTWSH (Itsy Bitsy Teeny Weeny Simple Hypertext) DTD - from John Cowan. Bank Determines Spread Swap U.s Working World! This is an XML DTD which describes a subset of HTML 4.0 for embedded use within other XML DTDs. It is by intention equivalent (within its scope) to -//W3C//DTD HTML 4.0 Transitional//EN, but is written ib english b, not a derived work in the copyright sense. [local archive copy, 980727]

The development of new vocabularies and the design of namespace syntaxes have increased public interest in registration authorities and authentication services which could be set up to manage name conflicts. Facilities are needed for support of globally-unique names, persistent links and resources, name (public identifier) resolution, mapping between public and of extracurricular, system identifiers, etc. Online libraries/repositories with public text resources also present a strong desideratum. Assignment B! Several initiatives for spread swap world, registries and repositories have been announced. Assignment Ib English! A few of the early initiatives which have been publicized are referenced in a separate document. References to literature on thesis toolkit, XML Media/MIME Types are held in a separate document. In the assignment following lists of XML Examples and Non-Examples, a certain number of items in the former category undoubtedly will (come to) belong to the latter category, given the evolution of the XML specifications and essay, other factors. Note also that most of the proposed XML applications also contain sample XML documents and assignment ib english b, DTDs in the documentation. The XML Recommendation 1.0 (February 1998) in XML format. The corresponding XML specification DTD (-//W3C//DTD Specification::19980323//EN) is available online, as well as commentary: Design Report for the W3C XML Specification DTD . Version 2.0 of the XML Spec DTD 1999-07.

See the updated XML Specification DTD and bank papers spread swap u.s working, corresponding XML Spec DTD - Data Modeling Report, Version 1.2, 1998-09-10. See the written b XML versions of the XLink and XPointer specifications ( i.e. Dear Cover! , 3-March-1998). XML source files for PR-DOM-Level-1-19980818. The DOM specification serves as a good example of the power of using XML: all of the HTML documents, Java bindings, OMG IDL bindings, and ECMA Script bindings are generated from a single set of XML source files. [local archive copy] See the Production Notes for details. [July 1999] Updated Shakespeare XML documents, from Jon Bosak. See: shakespeare.2.00.xml.zip, and assignment, shaks200.zip. Also: religion.2.00.xml.zip and rel200.zip. Note 2001-01: URLs are now Four Religious Works '(1958896-byte zip file, http://metalab.unc.edu/bosak/xml/eg/rel200.zip)' and The Plays of Shakespeare '(2195143-byte zip file, http://metalab.unc.edu/bosak/xml/eg/shaks200.zip)'; I do not know if these are identical version 2 document sets. [October 12, 1998] See above.

Jon Bosak (Sun Microystems)) announced the availabilty of a major revision to the XML-tagged religion set. Of Extracurricular Essay! The collection includes a group of four religious works (The Old Testament, The New Testament, The Quran, and The Book of Mormon) marked up for electronic publication from publicly available sources. Assignment Ib English B! The texts were originally marked up (1992) as an exercise in dear, SGML DTD and style sheet design, and in 1996 were released along with a companion Shakespeare set as the earliest examples of real documents marked up in XML. Written Assignment B! The current distribution conforms to the XML 1.0 Recommendation released February 8, 1998. Verse numbers for the referencing systems are now generated by style sheets, which are included in thesis toolkit, the distribution.

These texts are used as benchmarks for XML parsers by some developers. Source: http://metalab.unc.edu/pub/sun-info/standards/xml/eg/rel200.zip; [local archive copy]. Sample XML documents with DTDs ( e.g. , Bible, Shakespeare), for assignment ib english, the benefit of anyone developing XML tools; provided by Jon Bosak. See the updated announcement of activities, January 30, 1998. [See also the earlier announcement for other details.] Example XML documents in Japanese are available. They are encoded in UTF-16 (big endian and little endian), UTF-8, iso-2022-jp, shift_jis, and euc-jp. One document is the translation of the XML PR, and it will soon be replaced with that of the XML recommendation. . . From Murata Makoto. [local archive copy/snapshot, 19980603] [April 09, 1999] xmlTree. - a list of sites and resources which offer data according to XML formatting rules collected by James Carlyle.

[February 18, 2000] We have approximately 160,000 XML documents indexed in the GoXML XML Search Engine. Many of these are in written b, XML with XSL format. THe url is: www.goxml.com. We believe it is the largest repository of XML (and subsequently XSL) documents on the Internet. Grab a copy of Microsoft's IE 5.+ and have a blast. [Duane Nickull; Fri, 18 Feb 2000] XML served by postgraduate thesis, the Sun Microsystems corporate document server, docs.sun.com . The docs.sun.com service from Sun stores information in a compiled SGML format and can deliver either XML or HTML data dynamically, according to requests from a client. See, for example, the assignment ib english b docs.sun.com XML documents for display with Mozilla source: TocView.xml and disability.xml. [See also the database entry for the docs.sun AnswerBook Documentation.] [January 19, 1998] W3C NOTE Name Spaces in XML: NOTE-xml-names in toolkit, XML format from b W3C; [local archive copy] [March 06, 1998] Sample chapters 'in XML format' from postgraduate toolkit Richard Light's book, Presenting XML . Presented on the companion Web site. [October 06, 1998] XML test data from Simon North's book Presenting XML , available from the ib english b Macmillan Web site. The author says: The material was written in Author/Editor using the TEI-lite DTD (freely available on cover letter, the Web) and converted to Microsoft Word, via RTF, for printing using jade. The XML and HTML code was created from the written SGML sources.

The text is postgraduate, copyright, of course, but for experimentation it's got a very rich mix of elements (including copious CDATA sections). Assignment B! [XML-L 6 Oct 1998] [December 07, 1998] XML release of the TEI Lite DTD (personal work, from Patrice Bonhomme, not an official release of the TEI Lite.) See also reference to the benefits essay, work on preparation of an XML Version of the full TEI DTD. [October 05, 1997] XML Scenarios, sponsored by Microsoft and written assignment b, participating companies. This part of the Web site features a collection of articles that describe how industry leaders are using XML-based applications today to increase sales and productivity, improve customer satisfaction, and lower costs. The companies represented are top ISVs who have built XML-based, three-tier Web applications. Each brief scenario demonstrates the is doing a thesis hard solution to a real business problem. It includes: 1) the specific business problem that was impacting mission-critical processes; 2) the role XML played in the solution; and 3) a discussion of how the problem was solved through the use of specific XML-based tools, with a behind-the-scenes look at exactly how the software components handled a typical user scenario. As of October 5, 1998, nine articles were available. [January 27, 1998] XML Auction Demo from Microsoft. [January 25, 1998] XML Weather Station Demo - part of XML Online from insideDHTML. University of Oregon Virtual Laboratory, serving HTML from the assignment b XML source.

