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Second-Hand Smoke essays
burgulary essay GET A 15% DISCOUNT ON ALL ORDERS. And Effect Essay Hand! Use the following coupon code on the order form : 9b41e124. Prosecuting Argument (State v. Stu Dents) Prosecuting Argument (State v. Stu Dents) Resource: University of Phoenix Material: State v. Stu Dents. Discuss the case as if you are part of the prosecuting team in State v. Stu Dents to develop your argument. Write a 700- to 1,050-word paper that details the team’s argument. List the elements of school competitions each crime and essay on second hand smoke, facts that establish each element.
Provide a specific law for each charge. List the state where the law is effective. Medical School Competitions! Each team member’s state needs to be represented. Cause Essay On Second Hand Smoke! Include the essays dyer, state where your case would be the strongest. (250 – 260 words each) I want to see indents and grammar check your work. Barbara – Louisiania or New Jersey Homicide. Valarie – California – Kidnapping Assault of a police officer. Christain – Texas – Crimes related to drugs. Does anyone want to and effect on second smoke volunteer to medical school write the conclusion? • Assault of a police officer. • Crimes related to drugs. Resource: University of Phoenix Material: State v. Stu Dents.
Discuss the case as if you are part of the prosecuting team in and effect essay on second smoke State v. Stu Dents to develop your argument. Write a 700- to 1,050-word paper that details the team’s argument. List the elements of each crime and facts that establish each element. Provide a specific law for each charge. List the state where the essay on impact, law is effective.
Each team member’s state needs to be represented. Include the state where your case would be the cause essay hand, strongest. (250 – 260 words each) I want to see indents and competitions, grammar check your work. My part ONLY, is as follows, as this is cause essay smoke, a team assignment. Valarie – California – Kidnapping Assault of a police officer. • Assault of a police officer. • Crimes related to drugs. University of study Phoenix Material. State v. Stu Dents.
Last year,on the mid-afternoon of October 18th, the defendant, Stu Dents, left his apartment on Main Street and drove to Broadway and 83rd. Two eyewitnesses say the essay hand smoke, defendant then walked through the Broadway Arms apartment building to essays his girlfriend’s apartment, number 156, and entered the apartment. It is unclear how the defendant entered the apartment, but no signs of force were evident. Witnesses could not say if the defendant used a key. The victim, Uma Opee, was not home at the time.
Coworkers say UmaOpee was last seen when she left work at cause on second, 5:10 p.m. The body of the victim was found October 19th at 7:45 a.m. behind an that worked abandoned building approximately 5 miles from her residence. The victim was found with cloth stuffed in her mouth, her arms and legs tied with rope restraints, having been stabbed to death. Uma Opee worked at a music store within walking distance of and effect on second her apartment. She had a previous criminal record that included shoplifting, drug possession and sale, assault, and disorderly conduct. Uma completed court-ordered rehabilitation just 2 months before her death. The coroner determined that the victim was stabbed 13 times and bled to death at approximately 11:45 p.m. the evening of good thesis statements October 18th. Cuts and bruises were found on the victim’s body as well as skin particles under her fingernails, signifying a struggle had occurred prior to her death. DNA tests were conducted on the skin particles under the victim’s fingernails and matched the DNA samples of the cause and effect on second smoke, defendant.
A toxicology report showed there were no drugs in the victim’s system at the time of that her death. The victim’s apartment was found to have spots of blood on the carpeting in cause essay on second hand the living room as well as rope particles matching the rope used to tie the victim’s hands and on wayne, feet. A blue MDMA tablet, also known as ecstasy, with a “thumbs-up” imprint was found under a table in the living room as well as powder cocaine residue on hand, the living room coffee table. Upon a search of the defendant’s home, detectives found ecstasy, cocaine, methamphetamine, and jewelry owned by the victim among the defendant’s possessions. Among the jewelry found was an inscribed ring with the victim’s name. The ring was later identified by coworkers as a ring the victim wore on a daily basis, including the day of essay competitions her disappearance.A small bag containing blue ecstasy tablets, with a “thumbs-up” imprint, were found at the defendant’s residence, which matched the tablet found at essay hand, the victim’s residence. In a locked room toward the back of the defendant’s home, police found a wall completely covered with photographs of the victim. The photos were of Uma Opee in various locations and situations.
Some photos appeared to have been taken without her knowledge. Police estimated over 300 photographs of the victim were stapled on wwii statements, the wall. Police also found love letters to the victim and a journal that was started 6 months prior to the incident. The journal included Stu Dents’ name inside the front cover along with detailed events from his first meeting of the victim up to cause and effect essay on second hand smoke the night prior to the murder. Entries discussed purchasing rope, rags, and a sharp hunting knife “to fulfill [his] destiny.” Many pages of the journal contained references to aliens, God, and the end of the that worked, world. The journal entries stopped on October 17th.
Enough evidence was obtained to make the arrest of Mr. Dents. Officers located Stu Dents on October 21st at 8:45 p.m. at a relative’s home. When police officers tried to take him into custody, he began screaming about the end of the world and aliens working in the police force. He was extremely agitated, irrational, and on second, combative.
When Officer T. Sale Resume! Chur began to handcuff him, the defendant punched the officer in the face and screamed, “Alien!” As officers subdued the defendant, he repeatedly yelled, “I am God, let me go! I am God!” The toxicology report of the defendant showed no trace of illegal drugs at the time of and effect on second smoke arrest. Competitions! The state charges Stu Dents with the cause essay hand smoke, following: • Assault of a police officer. • Crimes related to drugs. Double or single-spaced 1-inch margin 12 Font Arial or Times New Roman 300 words per page. Study! Money Return guarantee Guaranteed Privacy Written by Professionals Paper Written from Scratch Timely Deliveries Free Amendments.
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Second-Hand Smoke essays
Political Science 601: Political Theory of the cause on second American Revolution. Essays Moral, Political and Literary. Nothing appears more surprizing to those, who consider human affairs with a philosophical eye, than the easiness with which the essay on impact of terrorism in india many are governed by the few; and the implicit submission, with which men resign their own sentiments and passions to those of their rulers. Cause! When we enquire by what means this wonder is medical school essay effected, we shall find, that, as Force is always on the side of the governed, the governors have nothing to and effect essay on second hand, support them but opinion. It is therefore, on opinion only that government is founded; and this maxim extends to the most despotic and most military governments, as well as to the most free and most popular.
The soldan° of Egypt , or the emperor of person, Rome , might drive his harmless subjects, like brute beasts, against their sentiments and inclination: But [ 33 ] he must, at cause essay on second, least, have led his mamalukes, ° or pr?torian bands, ° like men, by their opinion. Opinion is dyer of two kinds, to wit, opinion of interest , and opinion of right . By opinion of interest, I chiefly understand the sense of the general advantage which is reaped from government; together with the persuasion, that the particular government, which is established, is equally advantageous with any other that could easily be settled. Cause Essay Smoke! When this opinion prevails among the generality of a state, or among those who have the force in their hands, it gives great security to unilever, any government. Right is of two kinds, right to Power and right to Property . Cause And Effect Hand Smoke! What prevalence opinion of the first kind has over mankind, may easily be understood, by essay on impact of terrorism in india observing the attachment which all nations have to their ancient government, and even to those names, which have had the sanction of antiquity. Antiquity always begets the opinion of right; and whatever disadvantageous sentiments we may entertain of mankind, they are always found to be prodigal° both of blood and cause essay on second hand smoke treasure in the maintenance of public justice.a There is, indeed, no particular, in which, at first sight, there may appear a greater contradiction in the frame of the human mind than the present. When men act in a faction, they are apt, without shame or remorse, to solution, neglect all the ties of honour and morality, in order to serve their party; and yet, when a faction is formed upon a point of right or principle, there is no occasion, where men discover a greater obstinacy, and a more determined sense of and effect hand, justice and equity. The same social disposition of mankind is the cause of these contradictory appearances. It is sufficiently understood, that the opinion of right to property is good wwii statements of moment in cause and effect hand smoke, all matters of of terrorism, government. A noted author has made property the foundation of all government;1 [ 34 ] and most of on second hand, our political writers seem inclined to follow him in case study, that particular. This is carrying the cause matter too far; but still it must be owned, that the opinion of right to property has a great influence in in india, this subject. Upon these three opinions, therefore, of public interest, of right to power, and cause and effect on second hand smoke of right to property, are all governments founded, and all authority of the few over person the many.
There are indeed other principles, which add force to these, and determine, limit, or alter their operation; such as self-interest, fear, and affection: But still we may assert, that these other principles can have no influence alone, but suppose the antecedent influence of those opinions above-mentioned. Hand Smoke! They are, therefore, to be esteemed the secondary, not the original principles of government. For, first, as to self-interest, by which I mean the unilever case study solution expectation of particular rewards, distinct from the general protection which we receive from government, it is evident that the magistrate’s authority must be antecedently established, at least be hoped for, in order to produce this expectation. The prospect of reward may augment his authority with regard to some particular persons; but can never give birth to it, with regard to the public. Men naturally look for hand smoke the greatest favours from their friends and acquaintance; and therefore, the hopes of any considerable number of the state would never center in any particular set of men, if these men had no other title to essay of terrorism in india, magistracy, and had no separate influence over the opinions of mankind.
The same observation may be extended to the other two principles of fear and affection. Smoke! No man would have any reason to fear the fury of a tyrant, if he had no authority over any but from medical essay, fear; since, as a single man, his bodily force can reach but a small way, and all the farther power he possesses must be founded either on our own opinion, or on the presumed opinion of others. And though affection to wisdom and virtue in a sovereign extends very far, and has great influence; yet he must antecedently be supposed invested with a public character, otherwise the public esteem will serve him in no stead,° nor will his virtue have any influence beyond a narrow sphere. A Government may endure for several ages, though the balance of power, and the balance of property do not coincide. This chiefly happens, where any rank or order of the state has acquired a large share in and effect essay on second hand smoke, the property; but from the case study original constitution of the and effect on second hand smoke government, has no share in the power. Under what pretence would any individual of that order assume authority in public affairs? As men are commonly much attached to their ancient government, it is not to be expected, that the public would ever favour such usurpations. Sale Person Resume! But where the original constitution allows any share of and effect on second smoke, power, though small, to an order of men, who possess a large share of the unilever study property, it is easy for them gradually to stretch their authority, and bring the balance of power to coincide with that of property. This has been the case with the house of essay, commons in England . Most writers, that have treated of the British government, have supposed, that, as the lower house represents all the commons of Great Britain , its weight in the scale is proportioned to the property and power of all whom it represents. But this principle must not be received as absolutely true. For though the people are apt to attach themselves more to the house of commons, than to any other member of the constitution; that house being chosen by them as their representatives, and as the public guardians of their liberty; yet are there instances where the house, even when in opposition to good statements, the crown, has not been followed by the people; as we may particularly observe of the tory house of commons in the reign of king William .2 Were the members obliged to receive instructions from essay on second, their constituents, like the Dutch deputies, [ 36 ] this would entirely alter the case; and school if such immense power and riches, as those of cause hand smoke, all the commons of Great Britain , were brought into the scale, it is not easy to conceive, that the crown could either influence that multitude of people, or withstand that overbalance of property.
It is true, the crown has great influence over the collective body in the elections of members; but were this influence, which at present is only exerted once in sale person resume, seven years, to be employed in bringing over the people to every vote, it would soon be wasted; and no skill, popularity, or revenue, could support it. I must, therefore, be of opinion, that an alteration in this particular would introduce a total alteration in our government, and cause and effect essay hand smoke would soon reduce it to good, a pure republic; and, perhaps, to a republic of no inconvenient form. For though the people, collected in a body like the Roman tribes, be quite unfit for government, yet when dispersed in small bodies, they are more susceptible both of reason and order; the force of popular currents and tides is, in a great measure, broken; and the public interest may be pursued with some method and constancy. But it is needless to reason any farther concerning a form of cause and effect essay hand, government, which is never likely to essay competitions, have place in Great Britain , and which seems not to be the cause and effect essay on second aim of any party amongst us. Let us cherish and improve our ancient government as much as possible, without encouraging a passion for such dangerous novelties.b. ESSAY V: OF THE ORIGIN OF GOVERNMENT? Man , born in a family, is compelled to maintain society, from necessity, from natural inclination, and from habit. The same creature, in his farther progress, is engaged to establish political society, in order to administer justice; without which there can be no peace among them, nor safety, nor mutual intercourse. We are, therefore, to look upon all the vast apparatus of our government, as having ultimately no other object or purpose but the distribution of justice, or, in other words, the medical school support of the twelve judges.
Kings and parliaments, fleets and cause essay smoke armies, officers of the court and revenue, ambassadors, ministers, and privy-counsellors, are all subordinate in sale person resume, their end to this part of administration. Even the clergy, as their duty leads them to inculcate morality, may [ 38 ] justly be thought, so far as regards this world, to have no other useful object of and effect essay smoke, their institution. All men are sensible of the necessity of justice to maintain peace and order; and all men are sensible of the necessity of peace and order for the maintenance of on impact, society. Yet, notwithstanding this strong and obvious necessity, such is the frailty or perverseness of our nature! it is cause and effect smoke impossible to essay of terrorism in india, keep men, faithfully and unerringly, in the paths of hand smoke, justice. Some extraordinary circumstances may happen, in which a man finds his interests to be more promoted by fraud or rapine, than hurt by the breach which his injustice makes in the social union. But much more frequently, he is seduced from his great and important, but distant interests, by essay the allurement of essay on second smoke, present, though often very frivolous temptations. Transfer Essay Worked! This great weakness is and effect essay on second hand smoke incurable in human nature. Men must, therefore, endeavour to palliate° what they cannot cure.
They must institute some persons, under the appellation° of magistrates, whose peculiar° office it is, to point out the decrees of equity, to punish transgressors, to on wayne dyer, correct fraud and violence, and to smoke, oblige men, however reluctant, to essays on wayne, consult their own real and cause and effect essay on second permanent interests. In a word, Obedience is on wayne dyer a new duty which must be invented to support that of cause and effect hand, Justice ; and the tyes° of equity must be corroborated by those of allegiance. But still, viewing matters in an abstract light, it may be thought, that nothing is gained by essay on impact this alliance, and that the factitious° duty of obedience, from its very nature, lays as feeble a hold of the human mind, as the primitive and natural duty of justice. Peculiar interests and present temptations may overcome the one as well as the other. They are equally exposed to the same inconvenience. And the man, who is inclined to be a bad neighbour, must be led by the same motives, well or ill understood, to be a bad citizen and subject. Not to mention, that the magistrate himself may often be negligent, or partial, or unjust in his administration. Experience, however, proves, that there is a great difference between the cases. Order in society, we find, is much [ 39 ] better maintained by means of hand, government; and our duty to the magistrate is more strictly guarded by the principles of human nature, than our duty to our fellow-citizens. Unilever Case Study Solution! The love of dominion is so strong in the breast of man, that many, not only submit to, but court all the dangers, and fatigues, and and effect essay on second smoke cares of on impact, government; and men, once raised to that station, though often led astray by private passions, find, in ordinary cases, a visible interest in the impartial administration of justice. The persons, who first attain this distinction by the consent, tacit or express, of the people, must be endowed with superior personal qualities of valour, force, integrity, or prudence, which command respect and confidence: and after government is established, a regard to birth, rank, and station has a mighty influence over and effect essay hand smoke men, and enforces the decrees of the magistrate.
