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Role of education in pakistan essay

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C.S. Lewis, Happiness, and Sexual Morality. In words that are cherished by all civilized men, but especially by Americans, it has been laid down that one of the rights of man is a right to #8216;the pursuit of happiness.#8217; That quote comes from one of C.S. Of Education In Pakistan! Lewis’ final writings, a fine essay called We Have No Right to Happiness, which was published shortly after his death. Lewis is right – I’ve never stood in essay front of a group of role of education essay people young, old, religious, or secular who don’t aspire in some way to be happy. Essays! But can that pursuit be dangerous for our souls? In the role of education above mentioned essay, C.S. Lewis would seem to say it can#8230; Lewis points out that often we hold a double standard for morality, recognizing in most areas of babak resume our life that we ought to pursue happiness by legitimate means. For C.S. Lewis, a legitimate means to happiness means adhering to the tenets of natural law , the God-given sense of right and role of education in pakistan, wrong placed within each of us. According to thinking and practice the Catechism, natural law is engraved on the soul of every human being (CCC 1954).

It#8217;s this sense of natural law that tells us that lying, cheating, and stealing are immoral; and that honesty, fidelity, and sacrifice are virtues to be admired. In We Have No Right to role in pakistan Happiness , Lewis argues that although we all (rightly) seek happiness none of us has an unlimited right to happiness based on dock building the idea that we can do whatever we want. Lewis is not suggesting we#8217;re supposed to be miserable Christians but you need to follow Lewis#8217; logic. He saw in our society a tendency to use the pursuit of happiness not only as a goal but as a justification for the means by which we achieve the goal of happiness. (I want to be happy, therefore it doesn#8217;t matter what I do or whom I hurt so long as it makes me happy). Of Education In Pakistan! Any sane society will agree with Lewis at least to a point if I want to kill you because it makes me happy, this is problematic.

To murder another person is immoral, and to do so simply because it makes me happy would have society label me some sort of sociopath. But where we seem to be clear on things like murder, our modern society doesn#8217;t see sex in the same way: #8230; sex was to how to a introduction paper be treated as no other impulse in our nature has ever been treated by civilized people. All the others, we admit, have to be bridled. Absolute obedience to your instinct for self-preservation is what we call cowardice; to your acquisitive impulse, avarice. Even sleep must be resisted if you#8217;re a sentry. Of Education! But every unkindness and breach of faith seems to be condoned provided that the object aimed at how to write a introduction paper is #8216;four bare legs in a bed.#8217; It is like having a morality in which stealing fruit is considered wrong—unless you steal nectarines.#8221; Our society claims in as loud a voice as it can scream that to try and bridle our sexuality is unnatural and immoral.

How DARE anyone (especially the Church) impose on of education essay another limits to their ability to express themselves sexually to their happiness. Building Resume! You#8217;re beginning to see it in the defenses of those who commit heinous sexual crimes against others and against children#8230; a defense built upon their #8220;freedom of expression.#8221; It#8217;s the same defense that used for role in pakistan essay, those who hire prostitutes, who view pornography, who are unfaithful to critical thinking theory and practice their spouses, and who take advantage of role in pakistan essay others who are under the influence of drugs or alcohol. Fahimi! But this mentality is not limited to those who struggle with morality. It#8217;s used by many young couples who although they#8217;ve been taught, and in many cases believe differently choose not to role of education wait until their wedding night to consummate their marriage. #8220;We love each other, and we have the right to be happy.#8221; It#8217;s used by those who contracept, even though they understand that this changes the meaning of their sexual love. Seeking happiness in this way leads us away from scientific God#8230; and so, of course, C.S.

Lewis would write that we have no right to role in pakistan this. The key to Lewis#8217; understanding of the pursuit of happiness is that we all have the right to do so by lawful means . Dock! And we have in the natural law, the of education essay Commandments, and the teachings of essays Christ a pretty good framework of what #8220;lawful means#8221; are supposed to be. The crux of the matter is role essay, quite simple: we try to justify things in the name of being happy because a small part of in india essay us knows that something is wrong. This is role essay, often the culture in india voice of God speaking in role of education essay our hearts a voice we can acknowledge, allowing Him to transform us to discover something better than happiness: joy or a voice we can smother and ignore, with great risks: #8230;though the #8220;right to happiness#8221; is chiefly claimed for the sexual impulse, it seems to me impossible that the matter should stay there. The fatal principle, once allowed in that department, must sooner or later seep through our whole lives.

We thus advance toward a state of society in which not only building resume each man but every impulse in each man claims carte blanche. And then, though our technological skill may help us survive a little longer, our civilization will have died at of education essay heart, and will—one dare not even add #8220;unfortunately#8221;—be swept away.#8221; (C.S. Lewis) A husband father of five children, Mike serves most days as Chaplain to Evergreen Catholic Schools. [Click to read more] All content is intended to reflect the teachings of the Catholic Church.

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rorty essay The Revival of Pragmatism. New Essays an Social Thought, Law, and of education essay, Culture. Edited by MORRIS DICKSTEIN. Duke University Press. Pragmatism as Romantic Polytheism. In 1911 a book appeared in Paris with the title Un Romantisme Utilitaire: Etude sur le Mouvement Pragmatiste. Babak Fahimi Resume? This was the first of three volumes on the subject by Rene Berthelot.

Berthelot had been struck by the resemblances between the views of William James, John Dewey, Nietzsche, Bergson, Poincare, and in pakistan essay, certain Catholic Modernists. He was the first to treat them as belonging to the same intellectual movement. A convinced Cartesian, Berthelot disliked and essays, distrusted all these thinkers, but he wrote about them with acuity and verve. He traced the romantic roots of pragmatism back behind Emerson to Schelling and role, Hoelderlin, and medical essay service, the utilitarian roots to the influence of Darwin and of education in pakistan, Spencer. But he thought that the difference between these two modes of thought was too great to dock building resume, permit synthesis. In all its different forms, Berthelot said, pragmatism reveals itself to be a romantic utilitarianism: that is of education in pakistan, its most obviously original feature and also its most private vice and its hidden weakness.

Berthelot was probably the first to medical service, call Nietzsche a German pragmatist, and the first to of education essay, emphasize the resemblance between Nietzsche's perspectivism and the pragmatist theory of truth. This resemblance--frequently noted since, notably in essay, a seminal chapter of Arthur Danto's book on Nietzsche--is most evident in the The Gay Science. There Nietzsche says We do not even have any organ at all for of education in pakistan essay, knowing, for `truth'; we `know' . just as much as may be useful in the interest of the human herd. This Darwinian view lies behind James' claim that thinking is for the sake of behavior and his identification of truth as the good in the way of belief. That identification amounts to write in a scientific paper, accepting Nietzsche's claim that human beings should be viewed, for epistemological purposes, as what Nietzsche called clever animals. Beliefs are to be judged solely by their utility in fulfilling these animals' varied needs. James and Nietzsche did for the word true what John Stuart Mill had done for role of education, the word right. Just as Mill says that there is no ethical motive apart from the desire for the happiness of human beings, so James and Nietzsche say that there is no will to truth distinct from the will to happiness. All three philosophers think that the terms true and right gain their meaning from their use in evaluating the relative success of building efforts to achieve happiness. Nietzsche, to be sure, had no use for Mill, but this was a result of arrogant ignorance, which resulted in role in pakistan essay, a failure to grasp the difference between Mill and Bentham.

James, on the other hand, dedicated his first philosophical treatise to Mill's memory, and tried to cultivate not only the debunking, Benthamite strain in Mill's thought but also the romantic, Coleridgean strain. The latter led Mill to choose an epigraph from Wilhelm von Humboldt for On Liberty: The grand, leading principle, towards which every argument unfolded in these pages directly converges, is the absolute and essential importance of human development in its richest diversity. As a romantic utilitarian, Mill wanted to avoid Benthamite reductionism, and to defend a secular culture against the familiar charge of blindness to higher things. This led him, as M. H. Abrams has pointed out, to share Arnold's view that literature could take the place of babak fahimi dogma. Abrams quotes Alexander Bain as saying of of education Mill that he seemed to look upon Poetry as a Religion, or rather as Religion and Philosophy in One. Abrams also quotes a letter of thinking and practice Mill's which says that the new utilitarianism--his own as opposed to of education in pakistan, Bentham's--holds Poetry not only on a par with, but the necessary condition of, any true and comprehensive Philosophy. Abrams argues that Mill and Arnold, despite their differences, drew the same moral from the English Romantics: that poetry could and should take on essay editing service, the tremendous responsibility of the functions once performed by the exploded dogmas of religion and religious philosophy.#148; The exploded dogmas included the claim that, whereas there can be many great poems, there can be only of education in pakistan one true religion, because only news one true God. Poetry cannot be a substitute for a monotheistic religion, but it can serve the purposes of a secular version of role of education polytheism. The substitution of poetry for religion as a source of ideals, a movement that began with the Romantics, seems to me usefully described as a return to fahimi resume, polytheism.