Behind what you see, there is a Java servlet based on Lark that pumps out bank papers swap world, HTML. The applets at this site have been programmed by written assignment ib english, Sean Russell. [December 13, 1997] James Clark's test suite of files for XML processors. The collection of XML test cases in the ZIP archive contains 141 [now 164] small files that (in my view) fail to be well-formed XML documents, and should therefore cause any conforming XML processor to report a fatal error. See: ftp://ftp.jclark.com/pub/test/xmltest.zip. Updated December 13, 1997 to poverty in africa, bring the test suite into written ib english b alignment with the Proposed Recommendation of the benefits essay, 1997-12-08. OASIS XML Conformance Subcommittee (under the written assignment ib english b OASIS Technical Committe) will be working on an XML Conformance Test Methodology, etc.

Contact G. Ken Holman for of extracurricular essay, additional information, and see the dedicated entry. For online WF checking via HTML-forms, see above: well-formedness checking of documents by URL and by pasted-up text. Provided by Tim Bray (Lark, XML.com) and written assignment ib english, James Clark (XP, WebTechs). XML Conferences, Seminars, Workshops. Since XML is marriage, a subset of SGML, most 'SGML' and events now prominently feature XML. The Conferences section of the SGML/XML Web Page contains the b full entries, often with pointers to conference reports or proceedings volumes.

Summary information for special XML events is provided below. XML '99. December 6 - 9, 1999. Pennsylvania Convention Center, Philadelphia, PA. XML One - The International Users Conference. Increasing Your Productivity with XML. May 24 - 27, 1999. Austin Marriott at the Capital, Austin, Texas. XML Europe '99. April 26 - 30, 1999.

Granada, Spain. XML/SGML '99 Sweden. March 16-17, 1999 in Stockholm, Sweden. XTech '99. XML Application Developers Conference XIO Expo March 7 - 11, 1999. San Jose Convention Center, California. Markup Technologies Conference. November 19 - 20, 1998. Chicago, Illinois, USA. . . .technical issues relating to the design, development, and of extracurricular essay, deployment of a variety of markup technologies including but not limited to SGML, XML, HyTime, and assignment b, DSSSL. XML '98.

November 15 - 18, 1998. Chicago, Illinois. TAG '98. November 4 - 6, 1998. Thesis! Washington, D.C. SGML/XML BeLux '98 Conference. Fifth Annual Conference on the Practical Use of *ML.

October 21, 1998 - Antwerp, Belgium. SGML, XML, and Databases. Tuesday, October 20, 1998. The Brunei Gallery Lecture Theatre, School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS), Russell Square, London. SGML/XML Asia-Pacific '98. October 12 - 15, 1998. Sydney, Australia and Tokyo, Japan. SGML/XML Japan '98. Ib English B! September 30 - October 3, 1998. Nippon Convention Center, Makuhari Messe, Chiba, Japan.

XML World Conference and Exposition. September 14 - 17, 1998. Palais des Congrès de Hull, 200 Promenade de Portage, Ottawa/Hull, Québec, Canada. XML-seminar 98 Göteborg. September 8 - 9, 1998. At the Novotel in Gothenburg, Sweden.

A two-day XML workshop and seminar, sponsored by the Swedish Chapter of the International SGML Users' Group. Seybold San Francisco/Publishing '98. August 30 - September 4, 1998. Moscone Convention Center, San Francisco, CA. With XML Day. Metastructures 1998 Conference. Classification Essay! August 17 - 19, 1998. Le Sheraton Hotel, Montréal, Québec, Canada.

Proposals for the XML-related metastructures, such as XLink, XPointers, Resource Description Format, SMIL, and XML-EDI, are welcome. . . SGML/XML Europe '98. From Theory to New Practices. May 17 - 21, 1998. Hotel Sofitel - Forum Rive Gauche, Paris, France. W3C Workshop - Shaping the Future of HTML. May 4 - 5, 1998. San Francisco Airport Hyatt Regency, California. Several position papers address XML, architectural forms, and related matters. Electronic Publishing '98. The Seventh International Conference on written ib english, Electronic Publishing, Document Manipulation and postgraduate, Typography. April 1 - 4, 1998.

Palais des Congrès, Saint Malo, France. Tutorials on SGML, XML, DSSSL, XSL, TEI-SGML. Conference presentations on SGML. SGML UK. March 31, 1998. Putting on the Style! - DSSSL, CSS, XSL, . Wiltshire Hotel, Swindon. Slide sets and sample stylesheets (CSS, XSL, DSSSL) are available from some of the presentations. XML Developers Day within XML: The Conference (1998).

Enabling Intelligent Content on written, the Web. March 23 - 27, 1998. Seattle, Washington. The 'XML Developers Day' in this conference, chaired by Jon Bosak, is on March 27, 1998. Proposals for XML DevDay should be sent to Jon Bosak, W3C XML WG Chair. See the XML DevDay Call for Presentations, and activities essay, the XML Developers' Day, Preliminary Schedule. Seybold Seminars New York / Publishing '98. Event and Exposition, March 16 - 20, 1998. Jacob K. Javits Convention Center, New York NY.

Includes XML Xposed and XML Tutorials. Documation '98 West. Ib English B! Exposition The Document Software Conference. March 10 - 12, 1998. Santa Clara Convention Center. Santa Clara, California.

See the separate document which extracts the relevant listing of XML/XSL sessions. INRIA XML Workshop. The Potential of XML for Web-based Applications. October 23 - 24, 1997. INRIA Sophia Antipolis, (Nice), France. SGML UK October Meeting: The eXtensible Markup Language (XML). October 23, 1997. Wiltshire Hotel, Swindon, UK. Published agenda. Other details in the announcement from Francis Cave (Pira International), to whom inquiries should be directed. Seybold San Francisco '97.

September 29 - October 3, 1997. A Thesis! Mosconi Center, San Francisco, CA. Assignment Ib English B! The conference included an XML tutorial, XML tools survey, and a dedicated XML session, XML: Publishing on the Web Just Got Easier. SGML Open for Business. September 17, 1997. Clarion Hotel, Millbrae, California. [management and implementation information on SGML and activities, XML. Written B! ] XML Developers Day. August 21, 1997. Montreal, Canada.

In connection with the 1997 International Conference on the Application of HyTime. Note also that Tim Bray will offer an XML Tutorial on Sunday and Monday, August 17-18 as part of the HyTime/XML/DSSSL tutorials programme. European Conference on XML. XML Ready for Prime Time? London, UK. April 22, 1997. WWW '97: Sixth International World Wide Web Conference.

April 7 - 12, 1997. Santa Clara Convention Centre, Santa Clara, California, USA. GCA XML Conference: XML SGML INTRANET. The New Publishing Business Case: XML, SGML, and the Intranet. March 10 - 12, 1997. The Mission Valley Marriott, San Diego, California. XML: Demos and Miscellaneous Uncategorized. A separate document contains references to XML-related sites or documents for which I have had insufficient time to make investigation, or which are evidently tangential. Dear! Readers are invited to send email re: appropriate disposition.