The prince or leader exclaims° against person resume, every disorder, which disturbs his society. He summons all his partizans and all men of on second smoke, probity° to aid him in correcting and redressing it: and he is readily followed by all indifferent persons in the execution of his office. Case Study Solution! He soon acquires the and effect essay on second smoke power of rewarding these services; and in that, the progress of society, he establishes subordinate ministers and often a military force, who find an immediate and a visible interest, in supporting his authority. Habit soon consolidates what other principles of human nature had imperfectly founded; and men, once accustomed to obedience, never think of departing from that path, in which they and their ancestors have constantly trod, and to which they are confined by so many urgent and visible motives. But though this progress of human affairs may appear certain and inevitable, and though the support which allegiance brings to justice, be founded on obvious principles of essay hand, human nature, it cannot be expected that men should beforehand be able to discover them, or foresee their operation. Unilever Case! Government commences more casually and more imperfectly.
It is probable, that the and effect on second hand smoke first ascendant° of one man over multitudes begun during a state of war; where the superiority of courage and essay that worked of genius discovers itself most visibly, where unanimity and concert [ 40 ] are most requisite, and where the pernicious effects of disorder are most sensibly felt. The long continuance of that state, an incident common among savage tribes, enured the people to submission; and if the chieftain possessed as much equity as prudence and valour, he became, even during peace, the arbiter of cause and effect hand smoke, all differences, and on wayne could gradually, by a mixture of force and consent, establish his authority. The benefit sensibly felt from and effect essay, his influence, made it be cherished by the people, at least by person the peaceable and cause on second well disposed among them; and if his son enjoyed the same good qualities, government advanced the sooner to maturity and perfection; but was still in a feeble state, till the farther progress of improvement procured the magistrate a revenue, and enabled him to bestow rewards on the several instruments of his administration, and to inflict punishments on the refractory° and disobedient. Good Statements! Before that period, each exertion of his influence must have been particular, and cause essay on second founded on the peculiar circumstances of the case. After it, submission was no longer a matter of essay, choice in cause on second hand smoke, the bulk of the community, but was rigorously exacted by essays dyer the authority of the supreme magistrate. In all governments, there is a perpetual intestine° struggle, open or secret, between Authority and Liberty ; and neither of them can ever absolutely prevail in on second, the contest. A great sacrifice of liberty must necessarily be made in every government; yet even the authority, which confines liberty, can never, and perhaps ought never, in any constitution, to become quite entire and uncontroulable.
The sultan is master of the life and fortune of any individual; but will not be permitted to impose new taxes on his subjects: a French monarch can impose taxes at essay that, pleasure; but would find it dangerous to attempt the lives and fortunes of individuals. And Effect Essay On Second Hand! Religion also, in essays on wayne dyer, most countries, is commonly found to be a very intractable principle; and cause essay on second other principles or prejudices frequently resist all the authority of the civil magistrate; whose power, being founded on opinion, can never subvert other opinions, equally rooted with that of his title to dominion. The government, which, in common appellation, receives the appellation of [ 41 ] free, is good that which admits of hand, a partition of power among several members, whose united authority is no less, or is commonly greater than that of any monarch; but who, in the usual course of administration, must act by person general and equal laws, that are previously known to all the cause and effect essay hand members and to all their subjects. In this sense, it must be owned,° that liberty is the perfection of civil society; but still authority must be acknowledged essential to its very existence: and in those contests, which so often take place between the transfer essay that one and the other, the latter may, on that account, challenge the preference. Unless perhaps one may say (and it may be said with some reason) that a circumstance, which is essential to the existence of civil society, must always support itself, and needs be guarded with less jealousy, than one that contributes only to its perfection, which the indolence of essay hand, men is so apt to neglect, or their ignorance to overlook. ESSAY VI: OF THE INDEPENDENCY OF PARLIAMENTa? Political writers have established it as a maxim, that, in contriving any system of on impact of terrorism in india, government, and fixing the several checks and controuls of the constitution, every man ought to cause essay smoke, be supposed a knave, and to have no other end, in all his actions, than private interest.
By this interest we must govern him, and, by means of it, make him, notwithstanding his insatiable avarice and ambition, co-operate to public good. Without this, say they, we shall in vain boast of the advantages of any constitution, and shall find, in the end, that we have no security for our liberties or possessions, except the good-will of our rulers; that is, we shall have no security at all. It is, therefore, a just political maxim, that every man must be supposed a knave: Though at the same time, it appears [ 43 ] somewhat strange, that a maxim should be true in politics, which is false in fact. But to satisfy us on this head, we may consider, that men are generally more honest in their private than in their public capacity, and will go greater lengths to serve a party, than when their own private interest is alone concerned. Honour is a great check upon mankind: But where a considerable body of men act together, this check is, in medical school essay competitions, a great measure, removed; since a man is sure to be approved of by his own party, for what promotes the common interest; and he soon learns to despise the clamours of adversaries. To which we may add, that every court or senate is determined by the greater number of voices; so that, if self-interest influences only the majority, (as it will always dob) the whole senate follows the allurements of cause hand, this separate interest, and acts as if it contained not one member, who had any regard to public interest and liberty. When there offers, therefore, to our censure and examination, any plan of government, real or imaginary, where the power is distributed among several courts,° and several orders of men, we should always consider the separate interest of person resume, each court, and each order; and, if we find that, by the skilful division of power, this interest must necessarily, in its operation, concur with public, we may pronounce that government to be wise and happy. If, on the contrary, separate interest be not checked, and be not directed to the public, we ought to look for nothing but faction, disorder, and tyranny from such a government. In this opinion I am justified by experience, as well as by the authority of all philosophers and politicians, both antient and modern. How much, therefore, would it have surprised such a genius as Cicero , or Tacitus , to hand, have been told, that, in medical essay competitions, a future age, there should arise a very regular system of cause and effect on second hand smoke, mixed government, where the authority was so distributed, that one rank, whenever it pleased, might swallow up all the competitions rest, and engross the and effect essay smoke whole power of the constitution.
Such a government, they would say, will not be a mixed government. Transfer Essay! For so great is the natural ambition of men, that they are never satisfied [ 44 ] with power; and if one order of men, by pursuing its own interest, can usurp upon every other order, it will certainly do so, and render itself, as far as possible, absolute and essay hand smoke uncontroulable. But, in transfer, this opinion, experience shews they would have been mistaken. For this is cause actually the on wayne case with the British constitution. Essay Smoke! The share of power, allotted by our constitution to the house of commons, is so great, that it absolutely commands all the other parts of the government. The king’s legislative power is plainly no proper check to dyer, it. For though the king has a negative in framing laws; yet this, in fact, is esteemed of and effect essay smoke, so little moment, that whatever is voted by the two houses, is always sure to pass into a law, and the royal assent is solution little better than a form.
The principal weight of the crown lies in the executive power. But besides that the executive power in every government is cause and effect essay hand altogether subordinate to the legislative; besides this, I say, the exercise of good thesis statements, this power requires an smoke immense expence; and the commons have assumed to themselves the sole right of granting money. How easy, therefore, would it be for unilever solution that house to wrest from the crown all these powers, one after another; by making every grant conditional, and choosing their time so well, that their refusal of hand, supply should only unilever case study solution distress the government, without giving foreign powers any advantage over us? Did the house of commons depend in and effect essay hand, the same manner on the king, and had none of the medical school competitions members any property but from cause smoke, his gift, would not he command all their resolutions, and be from that moment absolute? As to the house of lords, they are a very powerful support to the Crown, so long as they are, in essay that worked, their turn, supported by it; but both experience and reason shew, that they have no force or authority sufficient to maintain themselves alone, without such support. How, therefore, shall we solve this paradox? And by and effect essay hand what means is this member of our constitution confined within the proper limits; since, from our very constitution, it must necessarily have as much power as it demands, and sale person resume can only be confined by itself? How is this consistent with our experience [ 45 ] of human nature? I answer, that the interest of the body is and effect on second hand here restrained by that of the individuals, and that the house of of terrorism in india, commons stretches not its power, because such an usurpation would be contrary to the interest of the majority of its members. The crown has so many offices at its disposal, that, when assisted by the honest and cause essay on second smoke disinterested part of the house, it will always command the resolutions of the whole so far, at least, as to preserve the wwii antient constitution from danger.
We may, therefore, give to this influence what name we please; we may call it by the invidious appellations of corruption and dependence; but some degree and some kind of it are inseparable from the very nature of the constitution, and necessary to the preservation of our mixed government. Instead then of asserting1 absolutely, that the dependence of parliament, in every degree, is an infringement of British liberty, the country-party should have made some concessions to their adversaries, and have only examined what was the proper degree of this dependence, beyond which it became dangerous to liberty. But such a moderation is not to be expected in party-men of any kind. Cause And Effect On Second Smoke! After a concession of this nature, all declamation must be abandoned; and a calm enquiry into the proper degree of court-influence and essay on impact parliamentary dependence would have been expected by the readers. And though the advantage, in such a controversy, might possibly remain to the country-party; yet the victory would not be so compleat as they wish for, nor would a true patriot have given an entire loose to his zeal, for fear of running matters into a contrary extreme, by diminishing too2 far the influence [ 46 ] of the crown. Cause And Effect Essay! It was, therefore, thought best to deny, that this extreme could ever be dangerous to the constitution, or that the crown could ever have too little influence over members of parliament. All questions concerning the proper medium between extremes are difficult to sale person, be decided; both because it is not easy to cause on second smoke, find words proper to fix this medium, and because the good and ill, in such cases, run so gradually into each other, as even to study solution, render our sentiments doubtful and uncertain. But there is a peculiar difficulty in the present case, which would embarrass the most knowing and most impartial examiner. The power of the and effect essay on second crown is essay always lodged in a single person, either king or minister; and as this person may have either a greater or less degree of ambition, capacity, courage, popularity, or fortune, the power, which is too great in one hand, may become too little in another. In pure republics, where the and effect essay on second authority is distributed among several assemblies or senates, the sale person resume checks and controuls are more regular in their operation; because the members of such numerous assemblies may be presumed to be always nearly equal in capacity and virtue; and cause and effect essay on second hand smoke it is only their number, riches, or authority, which enter into consideration. But a limited monarchy admits not of any such stability; nor is it possible to assign to the crown such a determinate degree of power, as will, in every hand, form a proper counterbalance to essay on impact of terrorism in india, the other parts of the constitution.
This is an unavoidable disadvantage, among the many advantages, attending that species of government. ESSAY VII: WHETHER THE BRITISH GOVERNMENT INCLINES MORE TO ABSOLUTE MONARCHY, OR TO A REPUBLIC? It affords a violent° prejudice against almost every science, that no prudent man, however sure of cause and effect on second hand smoke, his principles, dares prophesy concerning any event, or foretel the remote consequences of things. A physician will not venture to pronounce concerning the essays on wayne condition of his patient a fortnight or month after: And still less dares a politician foretel the situation of public affairs a few years hence. Cause And Effect On Second Hand! Harrington thought himself so sure of his general principle, that the balance of power depends on that of property, that he ventured to pronounce it impossible ever to re-establish monarchy in England : But his book was scarcely published when the king was restored; and we see, that monarchy has ever since subsisted upon the [ 48 ] same footing as before.1 Notwithstanding this unlucky example, I will venture to unilever study, examine an essay on second hand smoke important question, to wit, Whether the British government inclines more to absolute monarchy, or to a republic; and in which of these two species of government it will most probably terminate? As there seems not to be any great danger of a sudden revolution either way, I shall at least escape the shame attending my temerity,° if I should be found to have been mistaken. Those who assert, that the balance of our government inclines towards absolute monarchy, may support their opinion by good the following reasons. That property has a great influence on power cannot possibly be denied; but yet the general maxim, that the balance of one depends on the balance of the other, must be received with several limitations.
It is evident, that much less property in a single hand will be able to counterbalance a greater property in several; not only because it is difficult to make many persons combine in the same views and measures; but because property, when united, causes much greater dependence, than the same property, when dispersed. Cause And Effect Essay! A hundred persons, of 1000 l. a year a-piece, can consume all their income, and no body shall ever be the statements better for them, except their servants and tradesmen, who justly regard their profits as the product of their own labour. But a man possessed of 100,000 l. a year, if he has either any generosity or any cunning, may create a great dependence by obligations, and still a greater by expectations. Hence we may observe, that, in all free governments, any subject exorbitantly rich has always created jealousy, even though his riches bore no proportion to [ 49 ] those of the cause and effect hand smoke state. Crassus’s fortune,2 if I remember well, amounted only to about two millions and a half of our money;a , b yet we find, that, though his genius was nothing extraordinary, he was able, by unilever case means of his riches alone, to counterbalance, during his lifetime, the cause essay on second hand power of Pompey as well as that of C?sar , who afterwards became master of the world. The wealth of the Medici made them masters of Florence ;3 though, it is probable, it was not considerable, compared to the united property of that opulent republic. These considerations are apt to make one entertain a magnificent idea of the British spirit and thesis love of liberty; since we could maintain our free government, during so many centuries, against our sovereigns, who, besides the power and dignity and majesty of the crown, have always been possessed of much more property than any subject has ever enjoyed in any commonwealth. But it may be said, that this spirit, however great, will never be able to support itself against that immense property, which is now lodged in the king, and which is still encreasing.
Upon a moderate computation, there are near three millions a year at on second hand smoke, the disposal of the crown. The civil list amounts to near a million; the collection of all taxes to another; and the employments in the army and essays on wayne dyer navy, together with ecclesiastical preferments,° to above a third million: An enormous sum, and what may fairly be computed to be more than a thirtieth part of the whole income and labour of the kingdom. When we add to this great property, the encreasing luxury of the nation, our proneness to corruption, together with the essay on second hand smoke great power and that worked prerogatives of the crown, and the [ 50 ] command of military force, there is no one but must despair of being able, without extraordinary efforts, to support our free government much longer under these disadvantages. On the other hand, those who maintain, that the byass° of the British government leans towards a republic, may support their opinion by specious° arguments. It may be said, that, though this immense property in the crown, be joined to the dignity of cause and effect essay on second, first magistrate, and to many other legal powers and prerogatives, which should naturally give it greater influence; yet it really becomes less dangerous to liberty upon that very account. Were England a republic, and were any private man possessed of a revenue, a third, or even a tenth part as large as that of the crown, he would very justly excite jealousy; because he would infallibly have great authority, in transfer essay worked, the government: And such an irregular authority, not avowed by the laws, is always more dangerous than a much greater authority, derived from cause and effect essay on second hand smoke, them. A man, possessed of usurped power, can set no bounds to good thesis statements, his pretensions:c His partizans have liberty to hope for every thing in essay smoke, his favour: His enemies provoke his ambition, with his fears, by essay on impact in india the violence of their opposition: And the government being thrown into a ferment, every corrupted humour in the state naturally gathers to him.
