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Phd Thesis On Academic Failure
cahsee essay scoring The CAHSEE Program is closed as of October 31, 2015. Thesis? If you have any inquiries regarding the CAHSEE Program, please contact the California Department of Education - High School and Physical Fitness Assessments Office by phone at 1-916-445-9449 or by in malayalam, email at . Below are several reference documents regarding the interpretation of CAHSEE scores, organized by date of issue. Translated versions of the 2008#x2013;2009 Interpretation Guide for Summary Reports are available in the following languages: Translated versions of the 2008#x2013;2009 Interpretation Guide for on failure the Student and Parent Report are available in the following languages: English-Language Arts Teacher Guide. Also includes introduction. Word analysis, fluency, and mathesis, systematic vocabulary development strand. Reading comprehension strand. Literary response and analysis strand. Writing strategies strand. Written and oral english language conventions strand. On Failure? Writing applications strand. Last Reviewed: Friday, May 20, 2016.
Beginning with the Class of 2006, students in California public schools were required to pass the reflective essay California High School Exit Examination (CAHSEE) to demonstrate competency in grade-level skills in reading, writing, and mathematics to earn a high school diploma. The content of the CAHSEE was based on on failure, content standards in English-language arts and single parents essay, mathematics that were adopted by the State Board of Education (SBE) in 2003. In 2010, the SBE adopted the Common Core State Standards in English#x2013;language arts and mathematics. Due to the change in academic standards, Senate Bill 172 (Liu) was signed by the Governor to suspend the administration of the thesis CAHSEE and the requirement that students pass the how does research look CAHSEE to thesis, receive a high school diploma for the 2015#x2013;16, 2016#x2013;17, and 2017#x2013;18 school years. The law required that schools grant a diploma to any pupil who completed grade twelve in the 2003#x2013;04 school year or a subsequent school year and met all applicable graduation requirements other than the passage of the citing paper high school exit examination. The law further required the State Superintendent of Public Instruction to thesis, convene an single parents essay, advisory panel to provide recommendations to the Superintendent on the continuation of the high school exit examination and on on failure, alternative pathways to satisfy the high school graduation requirements pursuant to Education Code sections 51224.5 and 51225.3. The law became effective on January 1, 2016.
Questions and answers about the suspension of the CAHSEE. Letter from Superintendent Torlakson to in research, provide information on the signing of Senate Bill 725. Overview of the California High School Exit Examination (CAHSEE). The primary purpose of the California High School Exit Examination (CAHSEE) was to significantly improve student achievement in public high schools and to ensure that students who graduated from public high schools demonstrated grade level competency in reading, writing, and mathematics. The CAHSEE helped identify students who were not developing skills that are essential for life after high school and encouraged districts to give these students the attention and thesis, resources needed to help them achieve these skills during their high school years. All California public school students, except eligible students with disabilities, were required satisfy the CAHSEE requirement, as well as all other state and local requirements, in order to receive a high school diploma. The CAHSEE requirement could be satisfied by passing the examination or, for eligible students with disabilities, meeting the exemption requirement pursuant to reflective essay, California Education Code (EC) Section 60852.3, or receiving a local waiver pursuant to EC Section 60851(c). The CAHSEE had two parts: English#x2013;language arts (ELA) and mathematics. The ELA part addressed state content standards through grade ten.
In reading, this included vocabulary, decoding, comprehension, and thesis on failure, analysis of information and literary texts. In writing, this covered writing strategies, applications, and the conventions of English (e.g., grammar, spelling, and punctuation). The mathematics part of the CAHSEE addressed state standards in grades six and seven and Algebra I. The exam included statistics, data analysis and single parents on motherhood, probability, number sense, measurement and geometry, mathematical reasoning, and algebra. On Failure? Students were also asked to demonstrate a strong foundation in computation and arithmetic, including working with decimals, fractions, and citing a website paper, percents. After determining that local proficiency standards, established pursuant to EC Section 51215 (repealed January 1, 2000), were generally set below a high school level and were not consistent with the state's content standards, the Legislature indicated its intent to set higher standards for high school graduation.
In proposing the CAHSEE, the Legislature's primary goal was to . significantly improve pupil achievement in high school and to ensure that pupils who graduate from high school can demonstrate grade level competency in reading, writing, and mathematics. (Senate Bill 2, Section 1[b]). EC Section 60850 (Chapter 1, statutes of on failure, 1999-2000, S.B.2, O'Connell) authorized the on christmas CAHSEE to be developed in accordance with State Board of Education (SBE)-adopted content standards in ELA and mathematics. The CAHSEE was developed based on recommendations of the High School Exit Examination Standards Panel, whose members were appointed by on failure, the State Superintendent of Public Instruction and approved by the SBE. State law required that the CAHSEE be administered only on reflective essay on christmas, the dates designated by thesis on failure, the State Superintendent of Public Instruction. Students were required retake the examination until the ELA and engineers, mathematics parts were passed; however, students could retake only those parts not previously passed. All students were required to thesis on failure, take the CAHSEE for the first time in grade ten. Students who did not pass one or both parts of the CAHSEE in grade ten could take the parts not passed up to two times per school year in grade eleven and up to five times per school year in grade twelve. Adult students could take the parts not passed up to three times per school year. Reflective On Christmas? The CAHSEE was offered for the first time in spring 2001 (March and May) to volunteer ninth graders (class of 2004). In October 2001, Assembly Bill 1609 (Calderon) removed the on failure option for ninth graders to take the CAHSEE beginning with the 2002 administration. The CAHSEE was next administered in spring 2002 to all tenth graders who had not passed it during the spring 2001 administration.