Some are [or will become] serious applications; others may be interesting demos; others may be clearly experiments and 'just for fun'. XML: Of (Possible) Historical Interest. A separate document contains references to early draft versions of written assignment b, XML-related proposals, and so forth. Is Doing A Thesis Hard! 'Early' means about 1996-1997. It's not a maintained collection of links, but you might find what you're looking for. . .

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English B teacher support material - Quia

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Effects of Collectivistic and Individualistic Cultures on Imagination Inflation in Eastern and Western Cultures. This study sought to determine whether the participant’s cultural background might influence the magnitude of the change in confidence levels for the dimension of collectivism/individualism that is emphasized by that cultural background. That is, the two significant main effects of the imagery condition on confidence levels from the second session and on the change of confidence ratings from the first to the second session demonstrate the imagination inflation effect. Overall, people had higher confidence that the written assignment ib english b events happened from the probed events, compared to the not probed events. This replicates previous findings that show an increase in confidence that a fictional event that was imagined actually happened (Garry, Manning, Loftus Sherman, 1996; Garry, Sharman, Wade, Hunt Smith, 2001). Postgraduate? Imagining the event makes it more accessible and more vivid in your mind. The fact that the event is situated in a period of time when you were 10 years old and thus the written b source of the memory is less accessible than the details of the event aids to poverty the appearance of ib english b this phenomenon. Imagination inflation can also be influenced by familiarity with the event (e.g., if the participant has ever seen anyone else doing the action or involved in the event he or she has to imagine) and the plausibility of the papers spread event (e.g., how likely is the participant to have seen an animal give birth if he or she has grown up in a metropolis) (Garry et al., 1996). The two marginally significant main effects of the event type on the confidence levels from the second session and on the change in ib english confidence ratings from the first to the second session illustrates that the type of of extracurricular essay event had somewhat of an effect but not in the direction predicted, as the interaction between the participants’ cultural background and ib english the focus of the event will show. Previous studies reflect similar results (Pezdek, Finger Hodge, 1997), such that Catholics tended to dear cover show recall for assignment the Catholic false event presented to is doing them at a previous session, whereas Jews tended to show memories for assignment ib english b the Jewish false event.

These results suggest that false memories can be created for in africa essay more plausible, culturally relevant events. Thus, collectivistic and individualistic events had different effects on written assignment, the participants, such that participants were more confident that the individualistic events happened in their childhood than the poverty in africa essay collectivistic events. This may be due to the fact that many of the individualistic events were more straightforward and probably more relevant than the more general collectivistic events. The main question that this study set to answer was if a person’s cultural background does have an effect on written ib english, imagination inflation. The Benefits Of Extracurricular Activities? The contradictory results on the main effect of the participants’ cultural background on assignment b, the confidence levels from the second session and the change in confidence ratings from the dear cover letter first to the second session, such that the former was not significant and the latter was significant, is probably due to the small sample of people from an Eastern cultural background. Nonetheless, it was expected that an written assignment ib english b, interaction will be seen, so that participants would show an increase in confidence ratings for the collectivistic events when the participants who rated them were from an Eastern background. Conversely, participants coming from a Western cultural background were expected to show an increase in confidence ratings for individualistic events. This interaction would indicate that the phenomenon of postgraduate thesis imagination inflation was influenced by the cultural background of the participants, and specifically by the collectivism/individualism dimension. This could be due to the fact that a culture-specific way of encoding autobiographical information is learned since childhood (Mullen Soonhyung, 1995; Wang et al., 2000). Thus, because the cultural dimension is so pervasive, it was to be expected that participants would show a tendency to be more confident that an b, event really happened after imagining it, provided that the event corresponds with the dear cover letter individual’s background.

Of course, multiple processes can be involved, aside from the processes already considered by the socio-cultural developmental theory (Nelson Fivush, 2004), but influenced by the latter, such as the vividness, plausibility of event and amount of detail, all which can be related back to assignment ib english the source monitoring framework. This shows that not only dear cover cultural processes are at work, but cognitive ones, as well. The interaction was, indeed, significant, but it showed the opposite trend from the one expected, such that when the focus of the event was individualistic, people coming from an Eastern cultural background were slightly more confident when considering their confidence levels form the second session and showed a greater change in confidence ratings form the first to the second session. However, when the ib english event was collectivistic, the people coming from an Eastern cultural background were less confident when considering their confidence levels from the classification second session and did not differ in the change of written assignment ib english b confidence ratings from the first to the second session. This is the opposite of what was hypothesized, namely that participants coming from classification, a Western background will show increased confidence levels for the individualistic events imagined than for the three collectivistic events. Written Assignment B? For the participants coming form an Eastern background, the opposite trend was expected. However, even these surprising results might actually find their answer in the culturally specific childhood memories encouraged in a specific society. Previous research had shown the classification essay influence that culture has on assignment ib english b, autobiographical memory. Parents, and especially mothers, are the ones that in the first years of life provide the structure and content of discussion with the marriage children (Han et al., 1998; Mullen Soonhyung, 1995; Nelson Fivush, 2004; Wang et al., 2000; Wang, 2004). Some mothers are more elaborate in their style, talk frequently, and give rich information with each question they put to their children, even when the latter do not answer, and consequently their children incorporate more information in their narratives about the past and overall recall more, whereas mothers with a less elaborate style pose more redundant questions and consequently their children talk less and ib english b incorporate little information in their narratives.

Eastern cultures use personal narratives to express moral and social standards, while Western cultures use them for the entertainment value, and focus more on the emotions of the protagonist(s) (Han et al., 1998; Mullen Soonhyung, 1995; Nelson Fivush, 2004; Wang et al., 2000; Wang, 2004). This trend continues into adulthood, and bank determines spread swap u.s working is observable among people with bicultural identity (Devos, 2006; Hong et al., 2001; Nelson Fivush, 2004; Wang, 2000, 2008). This suggests that people coming from an Eastern cultural background tend to have few, more general memories, whereas people coming form a Western cultural background tend to have more clear, cohesive, highly specific memories. For this reason, it may be that the people from an Eastern cultural background are especially susceptible to highly specific and assignment b clear childhood memories, of which they do not have any recollections, but that they can easily incorporate in their more general memories. However, the people coming from a Western cultural background, because of their much clearer and specific memories, are not as susceptible to show imagination inflation on individualistic type of events. These individuals can recollect much more accurately if the events presented to them actually occurred or not. On the other hand, if the thesis event presented was a collectivistic one, there seems to be no difference between people coming from these two different cultural backgrounds, and when there is a difference, the people who actually show more confidence are the ones coming from a Western cultural background, compared to those coming from an Eastern cultural background.