On the contrary, a legal authority, though great, has always some bounds, which terminate both the hopes and pretensions of the person possessed of it: The laws must have provided a remedy against its excesses: Such an eminent magistrate has much to fear, and little to hope from cause hand, his usurpations: And as his legal authority is quietly submitted to, he has small temptation and small opportunity of extending it farther. Besides, it happens, with regard to ambitious aims and case study solution projects, what may be observed with regard to cause hand, sects of philosophy and religion. Worked! A new sect excites such a ferment, and and effect on second is both opposed and defended with such vehemence, that it always spreads faster, and multiplies its partizans with greater rapidity, than any old established opinion, recommended by the sanction of the laws and of antiquity. Such is the nature of novelty, that, where any thing pleases, it becomes [ 51 ] doubly agreeable, if new; but if it displeases, it is doubly displeasing, upon that very account. And, in most cases, the violence of enemies is on wayne favourable to ambitious projects, as well as the zeal of partizans. It may farther be said, that, though men be much governed by interest; yet even interest itself, and all human affairs, are entirely governed by opinion. Now, there has been a sudden and sensible change in the opinions of men within these last fifty years, by the progress of learning and of liberty. And Effect On Second Hand! Most people, in this island, have divested themselves of all superstitious reverence to names and authority: The clergy have much lostd their credit: Their pretensions and doctrines have been ridiculed; and even religion can scarcely support itself in the world. The mere name of case study, king commands little respect; and to talk of a king as GOD’s vicegerent° on earth, or to give him any of those magnificent titles, which formerly dazzled mankind, would but excite laughter in every one.
Though the crown, by means of its large revenue, may maintain its authority in times of tranquillity, upon private interest and influence; yet, as the least shock or convulsion must break all these interests to pieces, the royal power, being no longer supported by the settled principles and opinions of men, will immediately dissolve. Had men been in the same disposition at cause and effect essay, the revolution, as they are at wwii thesis statements, present, monarchy would have run a great risque° of being entirely lost in this island. Durst I° venture to deliver my own sentiments amidst these opposite arguments, I would assert, that, unless there happen some extraordinary convulsion, the power of the crown, by means of its large revenue, is rather upon the encrease; though, at the same time I own, that its progress seems very slow, and almost insensible. The tide has run long, and and effect with some rapidity, to the side of popular government, and is just beginning to turn towards monarchy. It is well known, that every government must come to essays dyer, a period,° and that death is unavoidable to the political as well as to and effect essay hand smoke, the animal body. But, as one kind of death may be preferable to school competitions, another, it may be enquired, whether it be more [ 52 ] desirable for the British constitution to terminate in a popular government, or in absolute monarchy? Here I would frankly declare, that, though liberty be preferable to slavery, in almost every case; yet I should rather wish to and effect on second hand smoke, see an absolute monarch than a republic in this island.
For, let us consider, what kind of republic we have reason to transfer that, expect. Cause And Effect On Second Hand Smoke! The question is not concerning any fine imaginary republic, of which a man may form a plan in his closet.° There is no doubt, but a popular government may be imagined more perfect than absolute monarchy, or even than our present constitution. But what reason have we to expect that any such government will ever be established in school competitions, Great Britain , upon the dissolution of on second smoke, our monarchy? If any single person acquire power enough to take our constitution to pieces, and put it up a-new, he is study really an absolute monarch; and we have already had an instance of this kind, sufficient to convince us, that such a person will never resign his power, or establish any free government.4 Matters, therefore, must be trusted to their natural progress and operation; and the house of commons, according to its present constitution, must be the only legislature in such a popular government. The inconveniencies attending such a situation of affairs, present themselves by thousands. Cause Essay Hand Smoke! If the house of essays dyer, commons, in such a case, ever dissolve itself, which is not to be expected, we may look for a civil war every election. If it continue itself, we shall suffer all the tyranny of a faction, subdivided into new factions.
And, as such a violent government cannot long subsist, [ 53 ] we shall, at last, after many convulsions, and civil wars, find repose in absolute monarchy, which it would have been happier for us to have established peaceably from the beginning. Absolute monarchy, therefore, is the easiest death, the true Euthanasia ° of the British constitution. Thus, if we have reason to be more jealous of monarchy, because the danger is more imminent from that quarter; we have also reason to and effect hand smoke, be more jealous of popular government, because that danger is more terrible. This may teach us a lesson of moderation in all our political controversies. Of all men, that distinguish themselves by memorable achievements, the first place of honour seems due to sale resume, Legislators and founders of states, who transmit a system of cause and effect essay on second smoke, laws and institutions to secure the peace, happiness, and wwii thesis statements liberty of future generations. The influence of useful inventions in cause, the arts and sciences may, perhaps, extend farther than that of wise laws, whose effects are limited both in time and place; but the benefit arising from the former, is not so sensible as that which results from the latter. Speculative sciences do, indeed, improve the mind; but this advantage reaches only to a few persons, who have leisure to apply themselves to them. And as to on impact of terrorism in india, practical arts, which encrease the commodities and enjoyments of life, it is well known, that [ 55 ] men’s happiness consists not so much in an abundance of these, as in the peace and security with which they possess them; and those blessings can only be derived from good government. On Second Hand! Not to mention, that general virtue and good morals in essay on impact of terrorism in india, a state, which are so requisite to happiness, can never arise from the most refined precepts of philosophy, or even the cause essay on second severest injunctions of religion; but must proceed entirely from the virtuous education of youth, the effect of wise laws and institutions. I must, therefore, presume to essays, differ from Lord Bacon in cause essay, this particular, and must regard antiquity as somewhat unjust in its distribution of honours, when it made gods of all the inventors of useful arts, such as Ceres , Bacchus , ?sculapius ; and medical essay competitions dignify legislators, such as Romulus and Theseus , only with the appellation of essay hand smoke, demigods and heroes.1.
As much as legislators and founders of states ought to sale resume, be honoured and respected among men, as much ought the founders of cause essay on second, sects and factions to be detested and hated; because the influence of faction is directly contrary to medical school competitions, that of laws. Factions subvert government, render laws impotent, and beget the fiercest animosities among men of the same nation, who ought to give mutual assistance and cause and effect on second hand protection to each other. And what should render the founders of parties more odious is, the difficulty of extirpating° these weeds, when once they have taken root in any state. They naturally propagate themselves for many centuries, and seldom end but by the total dissolution of that government, in which they are sown. They are, besides, plants which grow most plentifully in essay on impact of terrorism in india, the richest soil; and though absolute governments be not wholly free from them, it must be confessed, that they rise more easily, and propagate themselves faster in free governments, [ 56 ] where they always infect the legislature itself, which alone could be able, by the steady application of rewards and punishments, to eradicate them.
Factions may be divided into Personal and Real ; that is, into factions, founded on personal friendship or animosity among such as compose the contending parties, and into those founded on some real difference of sentiment or interest. The reason of this distinction is obvious; though I must acknowledge, that parties are seldom found pure and unmixed, either of the one kind or the other. It is not often seen, that a government divides into factions, where there is no difference in cause and effect essay on second smoke, the views of the constituent members, either real or apparent, trivial or material: And in transfer essay worked, those factions, which are founded on the most real and most material difference, there is always observed a great deal of personal animosity or affection. Cause On Second Hand! But notwithstanding this mixture, a party may be denominated either personal or real, according to case solution, that principle which is predominant, and and effect hand is found to have the greatest influence. Personal factions arise most easily in small republics. Every domestic quarrel, there, becomes an affair of unilever study, state. Love, vanity, emulation, any passion, as well as ambition and resentment, begets public division.
The Neri and Bianchi of Florence , the Fregosi and Adorni of Genoa , the Colonesi and Orsini of modern Rome , were parties of cause essay on second smoke, this kind.2. Men have such a propensity to sale person resume, divide into and effect hand smoke personal factions, that the smallest appearance of real difference will produce [ 57 ] them. What can be imagined more trivial than the difference between one colour of school essay competitions, livery and another in horse races? Yet this difference begat two most inveterate factions in the Greek empire, the Prasini and Veneti , who never suspended their animosities, till they ruined that unhappy government.3. We find in the Roman history a remarkable dissension between two tribes, the Pollia and Papiria , which continued for the space of near three hundred years, and cause on second smoke discovered itself in their suffrages at every election of magistrates.4 [ 58 ] This faction was the more remarkable, as it could continue for dyer so long a tract of time; even though it did not spread itself, nor draw any of the other tribes into a share of the quarrel.
If mankind had not a strong propensity to such divisions, the indifference of the rest of the community must have suppressed this foolish animosity, that had not any aliment° of new benefits and on second smoke injuries, of general sympathy and antipathy, which never fail to take place, when the whole state is essays on wayne rent into two equal factions.a. Nothing is more usual than to see parties, which have begun upon a real difference, continue even after that difference is lost. When men are once inlisted on opposite sides, they contract an affection to the persons with whom they are united, and cause and effect essay smoke an animosity against their antagonists: And these passions they often transmit to their posterity. The real difference between Guelf and Ghibbelline was long lost in Italy , before these factions were extinguished. The Guelfs adhered to the pope, the Ghibbellines to the emperor; yet the family of Sforza , who were in of terrorism, alliance with the emperor, though they were Guelfs , being expelled Milan by the king5 of France , assisted by Jacomo Trivulzio and cause and effect smoke the Ghibbellines , the pope concurred with the latter, and they formed leagues with the pope against medical competitions, the emperor.6.
The civil wars which arose some few years ago in Morocco , between the blacks and whites, merely on account of their complexion, are founded on a pleasant difference.7 We laugh at them; but I believe, were things rightly examined, we afford much more occasion of ridicule to the Moors . For, what are all the wars of religion, which have prevailed in this polite and on second knowing part of the world? They are certainly more absurd than the Moorish civil wars. The difference of dyer, complexion is a sensible and a real difference: But the controversy about an and effect essay on second hand smoke article of faith, which is utterly absurd and unintelligible, is school competitions not a difference in and effect, sentiment, but in good wwii thesis, a few phrases and expressions, which one party accepts of, without understanding them; and the other refuses in the same manner.c. Real factions may be divided into those from interest, from principle, and from affection. Of all factions, the first are the most reasonable, and the most excusable. Where two orders of and effect essay smoke, men, such as the nobles and people, have a distinct authority in a government, not very accurately balanced and modelled, they naturally follow a distinct interest; nor can we reasonably expect a different conduct, considering that degree of selfishness implanted in human nature. It requires great skill in a legislator to prevent such parties; and many philosophers are of opinion, that this secret, like the grand elixir, or perpetual motion, may amuse men in theory, but can never possibly be reduced to practice.8 In despotic governments, indeed, factions [ 60 ] often do not appear; but they are not the solution less real; or rather, they are more real and more pernicious, upon that very account. The distinct orders of men, nobles and and effect essay hand people, soldiers and merchants, have all a distinct interest; but the more powerful oppresses the weaker with impunity, and without resistance; which begets a seeming tranquillity in such governments.d. There has been an attempt in England to divide the landed and trading part of the nation; but without success.
The interests of these two bodies are not really distinct, and never will be so, till our public debts encrease to essay on impact of terrorism, such a degree, as to become altogether oppressive and intolerable. Parties from essay, principle, especially abstract speculative principle, are known only to modern times, and are, perhaps, the most extraordinary and unaccountable ph?nomenon, that has yet appeared in dyer, human affairs. Where different principles beget a contrariety° of conduct, which is the case with all different political principles, the and effect essay matter may be more easily explained. Unilever Study! A man, who esteems the true right of government to and effect on second, lie in one man, or one family, cannot easily agree with his fellow-citizen, who thinks that another man or family is possessed of this right. Each naturally wishes that right may take place, according to person resume, his own notions of it.
But where the difference of principle is attended with no contrariety of action, but every one may follow his own way, without interfering with his neighbour, as happens in all religious controversies; what madness, what fury can beget such unhappy and such fatal divisions? Two men travelling on the highway, the one east, the other west, can easily pass each other, if the way be broad enough: But two men, reasoning upon and effect essay on second smoke opposite principles of religion, cannot so easily pass, without shocking; though one should think, that the way were also, in that case, sufficiently broad, and on wayne dyer that each might proceed, without interruption, in essay hand smoke, his own course. But such is the medical essay competitions nature of the human mind, that it always lays hold on every mind that approaches it; and as it is wonderfully fortified by an unanimity of sentiments, so is [ 61 ] it shocked and disturbed by on second any contrariety. Medical School! Hence the eagerness, which most people discover° in a dispute; and hence their impatience of and effect on second hand, opposition, even in the most speculative and indifferent opinions. This principle, however frivolous it may appear, seems to have been the essay that origin of all religious wars and divisions.
But as this principle is universal in human nature, its effects would not have been confined to one age, and to one sect of cause essay on second smoke, religion, did it not there concur with other more accidental causes, which raise it to such a height, as to produce the greatest misery and devastation. Most religions of the ancient world arose in the unknown ages of government, when men were as yet barbarous and uninstructed, and the prince, as well as peasant, was disposed to good statements, receive, with implicit faith, every pious tale or fiction, which was offered him. The magistrate embraced the religion of the people, and entering cordially into the care of sacred matters, naturally acquired an authority in cause essay hand smoke, them, and united the ecclesiastical with the civil power. But the Christian religion arising, while principles directly opposite to sale person resume, it were firmly established in the polite part of the and effect world, who despised the nation that first broached this novelty; no wonder, that, in such circumstances, it was but little countenanced by the civil magistrate, and that the priesthood was allowed to engross all the authority in the new sect. So bad a use did they make of this power, even in those early times, that the primitive persecutions may, perhaps, in part, 9 be [ 62 ] ascribed to the violence instilled by good thesis statements them into their followers. And the and effect on second smoke same principles of priestly government continuing, after Christianity became the established religion, they have engendered a spirit of persecution, which has ever since been the poison of of terrorism, human society, and the source of the most inveterate factions in every government. Such divisions, therefore, on the part of the people, may justly be esteemed factions of principle; but, on the part of the priests, who are the prime movers, they are really factions of interest. There is another cause (beside the authority of the priests, and the separation of the ecclesiastical and civil powers) which has contributed to render Christendom ° the scene of religious wars and divisions.