The class of 2005 took the CAHSEE for the first time in spring 2003. In July 2003, the SBE took action to move the passage of the CAHSEE as a diploma requirement to the Class of 2006. The Class of 2006 took the CAHSEE for the first time as tenth graders in February 2004. In 2010, the SBE adopted the Common Core State Standards to reflective essay on christmas, be used as the basis for thesis on failure curriculum, instruction, and assessment for California schools. #xA0;Due to critical thinking, the change in academic standards, Senate Bill 172 (Liu) was signed by on failure, the Governor to suspend the administration of the CAHSEE and the requirement that students pass the of essay CAHSEE to on failure, receive a high school diploma for the 2015#x2013;16, 2016#x2013;17, and 2017#x2013;18 school years. The law required that schools grant a diploma to any pupil who completed grade twelve in the 2003#x2013;04 school year or a subsequent school year and met all applicable graduation requirements other than the passage of the high school exit examination. The law further required the State Superintendent of Public Instruction to convene an advisory panel to provide recommendations to engineers, the Superintendent on the continuation of the on failure high school exit examination and on alternative pathways to satisfy the engineers high school graduation requirements pursuant to Education Code sections 51224.5 and 51225.3. The law became effective on January 1, 2016. EC Section 60855 required the California Department of Education (CDE) to on failure, contract for an independent evaluation of the research look like CAHSEE beginning in January 2000. Each evaluation report was required to include the following: (1) an analysis of student performance, broken down by grade level, gender, race or ethnicity, and portion of the exam, including any trends that became apparent over time, (2) an analysis of the exam's effects, if any, on college attendance, pupil retention, graduation, and thesis, dropout rates, including an analysis of these effects on single parents essay, the subgroups described in (1) above, and (3) an thesis, analysis of theory, whether the exam was likely to have, or had, differential effects, whether beneficial or detrimental, on the subgroups described in (1) above. The evaluation reports were required to include recommendations to improve the quality, fairness, validity, and reliability of the CAHSEE.
The first report of the independent evaluation was completed and on failure, presented to the CDE, SBE, Legislature, Governor, and other control agencies on July 1, 2000. Subsequent evaluation reports were due to these same parties by February 1 of every even-numbered year. These reports are posted on the . Mathesis? Frequently asked questions, regulations, test blueprints, released test questions, study guides, and testing accommodations for the CAHSEE. clearly addresses all parts of the writing task. provides a meaningful thesis, demonstrates a consistent tone and focus, and illustrates a purposeful control of organization. thoughtfully supports the thesis on failure thesis and main ideas with specific details and examples. Essay On Christmas? provides a variety of sentence types and thesis, uses precise , descriptive language. demonstrates a clear sense of audience. contains few , if any errors in mathesis the conventions of the English language. Thesis On Failure? (Errors are generally first-draft in nature) * States and maintains a position, authoritatively defends that position with precise and relevant evidence and convincingly addresses the reader#xED;s concerns, biases and expectations. addresses all parts of the writing task. provides a thesis, demonstrates a consistent tone and focus, illustrates a control of organization. supports the thesis and main ideas with details and examples. provides a variety of sentence types and uses some descriptive language. demonstrates a general sense of audience. may contain some errors in the conventions of the English language (Errors do no interfere with the readers understanding of thesis) * states and maintains a position, generally defends that position with precise and relevant evidence and addresses the readers concerns, biases, and expectations. addresses only parts of writing task. may provide a thesis, demonstrates an inconsistent tone and focus and illustrates little, if any, control of the organization. may support the thesis and main ideas with limited, if any, details and/or examples. provides a few, if any, types of sentence types and basic predictable language. Citing? demonstrates little or no sense of audience. may contain several errors in the conventions of the thesis on failure English language (Errors may interfere with the readers understanding of the essay.) * Defends a position with little evidence and may address the reader#xED;s concerns, biases and expectations.
The Essay may be too short to evaluate or: Addresses only one part of the writing task. May provide a weak, if any, thesis; demonstrates little or no consistence of critical thinking theory, tone and focus; and illustrates little or no control of organization. Fails to support ideas with details and/or examples. May provide no sentence variety and uses limited vocabulary. May demonstrate no sense of audience.
May contain serious errors in thesis the convention s of the reflective English language (Errors interfere with the reader#xED;s understanding of the essay.) * Fails to defend a position with any evidence and fails to address the reader#xED;s concerns, biases, and expectations. Find Exam administration dates, assistance packets, independent evaluation (HumRRO), and frequently asked questions. This document provides an explanation of the 2014-15 CAHSEE summary results to thesis, the public. It also provides additional information for mathesis school and on failure, district staff to assist them in responding to questions from the public. California Department of Education.
Assessment Development and Administration Division.
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"Failure" Thesis Examples, Writing - …
5 Top Tips for dealing with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. For the actual sufferer, OCD can be a serious condition with detrimental effects on on failure his/her life. Mathesis Engineers? All the irrational obsessive thoughts they have can cause obsessive repetitive behaviors which are actually an attempt to reduce the anxiety caused by the obsessions . On Failure? So if left unchecked for a very long time, these thoughts can disrupt the patient's day-to-day life since they will spend a lot of time trapped in these thoughts. Research Paper? These obsessive thoughts are actually not a reflection of on failure their lives but interruptions which are very difficult to shake. So here are some few tips for meaning of essay dealing with OCD (obsessive compulsive disorder). Knowledge is the key to overcoming this disorder, so make sure you find out all the facts about OCD. Yes knowing the thesis, facts about this condition will not make this disorder disappear or make it easy for you to stop the intrusive thoughts, but it will help you get things in perspective and make it easy for you to understand all the signs associated with this condition. A Website? This will make it easy for you to not blame yourself or consider yourself undisciplined or stupid.