This phenomenon is written assignment, probably due to the fact that people coming form an Eastern cultural background are not so susceptible to these types of events, since their childhood memories are more general, and since their main focus falls on the individualistic events, of which they probably are attracted and tend to pay more attention to. Conversely, people coming from a Western cultural background might be more susceptible to show imagination inflation on marriage classification essay, such events, since their memories are highly specific and these general, collectivistic events might seem probable. Finally, it should be noted that the written ratings of overall vividness were moderately high, indicating that the participants were able to create real and vivid imagery. Another surprising result was rendered by the INDCOL scale. According to this scale, people from dear cover letter, a Western cultural background were more collectivistic, when compared to people from an Eastern cultural background. This might have occurred because of the small number of written assignment people from an essay, Eastern cultural background, but also because the scale was not really appropriate (e.g., the people from an Eastern cultural background who were not English native speakers might have had problems with the double negations). Notwithstanding the interesting results of this study, some caution should be taken when considering them, due to several factors. One possibility would be that the methodology was flawed, such that the items should have been more specific, or that additional personality variables should have been controlled for before administering the written LEIs. Another possibility is that the essay sample might have been insufficiently large or biased in the sense that individuals that are bicultural, for example, might adapt to both sets of target items, “switching” between their two cultural identities, as need be. Many of the written ib english people coming from an Eastern cultural background had actually been born in an Asian country but had lived for is doing a thesis hard many years in b the United States.

Also, this adaptation to both cultures is a documented phenomenon, since it is necessary for is doing bicultural individuals to react in written this way in society, according to which community they find themselves in (Devos, 2006; Hong et al., 2001). Previous research has shown that when Asian Americans were primed with their American self before recalling important autobiographical events, they were more likely to recall personal experiences in of extracurricular essay which they were the protagonists and emphasized their own perspective. Conversely, when Asian Americans were primed with their Asian self before recalling important autobiographical events, their recollections were more likely to written ib english b focus on social interactions, and persons from in-groups (Wang, 2008). Marriage Classification Essay? Accordingly, bicultural individuals might have adapted to the events they had to imagine, and ultimately showed an increase in confidence levels for both types of events. Thus, future research should employ a larger overall sample, but also a specifically larger sample of people coming from an Eastern cultural background.

Also, considering the assignment b adaptations that bicultural individuals can employ, it might also be important to use a more distinct sample, comparing, for cover letter example, American individuals with Chinese individuals (who did not live in a Western country). Moreover, as regards he methodology, it may be that using predetermined events for the imagination task might not be the best approach. Thus, considering each participant’s answers on the first LEI, events that received lower confidence ratings can be chosen, and each set of events will be unique to each individual. The INDCOL scale might be another issue, because of written ib english its double negations. Therefore, a more culturally and linguistically sensitive scale might be needed in order to correctly assess the individualism/collectivism dimension of is doing hard culture for each individual. Ambady, N. Written B? Bharucha, J. (2009). Culture and is doing the Brain.

Current Directions in Psychological Science, 18 , 342-345. Conway, M.A. Ib English B? Pleydell-Pearce C.W. (2000). The construction of dear cover letter autobiographical memories in the self-memory sytem. Psychological Review, 107 , 261-288. Desai, J. (2007). Intergenerational conflict within Asian American families: The role of assignment b acculturation, ethnic identity, individualism, and collectivism. In Africa? Dissertation Abstracts International , 67 , 7369.

Devos, T. (2006). Implicit bicultural identity among Mexican American and written assignment ib english Asian American college students. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 12 , 381-402. French, L., Sutherland, R. Garry, M. (2006). Discussion affects memory for true and false childhood events. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 20 , 671-680. Garry, M., Manning, C.G., Loftus, E.F. A Thesis Hard? Sherman, S.J. Written Assignment? (1996).

Imagination inflation: Imagining a childhood event inflates confidence that it occurred. Psychonomic Bulletin Review, 3 , 208-214. Garry, M., Sharman, S.J., Wade, K.A., Hunt, M.J. Thesis? Smith, P.J. (2001). Imagination inflation is a fact, not an artifact: A reply to written ib english Pezdek and Eddy. Memory and the benefits of extracurricular essay Cognition, 29 , 719-729. Goff, L.M. Roediger, H.L. (1998). Imagination inflation for action events: Repeated imagining leads to illusory recollections. Memory and written assignment b Cognition, 26 , 20-33. Han, J.J., Leichtman, M.D.

Wang, Q. Papers Spread Swap U.s Working? (1998). Autobiographical memory in Korean, Chinese, and American children. Developmental Psychology, 34 , 701-713. Henkel, L.A. McDonald, C. (in press). Does imagination have parallel influences on written assignment b, memories of the past and determines swap u.s working expectations of the future? Hong, Y., Ip, G, Chiu, C, Morris, M.W. B? Menon, T. (2001). Bank Spread Swap World? Cultural identity and dynamic construction of the assignment ib english b self: Collective duties and individual rights in Chinese and American cultures. Social Cognition, 19 , 251-268. Johnson, M. (1988).

Reality monitoring: An experimental Phenomenological approach. The Benefits Of Extracurricular? Journal of Experimental Psychology, 117 , 390-394. Johnson, M., Hashtroudi, S. Lindsay, D.S. (1993). Written Ib English? Source monitoring. Psychological Bulletin, 114 , 3-28. Mark, H.R. Kitayama, S. (1991).

Culture and poverty the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation. Psychological review, 98, 224-253. Mazzoni, G. Memon, A. (2003). Imagination can create false autobiographical memories. Psychological Science, 14 , 186-188. McLean, K., Fournier, M. (2008).

The content and written b processes of autobiographical reasoning in narrative identity. Essay? Journal of Research in Personality , 42 , 527-545. Mitchell, K.J. Written Assignment B? Johnson, M.K. Postgraduate? (2009). Source Monitoring 15 years later: What have we learned from fMRI about the neural mechanisms of source memory?. Psychological Bulletin, 135 , 638-677.

Mullen, Mary K., and Soonhyung Y. (1995). The cultural context of talk about the past: Implications for the development of autobiographical memory. Cognitive Development, 10 , 407-419. Nelson, K. Fivush, R. (2004). The emergence of autobiographical memory: A social cultural developmental theory. Psychological review, 111 , 486-511. Pezdek, K., Finger, K., Hodge, D. (1997). .Planting false memories: The role of ebent plausibility. Psychological Science, 8 , 437-441. Pezdek, K., Blandon-Gitlin, I., Gabbay, P. (2006). Imagination and ib english b memory: Does imagining implausible events lead to false autobiographical memories?.

Psychonomic Bulletin Review, 13 , 764-769. Sharman, S.J. Barnier A. J. (2008). Imagining nice and nasty events in childhood or adulthood: Recent positive events show the most imagination inflation. Acta Psychologica , 129, 228-233. Skillman, G. U.s Working World? (2000). Written? Intergenerational conflict within the family context: A comparative analysis of of extracurricular activities collectivism and individualism within Vietnamese, Filipino, and Caucasian families.

Dissertation Abstracts International, 60 , 4910. Sporer, S.L. Sharman, S.J. (2006). Should I believe this? Reality monitoring of accounts of self-experienced and invented recent and distant autobiographical events. Assignment Ib English? Applied Cognitive Psychology, 20 , 837- 854. Strange, D., Garry, M. Sutherland, R. (2003). Drawing out children’s false memories. Applied Cognitive Psychology , 17 , 607-619. Triandis, H. (1993). Collectivism and a thesis hard individualism as cultural syndromes.

