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On the Hypotheses which Lie at benjamin ferencz essay competition the Foundation of card research, Geometry. Translated by ferencz, William Kingdon Clifford. Edited by Jason Ross. [ Nature , Vol. Case Psychology? VIII. Nos. 183, 184, pp. 14—17, 36, 37.] It is known that geometry assumes, both the notion of space and benjamin competition the first principles of constructions in space, as given in advance. She gives definitions of them which are merely nominal, while the true determinations appear in smart card paper the form of axioms. The relation of these assumptions remains consequently in darkness; we perceive neither whether and how far their connection is necessary, nor a priori , whether it is competition possible.

From Euclid to Legendre (to name the most famous of modern reforming geometers) this darkness was cleared up neither by mathematicians nor by such philosophers as concerned themselves with it. The reason of this is doubtless that the general notion of eldest chris paolini, multiply extended magnitudes (in which space-magnitudes are included) remained entirely unworked. I have in the first place, therefore, set myself the task of constructing the notion of benjamin ferencz essay competition, a multiply extended magnitude out of general notions of quantity. It will follow from this that a multiply extended magnitude is capable of different measure-relations, and consequently that space is smart research only a particular case of a triply extended magnitude. But it then follows as a necessary consequence that the propositions of ferencz, geometry cannot be derived from general notions of magnitude, but that the properties which distinguish space from other conceivable triply extended magnitudes are only to be deduced from experience. Thus arises the problem, to discover the simplest matters of fact from which the measure-relations of space may be determined; a problem which from the nature of the case is not completely determinate, since there may be several systems of matters of fact which suffice to determine the measure-relations of space - the most important system for our present purpose being that which Euclid has laid down as a foundation. These matters of fact are - like all matters of fact - not necessary, but only of empirical certainty; they are hypotheses. We may therefore investigate their probability, which within the limits of observation is of course very great, and inquire about the essay paudhe justice of their extension beyond the limits of observation, on ferencz competition, the side both of the infinitely great and of the infinitely small. I. Notion of an n -ply extended magnitude.

In proceeding to attempt the solution of the first of these problems, the development of the notion of a multiply extended magnitude, I think I may the more claim indulgent criticism in that I am not practised in eldest chris such undertakings of a philosophical nature where the difficulty lies more in the concepts themselves than in the construction; and that besides some very short hints on the matter given by Privy Councillor Gauss in his second memoir on Biquadratic Residues, in the Gottingen Gelehrte Anzeige , and in his Jubilee-book, and some philosophical researches of Herbart, I could make use of no previous labours. § 1. Magnitude-notions are only possible where there is an ferencz competition antecedent general notion which admits of different specialisations. Paolini Essay? According as there exists among these specialisations a continuous path from one to another or not, they form a continuous or discrete manifold; the individual specialisations are called in the first case “points,” in the second case “elements,” of the manifold. Notions whose specialisations form a discrete manifold are so common that, at least in the cultivated languages, whenever a number of things are given, it is always possible to find a notion which encompasses all of them. (Hence mathematicians might unhesitatingly found the theory of discrete magnitudes upon the postulate that certain given things are to be regarded as equivalent in some respect.) On the benjamin essay competition other hand, so few and far between are the occasions for reflective essay, forming notions whose specialisations make up a continuous manifold, that the essay only simple notions whose specialisations form a multiply extended manifold are the eldest essay positions of perceived objects, and colors. More frequent occasions for the creation and development of these notions first occur in higher mathematics.

Definite portions of a manifold, distinguished by a mark or by a boundary, are called Quanta . Essay Competition? Their comparison with regard to quantity is accomplished in the case of discrete magnitudes by counting, and in the case of continuous magnitudes by measuring. Measure consists in paolini essay the superposition of the magnitudes to competition be compared; it therefore requires a means of using one magnitude as the standard for another. In the absence of this, two magnitudes can only be compared when one is a part of the case study approach psychology other; in which case also we can only determine the more or less and benjamin not the “how much.” The researches which can in this case be instituted about them form a general division of the science of magnitude in which magnitudes are regarded not as existing independently of position and not as expressible in terms of a unit, but as regions in a manifold. Such studies have become a necessity for essay on ped paudhe aur hum, many parts of benjamin competition, mathematics, e.g. , for the treatment of many-valued analytical functions; and the want of them is my personal reflective essay no doubt a chief cause why the celebrated theorem of Abel and the achievements of Lagrange, Pfaff, Jacobi for the general theory of differential equations, have so long remained unfruitful. Out of this general part of the science of benjamin essay competition, extended magnitude in which nothing is assumed but what is contained in the notion of it, it will suffice for the present purpose to bring into prominence two points: the first of which relates to the construction of the notion of eldest chris essay, a multiply extended manifold, the second relates to ferencz essay competition the reduction of determinations of place in analysis of hamlet essay a given manifold to determinations of quantity, and competition will make clear the true character of an n -fold extension. § 2. Smart Research Paper? If in the case of a notion whose specialisations form a continuous manifold, one passes from a certain specialisation in a definite way to another, the specialisations passed over form a simply extended manifold, whose true character is that in it a continuous progress from a point is possible only in two directions, forwards or backwards. If one now supposes that this manifold in its turn passes over into another entirely different, and again in a definite way, namely so that each point passes over into a definite point of the other, then all the specialisations so obtained form a doubly extended manifold. In a similar manner one obtains a triply extended manifold, if one imagines a doubly extended one passing over in a definite way to another entirely different; and ferencz competition it is easy to paolini see how this construction may be continued. If one regards the variable object instead of the determinable notion of it, this construction may be described as a composition of a variability of benjamin essay competition, n + 1 dimensions out of a variability of n dimensions and a variability of one dimension. § 3. I shall show how, conversely, one may resolve a variability whose domain is given into a variability of one dimension and a variability of fewer dimensions.

To this end let us suppose a variable piece of a manifold of eldest chris paolini essay, one dimension - reckoned from a fixed origin, that the values of essay, it may be comparable with one another - which has for essay, every point of the given manifold a definite value, varying continuously with the point; or, in other words, let us take a continuous function of position within the given manifold, which, moreover, is not constant throughout any part of that manifold. Every system of points where the function has a constant value, forms then a continuous manifold of fewer dimensions than the given one. These manifolds pass over continuously into one another as the function changes; we may therefore assume that out of one of them the others emanate, and speaking generally this may occur in such a way that each point passes over into a definite point of the other; the cases of benjamin ferencz competition, exception (the study of which is important) may here be left unconsidered. Hereby the determination of position in case psychology the given manifold is reduced to a determination of quantity and to a determination of position in a manifold of less dimensions. It is now easy to show that this manifold has n - 1 dimensions when the given manifold is n -ply extended. By repeating then this operation n times, the determination of position in an n -ply extended manifold is reduced to n determinations of quantity, and therefore the determination of position in a given manifold is reduced to a finite number of determinations of quantity when this is possible . There are manifolds in which the determination of position requires not a finite number, but either an endless series or a continuous manifold of determinations of quantity. Such manifolds are, for competition, example, the possible determinations of a function for case study approach psychology, a given region, the possible shapes of benjamin ferencz competition, a solid figure, c. II. Measure-relations of which a manifold of n dimensions is susceptible on the assumption that lines have a length independent of position, and chris consequently that every line may be measured by every other.

Having constructed the notion of a manifold of n dimensions, and benjamin ferencz essay having found that its true character consists in the property that the determination of position in it may be reduced to n determinations of magnitude, we come to the second of the problems proposed above, viz., the study of the measure-relations of which such a manifold is capable, and of the study psychology conditions which suffice to determine them. These measure-relations can only essay be studied in abstract notions of quantity, and my personal reflective essay their dependence on one another can only be represented by formulas. On certain assumptions, however, they are decomposable into relations which, taken separately, are capable of ferencz essay, geometric representation; and thus it becomes possible to express the calculated results geometrically. In this way, to come to solid ground, we cannot, it is true, avoid abstract considerations in our formulas, but at least the results of calculation may subsequently be presented in a geometric form. The foundations of these two parts of the question are established in study the celebrated memoir of Gauss, Disqusitiones generales circa superficies curvas . § 1. Measure-determinations require that quantity should be independent of benjamin essay, position, which may happen in thesis various ways.

The hypothesis which first presents itself, and which I shall here develop, is that according to which the length of lines is independent of their position, and consequently every line is measurable by means of benjamin ferencz essay competition, every other. Position-fixing being reduced to quantity-fixings, and the position of a point in the n -dimensioned manifold being consequently expressed by means of n variables x 1 , x 2 , x 3 . x n , the smart research paper determination of a line comes down to giving these quantities as functions of one variable. The problem consists then in establishing a mathematical expression for the length of ferencz, a line, and to chris essay this end we must consider the quantities x as expressible in terms of certain units. I shall treat this problem only under certain restrictions, and benjamin essay competition I shall confine myself in approach psychology the first place to benjamin lines in which the ratios of the increments dx of the respective variables vary continuously. We may then conceive these lines broken up into elements, within which the ratios of the quantities dx may be regarded as constant; and the problem is critical analysis of hamlet then reduced to establishing for each point a general expression for the linear element ds starting from ferencz essay competition, that point, an expression which will thus contain the quantities x and the quantities dx . I shall suppose, secondly, that the gsd architecture thesis length of the linear element, to the first order, is unaltered when all the points of this element undergo the same infinitesimal displacement, which implies at the same time that if all the quantities dx are increased in the same ratio, the linear element will increase also in the same ratio. On these suppositions, the linear element may be any homogeneous function of the ferencz essay first degree of the quantities dx , which is unchanged when we change the eldest chris signs of all the essay dx , and in which the arbitrary constants are continuous functions of the quantities x . Critical Analysis? To find the simplest cases, I shall seek first an expression for manifolds of n - 1 dimensions which are everywhere equidistant from the origin of the linear element; that is, I shall seek a continuous function of position whose values distinguish them from competition, one another.

In going outwards from the origin, this must either increase in all directions or decrease in all directions; I assume that it increases in all directions, and therefore has a minimum at that point. Paolini? If, then, the first and second differential coefficients of this function are finite, its first differential must vanish, and the second differential cannot become negative; I assume that it is always positive. Benjamin Essay? This differential expression, of the second order remains constant when ds remains constant, and increases in the duplicate ratio when the aur hum dx , and therefore also ds , increase in the same ratio; it must therefore be ds 2 multiplied by a constant, and consequently ds is the square root of an always positive integral homogeneous function of the benjamin ferencz second order of the case study quantities dx , in which the coefficients are continuous functions of the quantities x . Benjamin? For Space, when the position of points is expressed by rectilinear co-ordinates, ; Space is therefore included in my personal this simplest case. The next case in simplicity includes those manifolds in which the line-element may be expressed as the essay competition fourth root of a quartic differential expression. The investigation of this more general kind would require no really different principles, but would take considerable time and throw little new light on the theory of space, especially as the results cannot be expressed geometrically; I restrict myself, therefore, to those manifolds in which the line element is expressed as the chris paolini square root of a quadratic differential expression.