At times these obsessions can be unwanted and on failure intrusive. These thoughts can be very horrifying, embarrassing or even horrifying that you might not want to share with your therapist. At times it can feel embarrassing, extreme or even feel too bizarre and you might fear that your therapist might judge you. But keeping this all to yourself can limit the therapist's ability to help you. At the meaning of essay, same time you will be fueling your very own anxiety the hopelessness feeling. There is no quick fix to thesis on failure this disorder so you will not get well overnight. Paper Look? The therapy sessions might be long, but you will have to participate in the entire process and do all the tasks involved so as to gain the benefits of the treatment. If your therapist prescribes you any medication, make sure you take as prescribed.
Do not overdose or stop taking the medication immediately. If there are any side effects you are experiencing or you think that it's not helping you in anyway, then discuss the issue with your doctor. Thesis? Remember he might prescribe another type of medication or give you something for the side effects. 4) Learn some new effective methods for managing stress. Just like all the essay on christmas, mental and medical conditions, stress can easily trigger an episode of thesis on failure already existing symptoms. Parents Essay? Remember stress is a normal part of everyone's life, but managing it can make a huge difference. best way to reduce stress is reducing all the major stressors in your life.
You can also start prioritizing delegating some tasks at work or even learn to say no while making restorative sleep a must. Some of the stress alleviating activities includes tai chi, yoga, meditation and deep breathing among other activities. Regular running, walking and biking can help improve your sleep while reducing stress. 5) Have a unique strategy for dealing with stress when it appears. As much as this condition can feel like its controlling your life thus rending you helpless at times, remember you do have other choices. Therefore it's crucial that you know all the symptom triggers and on failure design a strategy for reflective on christmas dealing with it when it starts. Many people find it helpful to engage in other activities that can help divert your focus when the thesis on failure, symptoms emerge. Breathing slowly can help manage you manage anxiety and on christmas panic associated with this condition thus making it possible for thesis on failure you to resist the urge to look, engage in various compulsive behaviors or seek reassurance.
You can learn these unique strategies in therapy and how does research also how to implement them. Obsessive compulsive disorder or OCD can indeed affect the quality of your life as well as the lives of the people around you. On Failure? However, you can find treatment for this particular disorder. Whether you or a family member is single on motherhood suffering from this behaviour, it is important to thesis seek expert help and critical theory and practice find some good treatment as this anxiety disorder is treatable. The effective treatment for OCD may involve self-help, therapy and medication. However, for experts, it is thesis often suggested that psychotherapy should always be the first treatment to consider, especially if you are dealing with children exhibiting this kind of disorder. Cognitive behavioural therapy is seen to be an effective method of treating this disorder. This method showed great success as it retrains the brain and permanently reduces the occurrence of OCD symptoms. It also teaches the person with this disorder to respond to their obsessive thoughts healthily. Usually, cognitive behaviour therapy for OCD sufferers involves two parts - the exposure and response prevention and the cognitive therapy.
Other therapies available as treatment for citing OCD are family and group therapies. Family therapy is often recommended because OCD frequently causes troubles in family life. Thesis On Failure? It motivates family members to help their loved ones with OCD. Group therapy is also considered an thinking and practice effective treatment for obsessive compulsive disorder because it provides encouragement and support to sufferers and decreases their feelings of being isolated. Sometimes, electroconvulsive therapy is also helpful to those with severe cases of depression and obsessions. When it comes to medications as treatment for OCD, the on failure, Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors or SSRIs and tranquillizers are also being used. SSRIs in particular work by improving mood and reducing anxiety by of essay increasing the serotonin levels in the brain.
However, experts suggest that these medical treatments become more effective when used in conjunction with other OCD therapies to thesis on failure reduce the symptoms. You can also find some simple steps that you can do your self to help you deal with this behaviour. Firstly, it is critical thinking theory best to educate yourself about this disorder and learn everything you can about it. This can indeed help you in managing the symptoms as well as finding treatment. Make sure too that you learn and practice what you get from your therapy sessions, as this is indeed one key to successfully overcoming this disorder. You can also find some natural stress relievers like meditation, yoga to help lessen anxiety symptoms. Another self-help solution that you can take is to thesis find and join support groups for those with OCD and to always keep in touch with friends and family to help you or your family member with OCD to stay connected socially and not withdraw from the society. Exercise is also very beneficial as it calms the brain and reduces anxiety.
As OCD is an single parents on motherhood anxiety disorder, many sufferers have felt that physical exercise gives them an overall sense of well-being. Acupuncture may be used to on failure treat someone where medication hasn't been very successful. A typical course of reflective on christmas treatment may consist of a 45-minute session over thesis, 5 days per week and lasting approximately 6 weeks. Brain surgery is a last resort treatment and would only be used in very extreme cases of Treatment refractory OCD which is single on motherhood also called Treatment Resistant OCD. This is where traditional methods have failed, and the sufferer has some of the most debilitating symptoms which is affecting their quality of life. All these recommended treatments for OCD are aimed at helping the patients to control obsessions and compulsions to achieve more satisfying and fulfilling lives, but selecting the right treatment for OCD whether for children, teenagers or adults, should always depend on the severity of the symptoms. Also, you should find a qualified clinician to administer the treatment. How OCD effects chicago residents? OCD disorder is something that many people think they understand but most have the wrong thoughts regarding it.
This is a form of anxiety disorder that creates unlimited contemplations and behaviors for thesis Chicago residents. The considerations that an OCD Chicago residents has will repeat themselves over citing a website in research, and over, which creates a great deal of thesis stress and anxiety for individuals . Meaning In Malayalam? In addition to considerations, many people have recurrent images that gone through their mind interminably. At the point when the thoughts get sufficiently awful they prompt the compulsive side of this disorder. By this you neeed to know how OCD affects chicago residents. Fears are a portion of the on failure, greatest obsessions that the vast majority manage once a day. Parents On Motherhood? Fear of thesis on failure dirt and germs is very common and of essay so is fear of committing an thesis on failure error or being humiliated. There are additionally many people who have fear of hurting someone else because of contemplations that come into their head that are not rational. For instance, someone may fixate on hurting their children because they have an image of doing as such. The vast majority won't follow up on this idea; but it will be something that experiences their head throughout the day and night because the action isn't being fulfilled. There is no correct cause of OCD disorder, which can make diagnosis difficult for Chicago residents.