Cross-Cultural Research: The Journal of Comparative Social Science , 27 , 155-180. Wang, Q., Leichtman, M.D. Davies, K.I. (2000). Sharing memories and telling stories: American and Chinese mothers and their 3-year-olds. Memory, 8 , 159-177. Wang, Q. Assignment Ib English B? (2001). Culture effects on adult’s earliest childhood recollection and a thesis hard self-description: Implications for the relation between memory and ib english b self. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81 , 220-233.

Wang, Q. (2004). Classification? The emergence of cultural self-constructs: Autobiographical memory and self- description in European American and Chinese children. Developmental Psychology, 40 , 3-15. Wang, Q. (2008). Being American, being Asian: The bicultural self and autobiographical memory in Asian Americans. Cognition , 107 , 743-751. Table 1. Targeted Individualistic Events. Overall Standard Deviation. Mean for Western cultural background people.

Standard deviation for Western cultural background people. Mean for Eastern cultural background people. Standard deviation for Eastern cultural background people. 1. I saw an animal give birth at a farm. 2. I rode in a limousine. 3. I petted an ostrich at the zoo. 4. I saw a total solar eclipse. 5. I broke a window with my hand. 6. I had a sip of written ib english alcohol. Table 2. Targeted Collectivistic Events. Overall Standard Deviation.

Mean for classification Western cultural background people. Standard deviation for Western cultural background people. Mean for Eastern cultural background people. Standard deviation for ib english Eastern cultural background people. 1. Hard? At a family holiday, while the grownups were cooking, a towel caught on fire in the kitchen. 2. Assignment? My sibling or my cousin got in trouble for calling 911. 3. My mother cried when a valuable object (to her) was broken or lost. 4. We had a wedding in our family, held on an island. 5. My best friend went on a hot air balloon ride with his or her family. 6. My friends and dear I built a tree house or a club house.

Table 3. Additional Events in LEI 1. I had my picture taken for a newspaper. My family, friends and I drove across country. I cried the first time I went to the dentist (FILLER) I found a $50 bill in b a parking lot. A team I played on marriage classification essay, won a big game (FILLER) My parents were involved in a car accident. My sibling or cousin had to written assignment ib english b go to the emergency room at the benefits essay, night. A horse threw me off its back.

My grandparents used to help me with my homework. I cheated on a test at school. I got lost from my parents in the mall. On a school break, my family and I stayed at a cabin in the mountains. I rescued a bird that had been injured. I won a stuffed animal at a carnival.

My best friend had to move away with his or her family. I snuck out of the house at night by jumping through the window. I found my parents' lost car keys. One of written assignment my grandparents got sick and bank determines papers spread swap u.s working world had to stay in the hospital more than a month. The principal personally congratulated me for my good grades. My classmates and I created a notebook with dry leaves and flowers. I had a nighmare and woke up screaming. I attended a relative's high school or college graduation. My mother got upset once when I refused to ib english b wash the dishes. I helped a friend train for postgraduate thesis toolkit a sport contest. Table 4. Additional Events in written assignment ib english b LEI 2.

I caught a starfish on a vacation by the seashore. My best friend fell into a pond and was rescued by my father. On one of my birthdays, I had a Disney party. I got stung by a bee. My best friend and I listened to our favorite's singer new CD in my room.

I won a gold medal or first prize in a competition. A friend from postgraduate thesis, my neighborhood got in trouble for throwing a ball in another neighbor's yard. I used to be afraid of spiders. I got sick and vomited at school. My parents threw a party in the summer at the beach. I lost a friend or relative tragically. I sang a solo in a concert. A relative fell through thin ice while ice-skating on a lake. My family and I went to a trip in written assignment b Europe.

I watched the stars through a telescope. My parents were scared when they saw me climbing on the roof. I skipped class to play soccer or baseball with my friends. I climbed to the top of a tree. I injured my finger with a stapler. My father missed his flight and the benefits of extracurricular essay could not be home on a family holiday. My mother planted a vegetable garden in our backyard one summer. I played the leading role in a play at school.

My best friend got chicken pox and missed a school trip. A team I played on written ib english b, won a big gam. Instructions: Please indicate what number most closely agrees with your opinion for each statement using the scale given below. 1. Bank Determines U.s Working? I would enjoy being elected to an influential political position. 2. I would not enjoy developing the regulations governing things like governmental or educational institutions. 3. I would not enjoy supervising other people. Ambady, N. Bharucha, J. (2009). Culture and assignment ib english b the Brain.

Current Directions in Psychological Science, 18 , 342-345. Conway, M.A. Is Doing? Pleydell-Pearce C.W. (2000). The construction of written assignment ib english b autobiographical memories in the self-memory sytem. Psychological Review, 107 , 261-288.

Desai, J. (2007). Intergenerational conflict within Asian American families: The role of cover letter acculturation, ethnic identity, individualism, and collectivism. Dissertation Abstracts International , 67 , 7369. Devos, T. (2006). Implicit bicultural identity among Mexican American and Asian American college students. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 12 , 381-402. French, L., Sutherland, R. Garry, M. (2006).

Discussion affects memory for written assignment b true and false childhood events. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 20 , 671-680. Garry, M., Manning, C.G., Loftus, E.F. Sherman, S.J. (1996). Imagination inflation: Imagining a childhood event inflates confidence that it occurred. Psychonomic Bulletin Review, 3 , 208-214.

Garry, M., Sharman, S.J., Wade, K.A., Hunt, M.J. Papers U.s Working? Smith, P.J. Written Assignment? (2001). Imagination inflation is a fact, not an artifact: A reply to Pezdek and Eddy. Memory and Cognition, 29 , 719-729. Goff, L.M. Roediger, H.L. (1998). Imagination inflation for action events: Repeated imagining leads to illusory recollections. Thesis Toolkit? Memory and Cognition, 26 , 20-33. Han, J.J., Leichtman, M.D. Wang, Q. (1998). Autobiographical memory in Korean, Chinese, and American children.

Developmental Psychology, 34 , 701-713. Henkel, L.A. McDonald, C. (in press). Does imagination have parallel influences on memories of the past and expectations of the future? Hong, Y., Ip, G, Chiu, C, Morris, M.W. Menon, T. (2001). Assignment B? Cultural identity and dynamic construction of the self: Collective duties and individual rights in Chinese and American cultures. Social Cognition, 19 , 251-268. Johnson, M. (1988). Reality monitoring: An experimental Phenomenological approach.

Journal of Experimental Psychology, 117 , 390-394. Johnson, M., Hashtroudi, S. Lindsay, D.S. Postgraduate Thesis? (1993). Source monitoring. Psychological Bulletin, 114 , 3-28. Mark, H.R. Kitayama, S. (1991).

Culture and written b the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation. Psychological review, 98, 224-253. Mazzoni, G. Memon, A. (2003). Imagination can create false autobiographical memories. Psychological Science, 14 , 186-188. McLean, K., Fournier, M. (2008). Toolkit? The content and processes of autobiographical reasoning in narrative identity. Journal of Research in Personality , 42 , 527-545. Mitchell, K.J.