For if, with the utilitarians, you reject the role in pakistan essay, idea that a nonhuman authority can rank human needs, and thus dictate moral choices to human beings, you will favor what Arnold called Hellenism over what he called Hebraism. Culture Essay? You will reject the idea, characteristic of the evangelical Christians whom Arnold thought of as Hebraist, that it suffices to love God and keep his commandments. You will substitute what Arnold called the idea of a human nature perfect on all its sides. Different poets will perfect different sides of human nature, by projecting different ideals. A romantic utilitarian will probably drop the idea of diverse immortal persons, such as the role of education, Olympian deities, but she will retain the idea that there are diverse, conflicting, but equally valuable forms of human life. A polytheism of this sort is recommended in a famous passage near the news, end of The Varieties of role of education essay Religious Experience at which James says.

If an Emerson were forced to be a Wesley, or a Moody forced to be a Whitman, the thinking theory, total human consciousness of the divine would suffer. Role In Pakistan Essay? The divine can mean no single quality, it must mean a group of qualities, by being champions of which in alternation, different men may all find worthy missions. Each attitude being a syllable in dock resume, human nature's total message, it takes the whole of in pakistan essay us to spell the meaning out completely. James' loose use of the term the divine makes it pretty much equivalent to babak, the ideal. In this passage he is role in pakistan essay, doing for building, theology what Mill had done for politics when he cited von Humboldt's claim that human development in its richest diversity is the aim of social institutions. There is a passage in Nietzsche in of education essay, praise of polytheism that complements the one I have just quoted from James. In section 143 of The Gay Science he argues that morality--in the wide sense of the need for acceptance of fahimi binding laws and customs--entails hostility against the impulse to have an ideal of one's own.

But, he says, the pre-Socratic Greeks provided an outlet for role of education in pakistan, individuality by permitting human beings to behold, in some distant overworld, a plurality of norms: one god was not considered a denial of another god, nor blasphemy against him. In this way, Nietzsche says, the luxury of individuals was first permitted; it was here that one first honored the rights of individuals. For in pre-Socratic polytheism the free-spiriting and write in a paper, many-spiriting of man attained its first preliminary form--the strength to create for ourselves our own new eyes. Here is a definition of polytheism that covers both Nietzsche and James. You are a polytheist if you think that there is role of education in pakistan essay, no actual or possible object of knowledge that would permit you to commensurate and rank all human needs. Isaiah Berlin's well-known doctrine of incommensurable human values is, in my sense, a polytheistic manifesto. To be a polytheist in this sense you do not have to how to write paper, believe that there are nonhuman persons with power to intervene in human affairs. All you need do is to abandon the idea that we should try to find a way of making everything hang together, which will tell all human beings what to do with their lives, and tell all of them the same thing. Polytheism, in role in pakistan, the sense I have defined it, is pretty much coextensive with romantic utilitarianism. In India Essay? For once one sees no way of ranking human needs other than playing them off against one another, human happiness becomes all that matters.

Mill's On Liberty provides all the role of education essay, ethical instruction you need--all the philosophical advice you are ever going to get about your responsibilities to other human beings. For human perfection becomes a private concern, and our responsibility to others becomes a matter of permitting them as much space to pursue these private concerns--to worship their own gods, so to how to write in a paper, speak--as is compatible with granting an equal amount of space to all. Role Of Education? The tradition of religious toleration is extended to moral toleration. This privatization of perfection permits James and Nietzsche to agree with Mill and Arnold that poetry should take over critical, the role that religion has played in role of education in pakistan, the formation of individual human lives. They also agree that nobody should take over the function of the clergy.

For poets are to a secularized polytheism what the priests of a universal church are to monotheism. Once you become polytheistic, you will turn away not only from priests but from such priest-substitutes as metaphysicians and thinking, physicists--from anyone who purports to tell you how things really are, anyone who invokes the role of education in pakistan essay, distinction between the true world and the apparent world that Nietzsche ridiculed in Twilight of the Idols. Both monotheism and the kind of metaphysics or science that purports to critical, tell you what the world is really like are replaced with democratic politics. A free consensus about how much space for private perfection we can allow each other takes the place of the quest for objective values, the quest for a ranking of human needs that does not depend upon such consensus. So far I have been playing along with Berthelot's emphasis on the similarities between Nietzsche and the American pragmatists. Now I want to turn to the two most obvious differences between them: their attitude toward democracy and their attitude toward religion. Nietzsche thought democracy was Christianity for the people--Christianity deprived of the role of education in pakistan essay, nobility of spirit of which Christ himself, and perhaps a few of the more strenuous saints, had been capable. Dewey thought of democracy as Christianity cleansed of the babak fahimi, hieratic, exclusionist elements. Nietzsche thought those who believed in a traditional monotheistic God were foolish weaklings. Dewey thought of them as so spellbound by role in pakistan, the work of one poet as to be unable to appreciate the work of other poets. Medical Editing? Dewey thought that the of education in pakistan, sort of aggressive atheism on which Nietzsche prided himself is unnecessarily intolerant.

It has, he said, something in common with traditional supernaturalism. I want first to argue that Nietzsche's contempt for democracy was an adventitious extra, inessential to his overall philosophical outlook. Then I shall get down to my main task in this paper--defending Dewey's tolerance for religious belief against those who think that pragmatism and religion do not mix. Nietzsche was a utilitarian only in the sense that he saw no goals for in india essay, human beings to pursue other than human happiness. He had no interest in the greatest happiness of the role essay, greatest number, but only in that of a few exceptional human beings--those with the capacity to be greatly happy. Democracy seemed to him a way of trivializing human existence. By contrast, James and Dewey took for granted, as Mill had, the resume, ideal of universal human fraternity. Role? Echoing Mill, James wrote, Take any demand, however slight, which any creature, however weak, may make. Ought it not, for its own sole sake, to be desired?

Romantic utilitarianism, pragmatism, and polytheism are compatible with both wholehearted enthusiasm and whole-hearted contempt for democracy. The frequent complaint that a philosopher who holds the pragmatic theory of truth cannot give you a reason not to be a fascist is perfectly justified. But neither can that person give you a reason to be a fascist. For once you become a polytheist in babak resume, the sense I just defined, you have to give up on the idea that philosophy can help you choose among the various deities and the various forms of life offered. The choice between enthusiasm and contempt for democracy becomes more like a choice between Walt Whitman and Robinson Jeffers than between competing sets of philosophical arguments. Those who find the pragmatist identification of truth with what is of education essay, good to believe morally offensive often say that Nietzsche, rather than James and Dewey, drew the proper inference from the how to a introduction scientific, abandonment of the idea of an object of knowledge that tells one how to rank human needs. Those who think of role of education essay pragmatism as a species of irrationalism, and write scientific paper, of irrationalism as selling the pass to fascism, say that James and Dewey were blind to the antidemocratic consequences of their own ideas, and naive to think that one can be both a good pragmatist and a good democrat. Such critics make the same mistake that Nietzsche made. They think that the idea of fraternity is inextricable from Platonism. Platonism, in role essay, this sense, is the idea that the building, will to truth is distinct from the will to happiness--or, to be a bit more precise, the claim that human beings are divided between a quest for a lower, animal form of happiness and a higher, God-like form of happiness.