Sometimes this is passed around hereditary qualities, there could likewise be physical issues or sometimes environmental issues can be to be faulted. Citing? With regards to taking a gander at hereditary qualities, for the most part one parent would have had this or some other form of anxiety disorder. Common obsessions and thesis compulsions in OCD. Common obsessions and compulsions in paper like OCD is the mental disorder where the main symptoms include the obsessions and the compulsions, driving a person to engage in an unwanted, over on failure, and over again distress thoughts or behaviors. It is the treatment through the a website, combination of psychotherapy and psychiatric medications. A person with the OCD normally tries to dynamically dismiss the neutralization or obsesses them by on failure engaging in the compulsions or by avoiding situations which trigger them. To many cases, the compulsions serve in engineers alleviating the anxiety. Thesis? Though, it's not uncommon for compulsions themselves in causing anxiety mostly when they are demanding it. Obsessions: Images, thoughts, or impulses which occur time and reflective essay on christmas again and then feel out of a person's control. The person does not want to have these ideas. Thesis On Failure? He/ she find them disturbing and also unwanted, and normally knows that they do not make any sense.
They usually come with the on motherhood, uncomfortable feelings which are like fear, doubt, disgust, or the feeling that the things are done in the way which is on failure just right. Reflective Essay? They take much time in thesis getting in a way of the important activities a person values. Compulsions: Repetitive thoughts or behaviors that the person involves in to counteract, neutralize, or making the thinking, obsessions to go away. Those people with the OCD recognize this it is only the temporary answer, but without the thesis, better way of single parents essay on motherhood handling it, they depend on a compulsion as the temporary escape. Also compulsions can include avoid situations which trigger the obsessions. Body fluids which is like urine, feces Germs or disease which are like herpes HIV. Environmental contaminants which are like asbestos, radiation. Household chemicals which are like cleaners and solvents. Fear for acting on the impulse to harm yourself. Fear for acting on the impulse to injury others.
Fear of horrific or violent images in someone's mind. Fear for blurting out the thesis, obscenities or the insults. Fear to steal things. The fear for being responsible to something dreadful happening which are like fire, burglary. Fear for harming other people due to not being very careful enough like dropping something on a ground which may cause somebody to hurt and slip him or herself. Very concern about critical and practice, exactness or evenness Concern with the thesis on failure, need to know or even remember.
Fear for losing or failing to recall the in research paper, important information once throwing anything outInability of deciding whether to discard or to keep things. Fear for losing things. Perverse or forbidden sexual images or thoughts. Perverse or forbidden sexual impulses concerning others. Obsessions about the homosexuality. The sexual obsessions which involve children or the incest. Obsessions concerning aggressive sexual behaviors towards others. Religious Obsessions or Scrupulosity: Concern by offending God, or the concern about the blasphemy. Excessive concerning the right or wrong/ morality. Concerning the physical illness or the thesis on failure, disease not by the contamination like cancer.
Superstitious information about lucky or unlucky numbers, some colors. Washing the hands thoroughly or in the certain way. Excessive bathing, showering, tooth brushing, toilet routines or grooming. Cleaning the household items or the other objects excessively. Doing the other things so as to prevent or even remove the contact with the contaminants. Checking if you didn't or will not harm other people. Checking if you didn't or will not harm oneself. Check nothing which is terrible happen. Checking if you didn't make the mistake.
Checking some of the parts of the physical condition or the body. Rewriting or rereading. Repeat the routine activities which are like to go in or out the doors, get up or even down from the chairs. Repeat the body movements which is like tapping, blinking, touching. Repeat the activities in multiples like doing the task several times. Mental review of the events in harm. Pray so as to prevent the how does paper look like, harm. Counting when performing the task to thesis end on the good, safe or right, number Undoing Other or Cancelling Collecting the items which results in critical substantial clutter in a.
Putting the on failure, things in a very orderly way or arranging the things until it feels right. Telling, confessing or asking in getting reassurance. How OCD impacts the child at different ages? OCD, or Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, is a tension related disorder that can happen in how does children and additionally grown-ups. Thesis On Failure? People with OCD have relentless, reoccurring musings or obsessions, about critical thinking, unwarranted and thesis misrepresented feelings of thinking theory and practice dread. These obsessions of dread can be about nearly anything, but will commonly involve being contaminated, behaving dishonorably, or being violent. These feelings of trepidation usually prompt doing repetitive rituals or schedules, called compulsions, for example, repeated hand washing, tallying, repeating expressions and storing and on failure is an endeavor to manage the dread and tension. How OCD impacts the child at different ages? It is assessed that one in mathesis every 100 children may have Obsessive Compulsive Disorder.
Children are usually around 10 years of age when analyzed, in spite of the fact that children as youthful as a few can exhibit symptoms of OCD. Young men are more liable to develop this disorder before puberty, while girls tend to develop it amid youth. By the adolescent years the occurrence is about evenly part amongst young men and girls. OCD is often observed to keep running in families. Common Obsessions with Children: Dread of mischief or threat to loved one or self. It might be difficult for parents to recognize symptoms in a child, as children will take great care to shroud their behaviors. Symptoms can continue for months or years before a parent will even start to realize there is an issue. Thesis? Children and teenagers might have the and practice, capacity to overcome the obsessions and compulsions at school but not at home, or vice versa. Symptoms can vacillate and be greater amid a stressful period, for example, around occasions or when school begins.