Such an benjamin expression we can transform into another similar one if we substitute for the n independent variables, functions of n new independent variables. In this way, however, we cannot transform any expression into any other; for the expression contains ? n ( n + 1) coefficients which are arbitrary functions of the independent variables; but by the introduction of new variables we can only satisfy n conditions, and therefore make no more than n of the coefficients equal to given quantities. The remaining ? n ( n - 1) are then entirely determined by chris paolini, the nature of the continuum to ferencz competition be represented, and consequently ? n ( n - 1) functions of positions are required for thesis, the determination of benjamin ferencz essay competition, its measure-relations. Manifolds in which, as in the Plane and in Space, the line-element may be reduced to case approach the form , are therefore only a particular case of the manifolds to be here investigated; they require a special name, and benjamin ferencz essay competition therefore these manifolds in which the gsd architecture square of the line-element may be expressed as the sum of the squares of complete differentials I will call flat . In order now to review the true varieties of all the continua which may be represented in the assumed form, it is necessary to get rid of essay competition, difficulties arising from the mode of essay, representation, which is accomplished by choosing the variables in accordance with a certain principle. § 2. For this purpose let us imagine that from any given point the system of shortest limes going out from it is constructed; the position of an arbitrary point may then be determined by competition, the initial direction of the geodesic in reflective which it lies, and by its distance measured along that line from the origin. It can therefore be expressed in terms of the ratios dx 0 of the quantities dx in this geodesic, and of the length s of this line. Let us introduce now instead of the dx 0 , linear functions da of them, such that the essay initial value of the eldest chris paolini square of the line-element shall equal the sum of the squares of these expressions, so that the independent varaibles are now the length s and the ratios of the quantities da . Lastly, take instead of the dx quantities x 1 , x 2 , x 3 . x n proportional to ferencz essay competition them, but such that the sum of their squares = s 2 . When we introduce these quantities, the square of the line-element is for infinitesimal values of the x , but the term of next order in it is equal to a homogeneous function of the eldest second order of the ? n ( n - 1) quantities ( x 1 dx 2 - x 2 dx 1 ), ( x 1 dx 3 - x 3 dx 1 ). an infinitesimal, therefore, of the fourth order; so that we obtain a finite quantity on essay, dividing this by the square of the infinitesimal triangle, whose vertices are (0,0,0. ), ( x 1 , x 2 , x 3 . ), ( dx 1 , dx 2 , dx 3 . ). This quantity retains the same value so long as the x and the dx are included in the same binary linear form, or so long as the two geodesics from 0 to x and from 0 to dx remain in the same surface-element; it depends therefore only on place and direction. Case Study Psychology? It is obviously zero when the benjamin ferencz essay competition manifold represented is flat, i.e. Psychology? , when the essay squared line-element is reducible to , and may therefore be regarded as the measure of the deviation of the manifold from flatness at the given point in the given surface-direction.

Multiplied by -? it becomes equal to the quantity which Privy Councillor Gauss has called the total curvature of a surface. For the determination of the measure-relations of a manifold capable of representation in the assumed form we found that ? n ( n - 1) place-functions were necessary; if, therefore, the curvature at each point in gsd architecture thesis ? n ( n - 1) surface-directions is given, the measure-relations of the continuum may be determined from them - provided there be no identical relations among these values, which in fact, to speak generally, is not the case. In this way the measure-relations of a manifold in which the line-element is the square root of benjamin ferencz competition, a quadratic differential may be expressed in a manner wholly independent of the choice of independent variables. A method entirely similar may for this purpose be applied also to the manifold in which the line-element has a less simple expression, e.g. , the fourth root of a quartic differential. In this case the line-element, generally speaking, is on ped paudhe no longer reducible to the form of the square root of a sum of squares, and therefore the competition deviation from flatness in the squared line-element is an my personal reflective infinitesimal of the second order, while in those manifolds it was of the fourth order. This property of the last-named continua may thus be called flatness of the smallest parts. The most important property of these continua for our present purpose, for whose sake alone they are here investigated, is ferencz that the relations of the gsd architecture twofold ones may be geometrically represented by surfaces, and benjamin of the morefold ones may be reduced to on ped aur hum those of the surfaces included in them, which now requires a short further discussion. § 3. In the idea of surfaces, together with the intrinsic measure-relations in which only the benjamin essay competition length of lines on the surfaces is considered, there is always mixed up the position of points lying outside the surface. We may, however, abstract from external relations if we consider such deformations as leave unaltered the length of lines - i.e. , if we regard the surface as bent in any way without stretching, and treat all surfaces so related to each other as equivalent. Thus, for example, any cylindrical or conical surface counts as equivalent to a plane, since it may be made out of one by mere bending, in which the intrinsic measure-relations remain, and all theorems about a plane - therefore the whole of planimetry - retain their validity.

On the other hand they count as essentially different from the sphere, which cannot be changed into a plane without stretching. According to our previous investigation the intrinsic measure-relations of smart card research paper, a twofold extension in which the line-element may be expressed as the square root of a quadric differential, which is the case with surfaces, are characterised by benjamin essay, the total curvature. Now this quantity in gsd architecture thesis the case of surfaces is capable of a visible interpretation, viz., it is the product of the two curvatures of the surface, or multiplied by ferencz essay, the area of a small geodesic triangle, it is equal to the spherical excess of the on ped paudhe same. The first definition assumes the proposition that the product of the benjamin essay two radii of curvature is unaltered by mere bending; the second, that in the same place the area of thesis, a small triangle is proportional to its spherical excess. To give an intelligible meaning to the curvature of an n -fold extension at a given point and in a given surface-direction through it, we must start from the fact that a geodesic proceeding from a point is entirely determined when its initial direction is given. According to this we obtain a determinate surface if we prolong all the geodesics proceeding from the given point and lying initially in the given surface-direction; this surface has at competition the given point a definite curvature, which is also the curvature of the n -fold continuum at the given point in the given surface-direction. § 4. Before we make the on ped aur hum application to space, some considerations about flat manifold in general are necessary; i.e. , about those in which the square of the line-element is expressible as a sum of squares of essay, complete differentials.

In a flat n -fold extension the total curvature is essay paudhe zero at all points in every direction; it is sufficient, however (according to benjamin the preceding investigation), for the determination of measure-relations, to know that at each point the curvature is zero in thesis ? n ( n - 1) independent surface directions. Ferencz Essay? Manifolds whose curvature is constantly zero may be treated as a special case of those whose curvature is constant. The common character of those continua whose curvature is constant may be also expressed thus, that figures may be viewed in them without stretching. For clearly figures could not be arbitrarily shifted and turned round in them if the curvature at each point were not the same in all directions. On the other hand, however, the measure-relations of the manifold are entirely determined by aur hum, the curvature; they are therefore exactly the same in all directions at one point as at another, and consequently the same constructions can be made from it: whence it follows that in aggregates with constant curvature figures may have any arbitrary position given them. The measure-relations of these manifolds depend only on the value of the curvature, and in relation to the analytic expression it may be remarked that if this value is benjamin essay denoted by a, the expression for the line-element may be written. § 5. The theory of surfaces of constant curvature will serve for essay, a geometric illustration. It is easy to benjamin essay see that surface whose curvature is positive may always be rolled on a sphere whose radius is unity divided by the square root of the curvature; but to review the entire manifold of these surfaces, let one of them have the form of a sphere and the rest the chris essay form of benjamin ferencz, surfaces of revolution touching it at the equator. The surfaces with greater curvature than this sphere will then touch the sphere internally, and take a form like the outer portion (from the axis) of the surface of a ring; they may be rolled upon zones of spheres having new radii, but will go round more than once.

The surfaces with less positive curvature are obtained from eldest chris paolini, spheres of larger radii, by cutting out the lune bounded by two great half-circles and bringing the section-lines together. The surface with curvature zero will be a cylinder standing on the equator; the surfaces with negative curvature will touch the cylinder externally and be formed like the inner portion (towards the axis) of the surface of a ring. If we regard these surfaces as locus in quo for benjamin ferencz, surface-regions moving in them, as Space is locus in quo for bodies, the surface-regions can be moved in all these surfaces without stretching. The surfaces with positive curvature can always be so formed that surface-regions may also be moved arbitrarily about upon them without bending , namely (they may be formed) into sphere-surfaces; but not those with negative-curvature. Besides this independence of surface-regions from position there is in surfaces of zero curvature also an independence of direction from my personal essay, position, which in the former surfaces does not exist. § 1. By means of essay competition, these inquiries into eldest paolini essay, the determination of the measure-relations of an essay n -fold extension the conditions may be declared which are necessary and sufficient to determine the metric properties of essay, space, if we assume the independence of line-length from position and expressibility of the ferencz line-element as the card research paper square root of a quadric differential, that is to competition say, flatness in paolini the smallest parts.

First, they may be expressed thus: that the curvature at essay competition each point is reflective essay zero in three surface-directions; and thence the metric properties of space are determined if the sum of the angles of a triangle is always equal to two right angles. Secondly, if we assume with Euclid not merely an existence of lines independent of position, but of bodies also, it follows that the curvature is everywhere constant; and then the sum of the angles is determined in all triangles when it is known in one. Thirdly, one might, instead of taking the length of lines to benjamin ferencz competition be independent of position and direction, assume also an independence of on ped paudhe aur hum, their length and direction from position. According to this conception changes or differences of position are complex magnitudes expressible in essay three independent units. § 2. In the course of our previous inquiries, we first distinguished between the relations of extension or partition and the relations of case, measure, and found that with the same extensive properties, different measure-relations were conceivable; we then investigated the system of simple size-fixings by which the measure-relations of space are completely determined, and of which all propositions about them are a necessary consequence; it remains to discuss the question how, in what degree, and to what extent these assumptions are borne out by experience. In this respect there is a real distinction between mere extensive relations, and benjamin essay measure-relations; in so far as in the former, where the possible cases form a discrete manifold, the declarations of smart card paper, experience are indeed not quite certain, but still not inaccurate; while in the latter, where the possible cases form a continuous manifold, every determination from experience remains always inaccurate: be the probability ever so great that it is ferencz essay competition nearly exact. This consideration becomes important in the extensions of these empirical determinations beyond the limits of observation to gsd architecture thesis the infinitely great and infinitely small; since the latter may clearly become more inaccurate beyond the limits of observation, but not the former. In the extension of space-construction to the infinitely great, we must distinguish between unboundedness and infiniteness , the former belongs to relations of extension, the latter to relations of measure. That space is an unbounded three-fold manifold, is an assumption which is developed by every conception of the benjamin ferencz essay competition outer world; according to which every instant the domain of real perception is smart card paper completed and the possible positions of a sought object are constructed, and which by these applications is forever confirming itself. The unboundedness of space possesses in ferencz essay competition this way a greater empirical certainty than any external experience.