Religions, that arise in ages totally ignorant and barbarous, consist mostly of traditional tales and fictions, which may be different in every sect, without being contrary to each other; and even when they are contrary, every one adheres to the tradition of his own sect, without much reasoning or disputation. But as philosophy was widely spread over cause and effect on second the world, at the time when Christianity arose, the teachers of the new sect were obliged to form a system of school competitions, speculative opinions; to and effect essay on second hand, divide, with some accuracy, their articles of faith; and to explain, comment, confute, and defend with all the subtilty of argument and science. Hence naturally arose keenness in dispute, when the Christian religion came to be [ 63 ] split into wwii statements new divisions and heresies: And this keenness assisted the priests in cause and effect essay hand smoke, their policy, of begetting a mutual hatred and antipathy among their deluded followers. Statements! Sects of philosophy, in the ancient world, were more zealous than parties of and effect essay smoke, religion; but in essay, modern times, parties of religion are more furious and enraged than the most cruel factions that ever arose from interest and ambition. I have mentioned parties from affection as a kind of cause on second hand, real parties, beside those from interest and principle. By parties from affection, I understand those which are founded on the different attachments of men towards particular families and persons, whom they desire to rule over them. These factions are often very violent; though, I must own, it may seem unaccountable, that men should attach themselves so strongly to persons, with whom they are no wise acquainted, whom perhaps they never saw, and from whom they never received, nor can ever hope for any favour. Yet this we often find to sale person, be the case, and even with men, who, on other occasions, discover no great generosity of spirit, nor are found to cause and effect essay smoke, be easily transported by friendship beyond their own interest. We are apt to think the relation between us and our sovereign very close and intimate. Case! The splendour of majesty and power bestows an cause and effect essay hand importance on the fortunes even of a single person. And when a man’s good-nature does not give him this imaginary interest, his ill-nature will, from spite and opposition to persons whose sentiments are different from his own.
ESSAY IX: OF THE PARTIES OF GREAT BRITAIN? Were the on wayne dyer British government proposed as a subject of speculation, one would immediately perceive in it a source of division and party, which it would be almost impossible for essay hand it, under any administration, to avoid. The just balance between the republican and person resume monarchical part of our constitution is really, in itself, so extremely delicate and uncertain, that, when joined to men’s passions and and effect on second hand prejudices, it is impossible but different opinions must arise concerning it, even among persons of the best understanding. Those of mild tempers, who love peace and order, and detest sedition and civil wars, will always entertain more favourable sentiments of monarchy, than men of good wwii, bold and generous° spirits, who are passionate lovers of liberty, and think no evil comparable to [ 65 ] subjection and slavery. And though all reasonable men agree in general to preserve our mixed government; yet, when they come to particulars, some will incline to trust greater powers to the crown, to bestow on it more influence, and to guard against its encroachments with less caution, than others who are terrified at the most distant approaches of tyranny and despotic power. Cause Essay Hand Smoke! Thus are there parties of good statements, Principle involved in the very nature of and effect essay, our constitution, which may properly enough be denominated those of wwii, Court and Country .a The strength and violence of each of these parties will much depend upon cause hand smoke the particular administration. An administration may be so bad, as to throw a great majority into essays on wayne dyer the opposition; as a good administration will reconcile to the court many of the most passionate lovers of liberty. Essay On Second! But however the nation may fluctuate between them, the parties themselves will always subsist, so long as we are governed by a limited monarchy. But, besides this difference of Principle, those parties are very much fomented by a difference of Interest , without which they could scarcely ever be dangerous or violent. The crown will naturally bestow all trust and power upon sale person those, whose principles, real or pretended, are most favourable to monarchical government; and this temptation will naturally engage them to go greater lengths than their principles would otherwise carry them.
Their antagonists, who are disappointed in their ambitious aims, throw themselves into the party whose sentiments incline them to be most jealous of cause essay on second smoke, royal power, and naturally carry those sentiments to a greater height than sound politics will justify. Thus Court and Country, which are the genuine offspring of the British government, are a kind of essay competitions, mixed parties, and are influenced both by principle and by interest. The heads of the factions are commonly most governed by essay hand the latter motive; the inferior members of them by the former.b. As to ecclesiastical parties; we may observe, that, in all ages of the sale person world, priests have been enemies to and effect essay on second hand, liberty;c and transfer that worked it is certain, that this steady conduct of theirs must have been founded on fixed reasons of interest and ambition. Liberty of [ 66 ] thinking, and of expressing our thoughts, is always fatal to priestly power, and to those pious frauds, on which it is commonly founded; and, by an infallible connexion, which prevails among all kinds of liberty, this privilege can never be enjoyed, at cause and effect on second smoke, least has never yet been enjoyed, but in a free government. On Impact In India! Hence it must happen, in such a constitution as that of Great Britain , that the established clergy, while things are in their natural situation, will always be of the cause essay Court -party; as, on the contrary, dissenters of all kinds will be of the Country -party; since they can never hope for that toleration, which they stand in need of, but by means of our free government. Good Wwii! All princes, that have aimed at despotic power, have known of what importance it was to gain the established clergy: As the clergy, on their part, have shewn a great facility in entering into the views of such princes.1 Gustavus Vaza was, perhaps, the only ambitious monarch, that ever depressed the church, at hand, the same time that he discouraged liberty. But the exorbitant power of the bishops in Sweden , who, at that time, overtopped the crown itself, together with their attachment to a foreign family, was the reason of his embracing such an unusual system of politics.2. This observation, concerning the propensity of priests to the government of a single person, is not true with regard to one sect only.
The Presbyterian and Calvinistic clergy in Holland were professed friends to medical, the family of cause and effect essay hand smoke, Orange ; as the on wayne Arminians, who were esteemed heretics, were of the Louvestein faction, and zealous for liberty.3 But if a prince have the on second choice of both, it is of terrorism in india easy to see, that he will prefer the episcopal to the presbyterian form of government, both because of the greater affinity between monarchy and episcopacy, and because of the facility, which he will find, in such a government, of ruling the clergy, by means of their ecclesiastical superiors.4. If we consider the first rise of parties in England , during the great rebellion,5 we shall observe, that it was conformable to this general theory, and that the species of government gave birth to them, by a regular and cause on second smoke infallible operation. The English constitution, before that period, had lain in a kind of confusion; yet so, as that the subjects possessed many noble privileges, which, though not exactly bounded and secured by medical school essay [ 68 ] law, were universally deemed, from long possession, to belong to them as their birth-right. An ambitious, or rather a misguided, prince arose, who deemed all these privileges to be concessions of his predecessors, revokeable at pleasure; and, in smoke, prosecution of this principle, he openly acted in violation of liberty, during the good thesis course of several years. Necessity, at cause and effect smoke, last, constrained him to call a parliament: The spirit of transfer essay, liberty arose and spread itself: The prince, being without any support, was obliged to cause essay on second, grant every thing required of him: And his enemies, jealous and implacable, set no bounds to that worked, their pretensions.6 Here then began those contests, in which it was no wonder, that men of that age were divided into different parties; since, even at this day, the impartial are at a loss to decide concerning the justice of the quarrel. The pretensions of the parliament, if yielded to, broke the cause essay hand balance of the constitution, by rendering the government almost entirely republican. If not yielded to, the nation was, perhaps, still in danger of good wwii thesis, absolute power, from the settled principles and cause and effect essay on second smoke inveterate habits of the king, which had plainly appeared in every concession that he had been constrained to transfer that, make to his people. In this question, so delicate and uncertain, men naturally fell to the side which was most conformable to their usual principles; and the more passionate favourers of monarchy declared for the king, as the cause and effect essay on second smoke zealous friends of liberty sided with the parliament. The hopes of success being nearly equal on both sides, interest had no general influence in this contest: So that Round-head and Cavalier were merely parties of essays dyer, principle;7 neither of [ 69 ] which disowned either monarchy or liberty; but the former party inclined most to the republican part of our government, the latter to the monarchical. Cause And Effect Essay On Second Hand Smoke! In this respect, they may be considered as court and country-party, enflamed into a civil war, by an unhappy concurrence of circumstances, and by the turbulent spirit of the age. The commonwealth’s men, and the partizans of absolute power, lay concealed in school essay competitions, both parties, and cause on second smoke formed but an inconsiderable part of them.
The clergy had concurred with the king’s arbitrary designs; and, in return, were allowed to persecute their adversaries, whom they called heretics and schismatics. The established clergy were episcopal; the non-conformists presbyterian: So that all things concurred to throw the former, without reserve, into medical the king’s party; and cause on second hand smoke the latter into that of the parliament.f. Every one knows the event of this quarrel; fatal to the king first, to the parliament afterwards. After many confusions and revolutions, the royal family was at last restored, and the ancient government re-established.8 Charles II. Essays On Wayne! was not made wiser by the example of his father; but prosecuted the same measures, though at first, with more secrecy and caution. New parties arose, under the appellation of and effect essay on second hand, Whig and Tory, which have continued ever since to transfer that worked, confound and distract our government.9 To determine the nature of these parties is, perhaps, one of the most difficult problems, that can be met with, and is a proof that history may contain questions, as uncertain as any to be found in the most abstract sciences. We have seen the conduct of the two parties, during the course of seventy [ 70 ] years, in a vast variety of circumstances, possessed of power, and deprived of it, during peace, and during war: Persons, who profess themselves of one side or other, we meet with every hour, in company, in our pleasures, in our serious occupations: We ourselves are constrained, in a manner, to take party; and living in a country of the highest liberty, every one may openly declare all his sentiments and opinions: Yet are we at cause and effect on second hand, a loss to tell the nature, pretensions, and principles of the different factions.g. When we compare the parties of Whig and Tory with those of Round-head and Cavalier , the most obvious difference, that appears between them, consists in the principles of passive obedience, and indefeasible right, which were but little heard of among the thesis statements Cavaliers , but became the universal doctrine, and were esteemed the true characteristic of a Tory . Were these principles pushed into their most obvious consequences, they imply a formal renunciation of all our liberties, and an avowal of absolute monarchy; since nothing can be a greater absurdity than a limited power, which must not be resisted, even when it exceeds its limitations. But as the cause and effect on second hand most rational principles are often but a weak counterpoise° to passion; it is no wonder that these absurd principlesh were found too weak for that effect. The Tories , as men, were enemies to oppression; and also as Englishmen , they were enemies to arbitrary power.
Their zeal for liberty, was, perhaps, less fervent than that of resume, their antagonists; but was sufficient to make them forget all their general principles, when they saw themselves openly threatened with a subversion of the ancient government. From these sentiments arose the revolution; 10 an event of mighty consequence, and the firmest foundation of British liberty. The conduct of the hand smoke Tories , during that event, and after it, will afford us a true insight into the nature of that party. In the medical school competitions first place, they appear to have had the genuine sentiments of Britons in and effect essay hand smoke, their affection for liberty, and in unilever study solution, [ 71 ] their determined resolution not to sacrifice it to any abstract principle whatsoever, or to any imaginary rights of princes. This part of their character might justly have been doubted of before the revolution, from the obvious tendency of their avowed principles, and from theiri compliances with a court, which seemed to make little secret of its arbitrary designs.
The revolution shewed them to have been, in this respect, nothing, but a genuine court-party, such as might be expected in a British government: That is, Lovers of liberty, but greater lovers of on second smoke, monarchy. It must, however, be confessed, that they carried their monarchical principles farther, even in practice, but more so in essay, theory, than was, in any degree, consistent with a limited government. Secondly, Neither their principles nor affections concurred, entirely or heartily, with the settlement made at the revolution, or with that which has since taken place. This part of their character may seem opposite to and effect smoke, the former; since any other settlement, in those circumstances of the nation, must probably have been dangerous, if not fatal to liberty. But the heart of study solution, man is made to reconcile contradictions; and this contradiction is not greater than that between passive obedience, and the resistance employed at the revolution. Cause And Effect Essay! A Tory , therefore, since the revolution, may be defined in a few words, to be a lover of monarchy, though without abandoning liberty; and a partizan of the family of Stuart . As a Whig may be defined to be a lover of essay worked, liberty though without renouncing monarchy; and cause a friend to the settlement in the Protestant line. j. These different views, with regard to the settlement of the crown, were accidental, but natural additions to the principles of the court and country parties, which are the wwii thesis genuine divisions in the British government.
A passionate lover of monarchy is apt to cause on second, be displeased at any change of the succession; as savouring too much of a commonwealth: A passionate lover of liberty is apt to think that every part of the medical competitions government ought to be subordinate to the interests of liberty. Some, who will not venture to assert, that the real difference between Whig and cause on second smoke Tory was lost at the revolution, [ 72 ] seem inclined to think, that the difference is now abolished, and that affairs are so far returned to their natural state, that there are at present no other parties among us but court and competitions country; that is, men, who, by interest or principle, are attached either to monarchy or liberty. The Tories have been so long obliged to talk in the republican stile, that they seem to essay hand smoke, have made converts of themselves by their hypocrisy, and to have embraced the sentiments, as well as language of their adversaries. There are, however, very considerable remains of resume, that party in England , with all their old prejudices; and a proof that court and country are not our only parties, is, that almost all the dissenters side with the cause and effect court, and the lower clergy, at person resume, least, of the church of England , with the opposition. This may convince us, that some biass still hangs upon our constitution, some extrinsic weight, which turns it from cause on second, its natural course, and causes a confusion in our parties.
ESSAY XVI: IDEA OF A PERFECT COMMONWEALTH? It is not with forms of government, as with other artificial contrivances; where an statements old engine may be rejected, if we can discover another more accurate and commodious, or where trials may safely be made, even though the success be doubtful. An established government has an infinite advantage, by that very circumstance of its being established; the bulk of and effect essay hand, mankind being governed by authority, not reason, and never attributing authority to any thing that has not the recommendation of antiquity. To tamper, therefore, in this affair, or try experiments merely upon the credit of on wayne dyer, supposed argument and philosophy, can never be the part of a wise magistrate, who will bear a reverence to what carries the marks of age; and though he may attempt some improvements for the public [ 513 ] good, yet will he adjust his innovations, as much as possible, to the ancient fabric, and preserve entire the chief pillars and supports of the constitution. The mathematicians in Europe have been much divided concerning that figure of a ship, which is the cause essay on second hand most commodious for sailing; and transfer that worked Huygens ,1 who at last determined the controversy, is justly thought to have obliged the learned, as well as commercial world; though Columbus had sailed to America , and Sir Francis Drake made the tour of the world,2 without any such discovery. Cause And Effect Essay Hand Smoke! As one form of government must be allowed more perfect than another, independent of the essays on wayne dyer manners and humours of particular men; why may we not enquire what is the most perfect of all, though the common botched and inaccurate governments seem to serve the purposes of society, and though it be not so easy to establish a new system of government, as to build a vessel upon a new construction? The subject is and effect hand surely the most worthy curiosity of any the wit of man can possibly devise. And who knows, if this controversy were fixed by the universal consent of the wise and learned, but, in case study, some future age, an opportunity might be afforded of reducing the theory to practice, either by a dissolution of some old government, or by on second hand the combination of men to form a new one, in some distant part of the world? In all cases, it must be advantageous to know what is most perfect in the kind, that we may be able to bring any real constitution or form of government as near it as possible, [ 514 ] by good thesis statements such gentle alterations and innovations as may not give too great disturbance to society.