Nietzsche mistakenly thought that once (with Darwin's help) you had given up this idea, and had gotten used to role of education in pakistan essay, the idea that you are just a clever animal, you could have no reason to wish for medical editing service, the happiness of all human beings. He was so impressed by the fact that Christianity would have seemed ludicrous to the Homeric heroes that he was unable, except at occasional fleeting moments, to think of role of education in pakistan essay Christianity as the work of essays news strong poets. So Nietzsche assumed that once poetry had replaced religion as the source of ideals, there would be no place for either Christianity or democracy. Nietzsche would have done better to ask himself whether the Christian emphasis on human fraternity--the idea that for Christians there is neither Jew nor Greek, and in pakistan essay, the related idea that love is the only law--might have been only accidentally, for contingent historical reasons, associated with Platonism. This ideal might have gotten along nicely without the logocentrism of the Gospel of John, and without Augustine's unfortunate suggestion that Plato had prefigured Christian truth. Write Paper? In a different, but possible, world, some early Christian might have anticipated James' remark about Emerson and Wesley by writing If Caesar were forced to be Christ, the total human consciousness of the divine would suffer. A Christianity that was merely ethical--the sort Jefferson and role of education essay, other Enlightenment thinkers commended and was later propounded by theologians of the social gospel--might have sloughed-off exclusionism by culture essay, viewing Jesus as one incarnation of the divine among others.

The celebration of an ethics of love would then have taken its place within the of education, relatively tolerant polytheism of the Roman Empire, having disjoined the ideal of human brotherhood from the claim to represent the will of an omnipotent and monopolistic Heavenly Father (not to mention the idea that there is no salvation outside the Christian Church). Had they preached such a merely moral and social gospel, the Christians would never have bothered to develop a natural theology. News? So thirteenth-century Christians would not have worried about whether the Scriptures could be reconciled with Aristotle. Seventeenth-century believers would not have worried about whether they could be reconciled with Newton, nor those in the nineteenth century about whether they could be reconciled with Darwin. These hypothetical Christians would have treated Scripture as useful for purposes for which Aristotle, Newton, and role essay, Darwin were useless, and building, as useless for purposes of prediction and control of the environment. As things stood, however, the Christian churches remained obsessed by the Platonic idea that both Truth and God are One. So it was natural, when physical science began to of education essay, make some progress, that its practitioners should take over this rhetoric, and thereby stir up a war between science and theology, between Scientific Truth and Religious Faith. I have imagined such a non-Platonic and nonexclusivist form of Christianity in order to emphasize that no chain of inference links the ideal of human fraternity to the ideal of dock resume escaping from a world of appearance inhabited by animals to a real world in which humans will become as gods. Nietzsche and contemporary critics who see Nietzsche and Dewey as holding similarly dangerous irrationalist doctrines have been tricked by Plato into role of education in pakistan essay believing that, unless there is such a real world, Thrasymachus, Callicles, and critical thinking and practice, Hitler are unanswerable. But they are unanswerable only in of education essay, the sense that, pace Habermas, there are no premises to babak, which they must assent simply by virtue of of education essay being rational, language-using animals. A fortiori, there are no such premises that would lead them to on the news, agree that they should treat all other human beings as brothers and role in pakistan essay, sisters.

Christianity as a strong poem, one poem among many, can be as socially useful as Christianity backed up by the Platonist claim that God and culture in india, Truth are interchangeable terms. Although I do not think that there is an inferential path that leads from the antirepresentationalist view of truth and knowledge common to Nietzsche, James, and Dewey either to democracy or antidemocracy, I do think there is role of education in pakistan essay, a plausible inference from democratic convictions to such a view. Your devotion to democracy is unlikely to be wholehearted if you believe, as monotheists typically do, that we can have knowledge of an a introduction in a scientific, objective ranking of role essay human needs that can overrule the result of democratic consensus. But if your devotion is wholehearted, then you will welcome the dock building, utilitarian and pragmatist claim that we have no will to truth distinct from the will to happiness. So much for the disagreement between Nietzsche and his American colleagues about the value of democracy. I turn now to of education essay, the other big difference between Nietzsche on the one hand and James and Dewey on write a introduction paper, the other. Nietzsche thinks religious belief is intellectually disreputable; James and Dewey do not. In order to defend James and Dewey's tolerance for theism against role Nietzsche, I shall sketch a pragmatist philosophy of religion in five brief theses. Then I shall try to in india, relate these theses to what James and Dewey actually said about of education essay, belief in God.

First, it is an advantage of the antirepresentationalist view of belief that James took over from Bain and culture, Peirce--the view that beliefs are habits of action--that it frees us from the responsibility to unify all our beliefs into a single worldview. If our beliefs are all parts of a single attempt to represent a single world, then they must all hang together fairly tightly. But if they are habits of action, then, because the purposes served by action may blamelessly vary, so may the habits we develop to serve those purposes. Second, Nietzsche's attempt to see science through the optic of art, and art through that of life, like Arnold's and in pakistan essay, Mill's substitution of poetry for religion, is an news, attempt to of education, make more room for individuality than can be provided either by orthodox monotheism, or by the Enlightenment's attempt to put science in the place of religion as a source of how to a introduction in a paper Truth. So the attempt, by Tillich and others, to treat religious faith as symbolic, and of education essay, thereby to treat religion as poetic and poetry as religious, and neither as competing with science, is on the right track.

But to make it convincing we need to drop the idea that some parts of culture fulfill our need to know the truth and others fulfill lesser aims. The pragmatists' romantic utilitarianism does drop this idea: if there is no will to truth apart from the will to happiness, there is no way to culture, contrast the cognitive with the noncognitive, the serious with the nonserious. Third, pragmatism does permit us to make another distinction, one that takes over role essay, some of the dock building resume, work previously done by the old distinction between the cognitive and the noncognitive. The new distinction is role in pakistan essay, between projects of social cooperation and fahimi resume, projects of individual self- development. Intersubjective agreement is required for the former projects, but not for the latter. Natural science is a paradigmatic project of social cooperation: the role, project of improving man's estate by taking account of every possible observation and experimental result in order to facilitate the making of predictions that will come true.

Law is fahimi, another such paradigm. Romantic art, by contrast, is a paradigmatic project of individual self-development. Role Of Education In Pakistan? Religion, if it can be disconnected from essays on the news both science and morals--from the attempt to predict the consequences of our actions and the attempt to rank human needs--may be another such paradigm. Fourth, the idea that we should love Truth is largely responsible for the idea that religious belief is intellectually irresponsible. But there is no such thing as the love of Truth. What has been called by that name is a mixture of the love of reaching intersubjective agreement, the love of gaining mastery over a recalcitrant set of data, the role of education, love of theory winning arguments, and the love of role in pakistan essay synthesizing little theories into big theories. Dock Building Resume? It is role of education in pakistan essay, never an objection to a religious belief that there is no evidence for it. Building? The only in pakistan possible objection to it can be that it intrudes an critical and practice, individual project into a social and cooperative project, and thereby offends against the teachings of On Liberty. Such intrusion is role, a betrayal of one's responsibilities to cooperate with other human beings, not of one's responsibility to medical essay service, Truth or to Reason. Fifth, the attempt to love Truth, and to think of it as One, and as capable of commensurating and ranking human needs, is a secular version of the traditional religious hope that allegiance to something big, powerful, and nonhuman will persuade that powerful being to take your side in your struggle with other people.

Nietzsche despised any such hope as a sign of of education essay weakness. Pragmatists who are also democrats have a different objection to such hope for paper, allegiance with power. They see it as a betrayal of the role of education in pakistan essay, ideal of human fraternity that democracy inherits from the Judeo-Christian religious tradition. On The? That ideal finds its best expression in the doctrine, common to Mill and James, that every human need should be satisfied unless doing so causes too many other human needs to go unsatisfied. The pragmatist objection to religious fundamentalists is not that fundamentalists are intellectually irresponsible in role of education in pakistan, disregarding the results of natural science. Rather it is that they are morally irresponsible in attempting to circumvent the process of achieving democratic consensus about how to maximize happiness.

They sin not by ignoring Mill's inductive methods, but by ignoring his reflections on liberty. I turn now to the question of how the view of religious belief epitomized in my five theses accords with the fahimi resume, views of role in pakistan James and Dewey. Critical And Practice? It would not, I think, have been congenial to James. But I think it might have suited Dewey. So I shall argue that it is Dewey's rather unambitious and role of education in pakistan, halfhearted A Common Faith, rather than James' brave and culture essay, exuberant Conclusion to role in pakistan essay, Varieties of Religious Experience, that coheres best with the romantic utilitarianism which both accepted. James says, in that chapter of Varieties, that the pivot round which the religious life revolves . is the culture in india essay, interest of the individual in his private personal destiny. By repudiating the personal point of view, however, science gives us a picture of nature that has no distinguishable ultimate tendency with which it is possible to role in pakistan essay, feel a sympathy. The driftings of the cosmic atoms are a kind of aimless weather, doing and undoing, achieving no proper history, and leaving no result. On the view I have just outlined, he should have followed this up by saying But we are free to describe the universe in many different ways.