But its infinite extent by no means follows from this; on the other hand if we assume independence of bodies from position, and therefore ascribe to space constant curvature, it must necessarily be finite provided this curvature has ever so small a positive value. If we prolong all the geodesics starting in a given surface-element, we should obtain an unbounded surface of constant curvature, i.e. , a surface which in a flat manifold of three dimensions would take the chris paolini essay form of a sphere, and benjamin essay competition consequently be finite. § 3. The questions about the infinitely great are, for the interpretation of nature, useless questions. But this is not the case with the questions about the infinitely small. It is upon the exactness with which we follow phenomena into the infinitely small that our knowledge of their causal relations essentially depends. The progress of case approach psychology, recent centuries in the knowledge of mechanics depends almost entirely on the exactness of the construction which has become possible through the invention of the infinitesimal calculus, and through the simple principles discovered by Archimedes, Galileo, and ferencz competition Newton, and used by modern physics. But in the natural sciences which are still in want of simple principles for such constructions, we seek to discover the causal relations by following the phenomena into great minuteness, so far as the microscope permits. Questions about the measure-relations of space in the infinitely small are therefore not superfluous questions.

If we suppose that bodies exist independently of position, the curvature is everywhere constant, and it then results from gsd architecture thesis, astronomical measurements that it cannot be different from zero; or at any rate its reciprocal must be an area in comparison with which the range of our telescopes may be neglected. But if this independence of ferencz competition, bodies from position does not exist, we cannot draw conclusions from critical, metric relations of the great, to those of the infinitely small; in that case the curvature at each point may have an arbitrary value in three directions, provided that the total curvature of every measurable portion of space does not differ sensibly from ferencz essay competition, zero. Still more complicated relations may exist if we no longer suppose the linear element expressible as the square root of a quadric differential. Now it seems that the empirical notions on which the metrical determinations of space are founded, the notion of smart card research, a solid body and of a ray of light, cease to be valid for the infinitely small. We are therefore quite at liberty to suppose that the metric relations of space in the infinitely small do not conform to the hypotheses of geometry; and we ought in fact to benjamin competition suppose it, if we can thereby obtain a simpler explanation of phenomena. The question of the validity of the hypotheses of geometry in chris paolini the infinitely small is bound up with the question of the ground of the ferencz essay competition metric relations of space. In this last question, which we may still regard as belonging to the doctrine of space, is found the application of the remark made above; that in a discrete manifold, the ground of its metric relations is given in gsd architecture thesis the notion of it, while in a continuous manifold, this ground must come from outside. Either therefore the reality which underlies space must form a discrete manifold, or we must seek the ground of its metric relations outside it, in binding forces which act upon it.

The answer to these questions can only be reached by starting from the conception of phenomena which has hitherto been justified by experience, and which Newton assumed as a foundation, and by making in ferencz essay competition this conception the successive changes required by facts which it cannot explain. Researches starting from general notions, like the investigation we have just made, can only be useful in preventing this work from being hampered by too narrow views, and progress in paolini knowledge of the interdependence of things from being checked by traditional prejudices. This leads us into the domain of another science, that of physics, into which the object of today#039;s proceedings does not allow us to enter.

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100 Science Topics for Research Papers. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. Essay? Science topics are interesting and critical analysis easy to research because there are many current and reputable journals online. Benjamin Ferencz Essay Competition? Start by browsing through the topic questions below, then look at some of the linked articles or continue your search online with the links provided. Depending on the requirements of your instructor, you may find everything you need right here. Can microbial factories be an answer to the shortage of raw metals? Is the paleo diet (eating mostly meat) really the way prehistoric people lived? Is it the optimal diet for thesis, humans?

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Is offshore drilling safe? Is recycling metal really important?? How important is climate change legislation? Is hydraulic fracking going to destroy important ecosystems? Which of the following areas of science research do you find most interesting? 100 Technology Topics for Research Papers. by Virginia Kearney 42. 100 Current Events Research Paper Topics with Research Links. by Virginia Kearney 16. by Virginia Kearney 8. 100 Current Events Research Paper Topics with Research Links. by Virginia Kearney 16. Easy Words to ferencz, Use as Sentence Starters to Write Better Essays. by Virginia Kearney 127. How to Write an Argument Essay Step by Step. by essay aur hum, Virginia Kearney 15. infectious diseases like the flesh eating disease is interesting to essay competition, read about. really interested in molecular biology and genome mapping. Virginia Kearney 12 days ago from United States.

Sure Samantha, although I don't know what information is available on that topic. You can search for dog communication in Google Scholar to get some idea of any studies that have already been done. Essay On Ped Paudhe? we are doing a project for science and ferencz essay competition i want to do a project on how dogs communicate, would that be related to science? interested in moleculer biology and medicine. I am Interest in eldest chris paolini essay Data and communication network specially in performance analysis of VoIP over Wimax networks. Benjamin Competition? Tshivhinda Murunwa 5 weeks ago. Thank you so much.

Virginia Kearney 5 weeks ago from essay paudhe United States. Hi Celeste--I have many different science fair project ideas with full instructions. Look at my profile for ideas. Riley Bozarth 5 weeks ago. Plenty of essay competition cool topics in thesis the Astronomy and Physics category. I am at school and I wanna ask.

What would be a good project for science research class? Were having difficulty picking a project for our 'science fair'. It isn't really a science fair though more like a presentation. What good ideas can I use with like space stuff? Virginia Kearney 6 weeks ago from United States. EunJae, you might want to look at ferencz, my science experiment about the salinity of water in agriculture. How about in critical analysis of hamlet essay agricultural aspects?

Are there any common problems that arising nowadays? I really need help. Ferencz? Thank you. it was interesting. I'm really interested in theoretical physics. Virginia Kearney 7 weeks ago from United States. Hi Lily, I have a lot of essay paudhe aur hum different science fair projects I have designed.

The one that seems to suit your idea best is How does salt water affect seed germination. It is on owlcation, and competition you can find it by searching my profile page or googling it, or this link: https://owlcation.com/stem/Science-Project-How-Doe. Hi Virginia. I have a science fair coming up and I need help for a topic. So I've already put down environmental management as my topic and destruction as my heading because I was going to conduct an experiment on something else. Gsd Architecture Thesis? But now that won't work and I'm planning on doing a research project.

So do you have any ideas of benjamin ferencz what I could say that has anything to do with the critical of hamlet essay destruction of the earth? It would help if you would reply ASAP. Benjamin Ferencz? Thanks xxx. alamira.alwiraikat@gmail.com 8 weeks ago. Thank you for gsd architecture thesis, this information and I am learning from benjamin essay you.

Virginia Kearney 2 months ago from United States. Hi Annie, you might try one of the following: Do multi media science presentations work more effectively to help students retain information? Which type of multi media teaching method is most effective for science students? Annie Blase 2 months ago. hi! ..I would like to have a research on essay on ped paudhe, teaching science through multimedia,, any suggestions what would be a good topic? Thank you.. Virginia Kearney 2 months ago from United States. Jessica--Good topic idea!

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Suzie Sheep 3 months ago. Gsd Architecture Thesis? Hello Mrs. I would like some more tips for my students in benjamin ferencz my class. They all need a project on something. Reflective? Cheers. Thank you so much ma'am. Virginia Kearney 3 months ago from United States. Hi Mini--I will add some microbiology topics. Thanks for competition, the suggestion.

Here are a couple of ideas taken from currently important research: What is the recent update on the Corynebacterium species and their clinical significance? What are the best ways for gsd architecture, medical personnel to handle the growing problem of antibacterial resistance? Can older techniques like anti-microbial peptides be used effectively to benjamin essay competition, treat bacteria? I would like to know some potential research topics? related to essay, medical microbiology. Ferencz Competition? I am currently doing my bachelor's in microbiology.

Virginia Kearney 3 months ago from eldest United States. Hi Gaea and Meeme, I'm not exactly sure what you are looking for competition, in applied science but you might want to check out my science fair experiments or else look at my topics regarding technology topics. hello :) your ideas are great but is there any physical science experiment? just a simple experiment please? we're already on experimental research. Hi, the ideas are all great, but I'm looking for a topic for experimental research on physical or as they call it, applied science. Can you help me with that? Virginia Kearney 3 months ago from United States. Hi Purple--You might want to look at my article about Technology Topics. That one includes more links to articles. You might also look at my article on 100 Current Events because the gsd architecture bottom section talks about benjamin ferencz, medical and health topics. Hi, the ideas are pretty good but i'm looking for a quantitative research or experimental research related to the medical field. I have seen some from the given topics but i'm hoping there's more. Card Research? :) Virginia Kearney 3 months ago from benjamin ferencz competition United States.

Hi JJ-Try looking at my article on essay, technology topics because that has a lot of links to help you out. If you are actually doing a science experiment and not just a research paper, I have a lot of ferencz competition different step-by-step experiments too. You can find them by going to my profile page. Are there easy topics that a secondary student could handle. Your ideas are good but its hard. Essay On Ped Paudhe? Virginia Kearney 4 months ago from benjamin ferencz essay United States. Hi Anne--You might want to look at my article on 100 Technology ideas. That includes some research article links and chris also does have both engineering and medical topics. Essay Competition? Anne Nonaemusk 4 months ago. Eldest Chris? Just wanted to say that this website is very helpful in our PR 1, but my classmate and I are still confused on what research topic to tackle.

I'm pursuing the medical field (STEM); my friend's engineering (STEM). Benjamin Essay? Could you please suggest some topics for the both of paper us? We'd also greatly appreciate suggestions coming from the benjamin ferencz essay fellow readers. We actually had our topics, yet it was rejected by our professor because he told us that why would we even take STEM if our research topic would be off. So, we're struggling now in changing our topic. Please reply ASAP? Thank you very much! -A.

N. Great! Thanks for the ideas! These are really great topics, some just give me an on ped paudhe aur hum existential crisis though. Cristina Narvaez 4 months ago. Very helpful and mind blowing topics.. austinedgmon 4 months ago. this site is cool and helpful. Thank you for your collection of benjamin competition topics. this site is very usefull. Chris Paolini? Virginia Kearney 5 months ago from United States.

Hi Jessica--If you want to ferencz competition, build something, you might want to consider engineering topics. I have some articles about eldest chris paolini, building a bomb detecting robot. You might also want to research how to build nanobots. I am in research science and I have no idea what I want to benjamin ferencz essay competition, do. I'm interested in building something. Virginia Kearney 5 months ago from United States. Hi Jonah--Look out for a new article I'm writing on easy topics. Most of these are aimed at college students but I'm discovering that there are a lot of younger students looking for topics too. Another place to eldest chris, get some inspiration right now is my technology topics article, which gives a lot of links to research articles that you can use. That makes it easier because you get a head start on benjamin essay competition, your research.

Hi! These research ideas are all good. If you have any easier research topic pls do tell - still science related. Thank you! Virginia Kearney 5 months ago from United States. Hi ALX--If you are going to do a science project rather than a research paper, you might want to look up my science fair ideas. Of Hamlet Essay? I have over 10 proven science fair projects for ages from kindergarten through secondary school. If you are doing a paper and want a project to research, you might want to try looking at benjamin essay competition, my article 100 Technology topics for reflective, essay because that one has a lot of links to articles you can use.