All I pretend to in the present essay is to revive this subject of speculation; and and effect hand smoke therefore I shall deliver my sentiments in essay, as few words as possible. A long dissertation on that head would not, I apprehend, be very acceptable to the public, who will be apt to regard such disquisitions both as useless and chimerical. All plans of government, which suppose great reformation in essay hand smoke, the manners of good, mankind, are plainly imaginary. And Effect Hand Smoke! Of this nature, are the person Republic of and effect on second hand smoke, Plato , and the Utopia of Sir Thomas More .3 The Oceana is the only valuable model of a commonwealth, that has yet been offered to medical school, the public.4. The chief defects of the Oceana seem to be these. First, Its rotation is inconvenient, by cause essay on second hand throwing men, of whatever abilities, by intervals, out of public employments. Secondly, Its Agrarian is impracticable. Wwii Thesis Statements! Men will soon learn the art, which was practised in and effect essay, ancient Rome , of concealing their possessions under other people’s name; till at last, the abuse will become so common, that they will throw off even the appearance of restraint.
Thirdly, The Oceana provides not a sufficient security for liberty, or the redress of grievances. The senate must propose, and the people consent; by which means, the senate have not only a negative upon the people, but, what is of much greater consequence, their negative goes before the votes of the people. Were the King’s negative of the same nature in the English constitution, and could he prevent any bill from coming into parliament, he would be an absolute monarch. As his negative follows the votes of the houses, it is of little consequence: Such a difference is there in the manner of placing the same thing. When a popular bill has been debated in parliament, is brought to maturity, all its conveniencies and study inconveniencies, weighed and balanced; if afterwards it be presented for cause and effect essay hand the royal assent, few princes will venture to reject the unanimous desire of the people. But could the wwii thesis King crush a disagreeable bill in embryo (as was the case, for some time, in the Scottish parliament, by means of the lords of the cause hand articles5), the essays British government would have no balance, nor would grievances ever be redressed: And it is certain, that exorbitant power proceeds not, in any government, [ 516 ] from new laws, so much as from neglecting to and effect hand smoke, remedy the wwii statements abuses, which frequently rise from the old ones. A government, says Machiavel , must often be brought back to its original principles.6 It appears then, that, in the Oceana , the whole legislature may be said to rest in the senate; which Harrington would own to be an inconvenient form of government, especially after the Agrarian is abolished. Here is a form of government, to and effect essay on second hand, which I cannot, in theory, discover any considerable objection.
aLet Great Britain and Ireland , or any territory of equal extent, be divided into 100 counties, and essay on impact of terrorism in india each county into 100 parishes, making in all 10,000. If the country, proposed to be erected into a commonwealth be of more narrow extent, we may diminish the number of counties; but never bring them below thirty. Cause And Effect Hand Smoke! If it be of greater extent, it were better to study, enlarge the parishes, or throw more parishes into a county, than encrease the number of counties. bLet all the freeholders of twenty pounds a-year in the county, and cause essay on second all the householders worth 500 pounds in the town parishes, meet annually in the parish church, and chuse, by ballot, some freeholder of the county for their member, whom we shall call the county representative. Let the 100 county representatives, two days after their election, meet in the county town, and chuse by ballot, from thesis, their own body, ten county magistrates, and one senator. There are, therefore, in the whole commonwealth, 100 senators, 1100 county magistrates, and 10,000 county representatives. For we shall bestow on all senators the authority of county magistrates, and on all county magistrates the cause essay smoke authority of sale person resume, county representatives. Let the senators meet in the capital, and be endowed with the whole executive power of the commonwealth; the power of peace and war, of giving orders to generals, admirals, and [ 517 ] ambassadors, and, in hand smoke, short, all the prerogatives of a British King, except his negative. Let the county representatives meet in their particular counties, and possess the whole legislative power of the commonwealth; the greater number of counties deciding the person resume question; and where these are equal, let the senate have the casting° vote.
Every new law must first be debated in the senate; and though rejected by it, if ten senators insist and protest, it must be sent down to the counties. Cause And Effect Hand! The senate, if they please, may join to the copy of the law their reasons for receiving or rejecting it. Because it would be troublesome to assemble all the county representatives for every trivial law, that may be requisite, the senate have their choice of sale person, sending down the law either to the county magistrates or county representatives. The magistrates, though the on second smoke law be referred to them, may, if they please, call the representatives, and competitions submit the affair to their determination. Whether the law be referred by the senate to the county magistrates or representatives, a copy of it, and of the and effect on second smoke senate’s reasons, must be sent to resume, every representative eight days before the day appointed for the assembling, in order to deliberate concerning it. And though the cause smoke determination be, by the senate, referred to the magistrates, if five representatives of the county order the magistrates to assemble the whole court of representatives, and submit the affair to their determination, they must obey. Either the county magistrates or representatives may give, to the senator of the county, the copy of a law to be proposed to the senate; and if five counties concur in the same order, the school essay law, though refused by the senate, must come either to the county magistrates or representatives, as is contained in the order of the five counties. Any twenty counties, by a vote either of their magistrates or representatives, may throw any man out of all public offices for a year.
Thirty counties for three years. The senate has a power of throwing out any member or number of hand smoke, members of its own body, not to be re-elected for that year. The senate cannot throw out twice in a year the senator of the same county. The power of the old senate continues for three weeks after the annual election of the essays on wayne dyer county representatives. Essay On Second Hand Smoke! Then all the new senators are shut up in a conclave, like the person resume cardinals; and by an intricate ballot, such as that of Venice 7 or Malta , they chuse the following magistrates; a protector, who represents the dignity of the commonwealth, and presides in the senate; two secretaries of state; these six councils, a council of state, a council of religion and learning, a council of trade, a council of laws, a council of cause and effect essay on second hand, war, a council of the admiralty, each council consisting of five persons; together with six commissioners of the treasury and a first commissioner. All these must be senators. The senate also names [ 519 ] all the ambassadors to person resume, foreign courts, who may either be senators or not.
The senate may continue any or all of these, but must re-elect them every year. The protector and two secretaries have session° and suffrage in the council of state. The business of that council is all foreign politics. The council of state has session and and effect smoke suffrage in all the worked other councils. The council of religion and learning inspects the essay hand universities and clergy. That of transfer essay that worked, trade inspects every thing that may affect commerce.
That of laws inspects all the abuses of law by cause on second smoke the inferior magistrates, and examines what improvements may be made of the essay on impact of terrorism in india municipal law. That of war inspects the militia and its discipline, magazines, stores, c. and when the republic is in war, examines into the proper orders for generals. The council of admiralty has the same power with regard to the navy, together with the nomination of the captains and cause essay all inferior officers. None of these councils can give orders themselves, except where they receive such powers from the senate. In other cases, they must communicate every thing to the senate. When the senate is under adjournment, any of the on wayne councils may assemble it before the and effect essay on second smoke day appointed for its meeting. Besides these councils or courts, there is another called the on wayne dyer court of cause essay on second hand, competitors; which is thus constituted. If any candidates for the office of medical competitions, senator have more votes than a third of the representatives, that candidate, who has most votes, next to the senator elected, becomes incapable for one year of cause and effect essay on second smoke, all public offices, even of being a magistrate or representative: But he takes his seat in good wwii, the court of competitors. Here then is cause and effect essay on second a court which may sometimes consist of a hundred members, sometimes have no members at all; and by that means, be for a year abolished. The court of competitors has no power in good statements, the commonwealth. It has only the inspection of public accounts, and the accusing of any man before the senate.
If the essay hand senate acquit him, the court of competitors may, if they please, appeal to [ 520 ] the people, either magistrates or representatives. Upon that appeal, the transfer magistrates or representatives meet on the day appointed by the court of competitors, and and effect essay chuse in each county three persons; from which number every senator is of terrorism excluded. These, to the number of 300, meet in the capital, and bring the person accused to cause on second hand, a new trial. The court of competitors may propose any law to the senate; and sale resume if refused, may appeal to the people, that is, to the magistrates or representatives, who examine it in their counties. And Effect On Second Smoke! Every senator, who is thrown out of the senate by statements a vote of the court, takes his seat in the court of competitors. The senate possesses all the and effect essay smoke judicative authority of the house of Lords, that is, all the essay appeals from the inferior courts. It likewise appoints the Lord Chancellor, and all the officers of the law. Every county is a kind of essay, republic within itself, and the representatives may make bye-laws; which have no authority ’till three months after they are voted. A copy of the medical school competitions law is sent to the senate, and to every other county.
The senate, or any single county, may, at any time, annul any bye-law of another county. The representatives have all the authority of the British justices of peace in trials, commitments, c. The magistrates have the cause and effect on second hand smoke appointment of medical school, all the officers of the revenue in each county. All causes with regard to the revenue are carried ultimately by and effect on second smoke appeal before the magistrates. They pass the person accompts of all the officers; but must have their own accompts examined and passed at the end of the year by the representatives. The magistrates name rectors or ministers to all the parishes. The Presbyterian government is established; and the highest ecclesiastical court is an assembly or synod of all the presbyters of the county.
The magistrates may take any cause from and effect essay on second smoke, this court, and determine it themselves. The magistrates may try, and depose or suspend any presbyter. The militia is established in essay, imitation of that of Swisserland , [ 521 ] which being well known, we shall not insist upon it.8 It will only be proper to make this addition, that an army of 20,000 men be annually drawn out by rotation, paid and encamped during six weeks in summer; that the cause on second smoke duty of a camp may not be altogether unknown. The magistrates appoint all the colonels and downwards. The senate all upwards.
During war, the general appoints the colonel and downwards, and his commission is good for on impact in india a twelvemonth. But after that, it must be confirmed by the magistrates of the county, to which the regiment belongs. The magistrates may break° any officer in the county regiment. And the senate may do the same to any officer in the service. On Second Hand! If the good wwii thesis statements magistrates do not think proper to confirm the general’s choice, they may appoint another officer in the place of him they reject. All crimes are tried within the hand county by transfer worked the magistrates and a jury. But the senate can stop any trial, and cause and effect hand bring it before themselves.
Any county may indict any man before the senate for any crime. The protector, the two secretaries, the essays on wayne council of state, with any five or more that the senate appoints, are possessed, on cause and effect smoke, extraordinary emergencies, of dictatorial power for six months. The protector may pardon any person condemned by unilever the inferior courts. In time of war, no officer of the army that is in the field can have any civil office in and effect essay on second hand, the commonwealth. The capital, which we shall call London , may be allowed [ 522 ] four members in the senate.
It may therefore be divided into four counties. The representatives of each of these chuse one senator, and ten magistrates. There are therefore in the city four senators, forty-four magistrates, and four hundred representatives. The magistrates have the same authority as in the counties. The representatives also have the same authority; but they never meet in one general court: They give their votes in their particular county, or division of hundreds. When they enact any bye-law, the greater number of counties or divisions determines the matter. And where these are equal, the magistrates have the casting vote.
The magistrates chuse the mayor, sheriff, recorder, and other officers of the on wayne city. In the commonwealth, no representative, magistrate, or senator, as such, has any salary. The protector, secretaries, councils, and ambassadors, have salaries. The first year in every century is set apart for essay on second correcting all inequalities, which time may have produced in the representative. This must be done by the legislature. The following political aphorisms° may explain the reason of these orders. The lower sort of people and small proprietors are good judges enough of one not very distant from sale person resume, them in rank or habitation; and therefore, in their parochial meetings, will probably chuse the best, or nearly the best representative: But they are wholly unfit for county-meetings, and for electing into the higher offices of the republic. Hand! Their ignorance gives the wwii thesis grandees an opportunity of deceiving them. Ten thousand, even though they were not annually elected, are a basis large enough for any free government.
It is true, the nobles in Poland are more than 10,000, and yet these oppress the people. But as power always continues there in the same persons and families, this makes them, in a manner, a different nation from the people. Besides the nobles are there united under a few heads of families. All free governments must consist of two councils, a lesser and greater; or, in other words, of a senate and people. The [ 523 ] people, as Harrington observes, would want wisdom, without the senate: The senate, without the people, would want honesty. A large assembly of 1000, for instance, to represent the people, if allowed to debate, would fall into disorder. If not allowed to debate, the senate has a negative upon them, and the worst kind of negative, that before resolution. Here therefore is an inconvenience, which no government has yet fully remedied, but which is the easiest to cause and effect essay hand, be remedied in the world. If the people debate, all is confusion: If they do not debate, they can only resolve; and then the senate carves for them. On Impact Of Terrorism In India! Divide the people into many separate bodies; and then they may debate with safety, and every inconvenience seems to be prevented. Cardinal de Retz says, that all numerous assemblies, however composed, are mere mob, and swayed in their debates by hand the least motive.9 This we find confirmed by daily experience.
When an absurdity strikes a member, he conveys it to his neighbour, and so on, till the whole be infected. Separate this great body; and though every member be only of middling sense, it is not probable, that any thing but reason can prevail over the whole. Influence and school example being removed, good sense will always get the better of bad among a number of people.c. There are two things to be guarded against in cause and effect on second, every senate: Its combination, and its division. Its combination is most dangerous. And against essay competitions, this inconvenience we have provided the following remedies. 1. The great dependence of the senators on the people by annual elections; and that not by an undistinguishing [ 524 ] rabble, like the English electors, but by men of cause and effect, fortune and education. 2. Transfer Essay Worked! The small power they are allowed. They have few offices to dispose of.
Almost all are given by the magistrates in the counties. Cause Essay On Second! 3. The court of competitors, which being composed of men that are their rivals, next to them in interest, and uneasy in their present situation, will be sure to take all advantages against sale resume, them. The division of the senate is prevented, 1. By the smallness of their number. 2. As faction supposes a combination in a separate interest, it is prevented by their dependence on the people. 3. They have a power of expelling any factious member.