Johnson, M.K. Written? (2009). Source Monitoring 15 years later: What have we learned from fMRI about the neural mechanisms of source memory?. Psychological Bulletin, 135 , 638-677. Mullen, Mary K., and Soonhyung Y. The Benefits Essay? (1995). The cultural context of talk about the written b past: Implications for the development of autobiographical memory. Cognitive Development, 10 , 407-419. Nelson, K. Fivush, R. (2004). The emergence of autobiographical memory: A social cultural developmental theory. Psychological review, 111 , 486-511.

Pezdek, K., Finger, K., Hodge, D. Toolkit? (1997). Written Ib English? .Planting false memories: The role of ebent plausibility. Psychological Science, 8 , 437-441. Pezdek, K., Blandon-Gitlin, I., Gabbay, P. Activities Essay? (2006). Imagination and memory: Does imagining implausible events lead to written assignment b false autobiographical memories?. Psychonomic Bulletin Review, 13 , 764-769.

Sharman, S.J. Essay? Barnier A. Ib English? J. (2008). Imagining nice and nasty events in childhood or adulthood: Recent positive events show the most imagination inflation. Acta Psychologica , 129, 228-233. Skillman, G. Of Extracurricular Activities? (2000). Intergenerational conflict within the family context: A comparative analysis of collectivism and individualism within Vietnamese, Filipino, and Caucasian families. Dissertation Abstracts International, 60 , 4910. Sporer, S.L.

Sharman, S.J. (2006). Should I believe this? Reality monitoring of accounts of self-experienced and invented recent and written assignment ib english b distant autobiographical events. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 20 , 837- 854. Strange, D., Garry, M. Dear Letter? Sutherland, R. (2003). Drawing out children’s false memories. Applied Cognitive Psychology , 17 , 607-619. Triandis, H. (1993). Assignment Ib English? Collectivism and hard individualism as cultural syndromes. Cross-Cultural Research: The Journal of Comparative Social Science , 27 , 155-180.

Wang, Q., Leichtman, M.D. Davies, K.I. (2000). Sharing memories and telling stories: American and Chinese mothers and their 3-year-olds. Memory, 8 , 159-177. Wang, Q. B? (2001). The Benefits Of Extracurricular Activities Essay? Culture effects on adult’s earliest childhood recollection and self-description: Implications for the relation between memory and self. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81 , 220-233.

Wang, Q. (2004). The emergence of cultural self-constructs: Autobiographical memory and self- description in written assignment ib english European American and Chinese children. Developmental Psychology, 40 , 3-15. Wang, Q. Postgraduate Toolkit? (2008). Being American, being Asian: The bicultural self and b autobiographical memory in Asian Americans. Cognition , 107 , 743-751. Table 1. Targeted Individualistic Events. Overall Standard Deviation. Mean for Western cultural background people.

Standard deviation for Western cultural background people. Mean for Eastern cultural background people. Standard deviation for Eastern cultural background people. 1. I saw an animal give birth at dear cover, a farm. 2. I rode in assignment ib english a limousine.

3. I petted an ostrich at the zoo. 4. Of Extracurricular Essay? I saw a total solar eclipse. 5. I broke a window with my hand. 6. I had a sip of alcohol. Table 2. Targeted Collectivistic Events. Overall Standard Deviation. Mean for Western cultural background people. Standard deviation for Western cultural background people. Mean for Eastern cultural background people. Standard deviation for Eastern cultural background people.

1. At a family holiday, while the ib english grownups were cooking, a towel caught on fire in the kitchen. 2. My sibling or my cousin got in trouble for calling 911. 3. A Thesis Hard? My mother cried when a valuable object (to her) was broken or lost. 4. We had a wedding in our family, held on an island. 5. My best friend went on a hot air balloon ride with his or her family. 6. My friends and I built a tree house or a club house. Table 3. Written Assignment B? Additional Events in LEI 1. I had my picture taken for hard a newspaper. My family, friends and I drove across country. I cried the first time I went to the dentist (FILLER)

I found a $50 bill in a parking lot. A team I played on won a big game (FILLER) My parents were involved in assignment ib english a car accident. My sibling or cousin had to go to essay the emergency room at night. A horse threw me off its back. My grandparents used to written assignment help me with my homework. I cheated on a test at school. I got lost from my parents in the mall. On a school break, my family and I stayed at a cabin in the mountains. I rescued a bird that had been injured. I won a stuffed animal at a carnival.

My best friend had to move away with his or her family. I snuck out of the house at postgraduate, night by jumping through the window. I found my parents' lost car keys. One of my grandparents got sick and written b had to is doing a thesis hard stay in the hospital more than a month. The principal personally congratulated me for my good grades.

My classmates and I created a notebook with dry leaves and flowers. I had a nighmare and assignment b woke up screaming. I attended a relative's high school or college graduation. My mother got upset once when I refused to wash the dishes. I helped a friend train for a sport contest. Table 4. Additional Events in LEI 2. I caught a starfish on thesis, a vacation by the seashore. My best friend fell into a pond and was rescued by my father.

On one of written assignment ib english b my birthdays, I had a Disney party. I got stung by a bee. My best friend and I listened to our favorite's singer new CD in my room. I won a gold medal or first prize in a competition. A friend from my neighborhood got in activities trouble for throwing a ball in another neighbor's yard. I used to be afraid of spiders.

I got sick and vomited at school. My parents threw a party in the summer at the beach. I lost a friend or relative tragically. I sang a solo in a concert. A relative fell through thin ice while ice-skating on a lake. My family and I went to a trip in ib english b Europe. I watched the stars through a telescope. My parents were scared when they saw me climbing on the roof. I skipped class to play soccer or baseball with my friends.

I climbed to the top of a tree. I injured my finger with a stapler. My father missed his flight and could not be home on a family holiday. My mother planted a vegetable garden in our backyard one summer. I played the leading role in a play at school. My best friend got chicken pox and missed a school trip.

A team I played on is doing a thesis, won a big gam. Instructions: Please indicate what number most closely agrees with your opinion for each statement using the scale given below. 1. I would enjoy being elected to written assignment an influential political position. 2. I would not enjoy developing the regulations governing things like governmental or educational institutions. 3. I would not enjoy supervising other people.

Basu-Zharku, I. O. (2011). Effects of Collectivistic and Individualistic Cultures on Imagination Inflation in Eastern and Western Cultures. Inquiries Journal/Student Pulse , 3 (02). Poverty In Africa? Retrieved from http://www.inquiriesjournal.com/a?id=385. Basu-Zharku, Iulia O. Effects of Collectivistic and Individualistic Cultures on Imagination Inflation in Eastern and Western Cultures. Inquiries Journal/Student Pulse 3.02 (2011). http://www.inquiriesjournal.com/a?id=385 Basu-Zharku, Iulia O. 2011.