Hello, I am going to enter a science competition but still can't find an interesting topic. These topics are good but hard for ferencz essay, me to understand because I am only in gsd architecture thesis secondary school (first year). Can anyone please help me . Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States. Hi Maleni--Here are some topics that are very current: How can chemistry contribute to ferencz competition, the development of new types of batteries? What are the ways biomacromolecules or synthetic molecules can be used in imaging or for new medical therapies? Maleni Anguisaca 6 months ago. Hello can anyone help me with a interesting topic for case study, my chemistry class? I have to do a paper bases on benjamin essay, anything that has to aur hum, do with chemistry! Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States. Mirtha: Here are some alternative research questions on essay competition, the topic of euthanasia: Do euthanasia tend to happen more to poor people? Should an individual be able to consider the burden of medical costs on their family when making a decision about essay, euthanasia?

What is the cause of most people wanting to choose euthanasia? Is there a moral difference between passive euthanasia vs. active physician-assisted dying? Mirtha Torres 6 months ago. What are other research questions that involve euthanasia? I am really interested in writing about this, I'm just not sure how to form a scientific question about benjamin ferencz essay, it for my research paper. Please let me know the topics of Neuroscience? Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States. Paudhe Aur Hum? Tanner: for physical sciences, I'd do a nanotechnology topic. Benjamin Ferencz Competition? That is interesting and current and gsd architecture you should be able to find plenty to write about. Consider questions like: What is the future of nanotechnology?

Or How nanotechnology will improve our lives. what is a good topic for a physical science term paper that is ferencz, 5 pages long. Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States. James: here are a couple of current topics you can consider: Are radiography departments prepared for morbidly obese patients? Another along this line would be: How has the increase in morbid obesity changed the my personal reflective essay medical field or changed radiography? How can the field of benjamin radiography best help patients to have better outcomes? JAMES VICTOR 6 months ago. Smart? Hello help me with a topic under radiography or in essay competition medical field (health sciences) Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States. Hi Jafta, I would suggest that you look up some forensic study journals. That will give you an idea of the chris paolini essay types of articles and studies that are done in benjamin ferencz essay forensic investigations. Getting a couple of sources on essay, the same topic will put you ahead in writing your paper. To write a topic for research, you need to find something that people are debating in forensic studies.

Use these questions to help you choose a topic: What do you want to know more about? What is the most important unsolved problem? What can I research that will help me understand this job better? Can you please help me with the benjamin competition topic I am studying forensic investigation. The question is Based on your field of chris paolini essay study, propose a suitable research topic for your study? Christiana Bethea 6 months ago.

It really helps to benjamin essay, find topics. Matthew Zhu 7 months ago. Wow, how did you know I needed this? Thank you! I have a presentation at /2017/3/6/. hey can you post more science questions and ideas involving science? Virginia Kearney 7 months ago from United States. Eldest Chris Paolini Essay? Hi Manelisi--If you are looking for research topics in a particular field or area, you will often get the best ideas by searching for ferencz essay competition, current trends or current research in that field. You can also look at thesis, the most recent journal articles in top journals of that field. hi there I am mostly interested in chemistry. Benjamin? Both organic and inorganic chemistry.

What fascinating research topics can I find there. Virginia Kearney 7 months ago from United States. Hi, Keroki! Nanotechnology is a particularly interesting field of study right now to research with changes happening all the time. However, if you have to conduct an experiment, then think about what your time period will be and choose something that you can complete during that time. There's so much to choose from and they're all so good but I can only pick one. What topic is best for a quantitative research, around 50 pages long? I really want an interesting topic so I can develop it further. Not astronomy related because I might have to conduct action research.

Xavier Keaton 7 months ago. I don't know what to reflective essay, choose, I'm a senior in high school, and have to benjamin, find a topic that i will be and to write a ten page resaerch paper with. Any ideas? Thanks i need these ideas for my science report. Marie Impriem 7 months ago. Very helpful. Thanks. I liked the gsd architecture topics. Very helpful.

Thank you. luke siglow 8 months ago. this is ferencz essay competition, just awesome thanks for paudhe, this. Benjamin Essay? faith brugler 8 months ago. these ideas are great. Tayef Hasan 9 months ago. I really love science. Essay? Virginia Kearney 10 months ago from United States. So glad it helps Zach! Hope your presentation goes well. zack smith 10 months ago. thank you for ferencz essay competition, these ideas im doing this for case study approach, my science presentation. Emmanuella 10 months ago. Wonderful! Thanks for all these useful ideas. Virginia Kearney 10 months ago from United States.

Check Science Daily for zoology news and you will find the benjamin ferencz essay latest topics that are being researched. kindly suggest me topic for research now in zoology whatever is it ob BS Level. You should do one on animals and other organisms. lokcxkvjhbd 11 months ago. This is very interesting information, some of these stuff I don't even know about. this is so interesting. Virginia Kearney 15 months ago from aur hum United States. That is a good idea.

Do you have some specific aspect of physical science that you are interested in pursuing? can you add some ideal topics about physical science? Virginia Kearney 16 months ago from United States. Hi, Kirti! Glad you were helped by the topics. My students are the ones who have helped to write many of ferencz essay my topics. That helps me to make sure that my topics are ones that students like to write about. Kirti kannojiya 16 months ago. Chris? I love all the benjamin competition topics posted on this site. Essay Aur Hum? Chemistry and philosophy. Ferencz Essay? Thanks! This is great, has so many helpful topics. :) Dylan Corey 20 months ago.

Genetic engineering/ recombinant DNA. all are such an interesting topics i am a student .my teacher said me to analysis essay, look this site i looked it has so many topics related to ferencz competition, my studies. i like it. My favorite thing to learn about is the critical big bang theory and what it was like during caveman times. luvscience 22 months ago. LUV all these ideas. ihatescienceyay 22 months ago. Benjamin Ferencz? I hate science (yay) but some of these are really good! For example, the veraflu add!! ilovescience34 22 months ago. Case? Amazing!

I loved these ideas! Thank you so much! how colors effect the mood. Amy 23 months ago from benjamin essay Darlington, England. Essay? I clicked other as I love computer science, robotics, space science, genetics and theoretical physics. The latter being my main focus. Aryan paharia 2 years ago. Benjamin Ferencz Essay? Very nice for young students I really liked it. I guess you should have an example of scientific research. What I mean is analysis essay, you will give us topics then we will reasearch about it. Experiment is the exact word. Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States.

Donald--I'm sorry you didn't find anything here that worked for you. I have a lot of other articles with topics for papers. You might want to try those. Didn't see a lot of essay competition topics on psychology, physics or physical chemistry, more on those would be great :) Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on ferencz essay competition, this page based on affiliate relationships and smart card research paper advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others.

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essay on benjamin essay competition the wire Jason Mittell calls David Simon’s bluff: to what degree is The Wire really like a “televised novel”? To what degree is it more like a video game? Why not classify it as what it really is research, - a genre-spawning “masterpiece” in the medium of benjamin essay television. The Wire (2002-2008) is paradigmatic of my personal essay a critical darling - few people watch it (at least in the numbers typical of benjamin ferencz essay competition commercial television), but it generates adoration and evangelism by nearly all who do. Television critics have taken it on themselves to lobby their readers to give the show a chance, asking reluctant viewers to overlook its dark and cynical worldview to see the truth and beauty offered by its searing vision into my personal reflective the bleak heart of the U.S. city. Thankfully for benjamin ferencz us scattered fans, HBO has allowed the show to reflective essay continue for five seasons, even without a clear sense that the essay competition, show’s dedicated fandom leads to overt profitability. This chapter was composed in smart card, the interim between seasons four and benjamin ferencz essay competition five, and my personal reflective essay thus only competition refers to the show’s first four seasons. The author would like to thank the readers of his blog, Just TV, for the thoughtful feedback posted about a draft of this chapter as well as the comments by this volume’s editors.

What is most interesting to me about the critical praise deservedly lavished on The Wire is gsd architecture thesis, not how it may or may not yield an increase in viewership but how the critical consensus seems to situate the show distinctly within the frame of another medium. Benjamin Essay Competition. For many critics, bloggers, fans, and even creator David Simon himself, The Wire is best understood not as a television series but as a “visual novel.” As a television scholar, this cross-media metaphor bristles - not because I don’t like novels but because I love television. And I believe that television at its best shouldn’t be understood simply as emulating another older and more culturally valued medium. The Wire is research paper, a masterpiece of television, not a novel that happens to be televised, and thus should be understood, analyzed, and celebrated on its own medium’s terms. Yet thinking comparatively across media can be quite rewarding as a critical exercise, illuminating what makes a particular medium distinctive, and how its norms and assumptions might be rethought. So before considering how the benjamin essay competition, show operates televisually, what does thinking of The Wire as a novel teach us about the show? And might other cross-media metaphors yield other insights?

The Wire ’s novelistic qualities are most directly linked to its storytelling structure and ambitions. Aur Hum. As Simon attests in frequent interviews and benjamin essay competition commentary tracks, he is looking to tell a large sweeping story that has traditionally been the purview of the novel, at essay paudhe least within the realm of culturally legitimate formats. He highlights how each season offers its own structural integrity, much like a specific book within a larger epic novel, and benjamin each episode stands as a distinct chapter in that book. The model, modestly left unspoken, might be War and Peace , a vast narrative containing fifteen “books,” each subdivided into at least a dozen chapters and released serially over five years - Simon has less modestly mentioned Moby-Dick as another point of comparison, although that epic novel was neither serialized nor subdivided into study approach psychology books. In The Wire , each season focuses on benjamin a particular facet of Baltimore and eldest essay slowly builds into a cohesive whole. An episode typically does not follow the self-contained logic of essay competition most television programming, as story lines are introduced gradually and major characters might take weeks to appear. Eldest Chris Paolini Essay. “Novelistic” is an apt term for ferencz competition describing this storytelling structure, as we rarely dive into a novel expecting the first chapter to typify the whole work as a television pilot is designed to do. Simon emphasizes how the show requires patience to allow stories to build and themes to accrue - a mode of engagement he suggests is more typical of reading than viewing.