A portion of the signs that a child is fixating or secretly performing rituals can be found in the accompanying observations: Obsessive Compulsive Disorder can affect almost all parts of thesis on failure a child's life, including their prosperity at school, personal relationships with family and peers, and engineers even their physical health. The constant obsessions and compulsions in children may make it difficult for them to concentrate in class and finish homework, or even make friends. Odd behaviors can often result in prodding from other children. Thesis On Failure? There are usually existing together physical symptoms, for example, stomachaches, headaches and other stress-related infirmities. Living with obsessive compulsive disorder.
Those suffering from OCD are often found committing to OCD Self Help as the first step towards treatment. Realizing the reflective essay on christmas, fact that you are suffering from some kind of mental disturbances is an achievement in itself. Secondly, after realizing the fact, if you decide to head towards the step of treatment, consider half of the on failure, battle is won. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder or OCD is one of the how does research paper, most critical types of thesis on failure mental illness prevalent in a large number of people today. At times people do not even realize that they are suffering from this disorder and continue with their routine work as usual. However, once it has been diagnosed that a person is suffering from OCD, it calls for paper look like immediate treatment.
OCD Self Help is a self-help treatment for the disorder that can be easily approached by people who are reluctant to go for counseling sessions. The self-help applicant needs to have a strong will power and confidence to overcome the hurdles during the treatment. Following are some of the tips that can help you keep going strong during the thesis on failure, treatment: There are several allopath medicines that are used for engineers relaxing the nerves of the mind. After a diagnostic analysis, the medical practitioners prescribe these medicines. You can also refer to your doctor and ask for such medicines after a proper diagnosis.
These medicines can help you feel relaxed and calm whenever you get over on failure, excited or hyper tensed. You will go through different phases of ups and reflective lows as you start with OCD Self Help treatment. You should inculcate the habit of thesis on failure writing your everyday experiences in of essay in malayalam a diary or notepad as you start with the thesis on failure, treatment. This would further help you to analyze your weak and citing paper strong points, and it would be very easy for you to recall which methods or techniques used in the past have been most helpful for on failure you. When you realize that you have Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, one of the first things that you should do is learn how to properly define what's going on. In fact, the biggest problem with OCD and anxiety is that when the research look like, person who experiences it starts to feel it coming on, they react in fear instead of faith. You need to realize that the only thing that separates someone who has Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and someone who does not is how they react to their thoughts and fears. You've got to realize that when you feel so strongly to do compulsions, that it's just anxiety stemming from your OCD.
You need to have a name for what is going on. The fear that a lot of people have is that they don't know what's wrong, they just know that something is wrong. Knowing what that something is, is half the battle. If you can properly identify when you are having anxiety over doing a ritual then you will be well on on failure your way to getting better. You can easily join a local community OCD support group or local OCD Forums for societal support and acceptance. In case you are reluctant to essay join the Live OCD Forums, you can also join the thesis on failure, online support groups like OcdTribe.com, socialphobiaworld.com, psychoforums.com and so on. These online support groups offer numerous interactive features like OCD Chat Rooms, Blogs writing, events, polls, games and on christmas so on.
The live OCD Chat Rooms offered by most of the support sites are especially helpful for the members for connecting to other tribe members. On Failure? They can also make new support friends through the chatting sessions. Easy recovery might be difficult, but you must always put in all your efforts for best results. You must try not to engineers give up and stay focused on the treatment. What exactly are obsessions and compulsions? Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), although very common, is often misunderstood. Thesis? Many people fear that they suffer from OCD when they have a personality quirk that causes them to perform a particular task on engineers a routine basis. That per se does not constitute OCD. A person suffering from thesis on failure OCD experiences obsessive, distressing, intrusive thoughts and paper related compulsions or rituals. For the problem to be OCD it must take up at thesis, least one or more hours per day and interfere with the daily functioning. The thoughts or compulsions are time-consuming and cause distress.
They cause impairment in how does like social, occupational, or school functioning. The sufferer often experiences feelings similar to those associated with depression. The depression usually occurs after the on failure, OCD has a significant impact on the life of the sufferer. In Research? He/she may find that the compulsions take up increasingly more time and thus the impacts on his/her life are greater. A vicious cycle can develop with one disorder perpetuating the other.
The compulsions (repetitive behaviours or rituals) are used in thesis on failure an attempt to parents on motherhood neutralize the obsessions (recurrent and persistent thoughts). The thoughts cause anxiety or stress and although the sufferer understands that the thoughts are not based on reality he/she is not able to ignore them. The compulsions, repetitive behaviours, are aimed at on failure, preventing or decreasing the distress or at how does paper, preventing some dreaded event or situation. The compulsions are usually not connected in a realistic way with what they are designed to neutralise. Panic attacks can also be present in this disorder. Thesis? However, some OCD patients claim to experience panic attacks after being faced with their major dread.
This could be anything really, but an example is a person that has obsessions about keeping his hands clean. If this person somehow gets the most imaginable disgusting filth on his hands he may go into a panic. Although he may describe this as a panic attack, technically it is not. True panic attacks come without warning and the fear or anxiety felt is not based on reality. Reflective On Christmas? In this case, however, the OCD patient is thesis on failure not fearful of the critical thinking theory and practice, attack (as panic attack sufferers are) itself but rather of the consequences of the contamination. As mentioned earlier, OCD patients often experience some of the same feelings associated with depression. It seems there is on failure a small thread that connects most anxiety disorders and parents essay if one disorder is on failure not treated it can result in the addition of reflective on christmas others. The most common treatment for OCD involves a combination of medication and professional counselling.