Effects of Collectivistic and Individualistic Cultures on written assignment, Imagination Inflation in Eastern and Western Cultures. Inquiries Journal/Student Pulse 3 (02), http://www.inquiriesjournal.com/a?id=385. BASU-ZHARKU, I. The Benefits Activities? O. Assignment Ib English B? 2011. Effects of Collectivistic and Individualistic Cultures on postgraduate thesis toolkit, Imagination Inflation in Eastern and Western Cultures. Written? Inquiries Journal/Student Pulse [Online], 3. Classification? Available: http://www.inquiriesjournal.com/a?id=385. Memories and Fear: Treatment Techniques to Dissociate Traumatic Memories. Memory Replacement, Confabulation, and Repression: Remembering Creatively.

Bilingual Episodic Memory and assignment Eye-Witness Testimony. 2017 Student Pulse . All rights reserved. ISSN: 2153-5760. Disclaimer: content on bank determines world, this website is for written assignment ib english b informational purposes only. Classification Essay? It is not intended to provide medical or other professional advice.

Moreover, the views expressed here do not necessarily represent the views of written assignment Student Pulse, its owners, staff, contributors, or affiliates.

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Looking at Dorothea Lange’s Migrant Mother. Something appears to have been mixed up here, since the photograph above is not the well-known Migrant Mother photograph by Dorothea Lange. However, it is, unmistakably, the mother from that photograph. What I’m going to do in written b the following is to try to investigate how portraiture works (at least in dear letter part) by using a set of Lange’s photographs, namely the Migrant Mother ones that can be found in b the Library of Congress. (For this article, I’m using the scans from the LOC scans, hence the frames and the writing around the is doing a thesis hard image) There are all kinds of reasons for me to pick these images, the most important ones being that everybody knows the most well-known picture, while only few people have ever seen the other ones. In fact most people don’t even seem to written b be aware of them. I’m going to ignore all background information about these photographs other than what is papers swap u.s working, available in the LOC, since I want to discuss what can be seen in written ib english b the photos. The photograph that everybody is so familiar with is dear letter, this one: What do we actually see here? First of all, there obviously is a woman (in the assignment center of the frame) whose gaze does not meet the camera’s lens (and thus the viewer’s eyes). Her face appears worried, there is a bit of a frown in her face, and with her right hand she is holding or possibly slightly pinching the side of her face.

Apart from the woman, there are three (yes, three) children visible. Two have their heads rest on the woman’s shoulders, their faces averted from the camera. The third child is a baby whose (sleeping) face is visible at toolkit, the right edge of the frame, behind that wooden pillar. For those who like to written ib english obsess over a thesis hard Photoshop manipulation “scandals”: The woman is actually holding on assignment, to that pillar with her left hand, and the lower right corner of the frame one can faintly see the retouched thumb (to see more images, including a restored one, see this page). For our discussion, this is an irrelevant detail, which I’ll simply ignore here. I’m also not going to touch upon the fact that the dear letter image is an iconic photograph. There are repercussions of that, but that’s for another day. Back to the photograph, while the mother’s pose seems fairly natural, the two larger children’s has always struck me as a bit artificial. Children not familiar with a stranger might show their shyness, but these poses seem maybe a little bit too posed.

And posed they are. Lange used a 4?5 view camera for assignment these photographs, a camera that usually requires careful preparation of each photograph. Given I’m using the uncropped scans this is obvious from the frames of each image. But even if one didn’t know that, subconsciously most people I have talked to postgraduate toolkit about this photograph tend to pick up on the posing aspect. Since most portraits are posed there is very little one could infer from the device itself, so beyond noting that I’ve always found the written ib english children’s poses a tad contrived I’m not going to bank spread add anything else here. But obviously given we are not dealing with a candid photograph, the assignment ib english subjects were fully aware of the presence of the photographer. In fact, the photographer made them pose – this claim might not convince some people, yet, but once we’ve seen all the other photographs it will be obvious. Given what we see in the photograph, it seems safe to assume that the children are in fact the woman’s, even though we can’t know for sure. Photographs often contain surprisingly little actual information, yet common sense allows us to come to in africa essay fairly simple and usually correct conclusions.

We know that this photograph is known as Migrant Mother , so assuming that these are in fact not the assignment woman’s children would appear to be quite the postgraduate toolkit stretch. Here is the full caption of the b photograph: “Destitute pea pickers in is doing hard California. Written Assignment Ib English B? Mother of seven children. Is Doing? Age thirty-two. Nipomo, California” (note that the main page gives “Destitute peapickers in written assignment ib english California; a 32 year old mother of seven children. February 1936.” ). Knowing the full caption adds a bit of information that is not actually contained in the photograph. Note that the caption does not give the woman’s name (Florence Owens Thompson). For a start, she looks as if she were significantly older than thirty-two. Second, she has seven children, of which only three are part of this photograph.

Where are the cover letter other ones? We don’t know. B? But we might start coming up with theories or ideas. It’s important to remember, though, that those theories are just that: Theories. When looking at marriage classification essay, photographs, all we have is what is written assignment b, contained inside their frames, plus, possibly, whatever additional information the captions might provide. If we think we know something about a photograph that is not visible in the frame and that is marriage classification, not mentioned in written assignment the caption, then it’s not unlikely we have come to a conclusion that is not supported by marriage essay, the photographic facts. Written Ib English B? When looking at photographs the very first thing is to become aware of what we see – and what we think we see.

Just a brief aside: When I use the term “the photographic facts” I am talking about the information actually contained in a photograph. Back then to the picture from the very top: It’s the same woman, plus two of her children. One of them, the one on the left in the famous frame, is the benefits, gone. The baby is still there, and it is more clearly visible now. The other child – we can identify the hair and the rather ragged, coarse clothing – now rests her head on assignment, her mother’s shoulder. As before, both mother and child look away from the camera (the baby is sleeping). This photograph is framed differently. The Benefits? It’s a horizontal framing, not nearly as close as the assignment ib english previous one. Postgraduate Thesis Toolkit? Comparing the assignment ib english way these two images were framed is instructive since it tells us something about both photographs. The original photograph is framed very tightly around the mother who provides a visual anchor (note I’m calling it “the original” since I used it to the benefits of extracurricular activities essay start this discussion; here and in the following I’ll refer to the images in b order in poverty in africa essay which I discuss them in written assignment ib english this article).

She supports her children, literally (we are led to believe) and pictorially (they rest their heads on her shoulders). In contrast, while she still is at the center of the second frame, everything seems looser. Two thirds of the frame are occupied by very little – on the left a lamp in the foreground plus a tarp in the background, and on the right a post that holds up the tarp plus an out-of-focus background. The original framing came at the price of the post being an unwanted part of the picture. This might be the reason why Lange retouched the image, to a thesis remove the thumb: The photograph was going to written assignment ib english be grounded on of extracurricular, the mother, and the mother holding on to something would divert from that photographic device. In the wider, horizontal photograph, the environment plays a much larger role now: It is mostly barren, empty, impoverished (mind you, I’m only talking about the environment that is actually visible in the photograph).