Enhancing the show’s novelistic claims is the presence of well-regarded crime fiction writers like George Pelecanos, Richard Price, and Dennis Lehane on the staff, and Price’s novel Clockers is surely an influence with its dual focus on study psychology a criminal and benjamin ferencz competition a cop in the urban drug war. This parallel to the novel brings with it not just an imagined structure and scope but a host of assumed cultural values as well. While the gsd architecture thesis, novel’s history in the eighteenth and essay competition nineteenth centuries featured numerous contestations over the form’s aesthetic and cultural merits, by the time television emerged in the mid-twentieth century, the my personal, literary novel’s cultural role was firmly ensconced as one of the most elite and privileged storytelling formats. As the most popular and culturally influential form of competition storytelling, television has usurped the role that the early novel played as a lowbrow mass medium threatening to corrupt its readers and demean cultural standards. By asserting The Wire as a televised novel, Simon and critics are attempting to legitimize and validate the demeaned television medium by linking it to study approach psychology the highbrow cultural sphere of literature. The phrase “televised novel” functions as an oxymoron in its assumed cultural values, much like the term “soap opera” juxtaposes the extremities of art and commerce into a cultural contradiction. Benjamin Ferencz Essay Competition. For The Wire , especially in its context of HBO’s slogan “It’s Not TV, It’s HBO,” the chris, link to the novel rescues the benjamin essay competition, show from the analysis essay, stigmas of benjamin competition its televised form, raising it above the smart card research paper, commercialized swamp of ephemera imagined by many as typical television. But I would contend that emphasizing the literary facets of The Wire obscures many of its virtues and ferencz competition qualities, setting it up to fail when measured by some of the case psychology, aesthetic aims of the novel. While any form as diverse as the novel cannot be firmly defined as dependent on any singular theme or formal quality, we can point to some key features common to benjamin ferencz competition many novels that The Wire seems not to share. Novels typically probe the interior lives of their characters, both through plots that center on character growth and paudhe transformations, and through the ferencz essay, scope of narration that accesses characters’ thoughts and beliefs. Even novels about a broad range of eldest chris essay people and institutions often ground their vision of the world through the benjamin ferencz, experiences of one or two central characters who transform through the narrative drive - for instance, a Charles Dickens novel like Bleak House examines institutions like the legal system, but does so primarily through the case study, experiences and perspective of a central character.

These features of characterization and interiority are certainly not unique to novels, and probably apply to many television series as well, but if The Wire is held as exemplar of the televised novel, we would assume that it shares the novel’s core treatment of benjamin competition character, which I believe it does not. Simon has suggested that The Wire is a show about the relationship between individuals and institutions - a claim that the program seems to uphold. But I would argue that the point of emphasis is much more clearly on institutions rather than individuals, as within each of the social systems that the show explores - the police, the drug trade, the docks, city government, and the educational system - the institution is brought into focus through the reflective essay, lens of essay numerous characters. Certainly Jimmy McNulty is a central point of access to understand police bureaucracy and functions nominally as the study, show’s main character, but by season four he is in the margins while characters like Cedric Daniels, “Bunny” Colvin, and Bunk Moreland provide alternate entry points to explore the police system. Likewise, we experience the drug trade through a range of characters from D’Angelo Barksdale to Stringer Bell, Omar Little to benjamin ferencz essay competition Bodie Broadus.

While all of these characters have depth and complexity, we rarely see much of their existence beyond how they fit into their institutional roles. Even romantic relationships seem to chris essay foreground interinstitutional links between police, lawyers, and essay politicians more than interpersonal bonds that deepen characters’ inner lives and motivations. The chronic alcoholism and infidelity of The Wire ’s police officers offers a portrait less of flawed personalities than of a flawed institution; for chris essay instance, the police admire the systematic discipline and coordination of Barksdale’s crew, which is distinctly lacking in the Baltimore Police Department. This is competition, not to suggest that characters in approach, The Wire are flat or merely cardboard cutouts enacting a social simulation. One of the show’s most masterful features is its ability to ferencz essay create achingly human characters out of the eldest paolini, tiniest moments and subtle gestures, such as Lester Freamon silently sanding doll furniture, D’Angelo Barksdale picking out essay competition his clothes, or Bubbles walking through “Hamsterdam” in a daze trying to find himself.

But the way The Wire portrays its characters seems distinctly not novelistic: we get no internal monologues or speeches articulating characters’ deep thoughts, and few senses of card research paper deep character goals or transformations motivating the dramatic actions. Character depth is conveyed through the texture of everyday life on the job - a set of operating systems that work to dehumanize the characters at nearly every turn. As Simon notes, The Wire has … resisted the essay, idea that, in this post-modern America, individuals triumph over institutions. The institution is always bigger. It doesn’t tolerate that degree of individuality on any level for any length of time. These moments of epic characterization are inherently false. Case Study Psychology. They’re all rooted in, like, old Westerns or something. Guy rides into town, cleans up the town, rides out of town. There’s no cleaning it up anymore. There’s no riding in, there’s no riding out.

The town is what it is. (Quoted in benjamin essay competition, Mills 2007) In the show’s character logic, the institution is the defining element in a character’s life, externalized through practices, behaviors, and choices that deny individuality and agency - a storytelling structure that seems contrary to principles typical of most literary novels. There are clearly aspects of the chris essay, novel that have inspired The Wire - the sweeping storytelling scope, the attention to details of systems and essay competition characters, and the social issue probing of works like The Jungle . Additionally, literary developments in recent decades have opened up the critical analysis, formal and stylistic possibilities of the genre, and thus there are certainly fictional trends that The Wire taps into. Benjamin Ferencz Essay Competition. Ultimately, however, I contend that we should view The Wire using the lens of its actual medium of television to best understand and appreciate its achievements and importance. But viewing a text through the expectations and assumptions of smart another form can help us understand its particular cultural logic. Might other media metaphors be similarly useful, within limits, to benjamin ferencz help unravel The Wire ? Surely journalism and documentary would be apt comparisons, with Simon’s roots as a newspaperman and investment in creative nonfiction. My Personal. Yet I would like to benjamin ferencz essay suggest that it might be useful to view the card research, program using the lens of a seemingly off-base medium, and hence offer a brief detour to benjamin ferencz answer an unlikely question: How might we conceive of The Wire as a video game? Let me preemptively acknowledge one significant limitation here: watching The Wire is not interactive, at critical analysis of hamlet essay least in the explicit mode that Eric Zimmerman (2004, 158) argues typifies games.

But then again, watching a game like baseball is also noninteractive - despite my ritualized efforts to essay superstitiously trigger my team’s good fortune via carefully chosen clothing, gestures, and behaviors, I have failed to alter the outcome of chris paolini any Red Sox game (at least as far as I know). In thinking about a filmed series like The Wire as a game, we need to think of the ludic elements within the show’s diegesis, not the interactive play that we expect when booting up a video game. Thus The Wire might be thought of benjamin as a spectatorial game, being played on-screen for the benefit of an audience. Games certainly play a more crucial role within The Wire ’s storyworld than literature does, as its characters hardly ever seem to read, but can regularly be seen playing craps or golf, watching basketball or dogfighting. More centrally, nearly every episode has at least one reference to “the game,” a slang term for the urban drug trade that extends to all of the show’s institutional settings. Within the show’s portrait of Baltimore, the game is played in all venues - the corners, City Hall, the police station, and paolini the union hall - and by a range of players - street-level junkies looking to score, corrupt politicians filling campaign coffers, cops bucking for essay competition promotion, stevedores trying to maintain the on ped, docks. “The game” is the overarching metaphor for urban struggle, as everyone must play or get played - as Marla Daniels tries to essay competition warn her husband, Cedric, “The game is rigged - you can’t lose if you don’t play” (episode 1.2). Study Approach. Sometimes characters are playing the same game, as the chase between the cops and benjamin competition Barksdale’s crew develops into research paper a series of moves and benjamin ferencz competition countermoves, but some institutions engage in a different game altogether - in season one, the cops go to the FBI for help busting Barksdale’s drug and money-laundering system, but the feds are only playing the terrorism and case approach psychology political corruption game. Ultimately, Bell is brought down by trying to play two games at once, and gets caught when the rules of the drug game conflict with the corporate political game.

Simon has suggested that the benjamin essay, show’s goal is to “portray systems and institutions and be honest with ourselves and analysis viewers about essay competition, how complex these problems are” (quoted in Zurawik 2006). While Simon imagines that the televised novel is the form best suited to on ped paudhe accomplish such goals, in today’s media environment, video games are the go-to medium for portraying complex systems. As Janet Murray writes, “The more we see life in ferencz essay competition, terms of systems, the more we need a system-modeling medium to represent it - and the less we can dismiss such organized rule systems as mere games” (quoted in Moulthrop 2004, 64). If novels typically foreground characterization and interiority in ways that The Wire seems to deny, video games highlight the complexity of interrelated systems and institutions that is one of the show’s strengths. Many video games are predicated on the logic of simulating complex systems, modeling an smart research paper, interrelated set of practices and benjamin protocols to explore how one choice ripples through an immersive world. Ian Bogost (2006, 98) defines a simulation as “a representation of a source system via a less complex system that informs the user’s understanding of the source system in a subjective way” - a formulation that certainly captures the essence of The Wire as a dramatic distillation of Baltimore’s institutional systems viewed through the critical perspective of Simon and his cowriters. We might imagine the show as a televisual adaptation of chris Will Wright’s landmark game SimCity (1989): an competition, array of systems are dramatized, each with changing variables that ripple across the smart paper, larger simulation model in unpredictable and often counterintuitive ways. SimCity functions as a “God game” at a macrolevel of control over the microdecisions of urban existence.

But The Wire dramatizes its institutions more through the actions of characters in relation to the institution, blending the urban scope of SimCity with the personal focus typifying The Sims (2000), Wright’s most popular iteration of the simulation game genre. Bogost analyzes the cellular structure of simulations, with units operating in microcontexts coalescing to create broader emergent systems. Such is often the case in The Wire ’s Baltimore; in benjamin essay, the first episode, for instance, a chance violent encounter between Johnny Weeks and critical analysis Bodie leads Bubbles to seek revenge on Barksdale’s organization, a small-scale unit operation that leads to major institutional transformations for both the police and drug dealers. Benjamin Ferencz Essay Competition. Such small occurrences and changes at the levels of both character and institution are followed throughout the series to model how institutions operate and infiltrate the essay on ped, lives of their employees and members - a mode of representation blending the logics of SimCity and The Sims . One of the central elements of games, especially those centered on simulations, is replayability; for a game to be embraced by its players, it typically must allow enough experiential variation to invite multiple passes through its ludic journey. Instead of viewing each of The Wire ’s seasons as a singular book within an epic novel, we could view them as one play through its simulation game. Benjamin Ferencz Essay Competition. In the first season, we walk through the police’s attempt to take down Barksdale’s drug operation, concluding seemingly in a “checkmate” scene where Avon Barksdale and Stringer Bell yield to analysis essay the police’s final moves (1.12). Yet rather than game over, the move results in a stalemate that no players deem victorious - a few criminals get sentenced, but the Barksdale machine remains intact.

Season three offers a replay with some changed variables and strategies for all sides: What if drugs are decriminalized? What if the drug trade goes legit through a conglomerated co-op rather than violent competition? What if a former soldier repents and ferencz competition tries to card paper give back to his community? Given the show’s cynical vision of corrupt institutions, reform typically produces various forms of essay failure, as the parameters of the system are too locked in to paudhe truly produce social change or allow for an imagined solution to systemic problems; as Pryzbylewski notes in a later episode, referencing football but also his own life’s work, “No one wins - one side just loses more slowly” (4.4). Ferencz Essay Competition. Yet the ludic joy of the third season is the ability to replay the first season’s narrative through the imagination of new rules and ways to play the game - a mode of engagement offered with less imaginative vision and more amoral brutality in season four’s replay of the drug game under the leadership of Marlo Stanfield.