In some cases, a physician may feel as though it is necessary to prescribe an antidepressant as part of the treatment regimen, particularly if the patient is thesis found to be suffering from depression along with OCD. Some of the most common antidepressants prescribed to assist with reducing the symptoms of OCD include Prozac, Luvox and Zoloft. Counselling is also commonly used to treat OCD; including a specific type of cognitive-behavioural therapy known as exposure and response prevention. In fact, this type of therapy is considered to mathesis be the best type of counselling treatment for OCD. In this type of treatment therapy, the patient is repeatedly exposed to their particular obsession. The therapy is thesis on failure sometimes performed with a therapist as well as individually with direction provided by the therapist. The patient is meaning of essay in malayalam commonly asked to provide a list of their obsessions along with their rituals or compulsions when they begin treatment for OCD.
The therapist may also request the patient to provide information on things or situations which they tend to avoid as well as rank their obsessions in terms of the amount of anxiety that is created by them. Ranking the obsessions will help the thesis on failure, therapist determine where the patient should begin with exposure therapy. Meaning? For example, a patient may begin this type of therapy by exposing himself or herself to an obsession they consider to cause them a moderate amount of stress or anxiety. Then they may begin working their way up the list until they are exposed to the obsessions that cause them the most stress or anxiety. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, or OCD is the subject that many people have an opinion about, but the expression is additionally abused. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder is described by consistent obsessions, joined by thesis on failure compulsions that upset a person's capacity to handle regular day to day existence. When you exhibit an obsessive personality you are constantly having upsetting or exasperating contemplations, and/or motivations that torment your psyche notwithstanding when you attempt your best to eliminate them. There are by and large two approaches to treat OCD. The primary treatment is medication.
Drugs like Prozac, Zoloft, and Paxil are the run of the mill OCD medications that are taken by engineers OCD patients for a specific timeframe, or sometimes, for whatever is thesis on failure left of their lives. Mathesis Engineers? Commentators of thesis on failure OCD medications say that drugs will only make the patient subject to it and are not viable as long as possible, which convey us to the second and very much wanted method of treatment - Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) . CBT requires a considerable measure of patience and duty from the OCD sufferer and the people who encompass him or her because it manages behavior modification and the changing of like mindsets and on failure habits. Home Management Strategies for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. Step 1: Teaching your kid about anxiety. - No matter what sort of citing anxiety issue your kids are battling with, it is imperative that they comprehends the truth about thesis, anxiety. An ideal approach to enable teens or children to manage OCD is to offer them devices that can be utilized rather than the compulsions. For OCD, devices in on christmas the toolbox incorporate: - OCD can rapidly assume control over thesis on failure, your teen's life. A decent route for you to begin helping your kid handle OCD is to urge her or him to view the OCD as a different element, instead of a misstep concerning your children. To do this, child and grown up are urged to see their condition as a combat that is endeavoring to manage them and instruct them. This tool is particularly helpful with more teens. Mathesis? When you start assisting your children to control OCD, you can request that him or her postponement or change a custom marginally as a first endeavor to manager back an thesis on failure OCD.
For Afterward, make a point to applaud your kid's achievement, and how does remind them this is the manner by which we manager back the thesis on failure, OCD. - Because kid with OCD regularly need reassurance from her parents, this is an essential tool, for parents your kid, as well as for you. Tool 4: Facing Fears: Response and thesis Exposure Prevention. Most of the task in helping your kid or high schooler supervisor back the condition is in parents helping your kid to on failure confront his or her feelings of trepidation continuously. This includes building up a rundown of the greater part of your youngster's rituals (e.g., washing hands, checking entryways), and a rundown of circumstances when your kid finishes the rituals. With OCD, now and again this is called Introduction and Response Prevention, since youngsters or teenagers need to thinking theory confront their feelings of dread , and after that intentionally not do their impulse. Confronting fears is the on failure, presentation part; not doing the impulse is meaning called reaction avoidance. Gradually, your youngster can start diminishing these behaviors by not taking care of the compulsions and thesis on failure after that enduring the mathesis, anxiety until the point when it dies down. This instrument will likely be the best of the OCD devices. When you begin assisting your kid or high schooler to on failure fight OCD, you may feel that ceasing every one of the rituals that one have turned out to be associated with is single parents on motherhood a smart thought. For instance, your tyke may request that you clean the thesis, home or do the clothing surely, (for example, utilizing fade all over, or cleaning garments independently).
Albeit one of the critical theory, objectives in overseeing OCD is to cease every one of the rituals you intend engaged with, all of a sudden halting them all might be exceptionally overpowering for thesis your tyke. At the point when your kid begins confronting his or her feelings of trepidation, these parent-helped rituals can be an added piece of citing a website in research paper OCD to on failure supervisor back. This mean, you can influence a dread to step with your tyke, to bit by bit decrease these rituals. Tip 1: Your Teen or Child is the in research, Boss! A standout amongst the most accommodating instruments will be the thesis on failure, factors that your children can state to themself to help manage anxiety. Adapting cards are precious for this. This procedure includes testing a portion of the undesirable convictions that your children hold about critical thinking theory and practice, their obsessions. For instance, your kid may think, If that I don't arrange my shoes superbly, my mother will die!
This contemplation is unreasonable and thesis off base, yet it may be difficult for your kids to meaning of essay in malayalam view that when their is on failure feeling restless. The STOP design can help your kid to STOP these undesirable considerations, and re-examine regardless of whether they are in reality genuine. Your kid's advance originates from parents on motherhood diligent work. If you see upgrades merit bunches of credit! Figuring out how to conquer anxiety resembles work out â€“ your children needs to keep fit as a fiddle and practice their abilities frequently, and make all of them a propensity. Thesis? This is genuine even after your kid is feeling much better and has achieved his or her objectives.
5 Top Tips for dealing with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. How OCD effects chicago residents. Common obsessions and compulsions in OCD. How OCD impacts the child at how does paper like, different ages. Living with obsessive compulsive disorder. What exactly are obsessions and compulsions. Home Management Strategies for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. Looking for thesis on failure information on Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, and how it effects Chicago residents?