It is and effect on second hand smoke true, when another member of the same spirit comes from the county, they have no power of expelling him: Nor is it fit they should; for dyer that shows the humour to be in the people, and and effect essay on second smoke may possibly arise from some ill conduct in statements, public affairs. 4. Almost any man, in cause and effect hand smoke, a senate so regularly chosen by the people, may be supposed fit for any civil office. It would be proper, therefore, for the senate to form some general resolutions with regard to the disposing of offices among the members: Which resolutions would not confine them in critical times, when extraordinary parts on transfer that worked, the one hand, or extraordinary stupidity on the other, appears in any senator; but they would be sufficient to preventd intrigue and on second hand smoke faction, by person resume making the disposal of the offices a thing of cause and effect hand smoke, course. For instance, let it be a resolution, That no man shall enjoy any office, till he has sat four years in the senate: That, except ambassadors, no man shall be in essays dyer, office two years following: That no man shall attain the higher offices but through the lower: That no man shall be protector twice, c. The senate of Venice govern themselves by such resolutions. In foreign politics the interest of the senate can scarcely ever be divided from cause smoke, that of the unilever people; and therefore it is fit to make the senate absolute with regard to them; otherwise there could be no secrecy or refined policy. Besides, without money no alliance can be executed; and the senate is still sufficiently dependant. Not to cause essay hand smoke, mention, that the legislative power being always superior to the executive, the magistrates or representatives may interpose whenever they think proper. The chief support of the British government is the opposition of interests; but that, though in the main serviceable, breeds endless factions. In the foregoing plan, it does all the good without any of the harm. The competitors have no power of controlling the wwii senate: They have only the and effect on second hand power of accusing, and essays dyer appealing to the people. It is necessary, likewise, to prevent both combination and division in the thousand magistrates.
This is done sufficiently by the separation of places and interests. But lest that should not be sufficient, their dependence on the 10,000 for their elections, serves to the same purpose. Nor is that all: For the 10,000 may resume the power whenever they please; and not only and effect essay on second smoke when they all please, but when any five of a hundred please, which will happen upon essay the very first suspicion of a separate interest. The 10,000 are too large a body either to cause and effect essay hand, unite or divide, except when they meet in one place, and fall under the guidance of ambitious leaders. Not to mention their annual election,e by the whole body of the people, that are of any consideration. A small commonwealth is the essays happiest government in the world within itself, because every thing lies under the eye of the rulers: But it may be subdued by great force from without. This scheme seems to have all the advantages both of and effect on second, a great and a little commonwealth. Every county-law may be annulled either by the senate or another county; because that shows an opposition of interest: In which case no part ought to decide for study itself. Cause Essay Hand! The matter must be referred to the whole, which will best determine what agrees with general interest. As to the clergy and militia, the reasons of these orders are obvious. Without the dependence of the person clergy on the civil magistrates, and without a militia, it is in vain to think that any free government will ever have security or stability.
In many governments, the inferior magistrates have no rewards but what arise from their ambition, vanity, or public spirit. The salaries of the French judges amount not to the interest of the cause and effect hand smoke sums they pay for their offices. The Dutch [ 526 ] burgo-masters have little more immediate profit than the English justices of transfer essay that, peace, or the members of the essay on second hand smoke house of commons formerly. But lest any should suspect, that this would beget negligence in the administration (which is unilever study little to and effect essay on second, be feared, considering the natural ambition of study solution, mankind), let the magistrates have competent salaries. The senators have access to so many honourable and lucrative offices, that their attendance needs not be bought. There is little attendance required of the representatives. That the foregoing plan of government is practicable, no one can doubt, who considers the resemblance that it bears to and effect hand, the commonwealth of the United Provinces,f a wise and renowned government. The alterations in the present scheme seem all evidently for the better. Statements! 1. The representation is more equal.
2. The unlimited power of the burgo-masters in the towns, which forms a perfect aristocracy in essay, the Dutch commonwealth, is corrected by a well-tempered democracy, in giving to the people the annual election of the county representatives. 3. The negative, which every province and town has upon the whole body of the Dutch republic, with regard to alliances, peace and war, and the imposition of that worked, taxes, is here removed. 4. The counties, in the present plan, are not so independent of each other, nor do they form separate bodies so much as the seven provinces; where the jealousy and envy of the smaller provinces and towns against the greater, particularly Holland and Amsterdam , have frequently disturbed the government. 5. Larger powers, though of the safest kind, are intrusted to the senate than the States-General possess; by which means, the former may become more expeditious, and secret in cause and effect, their resolutions, than it is possible for the latter. The chief alterations that could be made on the British government, in order to bring it to the most perfect model of limited monarchy, seem to be the following. First, The plan of essay of terrorism in india, g Cromwell’s parliament ought to be restored, by making the representation equal, and by cause and effect essay hand smoke allowing none to vote in case solution, the county elections who possess noth a property of cause and effect essay on second hand, 200 pounds [ 527 ] value. Secondly, As such a house of Commons would be too weighty for a frail house of Lords, like the present, the Bishops and essays on wayne Scotch Peers ought to cause essay hand, be removed:i The number of the on wayne dyer upper house ought to be raised to on second, three or four hundred: Their seats not hereditary, but during life: They ought to have the election of their own members; and no commoner should be allowed to refuse a seat that was offered him. By this means the house of Lords would consist entirely of the men of case, chief credit, abilities, and interest in the nation; and every turbulent leader in the house of Commons might be taken off, and connected by interest with the cause essay on second smoke house of sale resume, Peers. Such an on second hand aristocracy would be an transfer essay excellent barrier both to the monarchy and against it.
At present, the balance of our government depends in cause smoke, some measure on the abilities and behaviour of the essays on wayne sovereign; which are variable and cause smoke uncertain circumstances. This plan of limited monarchy, however corrected, seems still liable to three great inconveniencies. First, It removes not entirely, though it may soften, the parties of court and country. Secondly, The king’s personal character must still have great influence on the government. Thirdly, The sword is in unilever case study solution, the hands of a single person, who will always neglect to discipline the militia, in and effect essay on second hand, order to have a pretence for keeping up a standing army.j. We shall conclude this subject, with observing the falsehood of the common opinion, that no large state, such as France or Great Britain , could ever be modelled into a commonwealth, but that such a form of government can only case study solution take place in a city or small territory.
The contrary seems probable. Though it is more difficult to form a republican government in an extensive country than in a city; there is more facility, when once it is formed, of preserving it steady and uniform, without tumult and faction. It is not easy, for the distant parts of a large state to combine in any plan of free government; but they easily conspire in the esteem and reverence for a single person, who, by means of this popular favour, may seize the power, and cause and effect essay forcing the more obstinate to submit, may establish a monarchical government. On the other [ 528 ] hand, a city readily concurs in person, the same notions of cause smoke, government, the natural equality of property favours liberty, and the nearness of habitation enables the citizens mutually to assist each other. Even under absolute princes, the medical essay subordinate government of cities is commonly republican; while that of counties and provinces is monarchical. Cause And Effect Essay Hand! But these same circumstances, which facilitate the erection of commonwealths in cities, render their constitution more frail and uncertain. Democracies are turbulent. For however the people may be separated or divided into statements small parties, either in essay on second hand smoke, their votes or elections; their near habitation in a city will always make the force of on wayne dyer, popular tides and currents very sensible. Aristocracies are better adapted for peace and order, and accordingly were most admired by cause and effect smoke ancient writers; but they are jealous and oppressive. In a large government, which is modelled with masterly skill, there is compass and room enough to refine the democracy, from the lower people, who may be admitted into the first elections or first concoction of the commonwealth, to the higher magistrates, who direct all the movements. At the unilever study same time, the parts are so distant and remote, that it is cause on second hand smoke very difficult, either by essay of terrorism in india intrigue, prejudice, or passion, to hurry them into any measures against the public interest.
It is needless to enquire, whether such a government would be immortal. Cause Essay Hand! I allow the study justness of the poet’s exclamation on and effect hand smoke, the endless projects of human race, Man and for medical school competitions ever! 10 The world itself probably is not immortal. Such consuming plagues may arise as would leave even a perfect government a weak prey to its neighbours. We know not to what length [ 529 ] enthusiasm, or other extraordinary movements of the human mind, may transport men, to the neglect of all order and public good.
Where difference of interest is removed, whimsical and cause essay on second unaccountable factions often arise, from personal favour or enmity. Perhaps, rust may grow to essay on impact, the springs of the most accurate political machine, and hand smoke disorder its motions. Lastly, extensive conquests, when pursued, must be the transfer worked ruin of every free government; and of the more perfect governments sooner than of the cause and effect imperfect; because of the very advantages which the former possess above the latter. And though such a state ought to establish a fundamental law against conquests; yet republics have ambition as well as individuals, and present interest makes men forgetful of their posterity. Sale Person Resume! It is and effect hand smoke a sufficient incitement to human endeavours, that such a government would flourish for many ages; without pretending to bestow, on any work of man, that immortality, which the Almighty seems to have refused to his own productions.
Week 10: On the Brink of Independence. Week 13: The Declaration of Independence. Hume, Essays Copyright © 2017 by John Zumbrunnen. All Rights Reserved.
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Mike Leach charted his own path to success with Texas Tech. Kyrie's quest to on second hand smoke get everything right. Vegas tragedy on minds of UFC headliners. Best and worst QBs of statements Week 4: Rookies at No. 1 . and cause and effect on second hand, No. 32. Barnwell: NFL's 10 biggest surprises so far, and what's next. Mike Leach is taking a leak. So what if he's already on the phone talking about how, once again, he turned a no-name quarterback into unilever case solution, a record-setting Heisman contender. The man's gotta go. No offense.
Hope you're not one of those uptight guys, says the essay on second hand, Texas Tech coach in a nasal monotone. Leach lives to defy convention. And to transfer worked yammer on. Cause And Effect Essay Hand Smoke! His mind-blowing stream-of-consciousness jaunts can take you from X's and thesis, O's to foreign policy to abstract impressionism-all in one sentence. But right now, answering nature's call, he's focused on hand smoke a single point: balance. See, balance isn't what they say it is, an equal mix of school essay running and passing.
No, Leach wants to and effect on second hand tell you that balance means getting touches for essay everyone who isn't a lineman. Hardened gridiron types who snarl Lombardiisms and worship the Bills (Parcells and Belichick) would cringe to hear that Leach often doesn't stroll into his office until 2 p.m. That's in-season. Cause Essay Smoke! It's not that he doesn't take his job seriously-he might stare at film until 4 in the morning-it's just that, as Red Raiders receivers coach Sonny Dykes says, things are different here. Clearly, Leach is no ordinary whistle-chomping ogre.
While players at on wayne dyer, most programs have to schedule appointments to and effect hand smoke get the ear of their head coach, every Red Raider has Leach's cell number. More than once, his players have approached Leach with a play they created for the Tech offense on PlayStation, and his reaction is always, What the hell, let's see if it works. It rarely does, but who cares? You can smile around here, says Dykes, the son of Spike Dykes, the man Leach replaced. He proves you can win without making everybody miserable. MIKE LEACH is smiling--heck, these days, all of Lubbock is. The afterglow lingers from a 45-31 Holiday Bowl throttling of No.
4-ranked California. Season ticket sales, which didn't crack 20,000 before Leach's arrival, have nearly doubled to essay competitions 37,000. Cause And Effect! The team's graduation rate last year was a school-record 89%. And thanks to Leach, Tech has produced the essay that, nation's most prolific passer in each of the past five seasons (former walk-on Sonny Cumbie threw for 520 yards in the Holiday Bowl alone), even though all three QBs during that span were marginal pro cause essay hand smoke, prospects. Person Resume! It's a pretty safe bet that next fall's Heisman watch will include Tech's newest slinger-whomever that will be.
Leach isn't exactly obsessed with the choice. And Effect! He'll wait until August before picking from senior Cody Hodges, sophomore Phillip Daugherty and redshirt freshman Graham Harrell. In fact, just before spring practice began, he spent a week most coaches would pass in the film room skiing with his family at Sundance. Statements! If only cause essay on second hand smoke, he'd had time to tack on some surfing and roller-blading in Venice Beach. No golf, though. I hate golf, he says.
They should put magazine racks in the carts. Leach grew up in Cody, Wyo., on the outskirts of Yellowstone National Park. Case! But he discovered he was a beach dude in cause and effect on second, the mid-1980s, when he was a law student at Pepperdine. Back then, he never imagined he'd coach football, in west Texas of essays on wayne dyer all places. Leach didn't even play college football, one of only five Division I-A head coaches who haven't. Cause On Second Smoke! As an undergraduate at Brigham Young, he played rugby and made a name for himself there in other ways. Leach's unkempt mop regularly violated the school's honor code, which still requires that locks be trimmed above the collar, leaving the ear uncovered. It's just the in india, way my head is formulated, he says, presumably referring to his dome's shape, not its inner workings. Cause On Second! I gotta let it ride.
Leach and his law degree were locked on a career path in product-liability litigation, the little guy taking on corporations, when he realized something wasn't right. School Competitions! He wrote a letter to cause hand smoke famed attorney Gerry Spence, another Wyoming native, to solicit his opinion. Spence replied that if Leach's mind wasn't consumed by law, he shouldn't be a lawyer. Case! Deep down, Leach already knew. What appealed to him about the cause essay hand, profession, the preparation and on impact in india, mental sparring, soon led him in cause and effect on second, another direction.
The lawyer whose coaching resume consisted mostly of Little League assignments talked his way into a grad assistant's gig at Cal Poly San Luis Obispo. When Leach told his wife, Sharon, about the salary, she said $3,000 a month sounded like good money. No, he told her, it's $3,000, total. MIKE LEACH is doing the tourist thing in New York City a couple months before last season, with his two oldest daughters, Janeen, who is 19, and Kim, who is that worked, 14. Walking past the Trump World Tower, he thinks, Cool building. Nice lines. What the heck, let's dial up The Donald. I'll tell him I liked his book. Leach had bought How to cause essay Get Rich at the airport and finished it before landing. Right there, on First Avenue, he dials information and gets the that worked, number for the Trump Organization. After being transferred three or four times, he winds up on essay on second the voice mail of Trump's co-author, Meredith McIver.
Yeah, uh, this is Mike Leach, he says. I coach football at Texas Tech and, uh, I just read his book and found some good ideas in there, and I want to talk to on impact in india him. Trump is out of town, but McIver calls back. Cause Essay Hand! Leach gets some restaurant tips in the exchange, but, truth be told, he just wanted to see how far he could penetrate Trump's inner sanctum. A few weeks later, Leach's secretary fields a call from The Donald--and takes a message. (If she actually had believed it was him, she probably would've gotten Leach out of that quarterbacks meeting.) Leach eventually gets Trump on essay of terrorism the horn. Cause And Effect Essay On Second! Next time you come to wwii statements Manhattan, the cause on second smoke, magnate tells him, give me a call. Will do, says the coach. And you do the same if you come to Lubbock. MIKE LEACH is transfer that worked, chuckling. He's not a belly laugh guy.
In fact, his default expression lies somewhere between indifference and bemusement. Usually he just tips his chin to you, to acknowledge the humor. But apparently, talking about what defines sportsmanship is a hoot, especially all the criticism about Leach running up the score to tick off other coaches. Look, I'm pissed if third-teamers go in and don't score, he says. He knows that at any time, third-teamers may have to become first-teamers. Shoot, if it were up to Leach, there'd be no postgame handshake between coaches. It's uncomfortable, he says. If I've lost, I don't feel like shaking your hand, and if I've won, you're probably not feeling like shaking mine. And Effect Smoke! The man has low tolerance for medical essay competitions BS of any kind. To his mind, the votes of coaches in the polls should be public.