Describing it as the drifting of cosmic atoms is useful for the social project of working together to control our environment and improve man's estate. But that description leaves us entirely free to say, for example, that the Heavens proclaim the glory of God. Sometimes James seems to take this line, as when, with obvious approval, he quotes James Henry Leuba as saying. God is not known, he is not understood, he is used --sometimes as meat-purveyor, sometimes as moral support, sometimes as friend, sometime as an object of love. If he proves himself useful, the religious consciousness can ask no more than that. Editing? Does God really exist?

How does he exist? What is role of education in pakistan essay, he? are so many irrelevant questions. Not God, but life, more life, a larger, richer, more satisfying life, is, in the last analysis, the end of religion. Unfortunately, however, almost immediately after quoting Leuba James says we must next pass beyond the point of essay editing service view of merely subjective utility and in pakistan, make inquiry into essay the intellectual content itself. He then goes on of education, to argue that the material he has gathered together in Varieties provides empirical evidence for the hypothesis that the conscious person is continuous with a wider self through which saving experiences come. He calls this a positive content of religious experience which, it seems to me, is news, literally and objectively true as far as it goes.

On the role essay, view I have been suggesting, this claim to literal and objective truth is unpragmatic, hollow, and superfluous. James should have rested content with the essays, argument of The Will to Believe. As I read that essay, it says that we have a right to believe what we like when we are, so to speak, on our own time. But we abandon this right when we are engaged in, for example, a scientific or a political project. For when so engaged it is necessary to reconcile our beliefs, our habits of action, with those of others. On our own time, by role essay, contrast, our habits of action are nobody's business but our own. A romantic polytheist will rejoice in what Nietzsche called the free-spiritedness and many-spiritedness of individuals, and see the only constraint on this freedom and this diversity as the thinking theory, need not to role of education in pakistan, injure others. James wobbled on the question of critical theory and practice whether what he called the religious hypothesis was something to be adopted on passional or on role of education, intellectual grounds.

This hypothesis says that the best things are the more eternal things, the overlapping things, the things in the universe that throw the last stone, so to speak, and say the final word. In The Will to Believe this is put forward as a hypothesis to which considerations of evidence are irrelevant, and must therefore be turned over to our emotions. But in in india essay, the Conclusion to Varieties of Religious Experience, the hypothesis that God's existence is the role essay, guarantee of an ideal order that shall be permanently preserved is one for which he has accumulated evidence. There he also says that the least common denominator of religious beliefs is that The solution [to the problem presented by a `sense that there is something wrong about us as we naturally stand'] is that we are saved from the wrongness by making proper connection with the higher powers. Resume? Again, he says that the role, conscious person is continuous with a wider self from which saving experiences come. James should not have made a distinction between issues to be decided by intellect and issues to be decided by emotion. If he had not, he might have wobbled less. What he should have done instead was to distinguish issues that you must resolve cooperatively with others and issues that you are entitled to resolve on your own.

The first set of issues are about conciliating your habits of action with those of babak fahimi other human beings. The second set are about getting your own habits of action to role of education in pakistan essay, cohere with each other sufficiently so that you acquire a stable, coherent, self-image. Babak? But such a self-image does not require monotheism, or the belief that Truth is One. It is compatible with the idea that you have many different needs, and that the beliefs that help you fill one set of needs are irrelevant to, and of education in pakistan, need not be made to cohere with, those that help you to fill another set. Dewey avoided James' mistakes in this area.

One reason he did so is that he was much less prone to a sense of guilt than was James. After he realized that his mother had made him unnecessarily miserable by burdening him with a belief in original sin, Dewey simply stopped thinking that, in James' words, there is something wrong about us as we naturally stand. He no longer believed that we could be saved from the wrongness by making proper connection with the how to a introduction in a scientific paper, higher powers. He thought that all that was wrong with us was that the Christian ideal of fraternity had not yet been achieved--society had not yet become pervasively democratic. That was not a problem to be solved by making proper connection with higher powers, but a problem of men to be solved by men.

Dewey's steadfast refusal to have any truck with the essay, notion of original sin, and his suspicion of anything that smacked of such a notion is bound up with his lifelong distaste for the idea of authority--the idea that anything could have authority over the members of a democratic community save the free, collective, decisions of that community. Babak? This antiauthoritarian motif is perhaps clearest in his Christianity and Democracy--an early essay to which Alan Ryan has recently called our attention, saying that it is a dazzling and dazzlingly brave piece of work. Indeed it is. It must have seemed strange to the University of Michigan's Christian Students Association to role in pakistan, be told, in 1892, that God is essay editing service, essentially and only the self-revealing and that the revelation is complete only role essay as men come to thinking, realize him. Dewey spelled out what he meant by going on role in pakistan essay, to say, Had Jesus Christ made an absolute, detailed and explicit statement upon all the facts of life, that statement would not have had meaning--it would not have been revelation--until men began to realize in thinking theory, their own action the role essay, truth that he declared--until they themselves began to live it. This amounts to saying that even if a nonhuman authority tells you something, the only way to figure out whether what you have been told is true is to see whether it gets you the sort of life you want. The only way is to apply the utilitarian test for whether the suggestion made proves to be good in the way of belief. Granted that hearing what such a being has to say may change your wants, you nevertheless test those new wants and that purported truth in the same way: by living them, trying them out in everyday life, seeing whether they make you and yours happier. Suppose that a source you believe to be nonhuman tells you that all men are brothers, that the attempt to make yourself and how to scientific paper, those you cherish happier should be expanded into role of education in pakistan an attempt to make all human beings happy.

For Dewey, the source of this suggestion is irrelevant. You might have heard it from essays a god or a guru, but you might just as well have found it carved out by the waves on a sandy beach. It has no validity unless it is treated as an hypothesis, tried out, and found successful. The good thing about Christianity, Dewey is role in pakistan, saying, is that it has been found to write a introduction in a scientific paper, work. More specifically, what has been found to work is the idea of fraternity and equality as a basis for social organization.

This worked not just as a Thrasymachian device for avoiding pain--what Rawls calls a mere modus vivendi--but as a source of the kind of spiritual transfiguration that Platonism and the Christian churches have told us would have to wait upon a future intersection of time with eternity. It makes possible precisely the sort of nobility of spirit that Nietzsche mistakenly thought could be had only by the exceptional few--those who were capable of being greatly happy. Democracy, Dewey says, is neither a form of role of education in pakistan essay government nor a social expediency, but a metaphysic of the relation of man and his experience in how to write in a scientific, nature. The point of calling it a metaphysic is not, of course, that it is an role in pakistan essay, accurate account of the fundamental relation of reality, but that if one shares Whitman's sense of glorious democratic vistas stretching on indefinitely into the future one has everything which Platonists hoped to essay editing, get out of such an of education in pakistan essay, account. Culture Essay? For Whitman offers what Tillich called a symbol of ultimate concern, of something that can be loved with all one's heart and soul and mind. Plato's mistake, in Dewey's view, was having identified the role in pakistan, ultimate object of eros with something unique, atemporal, and nonhuman rather than with an dock building, indefinitely expansible pantheon of transitory temporal accomplishments, both natural and cultural. This mistake lent aid and comfort to monotheism. Dewey might well have agreed with Nietzsche that Monotheism, this rigid consequence of the doctrine of one normal human type--the faith in one normal god beside whom there are only pseudo-gods--was perhaps the greatest danger that has yet confronted humanity. When Christianity is treated as a merely social gospel, it acquires the role of education in pakistan essay, advantage which Nietzsche attributes to polytheism: it makes the most important human achievement creating for babak fahimi resume, ourselves our own new eyes, and thereby honors the rights of individuals.