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A level reforms: a new level of thesis on failure, confusion. Of Essay! By Nick Morrison. 7:00AM GMT 26 Oct 2014. Education rarely stands still, and few years pass without some reform or other; but students heading into the sixth form over the next few years face a particularly challenging time with the biggest shake-up of thesis, A-levels in more than a decade. New courses, a switch from citing a website modules to end-of-course exams and a fundamental change in thesis, the nature of AS-levels represent a radical overhaul of a qualification once lauded as the gold standard of an English education.
The reforms were a response to perceived #x201c;grade inflation#x201d; as the number of engineers, pupils getting top grades increased, and were designed to make A-levels tougher, moving away from coursework towards end-of-course examinations. And to cap it all, a staggered introduction of the reforms means that for the next three years students will be simultaneously grappling with two entirely different programmes. Probably the biggest change is in the relationship between AS and A-levels. Contrary to widespread belief, AS-levels are not being scrapped, but they are being #x201c;decoupled#x201d; #x2013; which means they will no longer count towards a final A-level grade. At the on failure, moment, a typical student would take four AS-levels in parents, her first year of sixth form, and then follow three of those subjects through to A-level, also known as A2.
Her AS mark at the end of the first year makes up 50 per cent of her final A-level grade. Under the new system, students are free to take AS-levels, but they will no longer count towards A-level grades. On Failure! Instead they will be a stand-alone qualification. However, although many schools will continue to offer AS-levels next year, this is likely to mathesis, be a short-term measure, says Mark Bramwell, of the Association of Colleges. #x201c;The majority of on failure, colleges have decided to retain AS-levels next year, and single parents on motherhood, then move to just A-levels the following year, although there are a few who have decided only to offer A-levels from the start,#x201d; says Bramwell, associate director of sixth form colleges. AS and A-level courses are designed to be #x201c;co-teachable#x201d;, so a student taking an AS in their first year of sixth form can continue to do the A-level the following year, having covered the same ground as their A-level peers. Thesis On Failure! #x201c;It is essay on christmas, quite an ambiguous picture at thesis, the moment, and of essay, that makes it difficult for on failure students,#x201d; says Peter Cooper, vice-principal of Hereford Sixth Form College. Hereford plans to meaning of essay in malayalam, encourage most students to continue with AS-levels. #x201c;As far as possible we would like to still provide a certain amount of breadth,#x201d; says Cooper. #x201c;An AS-level at the end of on failure, their first year gives them a yardstick, so while it exists we will do that to critical thinking and practice, give people the option.#x201d; But different colleges will take a different approach. Martin Ward, principal of thesis, Shrewsbury Sixth Form College, is not anticipating a wide uptake of paper, AS-levels. #x201c;It may well be that for some students it is absolutely right. If after a year of study they decide they want to do something else, we would want them to be able to have something to show for that year,#x201d; he says. #x201c;But if students are doing absolutely fine and they intend to carry on, then we don#x2019;t see huge benefit in thesis, stopping to critical thinking theory, do an AS-level when it is not contributing towards their A-level.#x201d; As part of the change, AS-levels will attract fewer UCAS points.
But that does not mean they will be disregarded by universities. Universities have traditionally used AS results as one way of differentiating between candidates, but under the new regime they may put additional weight on thesis on failure GCSE grades and on christmas, A-level predictions, as well as making greater use of their own aptitude tests in on failure, their admissions process. Mark Monaghan, admissions tutor for sociology and social policy at University of Leeds, says it plans to of essay, make offers largely based on on failure predicted A-level grades, but could take account of AS grades. #x201c;If a student is a near miss we might look at their AS marks, but I suspect it is in malayalam, not going to have too much of an impact in terms of entry requirements,#x201d; he says. But Chris Ramsey, headmaster of thesis on failure, The King#x2019;s School Chester, said briefings with universities had revealed different approaches to meaning of essay, AS-levels. Thesis On Failure! While some said they would not take them into account, others said they would like to see AS results, says Ramsey, co-chair of the Girls#x2019; Schools Association/Headmasters#x2019; and Headmistresses#x2019; Conference universities committee. King#x2019;s plans to theory and practice, offer AS-levels in all subjects next year, but will encourage students not to get too distracted from their A-levels. #x201c;We will be very clear to tell students doing the new subjects that they must not spend too long trying to get a good AS result, because it doesn#x2019;t count,#x201d; Ramsey says. #x201c;In another year#x2019;s time I think many schools will not do AS-levels at thesis, all.#x201d; As well as detaching from AS-levels, A-levels themselves are changing. The content of each course is single essay on motherhood, being overhauled #x2013; some more radically than others #x2013; although many have not yet been approved by the exams regulator Ofqual, so even teachers do not know what they will be teaching next September. Some subjects, such as human biology, film studies, home economics and environmental science, are being scrapped. But students should not worry too much about the on failure, precise content of the course, says Alice Phillips, headmistress of St Catherine#x2019;s School in Bramley, Surrey, and on christmas, president of the on failure, Girls#x2019; Schools Association. #x201c;When you choose your A-level you shouldn#x2019;t choose it for the specification, you should choose it based on what really interests you and what you are good at,#x201d; she says. #x201c;If you love history it shouldn#x2019;t be a deal-breaker which period you are set.#x201d; In addition, the new A-levels will be linear rather than modular, with grades awarded on an end-of-course exam, instead of modules taken throughout the course as at present. This may require a new approach from students used to modular GCSEs but also saves time on preparing for meaning exams, says Lucy Elphinstone, head teacher at Francis Holland School in London. #x201c;It enables you to develop an academically curious student, rather than from the moment they start saying they have their mocks in February,#x201d; she says. On Failure! #x201c;It means we can prepare them better for university and give them a broader education.#x201d; The complicating factor to all this is that the changes are being introduced over a three-year period, with different waves of subjects switching to the new specifications, and to linear exams, each year.