The characters in The Wire , while quite human and multidimensional, are as narrowly defined in their possibilities as typical video game avatars. They each do what they do because that is the way the game is played - Bubbles can’t get clean, McNulty can’t follow orders, Avon can’t stop fighting for his corners, and Frank Sobotka can’t let go of the glory days of the paper, docks. The characters with both the will and opportunity to benjamin essay competition change, like Bell, D’Angelo, or Colvin, find the systems too resistant, the “boss levels” too difficult, to overcome the status quo. Paper. The show offers a game that resists agency, a system impervious to benjamin ferencz essay change, and yet the players keep playing because that is all they know how to do. The opening scene in the series shows McNulty interviewing a witness to a murder, killed after trying to rob a craps game; even though the victim tried to “snatch and run” every Friday night, the witness says that they had to let him play, because “it’s America, man” (1.1). The game must be played, no matter the cost. Throughout the series, the moments of greatest conflict are where a player steps over the line and breaks the unwritten rules of his or her institution - shooting Omar on Sunday morning, Carver leaking information about Daniels, Nick Sobotka going beyond smuggling to enter the drug trade. In the gsd architecture thesis, show’s representation of essay competition Baltimore, the game is critical analysis, more than a metaphor; it is the benjamin ferencz competition, social contract that just barely holds the world together. Season four offers a replay with an expansion pack complete with new avatars and settings, focusing on the kids of Tilghman Middle School. Paudhe. The introduction of this new system triggers emotional distress - the rules of The Wire ’s simulation logic all but ensure that most of the children will end up broken and damaged, as that’s the ferencz essay competition, way the game is my personal reflective, played.

As we watch the season progress, the choices that the kids make and the actions that are enacted on ferencz essay them all function as unit operations, microinstances that begin to coalesce into larger systemic forces. We watch in gsd architecture, hope that they each choose the right moves, play by rules that we know well after three seasons, but realize that nobody wins - it’s just about who loses more slowly. It is ferencz essay, a tribute to the efficacy of the show’s logic of emergent systems that the paolini essay, end result of each child’s fate is both entirely unpredictable from the outset and completely inevitable given the way each played - and competition was played by - the game. As viewers, we also play along in rooting for paudhe particular players, tracking the competition, near misses that could have changed each of their lives along the way, and gsd architecture thesis learning the lessons of the benjamin essay competition, show’s simulation rhetoric. As Bogost (2006) observes, simulations make arguments and reinforce ideologies through their underlying rules and assumptions; The Wire serves as a prototype of a persuasive game, making arguments about the inefficacy of the drug war, the study psychology, class politics of urban America, and the failure of benjamin ferencz U.S. education under the regime of testing, all rhetorically framed within the thesis, metaphor of a game to be played and lost. If the video game medium offers such insight into benjamin essay what makes The Wire an reflective, innovative and successful program, why wouldn’t Simon or other critics highlight this cross-media parallel as well as the novel? One answer is obvious: it helps legitimize the benjamin ferencz, show by comparing it to the highbrow, respectable literary form rather than the more derided and marginalized medium. And of course, I do believe that Simon and his cowriters do conceive of their practices as fitting with their conceptions of gsd architecture thesis what the novel can do, with “the game” serving as mostly a metaphor for the desolate lives of ferencz competition their characters and institutions. But through my own little game here, reading The Wire for the anthology Third Person through the analytic lens of its previous game studies iteration of First Person , we can see both the possibilities and smart card research paper limitations of analyzing a text through the framework of what it is not. Ultimately, the best insights about the show can be found not by looking at it as either a novel or a game but in terms of what it truly is: a masterful example of television storytelling. Placing The Wire in benjamin essay, the context of television storytelling helps us understand why Simon felt compelled to frame his series as atypical of eldest chris paolini television beyond the implied cultural hierarchies.

On the show’s debut in 2002, television was in the midst of benjamin essay competition a distinctive shift in its storytelling strategies and possibilities, exploring a mode of smart card research paper narrative complexity that I have analyzed elsewhere (Mittell 2006). Simon’s previous work in television was primarily on the NBC series Homicide: Life on the Street , which was based on benjamin ferencz his journalistic book; Homicide ’s producers were constantly battling network requests to make plots more conclusive and paolini uplifting, adding hopeful resolution to its bleak vision of urban murder. But in the decade between Homicide ’s 1993 premiere and competition The Wire ’s debut, many programs offered innovations in complex long-form television storytelling, including The X-Files , Buffy the card research, Vampire Slayer , The West Wing , Alias , 24 , and benjamin essay most important for Simon’s own program, HBO’s critically acclaimed offerings of Oz , The Sopranos (1999-2007), and Six Feet Under (2001-2005) as well as his own miniseries The Corner . Thesis. Thus, while Simon frames his series primarily in novelistic terms in opposition to his frustrations working on Homicide , there were many key televised precedents for benjamin ferencz competition long-form gradual storytelling for him to draw on. The Wire does, of course, draw on a number of televisual traditions, mostly in its position within genre categories. The police drama is an obvious link, but an uncomfortable one; unlike nearly all cop shows, The Wire spends as much time focused on the criminals as the police, and case psychology as seasons progress, other civic institutions take over the dramatic center. The show belongs more to a nonexistent category of “urban drama,” documenting a city’s systemic decay; thematically, police dramas are nearly always about fighting the benjamin ferencz competition, tide of decay, rather than contributing to its demise. Paudhe Aur Hum. In spirit, if not in execution, The Wire harks back to benjamin essay the critically hailed yet little seen social issue dramas of the early 1960s, like East Side/West Side and The Defenders , but given the new industrial framework of premium cable television, The Wire can survive (if only essay barely) as a bleak social statement without reaching a mass audience - a luxury that its 1960s’ network counterparts could not afford.

What the show shares most directly with many cop show precedents is its focus on procedure. Ferencz Competition. Dragnet (1951-1970) pioneered the chris paolini, television cop show in the 1950s, inventing both the formal and cultural vocabulary of the police procedural. Although it reads as a mannered caricature today, in its time Dragnet represented the ferencz competition, height of gripping authenticity, offering viewers a gritty noir view into the underbelly of Los Angeles and smart a celebration of the police who protect it. The show’s narrative scope focused on the functional machinery of the police world, presenting a form of “systemic realism” that sublimated character depth to institutional logic (Mittell 2004, 137). While Dragnet did distill the larger institution into the perspective of Detective Joe Friday and his assorted partners, creator/producer/star Jack Webb designed the show for Friday to ferencz essay be viewed as “just one little cog in a great enforcement machine” (quoted in ibid., 126), and downplayed the case study approach, character to generate a level of emotional engagement appropriate for a cog, redirecting viewer focus on to the minute details of police procedures. The legacy of Dragnet ’s procedural tone lives on in the benjamin essay, long-running Law and Order and CSI franchises, each of which offer just enough emotional investment in their institutional workers to engage viewers, but hook them with twisty mysteries each week to be solved by effective forensic detection or prosecution. The Wire manages to gsd architecture thesis produce both emotional investment in its characters and ferencz essay a detailed eye for procedures. The opening credits of essay paudhe each season typify the show’s focus.

The characters are obscured and abstracted into benjamin ferencz a series of unit operations: close-ups of body parts, machinery, gestures, and icons of city life. What matters in the credits, and arguably the series as a whole, is less who is my personal reflective, doing the actions, but more the practices of institutional urban life themselves: the benjamin ferencz essay competition, policing, drug slinging, political bribing, and bureaucratic buck-passing that comprise the essence of the show’s portrait of Baltimore in decay. Smart Research Paper. The Wire offers a veritable how-to lesson on the police procedures of wiretapping, waterfront tracking, and surveillance as well as the less sanctioned practices of drug distribution, smuggling, and bribery. A real New York drug ring even modeled their strategy of dumping cell phones after the competition, practices of Barksdale’s crew - a connection that police learned about while listening to dealers recap the previous episode via a wiretap (Rashbaum 2005). While traditional police procedurals have documented the practices of detection and prosecution as evidence of a functional and robust criminal justice system, The Wire ’s procedural detail shows official systems that cannot match the research, discipline, creativity, and flexibility of criminals, thereby offering a cynical vision of a police system playing out a losing hand. The show’s formal style supports its claims to authenticity. While it avoids Dragnet’s procedural voice-over narration, The Wire shares a similar commitment to underplaying drama, and allowing the on-screen dialogue and action to tell the story. The show refuses to use nondiegetic music except to conclude each season, and benjamin essay competition minimizes camera movement and flashy editing, allowing the performances and writing to tell the story with a naturalistic visual style.

Unlike many of its contemporary shows employing complex narrative strategies, The Wire avoids flashbacks, voice-overs, fantasy sequences, repetition from paolini essay multiple perspectives, or reflexive commentaries on benjamin essay competition the narrative form itself (see Mittell 2006). In terms of how the show stylistically tells its story, The Wire appears more akin to conventional procedurals like Law and Order than contemporary innovators like The Sopranos or 24, sharing a commitment to authenticity and realism typified by a minimized documentary-style aesthetic that Simon (2006) summarizes: “Less is more. Explaining everything to the slowest or laziest member of the analysis of hamlet, audience destroys verisimilitude and reveals the movie itself, rather than the reality that the movie is trying to convey.” While its attention to procedural details, authenticity, and verisimilitude might rival any show in essay competition, television history, The Wire diverges from one defining attribute of the police procedural. Typically procedurals, whether focusing on police precincts, medical practices, or private detectives, are devoutly episodic in structure - each week, one or more cases gets discovered, processed, and resolved, rarely to reappear or even be remembered in subsequent episodes. On The Wire , cases last an smart paper, entire season or beyond, and everything that happens is remembered with continuing repercussions throughout the storyworld - lessons are learned, grudges are deepened, and benjamin the stakes are raised. The show demands audiences to my personal essay invest in their diegetic memories by rewarding detailed consumption with narrative payoffs; for instance, a first season bust of an aide to Senator Clay Davis adds little to that season’s arc, but it sets up a major plotline of seasons three and four. If Dragnet represents the essay competition, prototype of the episodic procedural with hundreds of interchangeable episodes, The Wire is on the other end of television’s narrational spectrum, with each episode in smart paper, the series demanding to ferencz competition be viewed in sequence and strict continuity. Thus, The Wire functions as what might be television’s only example of a serialized procedural.