As Dewey put it, Government, business, art, religion, all social institutions have . a purpose[:] . to of education in pakistan essay, set free the resume, capacities of role of education in pakistan essay human individuals. IT]he test of their value is the essay editing, extent to which they educate every individual into the full stature of his possibility. In a democratic society, everybody gets to worship his or her personal symbol of ultimate concern, unless worship of that symbol interferes with the pursuit of happiness by essay, his or her fellow-citizens. Accepting that utilitarian constraint, the one Mill formulated in On Liberty, is the only obligation imposed by democratic citizenship, the how to write a introduction in a scientific paper, only exception to democracy's commitment to essay, honor the rights of individuals. This means that nobody is under any constraint to seek Truth, nor to care, any more than Sherlock Holmes did, whether the earth revolves around the sun or conversely. Scientific theories become, as do theological and philosophical ones, optional tools for the facilitation of essay individual or social projects.

Scientists thereby lose the position they inherited from the role of education in pakistan essay, monotheistic priesthood, as the people who pay proper tribute to the authority of something not ourselves. Not ourselves is a term that tolls like a bell throughout the text of Arnold's Literature and Dogma, and this may be one of the reasons Dewey had a particular dislike for Arnold. Once he got out from thinking theory and practice under his mother's Calvinism, Dewey distrusted nothing more than the suggestion that there was a nonhuman authority to which human beings owed respect. He praised democracy as the only form of moral and social faith that does not rest upon the idea that experience must be subjected at some point or other to some form of external control: to some `authority' alleged to role, exist outside the process of experience. This passage in an essay of 1939 echoes one written forty-seven years earlier. In Christianity and critical and practice, Democracy Dewey had said that The one claim that Christianity makes is that God is role of education in pakistan, truth; that as truth He is love and reveals Himself fully to man, keeping back nothing of Himself; that man is so one with the truth thus revealed that it is not so much revealed to him as in him; he is its incarnation. Medical Editing? For Dewey God is in no way Kierkegaard's Wholly Other. Nor is he One. Rather, he is all the of education essay, varied sublimities human beings come to see through the eyes that they themselves create.

If atheism were identical with antimonotheism, then Dewey would have been as aggressive an atheist as has ever lived. The idea that God might have kept something back, that there might be something not ourselves that it was our duty to discover, was as distasteful to him as was the idea that God could tell us which of our needs took priority over others. He reserved his awe for how to write scientific paper, the universe as a whole, the community of causes and consequences in role of education, which we, together with those not born, are enmeshed. Critical Thinking? The continuing life of this comprehensive community of beings, he said, includes all the significant achievement of men in science and art and all the role of education in pakistan, kindly offices of babak intercourse and role of education in pakistan essay, communication. Notice, in the passages I have just quoted, the phrase together with those not born and also the adjective continuing. Medical Essay Editing? Dewey's distaste for the eternity and stability on role essay, which monotheism prides itself is so great that he can never refer to the universe as a whole without reminding us that the universe is still evolving--still experimenting, still fashioning new eyes with which to see itself. Wordsworth's version of babak fahimi resume pantheism meant a great deal to Dewey, but Whitman's insistence on futurity meant more.

Wordsworth's pantheism saves us from role of education what Arnold called Hebraism by making it impossible to treat, as Dewey put it, the thinking theory and practice, drama of sin and redemption enacted within the in pakistan essay, isolated and lonely soul of man as the one thing of how to a introduction in a scientific ultimate importance. But Whitman does something more. He tells us that nonhuman nature culminates in a community of free men, in their collaboration in building a society in which, as Dewey said, poetry and religious feeling will be the unforced flowers of life. Dewey's principal symbol of what he called the union of the ideal and the actual was the United States of America treated as Whitman treated it: as a symbol of openness to the possibility of as yet undreamt of, ever more diverse, forms of human happiness. Much of of education essay what Dewey wrote consists of endless reiteration of Whitman's caution that America . On The News? counts, as I reckon, for her justification and success, (for who, as yet, dare claim success?) almost entirely on the future.

For our New World I consider far less important for what it has done, or what it is, than for results to come. (C) 1998 Duke University Press All rights reserved. ISBN: 0-8223-2228-5.

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Deconstruction and Graphic Design: History Meets Theory. A theory-heavy, mid-1990s look at the concept of Deconstruction, looking at of education essay its origins in French post-structuralist discourse and in india essay, then current use in the design world. Since the surfacing of the term ‘deconstruction’ in design journalism in the mid-1980s, the word has served to label architecture, graphic design, products, and role of education essay, fashion featuring chopped up, layered, and fragmented forms imbued with ambiguous futuristic overtones. This essay looks at the reception and use of deconstruction in the recent history of graphic design, where it has become the tag for yet another period style. We then consider the place of how to write in a paper, graphics within the theory of deconstruction, initiated in the work of philosopher Jacques Derrida. In Pakistan Essay. We argue that deconstruction is not a style or ‘attitude’ but rather a mode of questioning through and critical and practice, about the technologies, formal devices, social institutions, and founding metaphors of representation. Role Of Education. Deconstruction belongs to both history and theory. Write A Introduction Scientific. It is embedded in recent visual and academic culture, but it describes a strategy of critical form-making which is performed across a range of artefacts and practices, both historical and contemporary.

Jacques Derrida introduced the concept of ‘deconstruction’ in his book Of Grammatology , published in essay France in 1967 and translated into English in 1976. ‘Deconstruction’ became a banner for the advance guard in American literary studies in the 1970s and 80s, scandalising departments of English, French, and comparative literature. Deconstruction rejected the project of modern criticism: to uncover the meaning of a literary work by studying the way its form and content communicate essential humanistic messages. Deconstruction, like critical strategies based on Marxism, feminism, semiotics, and anthropology, focuses not on the themes and imagery of its objects but rather on the linguistic and institutional systems that frame the how to write a introduction in a scientific production of texts. In Derrida’s theory, deconstruction asks how representation inhabits reality. How does the external image of things get inside their internal essence? How does the in pakistan surface get under the skin?

Western culture since Plato, Derrida argues, has been governed by such oppositions as reality/representation, inside/outside, original/copy, and service, mind/body. The intellectual achievements of the West its science, art, philosophy, literature have valued one side of these pairs over in pakistan, the other, allying one side with truth and building, the other with falsehood. For example, the Judeo-Christian tradition has conceived the body as an external shell for the inner soul, elevating the mind as the sacred source of thought and spirit, while denigrating the body as mere mechanics. In the realm of aesthetics, the original work of art traditionally has carried an aura of authenticity that its copy lacks, and the telling of a story or the role of education taking of a photograph is viewed as a passive record of events. ‘Deconstruction’ takes apart such oppositions by showing how the devalued, empty concept lives inside the essays on the news valued, positive one.

The outside inhabits the inside. Consider, for example, the opposition between nature and culture. The idea of ‘nature’ depends on the idea of ‘culture’, and yet culture is part of nature. It’s a fantasy to conceive of the non-human environment as a pristine, innocent setting fenced off and protected from the products of human endeavour—cities, roads, farms, landfills. The fact that we have produced a concept of ‘nature’ in opposition to ‘culture’ is a symptom of role essay, our alienation from the resume ecological systems that civilisation depletes and transforms. A crucial opposition for deconstruction is role in pakistan essay, speech/writing. The Western philosophical tradition has denigrated writing as an inferior copy of the spoken word. Speech draws on interior consciousness, but writing is and practice, dead and abstract. The written word loses its connection to the inner self. Language is set adrift, untethered from the speaking subject.

In the process of embodying language, writing steals its soul. Deconstruction views writing as an active rather than passive form of representation. In Pakistan Essay. Writing is not merely a bad copy, a faulty transcription, of the spoken word; writing, in culture in india essay fact, invades thought and in pakistan, speech, transforming the sacred realms of memory, knowledge, and write in a, spirit. Any memory system, in fact, is a form of writing, since it records thought for the purpose of in pakistan, future transmissions. The speech/writing opposition can be mapped onto a series of ideologically loaded pairs that are constitutive of modern Western culture: interior to thinking theory and practice the mind/exterior to the mind. requires no equipment/requires equipment. present subject/absent subject. Derrida’s critique of the speech/writing opposition locates the concerns of deconstruction in the field of graphic design. We will return to the speech/writing problem in more detail later, but first, we will look at the life of role of education in pakistan, deconstruction in recent design culture. The Design History of Deconstruction. Deconstruction belongs to the broader critical field known as ‘post-structuralism’, whose key figures include Roland Barthes, Michel Foucault, Jean Baudrillard, and others.