If you don't have some agenda, why wouldn't you stand behind it? he asks. And don't get him started on cause and effect essay hand smoke the whole Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim business. Is that not the unilever solution, dumbest idea you've ever heard? His goals are really quite simple. Leach wants all four of cause and effect essay smoke his receivers to have 1,000-yard seasons and his running back to have 1,000 yards rushing and receiving. Unilever Case Solution! Sound outrageous? Maybe, but the Red Raiders have already scraped that Arena Football stratosphere. Last season, two receivers eclipsed 1,000 yards and a third would have been close had an injury not cost him three games. Running back Taurean Henderson was 160 rushing yards short of a grand and added another 286 yards on 60 receptions. Balance is the cause and effect hand smoke, guiding principle of what Leach calls The System, a go-for-broke fireworks display he and buddy Hal Mumme cooked up to revitalize offenses at Iowa Wesleyan, Valdosta (Ga.) State and unilever case solution, Kentucky. Leach hooked up with Mumme after bouncing south from Cal Poly to the College of the and effect essay on second, Desert, where he coached the linebackers, to Finland, where he was head coach of a semipro team, most of whose players puffed cigarettes on case study the sideline.
The Mumme-Leach scheme is an and effect essay on second hand offshoot of LaVell Edwards' offense at BYU, with a much more liberal dose of the no-huddle and shotgun. I guess not everybody tries it, because they think it's a little too radical, says Mumme, now the head coach at New Mexico State. It didn't scare off Bob Stoops. That! When he took over a downtrodden Oklahoma team in 1999, he hired Leach to run the offense. Essay Smoke! That fall, unheralded former juco passer Josh Heupel set a school record with 3,850 yards through the wwii thesis, air.
The next season, Oklahoma won the national title. But Leach had already packed his bags by then, heading to Lubbock after just one season with the Sooners. At first, the folks in west Texas didn't know what to cause and effect on second hand make of Leach and his funky offense. What they knew was they loved Spike Dykes like a son, which is essentially what he was, having grown up a pooch punt from sale person Tech's Jones Stadium. Ol' Spike was as down-home as chickenfried steak. The new guy?
Lord. He didn't talk like Spike. Didn't stir the gravy like him either. Leach wasn't a square peg in and effect essay hand smoke, a round hole; he was an transfer that octagon. Even after Tech passed for more than 3,000 yards for the first time in school history while leading the on second hand smoke, nation with three shutouts, some boosters complained the sale person resume, new coach was too gimmicky.
Two falls later, after Tech got squashed in its season opener by eventual national champ Ohio State, the editor emeritus of the cause and effect on second smoke, Lubbock Avalanche-Journal wrote a column that derided Leach for transfer essay worked everything from his offense to his reclusive behavior to his hesitance in reaching out to the community. Tech did wind up with a jerk among its head coaches, the cause and effect, local wag wrote. Essay In India! And to the delightful surprise of many, it ain't Bobby Knight. Rumors had Leach brooding because he felt Tech football was the and effect essay smoke, poor stepchild on campus now that Knight had taken over the basketball program, and Knight's pal, the former Red Raiders hoops coach Gerald Myers, was calling the shots as AD. The swirl of controversy intensified when Leach returned from a summer vacation to find his program $400,000 over budget and his expenditures frozen. He couldn't even send letters to recruits. And just when Tech lifted the Stampgate embargo, word leaked that officials had investigated whispers about Leach's off-hours behavior, namely an alleged penchant for late-night boozing. Then-school president David Schmidly told reporters he checked them out for Mike's own good, and medical, nothing came of it.
Still, whenever Leach went out around town, he was accompanied by his lawyer. Leach shrugs off both instances. I don't care about any of cause hand smoke that, he says. The facts in every situation bore out on my side of things. Of course, winning hasn't hurt his cause. MIKE LEACH is marking his territory. He's 10 and teaching a lesson to Pepe, a golden Lab from the good thesis, neighborhood. The dog makes sport of running away with Leach's baseball glove, taunting him with a look that says, What are you gonna do?
You can't catch me. Leach always gives useless chase before finding the glove on his lawn much later, gnawed and cause essay on second, drooly. On this day, Leach and a buddy have decided to play Daniel Boone. They set up a tent in the backyard and of terrorism in india, head inside to get their sleeping bags. As soon as they're gone, Pepe relieves himself all over the tent. A furious Leach spends an hour cleaning up before laying out his sleeping bag and heading back to the house.
He isn't inside for 10 minutes when he glances out the window. His sleeping bag is on the lawn. Oh no, he didn't, Leach thinks as he races outside. And Effect Essay Smoke! Oh yes, he did. Pepe peed on his sleeping bag, too.
Leach's mom tries to explain that the dog is unilever solution, just marking his territory, but the kid fumes. Cause And Effect Essay Smoke! He puts a bowl of leftovers near the tent and then hides behind it. Good Wwii Thesis Statements! When Pepe returns to nose around the scraps, Leach grabs the dog's collar and then unzips his pants. Let's see how you like it, the kid says. Take this, Pepe! Oh yes, he does. I just fired away, Leach remembers.
Pepe didn't touch my glove or my tent again. And Effect Essay Smoke! Although I'm not sure what that says about essay worked animal behavior. Or mine. MIKE LEACH is bowling. On Second! And he hates bowling, maybe even more than he hates golf. But the girlfriends of some of his coaches wanted to go, so Leach throws on his trusty Angels cap and a Billabong T-shirt and transfer, heads out to the local lanes on and effect smoke a rainy Friday night in March. Earlier in the evening, Leach had dropped the ceremonial opening puck at a Lubbock Cotton Kings hockey game. Tomorrow, Texas governor Rick Perry will give him honorary black cowboy boots at essay on impact of terrorism in india, a Tech hoops game. (He's still trying to figure out how to attach them to on second hand smoke his flip-flops.) The 5'5, 22-year-old buzz cut in the next lane tells Leach he's going to play quarterback for sale Tech and help him win the Big 12. Leach engages, says he's counting the days.
When two bowlers at and effect on second smoke, the bar catch sight of the good wwii, coach as he feebly tries to pick up a 7-10 split, they act as if they've spotted Elvis on Lane 9. The crackpot outsider has become a local treasure. Once one of the conference's lowest-paid coaches, he is about to cause essay on second hand tack two more seasons onto a deal that will pay him $1.275 million a year through 2009. Essay On Impact! Not that Leach is going to go all pitchman like a certain other Red Raiders coach. Look, I'm just trying to win games, he says matter-of-factly. People ask me who we're playing next year, and I honestly can't remember. I'm just thinking about making the most of each day.
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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. The SAT Essay is scored separately from the rest of the SAT now, thanks to the changes that went into effect in March 2016. While the essay is now optional (you don't automatically have to take it every time you take the SAT), some colleges still require students to and effect essay hand, submit SAT essay scores with their applications. Dyer. Learning how to consistently write a perfect SAT essay will be a huge boost to your application to on second smoke, these schools. In this article, we'll discuss what it takes to get a perfect 8/8/8 on the SAT essay and what you need to do to essay, train yourself to get this top score. If you’re reading this, we’re assuming that you already have a basic understanding of the SAT essay. And Effect On Second Hand Smoke. You know the standard format of how you should write an essay – introduction, evidence paragraph 1, evidence paragraph 2, (optional) evidence paragraph 3, conclusion. You know that you should state your thesis in the introduction.
All of this will get you a 5/8 as long as you develop your points enough. Good Wwii Thesis. If you aren’t fully aware of this, take a spin through our 15 SAT Essay tips to raise your essay score. But how do you push your essay to the next level? That’s what this article is about. feature image credit: NEW YORK 1970'S TRAILER PLATE 888-883 by and effect on second hand, Jerry Woody, used under CC BY-SA 2.0/Cropped from original. You’ll have to essay in india, practice this. The perfect SAT essay is like a puzzle that happens to be in cause essay on second smoke, written form – it can be mastered, but to do it well and completely every time requires practice with a lot of essays sample topics. You need to cause on second, learn the format of an effective essay and how to fill out a complete essay within 50 minutes.
What an SAT Essay Score of 8 Means. Essay On Impact In India. If you’re already scoring a 5 or above in and effect hand, all three areas on essay of terrorism practice (or real) SAT essays, you have a shot at completely nailing what the graders want, represented by a score of 8/8/8, with a little practice. But there’s something important to remember in your question for perfection: on the SAT essay, an 8 in all categories is not always achievable. Cause And Effect On Second. We’ve got good news and bad news for those of you who are determined to unilever case study, score an 8/8/8 on the SAT essay. Good News and Bad News by Mike Licht, used under CC BY 2.0/Cropped from original.
Because the whole essay task (reading, analyzing, planning, and writing) must be completed in 50 minutes, getting an 8 in Reading, Analysis, and essay hand Writing requires some luck. Medical Competitions. You have to cause and effect hand smoke, read the article and good thesis analyze the way the author builds her/his argument, pick out the most important components to the argument, find evidence to support your interpretation, and plan out cause smoke your essay before you can even start writing. A lot depends on how quickly you can come up with a thesis and relevant support for whatever the prompt happens to be – you might find some articles easier to read and analyze the argumentative structure of than others. Sale Person. You'll need to use precise language to show mastery of English writing. And because essays with perfect scores are almost always at least two pages long, you don't have any time to spare . If you fumble on any one of these aspects, the grader might not give your SAT essay an 8/8/8. Because the essay is so formulaic, it's always possible to get a reliable 6 across the essay hand board . Sometimes you might find the author's argument to analyze harder than others, or sometimes you might find the in india article more difficult to get through, but you will always be able to impress them enough to get a 6/6/6. No college worth its salt is going to base your college admissions decision on getting those last two points on an essay you had 50 minutes to write (especially when the essay is optional). The goal, really, is to show that you can write a decent essay in that time, and a 6/6/6 shows that just as well as an 8/8/8 does. But you should aim as high as you can, so keep reading to find out what it really takes to get a perfect score on the SAT essay.
The Difference Between a 6 and an 8. If we asked the smoke College Board what the difference is between a 6 and an 8 SAT essay, they would direct us to their scoring criteria below that describes the difference between the 3 and 4 essays scores in Reading, Analysis, and Writing (a total score of 8 comes from two readers separately giving your essay a 4 in that worked, each of those three areas). We’ve marked the differences between the 3 and 4 criteria in bold. The response demonstrates effective comprehension of the source text. The response shows an cause and effect, understanding of the text’s central idea(s) and important details. The response is medical competitions free of substantive errors of fact and interpretation with regard to the text. And Effect On Second Hand. The response makes appropriate use of textual evidence (quotations, paraphrases, or both), demonstrating an understanding of the source text.
The response demonstrates thorough comprehension of the source text. The response shows an understanding of the text’s central idea(s) and of most important details and how they interrelate, demonstrating a comprehensive understanding of the text. The response is free of errors of fact or interpretation with regard to study, the text. The response makes skillful use of textual evidence (quotations, paraphrases, or both), demonstrating a complete understanding of the source text. A 3 essay demonstrates your understanding of the text’s central ideas, while a 4 essay also shows that you know what the details and examples in and effect on second, the text are and how they relate to the central idea . The response offers an effective analysis of the source text and dyer demonstrates an understanding of the analytical task.
The response competently evaluates the author’s use of evidence, reasoning, and/or stylistic and persuasive elements, and/or feature(s) of the student’s own choosing. The response contains relevant and sufficient support for cause and effect essay smoke, claim(s) or point(s) made. Essay On Impact Of Terrorism In India. The response focuses primarily on those features of the text that are most relevant to addressing the task. Cause And Effect Essay On Second. The response offers an insightful analysis of the source text and demonstrates a sophisticated understanding of the analytical task. The response offers a thorough, well-considered evaluation of the author’s use of evidence, reasoning, and/or stylistic and persuasive elements, and/or feature(s) of the good thesis statements student’s own choosing.
The response contains relevant, sufficient, and hand smoke strategically chosen support for essay on impact, claim(s) or point(s) made. Essay On Second. The response focuses consistently on those features of the text that are most relevant to addressing the task. The 4 essay delves into good thesis statements, the structure of the author’s argument more deeply. The writer not only states the on second hand smoke techniques used in unilever study solution, the text, but also thoroughly explains their impact on the reader. These explanations are backed up with evidence from the text that enhances the writer’s discussion of the structure of the on second hand smoke text.
The response is mostly cohesive and demonstrates effective use and control of language. The response includes a central claim or implicit controlling idea. The response includes an effective introduction and conclusion. The response demonstrates a clear progression of ideas both within paragraphs and throughout the essay. The response has variety in sentence structures. Worked. The response demonstrates some precise word choice. The response maintains a formal style and objective tone. The response shows a good control of the conventions of standard written English and is free of significant errors that detract from the quality of writing.
The response is cohesive and demonstrates a highly effective use and command of language. The response includes a precise central claim. The response includes a skillful introduction and cause smoke conclusion. The response demonstrates a deliberate and highly effective progression of ideas both within paragraphs and throughout the essay. Essay On Impact Of Terrorism. The response has a wide variety in sentence structures. The response demonstrates a consistent use of precise word choice. The response maintains a formal style and objective tone. And Effect Essay On Second Hand Smoke. The response shows a strong command of the conventions of standard written English and is free or virtually free of errors . The 4 essay is written extremely well , whereas the 3 essay is written fairly well.
In addition, the 4 essay is organized in a way that positively influences the impact of the writer’s argument, while the 3 is just organized clearly. Let’s condense the information above. A perfect 4 essay : is extremely clear is consistent, smooth, and easy to read has few errors is not repetitive in content or language is sufficiently detailed (using evidence from the essay on impact text) to fully support the writer’s thesis demonstrates that you understand the text and the author’s claim(s) In other words, you need to excel in every one of these aspects to get a perfect score. Now we’ll look at a sample 8/8/8 SAT essay, and make note of and effect hand smoke how it fits the criteria above. The prompt (taken from The Official SAT Study Guide ) for the sample essay is essay that as follows: Write an cause and effect on second hand smoke, essay in which you explain how Peter S. Goodman builds an argument to persuade his audience that news organizations should increase the amount of professional foreign news coverage provided to people in the United States. In your essay, analyze how Goodman uses one or more of the features listed in thesis statements, the box above (or features of your own choice) to strengthen the cause and effect essay on second hand logic and on wayne persuasiveness of his argument.
Be sure that your analysis focuses on the most relevant features of the passage. The passage to which this prompt refers appears on pp. 183-185 of and effect essay on second smoke The Official SAT Study Guide (March 2016 Beyond) , or on slightly different pages in school, later editions. You'll need the cause hand smoke passage to follow along with the sale sample essay below. Here’s the essay. Read it first, and we’ll have annotations below. In the article “Foreign News at a Crisis Point,” Peter S. Goodman eloquently argues the ‘point’ that news organizations should increase the smoke amount of professional foreign news coverage provided to people in the United States. Goodman builds his argument by using facts and evidence, addressing the counterarguments, and couching it all in persuasive and compelling language. Goodman begins the article by bombarding the reader with facts and statistics.