Also debuting in thesis, 2002, The Shield blends the ferencz essay competition, procedural with the serial by mixing ongoing conflicts into its focus on the workings of a corrupt branch of the Los Angeles Police Department. Gsd Architecture. The Shield , however, offers far more episodic closure than The Wire , with single cases introduced and resolved in most episodes - a plot convention that never occurs in The Wire . How does The Wire structure its balance between serial and episodic story lines? In many examples of television’s contemporary narrative complexity, individual episodes maintain a coherent and benjamin ferencz competition steady structure, even when they primarily function as part of a larger storytelling arc (Mittell 2006; Newman 2006). Individual episodes typically offer one self-contained plotline to be resolved while others function primarily within larger season arcs; for example, each episode of smart paper Veronica Mars typically introduces and resolves one new mystery, while longer character and investigative arcs proceed alongside that week’s self-contained plot. Other shows use structural devices to identify distinct episodes, such as Lost ’s designation of a specific character’s flashbacks each week or Six Feet Under ’s “death-of-the-week” structure. Benjamin Ferencz Competition. The Wire offers little episodic unity. Although each episode is certainly structured to deliver narrative engagement and payoffs in specific beats and threads, it is hard to isolate any identifying characteristics of a single episode in the way that a show like The Sopranos has particular markers, such as “the college trip” or “the Russian in smart card research, the woods.” In this way, The Wire does fit Simon’s novelistic ideals, as individual chapters are best viewed as parts of a cohesive whole and not as stand-alone entries. The Wire is therefore at once one of television’s most serialized programs, yet also uniquely focused more on institutional procedures and actions than character relationships and emotional struggles that typify most serialized dramas.

What are the impacts of this unique narrative form of the serialized procedural, beyond just a formal innovation with its own pleasurable rewards? Dragnet and subsequent police procedurals represent law enforcement as an efficient machine - a perspective that the narrative form reinforces; by offering a weekly glimpse of essay competition how cases are solved and justice is served, the genre supports an underlying ideology of support for the status quo to reassure viewers about a functional state system able to protect and serve. Research Paper. Even Homicide ’s cynical and benjamin essay competition downbeat vision of eldest chris paolini law enforcement offers resolution, if not reassurance, through its closed narrative structures. Benjamin Ferencz Competition. The stretch of gsd architecture Homicide episodes most resembling The Wire was probably the first season’s focus on ferencz essay the unsolved Adena Watson murder, a story line adapted directly from Simon’s book . On The Wire , the gsd architecture thesis, ongoing investigations rarely close and never resolve with any ideological certainties or reassurances, heroic victories or emotional releases. When McNulty allows his pride to swell in recognition that their detail is essay competition, made up of elite “natural police,” Freamon knocks him down, pointing out that even if they do close a big case, there will be no “parade, a gold watch, a shining Jimmy McNulty Day moment” (3.9).

Even if a resolution to a case arrives, the smart research, show refuses heroic closure or any sense of justice being served. By refusing ideological closure or easy answers to solving the benjamin ferencz essay, complex systemic problems documented in The Wire , the show reminds us that in the end, it’s all just a game with another hand waiting to be played. The Wire ’s game logic returns to the fore here. Gsd Architecture Thesis. Many of television’s complex narratives employ a puzzle structure to motivate viewer interest, inspiring fans to watch shows like Lost , Veronica Mars , and Heroes with a forensic eye for essay details to piece together the mysteries and gsd architecture enigmas encoded within their serial structures. Despite being centered on crimes and detectives, The Wire offers almost no mysteries. We typically know who the criminals are and benjamin essay competition what they did. Even though the second season begins with an unsolved murder of a shipping container full of Eastern European prostitutes, the case study approach psychology, whodunit is benjamin ferencz essay, downplayed in the narrative drive, with the final revelation becoming almost an afterthought as the focus is shifted to the larger systems of corruption, smuggling, and the disintegration of labor - the approach psychology, only closure offered by discovering the name of the already-dead murderer is the ability to remove the “red names” from the board in benjamin essay, the homicide squad room.

Instead of mysteries, the show’s narrative is focused on the game between competing systems, with suspense and tension generated through anticipation of what procedures will pay off for each side, and how the case study, various sides will end up before the next round is played. Ferencz Essay Competition. In season four, we watch in anticipation of the twists and turns it will take before the police discover the smart card research, bodies entombed by Chris and Snoop as potential leads and connections are missed until chance encounters point Freamon toward the significance of a nailed-up board. The payoff is not justice being served, as the case remains unsolved at the season’s end, but the procedural journey toward the ferencz essay competition, discovery. The cultural logic of traditional mysteries is based on a belief in functional institutions of justice being able to smart research paper solve and punish crime; in The Wire ’s cynical vision, mysteries are only obstacles to benjamin ferencz competition improving clearance rates for homicide detectives or disruptions in the functioning machinery of a criminal operation. This procedural focus of The Wire can be viewed as tied not only to television traditions but also to the mechanics of gameplay. Within the world of game studies, the term procedural conjures far different connotations than Dragnet and critical analysis of hamlet CSI . Some game scholars see procedural authorship as the essence of coding gameplay or “procedural narrative,” outlining the unit operations that render the storyworld and enable player agency (Mateas and Stern 2007). For Murray (1997, 274), the procedural nature of games and digital narrative is unique in “its ability to capture experience as systems of benjamin ferencz essay competition interrelated actions” - a description seemingly capturing The Wire ’s narrative mode. Bogost (2006, 46) builds on Murray’s model to extend a critical eye to “both technology-based and non-technologically based works from the single perspective of their shared procedurality.” Although The Wire ’s procedural language is not written in binary, each Baltimore institution has an underlying code, from the rules of the drug game’s parlay to approach psychology the racial rotation in electing union leaders. The series frequently highlights what happens when conflicting codes overlap, as with Bell’s attempt to bring Robert’s Rules of Order to the meetings of drug dealers, or Colvin’s detente in the drug war to create Hamsterdam; such procedural conflicts trigger the complex social simulation needed to benjamin essay competition represent the urban environment as “systems of my personal reflective interrelated actions.” In both The Wire and the realm of digital games, procedures are the essential building blocks of narrative, character, and rhetoric, the actions that are undertaken within the parameters of the simulation, the ferencz essay competition, rules of the game. Ultimately it is through its focus on procedure, at the levels of action, play, and gsd architecture thesis code, that The Wire generates its verisimilitude, creating a ludic engagement with the benjamin ferencz essay, SimCity of twenty-first-century Baltimore. HBO brands its offerings as “not TV,” and in some ways The Wire delivers, supplying a mode of storytelling previously untried on psychology commercial U.S. television, with a tone and outlook antithetical to the medium’s perceived cultural role as a consensus-building vehicle for selling products and ideologies.

But in its innovation, The Wire does reframe what television can do, and how stories can be told. Perhaps inspired by the novel but referencing the cultural logic of games, the show presents a new model of serial procedurality that offers a probing social investigation of the urban condition. And as the players remind us, “it’s all in the game.” Bogost, Ian (2006). Unit Operations: An Approach to essay Videogame Criticism . Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Mateas, Michael, and gsd architecture Andrew Stern (2007). “Writing Facade: A Case Study in Procedural Authorship.” In Second Person: Role-Playing and Story in Games and Playable Media , edited by Pat Harrigan and ferencz competition Noah Wardrip-Fruin, 183-207. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Mittell, Jason (2004). Genre and Television: From Cop Shows to Cartoons in American Culture . Essay. New York: Routledge. Mittell, Jason (2006). “Narrative Complexity in Contemporary American Television.” Velvet Light Trap 58:29-40.

Moulthrop, Stuart (2004). “From Work to Play: Molecular Culture in the Time of Deadly Games.” In First Person: New Media as Story, Performance, and Game , edited by Noah Wardrip-Fruin and Pat Harrigan, 56-69. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Murray, Janet H. (1997). Ferencz Essay Competition. Hamlet on critical the Holodeck: The Future of Narrative in Cyberspace . New York: Free Press. Newman, Michael Z. (2006). “From Beats to Arcs: Toward a Poetics of Television Narrative.” Velvet Light Trap 58:16-28. Rashbaum, William K. (2005). “Police Say a Queens Drug Ring Watched Too Much Television.” New York Times , January 15. Simon, David (2006). “ The Wire on HBO: Play or Get Played | Exclusive QA with David Simon.” August 16. http://members.aol.com/TheWireHBO/exclusive-1.html.

Zimmerman, Eric (2004). Benjamin Ferencz Essay Competition. “Narrative, Interactivity, Play, and Games: Four Naughty Concepts in gsd architecture thesis, Need of Discipline.” In First Person: New Media as Story, Performance, and Game , edited by Noah Wardrip-Fruin and Pat Harrigan, 154-164. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Zurawik, David (2006). “David Simon Has Novel Ideas about Wire.” Baltimore Sun , September 10. SimCity . Will Wright; Maxis. 1989. The Sims . Essay. Will Wright; Maxis. 2000. Dragnet (1951-1970).

NBC. Paolini. Creator Jack Webb. Six Feet Under (2001-2005). HBO. Creator Alan Ball. The Sopranos (1999-2007). HBO. Creator David Chase.

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craft essays poetry Mark Strand on ferencz essay, Poetry and Poetics--from Essays and Interviews. From the on ped aur hum very beginning Justice has fashioned his poems, honed them down, freed them of rhetorical excess and the weight, however gracefully sustained, of an ferencz competition elaborate diction. His self-indulgence, then, has been with the possibilities of the gsd architecture thesis plain statement. His refusal to adopt any other mode but that which his subject demands--minimal, narcissist, negating--has nourished him. . Benjamin Ferencz Essay Competition? . . If absence and loss are inescapable conditions of fife, the poem for Justice is an act of recovery. Case Study Psychology? It synthesizes, for ferencz essay, all its meagreness, what is with what is no longer; it conjures up a life that persists by denial, gathering strength from its hopelessness, and exists, finally and positively, as an emblem of survival. From Contemporary Poets . Ed. James Vinson. My Personal Reflective? (St.

Martin#146;s, 1980) I strated writing The Monument and it became less and less about the translator of a particular text, and more about the translation of a self, and the text as self, the self as book. From an interview with Frank Graziano in Graziano, ed. Strand: A Profile (1979) It has been necessary to submit to vacancy in order to begin again, to clear ground, to make space. I can allow nothing to be received. Ferencz Competition? Therein lies my triumph and my mediocrity. Nothing is the destiny of everyone, it is our commonness made dumb.

I am passing it on. The monument is a void, artless and everlasting. What I was I am no longer. I speak for nothing, the essay nothing that I am, the nothing that is this work. And you shall perpetuate me not in ferencz, the name of what I was, but in the name of what I am. This poor document does not have to do with a self, it dwells on the absence of a self. I--and this pronoun will have to do--have not permitted anything worthwhile to be part of this communication that strains even to exist in a language other than the one in which it was written. So much is excluded that it could not be a document of self-centeredness. If it is my personal essay, a mirror to anything, it is to benjamin essay competition, the gap between the nothing that was and the nothing that will be.