Each of these writers has looked at modes of representation- from literature and photography to the design of schools and prisons -as powerful technologies which build and remake the social world. Deconstruction’s attack on the neutrality of signs is also at work in the consumer mythologies of Barthes, the essay service institutional archaeologies of Foucault, and in pakistan essay, the simulationist aesthetics of essays news, Baudrillard. The idea that cultural forms help to fabricate such seemingly ‘natural’ categories as race, sexuality, poetic genius, and aesthetic value had profound relevance to essay visual artists in the 1980s. Post-structuralism provided a critical avenue into ‘post-modernism’, posing a left-leaning alternative to the period’s nostalgic returns to figurative painting and neo-classical architecture. While Barbara Kruger, Cindy Sherman, and Victor Burgin attacked media myths through their visual work, books such as Hal Foster’s The Anti-Aesthetic and Terry Eagleton’s Literary Theory delivered post-structuralist theory to students in an accessible form.

Graphic designers in many U. Culture In India. S. art programs were exposed to critical theory through the role essay fields of how to write in a scientific paper, photography, performance and installation art during the of education in pakistan early 1980s. The most widely publicised intersection of post-structuralism and graphic design occurred at the Cranbrook Academy of Art, under the leadership of co-chair Katherine McCoy. Designers at Cranbrook had first confronted literary criticism when they designed a special issue of Visible Language on contemporary French literary aesthetics, published in the summer of culture in india essay, 1978. Of Education Essay. Daniel Libeskind, head of Cranbrook’s architecture program, provided the graphic designers with a seminar in literary theory, which prepared them to develop their strategy: to systematically disintegrate the the series of medical, essays by expanding the spaces between lines and words and of education in pakistan essay, pushing the footnotes into the space normally reserved for the main text. French Currents of the Letter, which outraged designers committed to the established ideologies of problem-solving and direct communication, remains a controversial landmark in experimental graphic design. According to Katherine McCoy, post-structuralist texts entered more general discussions at Cranbrook around 1983. She has credited Jeffery Keedy, a student at the school from 1983-85, with introducing fellow course members to books by Barthes and others. The classes of 1985/87 and 1986/88 also took an active interest in critical theory; students at this time included Andrew Blauvelt, Brad Collins, Edward Fella, David Frej, and Allen Hori.

Close interaction with the photography department, under the leadership of Carl Toth, further promoted dialogue about post-structuralism and visual practice. Post-structuralism did not serve as a unified methodology at medical essay service the school, however, even in the period of its strongest currency, but was part of an eclectic gathering of role of education, ideas. Critical Thinking Theory. According to Keedy, students at Cranbrook when he was there were looking at of education essay everything from a introduction in a scientific paper, alchemical mysticism to the ‘proportion voodoo’ of the golden section. McCoy recalled in a 1991 interview: ‘Theory had become part of the intellectual culture in art and photography. We were never trying to apply specific texts—it was more of a general filtration process. The term ‘deconstructivist’ drives me crazy. Post-structuralism is an attitude, not a style’. But what is the essay difference between ‘style’ and ‘attitude’? If ‘style’ is a grammar of form-making associated with a particular historical and cultural situation, then perhaps ‘attitude’ is the unarticulated, just out-of-focus background for the specificities of style.

The response to post-structuralism at Cranbrook was largely optimistic, side-stepping the essays profound pessimism and political critique that permeates these writers’ major works. McCoy used the architectural theory of Robert Venturi and Denise Scott Brown as a ‘stepping stone’ to post-structuralism, enabling her to merge the Pop aestheticisation of the American commercial vernacular with post-structuralism’s critique of ‘fixed meaning’. McCoy’s preference for celebration over role, criticism is echoed in Keedy’s comment, ‘It was the babak resume poetic aspect of Barthes which attracted me, not the Marxist analysis. Of Education. After all, we’re designers working in a consumer society, and while Marxism is interesting as an idea, I wouldn’t want to put it into practice’. Post-structuralism’s emphasis on the openness of meaning has been incorporated by many designers into a romantic theory of self-expression: as the argument goes, because signification is babak, not fixed in material forms, designers and readers share in role of education in pakistan essay the spontaneous creation of meaning. This approach represents a rather cheerful response to the post-structuralist theme of the ‘death of the author’ and the assertion that the interior self is constructed by babak fahimi, external technologies of representation. According to the writings of Barthes and Foucault, for example, the citizen/artist/producer is role in pakistan essay, not the imperious master of systems of language, media, education, custom, and so forth; instead, the individual operates within the limited grid of possibilities these codes make available. Rather than view meaning as a matter of private interpretation, post-structuralist theory tends to see the realm of the dock building ‘personal’ as structured by external signs. In Pakistan Essay. Invention and revolution come from tactical aggressions against this grid of possibilities. ‘Deconstructivism’ catapulted into the mainstream design press with MoMA’s 1988 exhibition Deconstructivist Architecture, curated by fahimi, Philip Johnson and Mark Wigley. The curators used the term ‘deconstructivism’ to link certain contemporary architectural practices to role of education in pakistan essay Russian Constructivism, whose early years were marked by an imperfect vision of form and technology.

The MoMA exhibition located a similarly skewed interpretation of modernism in the work of a introduction in a scientific paper, Frank Gehry, Daniel Libeskind, Peter Eisenman, and others. Wigley wrote in his catalogue essay: ‘A deconstructive architect is…not one who dismantles buildings, but one who locates the inherent dilemmas within buildings. Of Education. The deconstructive architect puts the pure forms of the architectural tradition on the couch and identifies the symptoms of a repressed impurity. The impurity is essay, drawn to the surface by a combination of gentle coaxing and violent torture: the role of education in pakistan essay form is interrogated’. In Wigley’s view, deconstruction in architecture asks questions about critical and practice modernism by re-examining its own language, materials, and processes. By framing their exhibition around a new ‘ism’, Wigley and Johnson helped to canonise the elements of a period style, marked by twisted geometries, centerless plans, and of education, shards of glass and metal. This cluster of stylistic features quickly emigrated from architecture to graphic design, just as the icons and colours of neo-classical post-modernism had travelled there shortly before. While a more critical approach to deconstruction had been routed to graphic designers through the fields of photography and the fine arts, architecture provided a ready-to-use formal vocabulary that could be broadly adopted. ‘Deconstruction’, ‘deconstructivism’, and just plain ‘decon’ became design-world cliches, where they named existing tendencies and culture in india, catalysed new ones in the fields of furniture and fashion as well as graphic design. In 1990 Philip Meggs published a how-to guide for would-be deconstructivists in the magazine Step-by-Step Graphics. His essay, which includes a journalistic account of how the term ‘deconstruction’ entered the field of graphic design, focuses on role of education essay, style and works back to theory.

Following the logic of the MoMA project, his story begins with Constructivism and ends with its ‘deconstruction’ in contemporary design; unlike Wigley, however, Meggs’s story depicts early modernism as a purely rational enterprise. Chuck Byrne and essays on the, Martha Witte’s more analytical piece for Print (1990) describes deconstruction as a ‘zeitgeist’, a philosophical germ circulating in in pakistan contemporary culture that influences graphic designers even though they might not know it. Their view corresponds roughly to McCoy’s sense of how to a introduction in a, post-structuralism as a general ‘attitude’ or ‘filtration process’ responding to the ‘intellectual culture’ of the time. Byrne and Witte’s article identifies examples of deconstruction across the ideological map of role of education, contemporary design, ranging from the work of write a introduction in a paper, Paula Scher and Stephen Doyle to role in pakistan essay Lucille Tenazas and Lorraine Wild. Today, in the mid-90s, the term ‘deconstruction’ is used casually to label any work that favours complexity over simplicity and dramatises the formal possibilities of digital production- the term is commonly used to invoke a generic allegiance with ‘Cranbrook’ or ‘CalArts’, a gesture which reduces both schools to flat symbols by blanketing a variety of distinct practices. Our view of deconstruction in graphic design is at once narrower and write in a paper, broader in its scope than the view evolving from the role in pakistan current discourse. Rather than look at deconstruction as a historical style or period, we see deconstruction as a critical activity -an act of culture essay, questioning. The visual resources of of education, typography help demarcate Derrida’s ideological map of the babak fahimi biases governing Western art and philosophy. Having looked at deconstruction’s life in recent design culture, we will now locate design within the theory of deconstruction. Design in Deconstruction.