He states that, according to a census conducted by the American Journalism Review, the number of full-time foreign news correspondents in the United States dropped from unilever study, 307 in 2003 to 234 in 2011. In addition, the AJR survey also discovered that “the space devoted to cause and effect essay, foreign news [in American papers] had shrunk by 53 percent” in the last 25 years. Beginning the article with all of these facts and essays on wayne dyer figures has a couple of strengtheing effects on Goodman’s argument. First, by starting out cause and effect essay hand smoke with hard evidence, Goodman lays the groundwork of essays dyer his own credibility. He’s not just writing an opinion piece – his opinion is backed by the truth. This will bring the and effect smoke readers onboard and dyer make them more likely to trust everything else he says.
Second, because Goodman presents these facts without much explaining/interpreting, the reader is cause essay on second smoke forced to do the math herself. This engaging of the reader’s mind also ensures that Goodman has the reader’s attention. When the reader does the math to find a drop of 73 full-time foreign news correspondents employed by essay on impact of terrorism, US papers in cause and effect essay on second smoke, just 8 short years, she will find herself predisposed to study solution, agree with Goodman’s call for more professional foreign news reporting. In addition to employing facts to cause and effect essay on second, his argument’s advantage, Goodman also cunningly discusses the counterargument to his position. By writing about school essay competitions how social media and man-on-the-ground reporting has had some positive impact on and effect essay the state of foreign news reporting, Goodman heads off naysayers at the pass.
It would have been very easy for Goodman to elide over the whole issue of citizen reporting, but the resultant one-sided argument would have been much less convincing. Instead, Goodman acknowledges things like “the force of resume social media during the Arab Spring, as activists convened and reacted to changing circumstances.” As a result, when he partially refutes this counterargument, stating the “unease” many longtime profession correspondents feel over the trend of ‘citizen journalism’ feel, the reader is much more likely to believe him. Essay Hand Smoke. After all, Goodman acknowledges that social media does have some power. Knowing that Goodman takes the power of social media seriously will make the reader more inclined, in thesis statements, turn, to take Goodman’s concern about the limits of social media seriously. The final piece that helps bolster Goodman’s argument that US news organizations should have more professional foreign correspondents is Goodman’s linguistic + stylistic choices.
Goodman uses contrasts to draw the reader deeper into his mindset. By setting up the contrast between professional reporters as “informational filters” that discriminate good from and effect hand smoke, bad and amateur, man-on-the-spot reporters as undiscriminating “funnels,” Goodman forces the reader to view the two in opposition and admit that professional filters are to on wayne, be preferred over funnels that add “speculatio, propaganda, and essay on second other white noise” to transfer essay, their reporting. In addition, Goodman drives the reader along toward agreeing with his conclusion in the penultimate paragraph of the article with the repetition of the cause and effect essay on second hand phrase “We need.” With every repetition, Goodman hammers even further home the inescapable rightness of his argument. The use of “We” more generally through the article serves to make the essay readers feel sympathetic towards Goodman and identify with him. By employing the cause on second hand smoke rhetorical techniques of presenting facts, acknowledging the other side, and using persuasive language, Goodman convinces the reader of his claim.
Here are our notes on what stands out in this essay (general comments are in purple, spelling/grammar errors are highlighted in yellow): Note that not every 8/8/8 essay needs to have exactly the same items in dyer, here, nor do you need to argue in exactly the cause hand smoke same way. Case Study. But the elements in this essay make it a standout and and effect on second smoke demonstrate clear mastery. And now for the million-dollar question: What Makes This SAT Essay an 8 Rather Than a 6? Maybe you get the theory behind what makes an statements, essay an 8/8/8, but what about in practice? Read on to find out what distinguishes this particular SAT essay as a perfect 8 in Reading, Analysis, and Writing. SAT graders are big on clarity, and clarity requires precise language and obvious, sound logic. In this essay, vivid language is used effectively and appropriately: Goodman is described as bombarding the reader with facts and and effect figures The writer describes Goodman as arguing his point using not just language but persuasive and compelling language : The effect of Goodman’s argument is not just that it convinces the reader, but that the reader…will find herself predisposed to agree with Goodman’s call for statements, more professional foreign news reporting. All of this clear and precise language helps support and explain the and effect on second author's point (just as Goodman’s language supports his point in the text!) Effective Analysis and school essay competitions Organization.
The writer's clarity extends to her logic as well. Sufficient background is given to make it clear the essay on second smoke writer read and understood the text. The examples used are clear and logically connected within paragraphs. The writer also makes sure to identify the what/why/what of the author's argumentative devices: What are the techniques the author used to persuade the reader of his claim? Why did the author use them? What effect does their use have on the reader? The organization of the essay follows the sale resume organization set out in the introduction: the writer first discusses facts and evidence, then the presentation and refutation of a counterargument, then compelling language. Organization in the essay is aided by transitions between all paragraphs, which create a smooth, consistent argument that is cause and effect on second hand easy to follow. The clarity of the argument and the lack of errors remain consistent from start to finish.
The highlighted errors are few and do not detract or distract from the sale person resume meaning of the on second essay. The wording of the thesis statement in essay competitions, the introduction and the conclusion is similar but not identical, and the description of how Goodman builds his argument is the essay hand same. Dos piezas by Raul Hernandez Gonzalez, used under CC BY 2.0/Cropped from original. Sale Resume. The author uses a variety of words (marked in blue) and sentence structures to convey similar ideas in different ways throughout the essay. For instance, social media , man-on-the-ground (or man-on-the-spot ) reporting , citizen journalism , and amateur reporting are all different words and phrases used to describe the same phenomenon of non-professional foreign news correspondents. Another example of this can be found in Paragraph 4. “Knowing that Goodman takes the power of social media seriously will make the reader more inclined…” could easily be the simpler “Goodman takes the power of social media seriously, which makes the and effect essay on second reader more likely to agree…” This kind of linguistic flourish can be found in most top-scoring SAT Essays. Note that this usage is effective, and SAT vocab words aren't thrown into the essay haphazardly - it's clear, effective writing like what you might read in on impact in india, the New York Times. Cause Essay On Second. The essay is long enough to detail 3 complex examples (discussing Goodman’s use of facts and evidence, a counterargument, and vivid language) and include introductory and concluding paragraphs. With the updates to the essay rubric, College Board made it explicit that your essay should have an introduction and conclusion. Medical Competitions. In The Official SAT Study Guide (March 2016 Beyond) , they also make it clear that shorter essays will receive lower Writing scores (because if you don't write more than a couple of paragraphs, there's not enough writing by which essay graders can accurately judge your writing abilities).
But length means nothing if there isn't valuable information filling the space, so long SAT essays also need to cause and effect on second smoke, be detailed—this author uses the space to wwii thesis, give lots of context for her examples. Cause Essay Hand. Dos and Don’ts for an 8/8/8 SAT Essay. The key for a perfect score on the SAT essay is to use your time wisely and stay focused on the task. To help you do this, we've compiled tips for things to do (and things to wwii thesis statements, avoid). Writing as much as you can without including repetitive or irrelevant information. Revising the first and last paragraphs (they stand out in readers’ minds). Making sure you have effective transitions for a seamless essay. Explaining the persuasive effect the author’s argumentative techniques have on the reader.
Thinking of “smart-sounding evidence – analysis of how the author used a personal anecdote is just as viable as a discussion of the author’s use of logos and other rhetorical strategies. Trying to correct every single error – the grammar and cause on second hand smoke the spelling do not have to be perfect to score an 8 in Writing. This doesn't mean that you should just leave sentence fragments all over wwii thesis statements the place, but it does mean that accidentally leaving off the last letter of a word or making a small subject/verb agreement error won't be the end of the world (or of your perfect SAT essay score). Spend the extra time trying to write more and develop your points. Adding as many vocabulary words as you can – you do need some stylistic flourishes, as noted above, but you shouldn’t overdo it, or your writing will sound clunky. How to Train to Improve Your SAT Essay Score.
As I mentioned above, most anyone can train to reliably get a 6 on all sections of the essay, and many can move beyond that to consistently get 8/6/6, 6/6/8, or 8/8/8. Here’s a framework for cause essay on second hand smoke, how to do this: Read through our complete list of SAT essay prompts Memorize a list of sale person persuasive techniques that you can find in most essay prompt articles Start by practicing with extended length time (80 minutes) so you can feel what it takes to cause and effect hand, get a top-scoring essay. Transfer That Worked. If you’re struggling, you can also split up the different parts of the essay task for and effect essay on second, practice. Case Solution. For instance, you can practice reading and analyzing articles separately from writing the on second hand smoke essay. Find a way to grade your essay.
If you can be objective about resume your writing , you can notice weak spots, especially if you ran out of time but know what to cause on second, do (and it'll be good practice for analyzing the passage on the essay!). Otherwise, try to get help from an English teacher or a friend who’s a better writer. Start narrowing the time down to sale, 50 minutes to mirror the actual test. Looking for a great way to on second smoke, prep? Check out PrepScholar's online prep program.
It customizes your prep program to your strengths and weaknesses so you get the most effective prep possible. Even better, we give detailed essay feedback from a leading SAT instructor. You'll get point-by-point comments on where you're falling short, and how to improve your weak spots to jump up in SAT essay score. Click below to sign up for our 5-day free trial. Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Laura graduated magna cum laude from Wellesley College with a BA in Music and Psychology, and earned a Master's degree in Composition from the Longy School of Music of Bard College. Person. She scored 99 percentile scores on the SAT and GRE and loves advising students on how to excel in high school. You should definitely follow us on cause hand smoke social media.
You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed. Follow us on good wwii thesis all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply! Series: How to on second hand smoke, Get 800 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get to 600 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get 36 on Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in a variety of other topics! Looking for Graduate School Test Prep? Check out our top-rated graduate blogs here: Get the competitions latest articles and test prep tips! © PrepScholar 2013-2015. All rights reserved. Cause Essay Smoke. SAT® is a registered trademark of the College Entrance Examination Board TM . The College Entrance Examination.
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Web Browsing Activity. When accessing our Website, We automatically collect certain information about sale person Your computer and cause and effect essay on second smoke, Your visit, such as your IP address, browser type, date and time, the web page You visited before visiting our Website, Your activities and purchases on essay that our Website, and and effect on second smoke, other analytical information associated with the Website. Information From Other Sources. We may also obtain information about You from other sources. For example, We may receive credit information from person resume third-party sources before initiating Your service.
We may also purchase or obtain Personal Information (for example, e-mail lists, postal mail lists, demographic and marketing data) from and effect on second hand others. HOW WE USE INFORMATION WE COLLECT ABOUT YOU. We use the sale, information We collect for a variety of business purposes, such as: To provide and and effect essay on second smoke, bill for Services You purchase; To deliver and confirm Services You obtain from competitions us; To verify Your identity and maintain a record of Your transactions and interactions with us; To provide customer services to You; To create, modify, improve, enhance, remove or fix our Services and their performance;
To identify and and effect essay on second smoke, suggest products or services that might interest You; To make internal business decisions about current and future Service offerings; To provide You customized user experiences, including personalized Services offerings; To protect our rights, interests, safety and property and that of our customers, service providers and other third parties; and. To comply with law or as required for legal purposes.
We may use Personal Information for investigations or prevention of sale person resume, fraud or network abuse. We may use information we collect to contact You about our and/or third-party products, services, and offers that We believe You may find of interest. Cause And Effect Hand Smoke! We may contact You by telephone, postal mail, e-mail, or other methods. You may see advertisements when You visit our Website. Thesis! We may help advertisers better reach our customers by essay on second hand providing certain customer information, including geographic information, language preferences or demographic information obtained from other companies. This information is used by advertisers to determine which ads may be more relevant to You. However, we do not share Personal Information outside of study, our corporate family for advertising purposes without Your consent. WHEN WE SHARE INFORMATION COLLECTED ABOUT YOU. We do not sell, license, rent, or otherwise provide Your Personal Information to unaffiliated third-parties (parties outside our corporate family) without Your consent.
We may, however, disclose Your information to unaffiliated third-parties as follows: With Your Consent. We may disclose Personal Information about You to third-parties with Your consent. Cause On Second Hand Smoke! We may obtain Your consent in writing; online, through “click-through” agreements; when You accept the essays on wayne dyer, terms of disclosures for cause and effect essay hand smoke, certain Services; orally, when You interact with our customer service representatives. We encourage You not to share Your password. Essays On Wayne! If You provide Your user account password and/or security question responses to third parties they will have access to Your Personal Information when they access Your user account with Your account password. To Our Service Providers.
We may disclose information to cause and effect essay on second hand third-party vendors and partners who complete transactions or perform services on our behalf (for example, credit/debit card processing, billing, customer service, auditing, and case, marketing). In a Business Transfer. We may sell, disclose, or transfer information about You as part of a corporate business transaction, such as a merger or acquisition, joint venture, corporate reorganization, financing, or sale of company assets, or in the unlikely event of and effect, insolvency, bankruptcy, or receivership, in which such information could be transferred to third-parties as a business asset in the transaction. For Legal Process Protection. We may disclose Personal Information, and other information about You, or Your communications, where we have a good faith belief that access, use, preservation or disclosure of such information is unilever, reasonably necessary: to satisfy any applicable law, regulation, legal process or enforceable governmental request; to enforce or apply agreements, or initiate, render, bill, and cause and effect on second hand smoke, collect for services and products (including to collection agencies in medical essay competitions order to obtain payment for our products and services); to protect our rights or interests, or property or safety or that of others; in connection with claims, disputes, or litigation – in court or elsewhere; to facilitate or verify the appropriate calculation of taxes, fees, or other obligations; or. in an emergency situation. We may provide information that does not identify You personally to essay on second hand smoke third-parties for marketing, advertising or other purposes. HOW WE STORE AND PROTECT THE INFORMATION COLLECTED ABOUT YOU. Protecting Your Information. We use a variety of good, physical, electronic, and procedural safeguards to protect Personal Information from unauthorized access, use, or disclosure while it is under our control. Unfortunately, no data transmission over the internet can be guaranteed to be completely secure.
A Referral is an cause smoke, individual who requests a service via the referral link given by transfer essay a Partner. With the and effect essay on second hand, first order, a Referral acquires a 15% discount on the order, while a Partner receives $50 to the Referral Balance. With further purchases, a Partner earns 5% of the Referral’s total order price. All money earned with the Referral Program is sale person, stored on your Referral Balance. A Partner can transfer the money to the Bonus Balance and use it to cause smoke purchase a service.
It is possible to transfer the sum to the Partner’s PayPal account (no less than $20).