Also note how the woman’s left hand is assignment ib english b, visible in the second frame. She is wearing what might be a wedding band or engagement ring. This is the hand that is thesis toolkit, not visible in the famous frame. I have no way of knowing whether Lange intended to hint at this or not, but the ring adds a little piece of information about the woman, which, in turn, might trigger additional conclusions. If there is in fact a man in her life – these children must have a father – where is he?

The famous frame, with the left hand invisible (remember, the thumb even got retouched out written b, of the frame), omit this fact and makes the photograph center on motherhood alone: The mother as the poverty in africa essay anchor, providing the strength the children rely on (again literally and in terms of how they’re posed). The second frame, on written, contrast, could be read as a wife who is supporting her children but who also is waiting for her husband or partner to come back, to bring back food or money or whatever else. As before, one needs to marriage essay be careful about the photographic facts and whatever one might want to infer from that. The ring on the woman’s hand is ib english b, a photographic fact. Everything else is an assumption. Here’s the caption of the wider shot: “Migrant agricultural worker’s family. Seven hungry children.

Mother aged thirty-two. Father is a native Californian. Destitute in pea picker’s camp, Nipomo, California, because of the failure of the early pea crop. These people had just sold their tent in order to buy food. Of the twenty-five hundred people in this camp most of them were destitute”. That is a lot more information than before. As before, this information gets our minds going, yet we need to be very careful with what conclusions are going to is doing a thesis be ours, and which ones are actually supported by the photograph. Let’s keep looking.

Here’s another frame: This third frame is close to assignment the second one in terms of the poses. Very little has changed – the older child is now holding on to the post, and the heads have moved a little, possibly to accommodate the different camera position. This frame was shot vertically, and it reduces the a thesis little family to b an even smaller part of the image, still in the very center, though. There is spread swap world, what looks like a suitcase or trunk in the foreground, somewhat out of focus, upon which a plate rests. There is the lamp again, as are the tarp, the post, the empty backgrounds.

Part of the ground is now contained in the frame, in the lower right corner it is in focus: It looks like sand, some sort of soil. The third frame differs quite a bit from the first, famous one. While I’m happy to argue that the written ib english poses look much more natural, the intense focus on the mother is almost completely gone. Of Extracurricular Activities? While she still occupies the center of the frame, the somewhat active pose of the older child has both of them battle for assignment ib english b the viewer’s attention. And the classification essay group looks almost lost in assignment these desperately poor circumstances – a tent of the benefits of extracurricular activities, sorts held up by a post made from a young tree, a single plate, a suitcase (or trunk) as a table.

We might as well step back even further: Now this is b, a very different picture than the “original” Migrant Mother , isn’t it? For a start, the mother is is doing, not even in focus/the focal point of the picture. Instead, it’s a child sitting in a rocking chair, in front of written assignment ib english b, a makeshift tent. Inside the in africa essay tent, we can see the mother (holding the baby), plus two other children, both of them younger than the one in the chair, both probably the children from the other frames.

Interestingly, this is the only frame where the subjects are actually engaging with or at least looking at the camera. Most of the posing efforts seem to have been spent on the child in the rocking chair, while the group in the background (in the tent) essentially just make sure they occupy the correct spot in the frame. Note how this image is constructed photographically. Written Assignment? The opening of the shelter provides a photographic frame. Thesis Toolkit? The subjects are all placed inside that frame, the written group in the background very obviously so (they are in fact inside the shelter), whereas the rocking chair (plus an open suitcase) have been placed in front of the opening of the shelter. They might have been there when the spread u.s working world photographer arrived, we can’t know for sure.

But visually, there are two worlds: The one of the written assignment ib english b family, in the center, photographed inside that frame, and the larger world outside, a fairly uninviting, empty place. Compare the famous Migrant Mother photograph with this fourth image: You essentially have the same people in the photographs (with the exception of the child in the rocker), but they are very, very different. And all of that from in africa working with the distance between the camera and the subjects (and some careful arranging of the written frames at each distance). I have no way of knowing which frame actually came first; I want to assume Lange started further away and then moved in, but it could have been the other way around. From the photographs, it’s essentially impossible to tell (and it frankly doesn’t matter anyway). There is activities essay, another photograph: Photographed at a distance roughly between the second and third frame, it shows the mother in the very center of the frame, breastfeeding her baby. Of all of these photographs, I’ve always felt this one to be the most stunning one. Photographically, it feels a bit posed (just like most of the other ones), but that particular moment is so strong and so touching. The mother’s expression, which looks like weary resignation, creates a strong contrast to what she is doing: Feeding her baby.

None of the other children are contained in the frame, this one is focused just on a mother nursing her baby. The photograph that became the iconic Migrant Mother is the one where the camera is closest to ib english b Florence Owens Thompson. Given how well-know it is, given how often we have seen it, this might be a tough question to ask, but we might as well do it anyway: Which one of these photographs is the strongest? Personal preference (plus agenda and biases) might have us pick one over the others, but is it going to be the is doing a thesis hard famous one? Is it even going to be possible to disentangle all we know and assignment ib english b feel from the benefits essay these photographs? If we ignore the fact that one of these frames has become iconic, the assignment variety of the in africa photographs – the way they are composed, their distance to the subjects, etc. – gives us an opportunity to see how portraiture operates, how adding or withholding information can contribute to the way a portrait is perceived, how adding or withholding information makes us see and then feel different things. Of course, there is nothing fundamentally revealing about any of this – it’s photography, after all, and this is written assignment ib english b, what photography does. But often enough, we forget this, or we pretend photography doesn’t really work that way. When talking about is doing hard photographs, it’s essential to start out from the facts, from what is written ib english b, contained in the frame, from how things are set up, and to then move to whatever one might infer from that. I often find that people approach photography the other way around, by bringing their own conclusions to the images, to then try to see how the photograph supports them. Bank Papers Spread Swap U.s Working? I don’t think that’s a good approach.

With so many photographs around us now, in b all likelihood what is going to happen is in africa, that instead of us navigating photographs, we are instead being led. Instead of being active, we end up being passive. That can’t be good. Ib English? How can one make choices if one doesn’t have the tools at one’s disposal that are needed to make these choices? Portraiture makes the viewer’s task particularly tricky, because it often seduces us to see things that aren’t actually there. A photograph of another person never is that other person. Dear Cover Letter? It always “only” is a photograph, made with specific devices and (usually) intent. To understand how portraiture works, one needs to look at the use of the devices, to ib english b possibly infer a little about the intent, and to learn a lot about what we bring to the table when looking at poverty essay, a photograph of another person. Update (22 May 2013): A reader emailed me to say the photographs were taken with a press camera, not a view camera. What is more, the reader disagreed with my assessment that the images were posed.

While part of that discussion comes down to assignment ib english b semantics, the main idea of this article is not based on whether or not these images were posed. I’m concerned with what we can infer from the dear cover letter pictures, to ib english b be precise from trying to letter rely only on the photographic facts. Obviously, my assumptions and conclusions might differ from yours. This article is the first in a series, engaging with portraits to see how they work and what they say. All photographs by Dorothea Lange.

Find more information and high-resolution scans here.