Derrida’s critique of the speech/writing opposition developed out of his reading of Ferdinand de Saussure’s Course in General Linguistics , a foundational text for role in pakistan essay modern linguistics, semiotics, and essay, anthropology. Saussure asserted that the role of education in pakistan meaning of signs does not reside in the signs themselves: there is no natural bond between the signifier (the sign’s material aspect) and in india essay, the signified (its referent). Instead, the meaning of a sign comes only from its relationship to other signs in a system. This principle is the basis of structuralism, an approach to role of education in pakistan essay language which focuses on the patterns or structures that generate meaning rather than on the ‘content’ of a given code or custom. Saussure revealed that because the sign has no inherent meaning, it is, taken by itself, empty, void, absent. The sign has no life apart from the system or ‘structure’ of language. Essay. Saussure revealed that language is not a transparent window onto pre-existing concepts, but that language actively forms the realm of ideas. The base, material body of the signifier is not a secondary copy of the elevated, lofty realm of concepts: both are formless masses before the articulating work of language has sliced it into distinct pieces. Instead of thinking of language as a code for passively representing ‘thoughts’, Saussure showed that ‘thoughts’ take shape out of the material body of language. Derrida’s Of Grammatology points out that although Saussure was willing to reveal the emptiness at the heart of language, he became infuriated when he saw the same principle at work in role of education in pakistan essay writing, the system of news, signs created to represent speech. Of Education. Saussure’s text views writing as a copy of speech, an artificial technology for reproducing language.

While the alphabet claims to be a phonetic transcription of spoken sounds, codes such as written English are full of irrational spellings: for dock resume example, words that sound the same but are spelled differently (meet/meat), and letter combinations with unexpected pronunciations (th-, sh-, -ght). The tone of Saussure’s critique escalates from mild irritation at the beginning of his presentation to impassioned condemnation of the alphabet’s violation of an innocent, natural speech: ‘writing obscures language; it is not a guise for language but a disguise’. The ‘tyranny of writing’ distorts its pristine referent through ‘orthographic monstrosities’ and ‘phonic deformations’. Saussure specifically concerned himself with phonetic writing, the paradigmatic medium of Western culture, which translates the diverse sounds of a language into a set of repeatable graphic marks. He explicitly excluded pictographic and ideographic scripts from his attack on writing; Chinese ideograms have fewer ‘annoying consequences’ than the alphabet, because their users clearly understand their role as secondary signs for role of education in pakistan spoken words. The power (and seductiveness) of phonetic writing lies in its economy: a small number of characters can represent an write a introduction in a scientific, ever-expanding quantity of words. Unlike pictographic or ideographic scripts, phonetic writing represents the signifier of language (its material sound) rather than the signified (its conceptual meaning or ‘idea’). Whereas an ideogram represents the concept of a word, phonetic characters merely represent its sounds.

The alphabet thus embraces the arbitrariness of the sign by considering the signifier independently of its meaning. As an intellectual technology, alphabetic writing can be compared to photography: it is an automatic record of the in pakistan surface of language. The alphabet cleaved language into an inside and an outside: the destiny of phonetic writing is to occupy the outside, to dock building resume be a mechanical copy of the signifier, leaving intact a sacred interior. The belief in the interiority, the fullness, of speech depends on the existence of an exterior, empty representation—the alphabet. Similarly, the notion of ‘nature’, as an of education in pakistan essay, ideal realm separate from human production, emerged as ‘civilisation’ was despoiling the broader ecological systems in which culture participates. To ‘deconstruct’ the resume relationship between speech and writing is to reverse the status of the two terms, but not just to replace one with the of education other, but rather to show that speech was always already characterised by the same failure to transparently reflect reality. There is no innocent speech.

In Of Grammatology , Derrida asserted that an intellectual culture (or episteme) built on the opposition between reality and representation has, in fact, depended on representations to construct itself: ‘External/internal, image/reality, representation/presence, such is the old grid to essays on the which is given the task of outlining the domain of of education, a science. Critical Thinking Theory And Practice. And of what science? Of a science that can no longer answer to the classical concept of the episteme because the originality of its field- an originality that it inaugurates is that the essay opening of the theory and practice ‘image’ within it appears as the condition of ‘reality,’ a relationship that can no longer be thought within the simple difference and the uncompromising exteriority of of education in pakistan essay, ‘image’ and ‘reality,’ of ‘outside’ and ‘inside,’ of ‘appearance’ and ‘essence’ ’. The fact that our culture developed a phonetic writing system one which represents the material signifier in isolation from the sacred signified -is indicative of our primary alienation from the spoken language. Phonetic writing, because it makes use of the gap between signifier and signified, is not simply a secondary reflection of building, language, but is a symptom of language’s lack of presence, its lack of interior self-completeness. Derrida’s final attack on the notion of writing as a secondary copy of speech is to make the claim that ‘phonetic writing does not exist’. Not only does writing inhabit speech, transforming its grammar and sound, and not only does phonetic writing exist as language’s ‘own other’, an ‘outside’ manufactured to affirm its own complete ‘insidedness’, but this model of the ‘outside’ continually fails to behave in the manner expected of it.

Thus where Saussure had claimed that there are only two kinds of writing- phonetic and ideographic -Derrida found the frontiers between them to fluctuate. Phonetic writing is full of non-phonetic elements and functions. Some signs used in conjunction with the alphabet are ideographic, including numbers and mathematical symbols. Other graphic marks cannot be called signs at all, because they do not represent distinct ‘signifieds’ or concepts: for example, punctuation, flourishes, deletions, and patterns of difference such as roman/italic and uppercase/lowercase. Role Essay. What ‘idea’ does the space between two words or a dingbat at the end of a line represent? Key among these marks, which Derrida has called ‘graphemes’, are various forms of write in a paper, spacing—negative gaps between the positive symbols of the alphabet. Spacing cannot be dismissed as a ‘simple accessory’ of role, writing: ‘That a speech supposedly alive can lend itself to spacing in medical service its own writing is of education in pakistan essay, what relates to its own death’. Babak Resume. The alphabet has come to rely on silent graphic servants such as spacing and punctuation, which, like the frame of a picture, seem safely ‘outside’ the proper content and internal structure of a work and yet are necessary conditions for making and of education in pakistan, reading. Follow Typotheque on Twitter or Facebook.

Derrida’s book The Truth in Painting unfolds the logic of framing as a crucial component of works of art. In the Enlightenment aesthetics of essay service, Kant, which form the basis for modern art theory and criticism, the frame of a picture belongs to a class of elements called parerga, meaning ‘about the work’, or outside/around the work. Kant’s parerga include the columns on role of education in pakistan, buildings, the draperies on statues, and babak fahimi resume, the frames on pictures. A frame is an role in pakistan, ornamental appendix to critical a work of art, whose ‘quasi-detachment’ serves not only to hide but also to reveal the emptiness at the core of the seemingly self-complete object of aesthetic pleasure. In Derrida’s words, ‘The parergon is a form that has, as its traditional determination, not that it stands out but that it disappears, buries itself, effaces itself, melts away at the moment it deploys its greatest energy. Essay. The frame is in no way a background….but neither is its thickness as margin a figure. Or at least it is a figure which comes away of its own accord’. Like the non-phonetic supplements to the alphabet, the borders around pictures or texts occupy an essays on the, ambiguous place between figure and ground, positive element and negative gap. Spacing and punctuation, borders and frames: these are the territory of graphic design and role, typography, those marginal arts which articulate the conditions that make texts and images readable. The substance of typography lies not in the alphabet per se- the generic forms of characters and their conventionalised uses -but rather in the visual framework and specific graphic forms which materialise the system of writing. Design and typography work at the edges of writing, determining the shape and style of resume, letters, the spaces between them, and their positions on the page.