It is a thread of gsd architecture thesis longing that binds past and future. Benjamin Ferencz Competition? Again, it is essay, everything that history is not. Ideally, it would be best to just write, to suppress the critical side of my nature and indulge the expressive. Perhaps. Benjamin Ferencz? But I tend to think of the case expressive part of me as rather tedious--never curious or responsive, but blind and self-serving. And because it has no power, let alone appetite, for self-scrutiny, it fits the reductive, dominating needs of the critical side of essay competition me. The more I think about this, the more I think that not writing is the best way to gsd architecture, write. Whether I admit it or not, I write to ferencz competition, participate in the delusion of paolini essay my own immortality which is born every minute. And yet, I write to benjamin, resist myself. I find resistance irresistible. (317)

In William Heyen, ed. Critical Analysis? The Generation of 2000: Contemporary American Poets (1984) Introduction to the Poems in ferencz essay competition, the Winter 1995-96. I was very casual about the way I chose poems for my personal essay, this issue of Ploughshares . Essay? I asked a few friends--those I happened to be in touch with--for recent unpublished work. I picked what I wanted. Eldest Chris? Then I went through poems that had come directly to ferencz, Ploughshares and which the editors thought would interest me. I recall that most of the poems which I chose came to critical of hamlet essay, me this way. I have no method for picking poems.

I simply pick what pleases me. Essay? I am not concerned with truth, nor with conventional notions of what is beautiful. I tend to on ped, like poems that engage me--that is to say, which do not bore me. I like elaboration, but I am often taken by simplicity. Cadences move me, but flatness can also seduce.

Sense, so long as it's not too familiar, is a pleasure, but so is nonsense when shrewdly exploited. Clearly, I have no set notion about what a poem ought to be. Editing a single issue of Ploughshares has not allowed me to competition, reach any conclusions about the state of American poetry. American poetry still seems to be out there, practiced by others in many different places and under many different conditions. The number of chris paolini essay people writing poems is vast, and their reasons for doing so are many, that much can be surmised from the benjamin essay stacks of analysis of hamlet essay submissions. Whether or not this is a healthy state of affairs I cannot say.

I simply don't know. And yet, in a culture like ours, which is given to material comforts, and benjamin addicted to forms of entertainment that offer immediate gratification, it is eldest chris essay, surprising that so much poetry is written. A great many people seem to think writing poetry is worthwhile, even though it pays next to nothing and benjamin ferencz essay competition is not as widely read as it should be. This is probably because it speaks for a level of study approach psychology experience unaccounted for essay, by other literary genres or by popular forms of entertainment. So, perhaps, the psychology fact that so many are writing poetry is a sign of health. Whatever the case, I hope that the poems I have chosen for this issue of Ploughshares find appreciative readers.

from An April 1999 Interview with Elizabeth Farnsworth on PBS. ELIZABETH FARNSWORTH: I'm very interested in your ideas about benjamin ferencz how a poem works. You've said, A poem releases itself, secretes itself slowly, sometimes almost poisonously, into the mind of the reader. How do you think poetry does that? MARK STRAND: Well, I think it -- a lot of it depends on the reader. The reader has to sort of give himself over to the poem and study approach psychology allow the poem to inhabit him and -- how does the poem do that? It does it by rearranging the world in such a way that it appears new. It does it by using language that is slightly different from the ferencz essay way language is gsd architecture, used in the workday world, so tha you're forced to pay attention to it.

ELIZABETH FARNSWORTH: What do you look for when you read a poem? MARK STRAND: I look for astonishment. I look to be moved, to have my view of the world in essay, which I live somewhat changed, enlarged. I want both to belong more strongly to critical analysis of hamlet essay, it or more emphatically to it, and yet, to be able to see it, to have -- well, it's almost a paradox to say this -- a more compassionate distance. For some of us, the less said about the way we do things the better.

And I for one am not even sure that I have a recognizable way of doing things, or if I did that I could talk about it. I do not have a secret method of writing, nor do I have a set of do's and don'ts. Benjamin? Each poem demands that I treat it differently from the rest, come to terms with it, seek out reflective its own best beginning and ending. And yet I would be kidding myself if I believed that nothing continuous existed in the transactions between myself and my poems. I suppose this is ferencz essay, what we mean by craft: those transactions that become so continuous we not only associate ourselves with them but allow them to represent the on ped means by ferencz competition which we make art. But since they rarely declare themselves in procedural terms, how do we talk about them? To a large extent, these transactions I have chosen to call craft are the case approach sole property of the individual poet and cannot be transferred to or adopted by others. One reason for this is that they are largely unknown at essay competition, the time of writing and are discovered afterwards, if at all.

1. Never use a metaphor, simile or other figure of speech which you are used to seeing in print. 2. Never use a long word where a short one will do. 3. If it is possible to cut a word out, always cut it out. 4. Never use the passive where you can use the active. 5. Never use a foreign phrase, a scientific word or jargon word if you can think of an gsd architecture thesis everyday English equivalent. 6. Break any of ferencz essay these rules sooner than say anything outright barbarous. It hardly seems worthwhile to point out the shortsightedness of those practitioners who would have us believe that the form of the poem is merely its shape. They argue that there is formal poetry and thesis poetry without form -- free verse, in other words; that formal poetry has dimensions that are rhythmic or stanzaic, etc., and consequently measurable, while free verse exists as a sprawl whose disposition is arbitrary and is, as such, nonmeasurable. But if we have learned anything from the ferencz essay poetry of the last twenty or thirty years, it is that free verse is as formal as any other verse. There is thesis, ample evidence that it uses a full range of mnemonic devices, the most common being anaphoral and parallelistic structures, both as syntactically restrictive as they are rhythmically binding.

I do not want to suggest that measured verse and free verse represent opposing mnemonics. I would rather we considered them together, both being structured or shaped and thus formal, or at least formal in ferencz, outward, easily described ways. Form is manifested most clearly in the apparatus of argument and essay image or, put another way, plot and benjamin figures of speech. This aspect of form is more difficult to discuss because it is less clear-cut; it happens also to be the area in which poems achieve their greatest individuality and where, as a result, they are more personal. This being the case, how is eldest chris essay, it possible to apply ideas of craft? Well, we might say that mixed metaphors are bad, that contradictions, unless they constitute intentional paradox, must be avoided, that this or that image is inappropriate. All of which is either too vague, too narrow, or mostly beside the benjamin ferencz competition point -- although there are many creative-writing teachers who have no difficulty discussing these more variable and hidden characteristics of form. And I use the word hidden because somehow, when we approach the study psychology question of benjamin what a poem means, we are moving very close to paolini essay, its source or what brought it into being. To be sure, there is no easy prescription, like George Orwell's, of what to say and benjamin what not to say in a poem.

While there is nothing automatic about the poem, nevertheless it has an automatic aspect in the sense that it is what I wanted it to reflective, be without knowing before it was written what I wanted it to be, even though I knew before it was written what I wanted to do. This is benjamin essay competition, as precise a statement of what is referred to as the creative process as I have ever read. And I think it makes clear why discussions of craft are at best precarious. We know only afterwards what it is we have done. Most poets, I think, are drawn to the unknown, and writing, for them, is a way of making the unknown visible. And if the object of one's quest is hidden or unknown, how is it to be approached by predictable means? I confess to a desire to forget knowing, especially when I sit down to work on a poem. The continuous transactions of craft take place in the dark. Analysis? Jung understood this when he said: As long as we ourselves are caught up in the process of creation, we neither see nor understand; indeed we ought not to understand, for nothing is more injurious to immediate experience than cognition. And Stevens, when he said: You have somehow to know the sound that is the exact sound: and you do in fact know, without knowing how. Your knowledge is irrational.

This is not to say that rationality is wrong or bad, but merely that it has little to do with the making of poems (as opposed, say, to competition, the understanding of poems). Even so rational a figure as Paul Valry becomes oddly evasive when discussing the making of a poem. In his brilliant but peculiar essay Poetry and Abstract Thought, he says the following: I have . . . noticed in myself certain states which I may well call poetic, since some of them were finally realized in poems. They came about from eldest chris paolini no apparent cause, arising from some accident or other; they developed according to their own nature, and consequently I found myself for a time jolted out of my habitual state of benjamin ferencz mind. And he goes on to say that the smart card research paper state of poetry is completely irregular, inconstant, and fragile, and that we lose it, as we find it, by accident, and that a poet is a man who, as a result of a certain incident, undergoes a hidden transformation. Competition? At its most comic, this is a Dr. Jekyll/Mr.

Hyde situation. And I suppose at its most tragic it still is. But it is astonishing that craft, even in such a figure as Valry, is approach psychology, beside the point. Benjamin? One feels that Valry, if given more time, might have become more like Bachelard, who said among other things that intellectual criticism of poetry will never lead to the center where poetic images are formed. And what does craft have to do with the formation of my personal essay poetic images? What does it have to do with the unknown sources of a poem? Nothing. For craft, as it is taught and discussed, functions clearly only if the poem is considered primarily as a form of communication.

And yet it is generally acknowledged that poetry invokes aspects of language other than that of communication, most significantly as a variation, though diminished, of ferencz essay competition a sacred text. Given such status, a status it has for the poet while he is writing, it is not validated by an appeal to experience but exists autonomously, or as autonomously as history will allow. My Personal? In his essay On the Relation of Analytical Psychology to Poetry, Jung comes closest to addressing this issue when he says: The work presents us with a finished picture, and this picture is amenable to analysis only to the extent that we can recognize it as a symbol. But if we are unable to discover any symbolic value in ferencz, it, we have merely established that, so far as we are concerned, it means no more than what it says, or to put it another way, that it is no more than what it seems to be. This strikes me as a generous statement, for it allows poems an existence ultimately tautological. On the other hand, Freud, who suggests a connection between daydreams and card poems -- but does not elaborate -- and who addresses himself to the fantasies of the benjamin less pretentious writers of romances, novels and case psychology stories, making their works into protracted forms of wish fulfillment, seems most intent on establishing the benjamin ferencz priority of mental states.

But the purpose of the poem is not disclosure or storytelling or the telling of a daydream; nor is a poem a symptom. A poem is itself and is the act by which it is born. It is my personal reflective, self-referential and is not necessarily preceded by benjamin ferencz essay any known order, except that of other poems. If poems often do not refer to any known experience, to critical, nothing that will characterize their being, and benjamin ferencz thus cannot be understood so much as absorbed, how can considerations of craft be applied when they are justified on the grounds that they enhance communication? This is my personal, perhaps one of the benjamin ferencz reasons why most discussions of craft fall short of dealing with the essentials of poetry.

Perhaps the poem is ultimately a metaphor for something unknown, its working-out a means of recovery. It may be that the retention of the case psychology absent origin is what is necessary for benjamin ferencz, the continued life of the poem as inexhaustible artifact. (Though words may represent things or actions, in combination they may represent something else -- the unspoken, hitherto-unknown unity of which the eldest chris essay poem is the example.) Furthermore, we might say that the degree to which a poem is explained or paraphrased is precisely the degree to which it ceases being a poem. If nothing is left of the poem, it has become the paraphrase of itself, and readers will experience the paraphrase in competition, place of the poem. It is for essay, this reason that poems must exist not only in language but beyond it. from Strand's The Weather of Words . (New York: Random House, Inc. 2000)

Use of essay this excerpt from The Weather of Words may be made only for purposes of essay promoting the book, with no changes, editing, or additions whatsoever, and must be accompanied by the following copyright notice: Copyright © 2000 by Mark Strand. All rights reserved. Benjamin Essay Competition? Order this Book.