Typography, from of education, its position in the margins of communication, has moved writing away from speech. Design as Deconstruction. The history of typography and building resume, writing could be written as the development of formal structures which have articulated and explored the role of education essay border between the inside and the outside of the text. To compile a catalogue of the micro-mechanics of publishing- indexes and title pages, captions and write scientific paper, colophons, folios and footnotes, leading and line lengths, margins and marginalia, spacing and punctuation -would contribute to the field which Derrida has called grammatology, or the study of writing as a distinctive mode of representation. This word, grammatology, serves to role essay title the book whose more infamous legacy is deconstruction. Such a history could position various typographic techniques in babak fahimi resume relation to the split between form and content, inside and outside. Some typographic conventions have served to rationalise the delivery of information by erecting transparent ‘crystal goblets’ around a seemingly independent, neutral body of ‘content’. Of Education In Pakistan Essay. Some structures or approaches invade the sacred interior so deeply as to turn the text inside out, while others deliberately ignore or contradict the internal organization of a text in response to external pressures imposed by technology, aesthetics, corporate interests, social propriety, production conveniences, etc. Robin Kinross’s Modern Typography (1992) charts the progressive rationalisation of the forms and thinking theory and practice, uses of letters across several centuries of European history.

Kinross’s book characterises printing as a prototypically ‘modern’ process, that from its inception mobilised techniques of mass production and precipitated the mature arts and sciences. The seeds of modernisation were present in Gutenberg’s first proofs; their fruits are born in of education essay the self-conscious methodologies, professionalized practices, and standardised visual forms of printers and typographers, which, beginning in the late seventeenth century, replaced an older notion of printing as a hermetic art of culture in india, ‘black magic’, its methods jealously guarded by a caste of craftsmen. If Kinross’s history of modern typography spans five centuries, so too might another history of deconstruction, running alongside and beneath the erection of transparent formal structures and coherent bodies of professional knowledge. Derrida’s own writing has drawn on forms of page layout from role, outside the accepted conventions of university publishing. His book Glas , designed with Richard Eckersley at how to in a scientific paper the University of Nebraska Press, consists of parallel texts set in different typefaces and written in heterogeneous voices. Glas makes the role scholarly annotations of medieval manuscripts and the accidental juxtapositions of modern newspapers part of a deliberate authorial strategy. A study of culture in india, typography and writing informed by deconstruction would reveal a range of structures that dramatise the intrusion of role of education, visual form into verbal content, the invasion of ‘ideas’ by graphic marks, gaps, and differences.

There are two different attitudes towards framing the text. In the first, the margins are a transparent border for in india the solid block dominating the page. The lines of classical roman characters are minimally interrupted—paragraph breaks are indicated only by a wider gap within the line, preserving the text as a continuously flowing field of letters. The second example draws on the tradition of scribal marginalia and biblical commentary. Here, typography is an interpretive medium; the text is open rather than closed. The first example suggests that the role of education in pakistan essay frontiers between interior and exterior, figure and ground, reader and writer, are securely defined, while the second example dramatises such divides by on the, engulfing the center with the edge. Another comparison comes from the role in pakistan history of the newspaper, which emerged as an elite literary medium in the seventeenth century. Early English newspapers based their structure on the classical book, whose consistently formatted text block was designed to be read from beginning to culture essay end. As the newspaper became a popular medium in nineteenth-century Europe and America, it expanded from a book-scaled signature to a broadsheet incorporating diverse elements, from reports of war and crime to announcements of ship departures and ads for goods and services. Role Of Education In Pakistan. The modern illustrated newspaper of the twentieth century is a patchwork of competing elements, whose juxtaposition responds not to medical essay service rational hierarchies of content but to the struggle between editorial, advertising, and production interests.

While the structure of the classical news journal aspired to the status of a coherent, complete object, the appearance of the popular paper results from frantic compromises and in pakistan, arbitrary conditions; typographic design serves to medical essay editing distract and seduce as well as to clarify and explain. Dictionaries of page design featuring schematic diagrams of typical layouts have been a common theme in twentieth-century design. Such visual enactment of theory include Jan Tschichold’s 1934 manifesto ‘The Placing of Type in a Given Space’, which charts a range of essay, subtle variations in the placement of headings and body copy, and Don May’s 1942 manual 101 Roughs , which catalogues various types of commercial page design. While Tschichold charted minor differences between clearly ordered elements, May accommodated the diverse media and babak, competing messages found in advertising. Both theorists presented a series of role, formal containers for abstract, unspecified bodies of ‘content, ’ but with a difference: Tschichold?s structures are neutral frames for dominant textual figures, while May?s patterns are active grounds which ignore conventional hierarchies in favour of such arbitrary rules as ‘Four point: The layout touches all four sides of the space once and babak fahimi, only once’, or ‘Center axis: The heading copy, illustration, and role of education in pakistan, logotype flush on alternate sides of axis’. If one pursued the study of ‘grammatology’ proposed by Derrida, the resulting catalogue of forms might include the graphic conditions outlined above. In each case, we have juxtaposed a coherent, seemingly self-complete literary artefact with a situation where external forces aggressively interfere with the sacred interior of content.

A history of typography informed by deconstruction would show how graphic design has revealed, challenged, or transformed the accepted rules of communication. Such interventions can represent either deliberate confrontations or haphazard encounters with the social, technological, and aesthetic pressures that shape the making of essays news, texts. In a 1994 interview in essay The New York Times Magazine, Derrida was asked about the purported ‘death’ of deconstruction on in a, North American campuses; he answered, ‘I think there is some element in deconstruction that belongs to the structure of history or events. It started before the academic phenomenon of deconstruction, and it will continue with other names’. Role Essay. In the spirit of this statement, we are interested in de-periodizing the relevance of deconstruction: instead of viewing it as an ‘ism’ of the late-80s and early-90s, we see it as part of the ongoing development of design and typography as distinctive modes of representation. But deconstruction also belongs to culture: it is an operation that has taken a name and has spun a web of critical, influence in of education particular social contexts. Deconstruction has lived in a variety of institutional worlds, from university literature departments to schools of art and design to the discourse of popular journalism, where it has functioned both as a critical activity and as a banner for a range of styles and attitudes. We will close our essay with two examples of graphic design that actively engage the language of critical theory and practice, contemporary media: the first confronts the politics of representation, while the second remakes design’s internal language. Vincent Gagliostro’s cover for NYQ, a gay and lesbian news magazine, was designed in November, 1991, in response to Magic Johnson’s announcement that he is HIV+. Gagliostro imposed NYQ’s own logo and role of education in pakistan essay, headline over a Newsweek cover featuring Magic Johnson proclaiming ‘Even me’, his upheld arms invoking saintly sacrifice and athletic vigour. ‘He is not our hero’, wrote NYQ over the existing cover. While Gagliostro’s layering and splicing of type and image are shared with more aestheticized, individualised gestures found elsewhere in contemporary design, this cover does not aim to trigger an infinite variety of ‘personal’ interpretations but instead explicitly manipulates an ideologically loaded artefact.

Gagliostro’s act of cultural rewriting is a powerful response to the ubiquity of normative sign systems, showing that the structures of mass media can be reshuffled and reinhabited. The NYQ cover reveals and exploits the function of framing as a transformative process that refuses to remain outside the editorial content it encloses. The manipulation of existing media imagery is one activity in contemporary design that can be described as deconstruction; another is the exploration of the visual grammar of communication, from print to the electronic interface. Culture Essay. Designers working in hypermedia are developing new ways to generate, distribute, and use information—they are reinventing the language of graphic design today, just as typographers reacted to the changing technologies and social functions of role of education essay, printed media in the past. A leading pioneer of this research was Muriel Cooper, who founded the Visible Language Workshop at MIT in 197X.

In the wake of her death in the spring of 1994, her students are continuing to babak resume build a concrete grammar of three-dimensional, dynamic typography. Cooper called the basic elements of this language ‘geometric primitives’, defined by essay, relationships of size, brightness, colour, transparency, and location in 3-D space, variables which can shift in response to the user?s position in write a introduction a document. Cooper and her students have worked to restructure the in pakistan essay internal language of how to write in a scientific, typography in four dimensions. Spacing, framing, punctuation, type style, layout, and other non-phonetic marks of difference constitute the material interface of writing. Traditional literary and of education essay, linguistic research overlook such graphic structures, focusing instead on the Word as the center of communication. According to Derrida, the functions of repetition, quotation, and fragmentation that characterise writing are conditions endemic to all human expression—even the seemingly spontaneous, self-present utterances of speech or the resume smooth, naturalistic surfaces of painting and photography.

Design can critically engage the mechanics of representation, exposing and revising its ideological biases; design also can remake the grammar of communication by role, discovering structures and patterns within the material media of visual and verbal writing. This is an earlier version of the essay ‘Deconstruction and Graphic Design’, published in Design Writing Research .