For the next three years, most students are likely to be taking both reformed and unreformed A-levels, some with an end-of-course exam and some assessed in modules. #x201c;At the same time as going through the new system, students will be taking courses under the old system,#x201d; says Jane Machell, principal of Alton College in how does paper look like, Hampshire. #x201c;It adds up to a very confusing picture for 15-year-olds.#x201d; The icing on the cake is thesis, that all these changes may be short-lived, or may not come in at all. Labour plans to put the research, reforms on hold if it wins next year#x2019;s election, and retain AS-levels as a stepping stone to A-levels. On Failure! So after all this it may well be a case of #x201c;As you were#x201d;. In Education Opinion. The Blob gobbled up Michael Gove now it’s coming for David Cameron. 'There's more to primary education than maths and English' We don't need education reform - we need a whole new system. Allison Pearson: Is anxiety what we want for our kids?
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CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM AND HUMAN RIGHTS. Criminal justice System of any country is the basis of establishing, Peace and tranquility, includes not only the judicial system but investigating machinery also. Thesis. To tame the over flooding of crimes a strong criminal justice system is required. Administration of justice through the instrumentality of law is an essential component of governance. Rule of law is the bedrock of meaning of essay, democracy, which is acknowledged as the best system of governance to thesis on failure ensure respect for research like, human rights. On Failure. The dignity and worth of the individual being at parents essay on motherhood, the core of a democracy, constitutional governance in thesis on failure a democratic set up is the reflective, safest guarantee for the protection of thesis, human rights and single assurance of human resource development. On Failure. Equal respect for on christmas, the rights of on failure, all sections of the society is necessary to obtain full human resource development respecting the basic human right of non-discrimination.
The concept of inclusive democracy recognizes this aspect. Key Words: Criminal Justice System, Democracy, Judiciary, Non-Discrimination Human Rights. The Criminal Justice System has the power to control crime, prevent crime and punish the criminals. Pre-trial procedure involves arrest and Investigation under the Criminal Procedure Code 1973. Criminal Justice System is composed mainly three vital organs, namely (i) Police, (ii) Judiciary and like (iii) Prison. Arrest means physical restraint put on thesis on failure, a person as a result of allegation of accusation that he has committed a crime or an offence of meaning of essay in malayalam, quasi-criminal nature1. Sec.41 (1) of the on failure, criminal procedure code confined only to the power to arrest and look extends to both cognizable and non-cognisable offences; without the order of on failure, a competent magistrate under S.155 (2) of Cr.P.C2. The Code of Criminal Procedure contemplates two types of arrests. (i) Arrest made in pursuance of a warrant issued by a magistrate; and (ii) arrest made without such warrant but made in in research accordance with some legal provision permitting such arrest. Sec. 46 of Cr.P.C. explains how arrest could be made.
Any resistance or obstruction to lawful arrest has been made punishable U/s. 224,225,225-B of IPC. Art.22 (1) of the thesis on failure, Indian Constitution- No person arrested shall be denied right to single parents essay consult and to be defended by a legal practioner of his choice. Sec. Thesis On Failure. 303 of Cr.P.C., Any person accused of an critical and practice, offence before a criminal court or against whom proceedings are instituted, may of right to be defended by a pleader of his choice. As the police manage most of the pre-trial events, it is necessary to take a look at the Indian police system. The Despatch of the thesis, Court of Directors, dated September 24, 1856, gave a candid account of the working of the system: That the police in India have lamentably failed in accomplishing the on christmas, ends for which it was established is a notorious fact, that it is all but useless for the prevention, and thesis on failure sadly inefficient for the detection of crime, is generally admitted. Unable to check crime, it is, with rare exceptions, unscrupulous as to mathesis engineers its mode of wielding the authority with which it is armed for the functions which it fails to fulfil and has a very general character for corruption and oppression3. The British, who had given Britain a new police system between 1829 and 1856, gave India the Police Act, 1861, and the Criminal Procedure Code, 1861.The Indian Evidence Act came a little later. These three acts gave India the present police system.
Efforts were made later at the provincial level to thesis on failure review and reform the system. A major effort was, however, made at the central level to how does look reform the system when Curzon appointed the Police Commission, 1920. The Commission studied the work of thesis on failure, police stations and said: There can be no doubt that the police force throughout the country is in meaning in malayalam a most unsatisfactory condition, that abuses are common everywhere, that this involves great injury to on failure the people and discredit to the government and that radical reforms are necessary4. Investigation is the exclusive dominion of police officer and of essay in malayalam he cannot be questioned by any authority. In India as has been shown, there is a statutory right on the part of the police to investigate the circumstances of an alleged cognizable crime without requiring any authority from the judicial authorities. On Failure. 5. ‘In the criminal justice system the investigation of an offence is the domain of the police. The power to investigate into the cognizable offence by the police officers is ordinarily not impugned by any fetters. However, such power has to essay on christmas be exercised consistent with the statutory provisions and for legitimate purpose.’ 6. In D.K.Basu vs.
State of thesis, West Bengal.,7The Apex court laid down 11, guidelines to mathesis engineers be followed by on failure, police. (i).The police personnel carrying out the arrest and handling the interrogation of the arrestee should bear accurate, visible and clear identification and name togs with their designations. The particulars of all such police personnel who handle interrogation of the arrestee must be recorded in critical theory and practice a register. (ii).Preparation of memo of thesis on failure, arrest with the witness of a family member or local person; (iii).Right of the critical and practice, arrestee to on failure have his relative or friend informed of arrest as soon as practicable; (iv).The details of arrest to be informed within 8 to 12 hours if the relative or friend of the reflective essay, arrestee lives outside the thesis, district or town of arrest; (v).The arrestee must be made aware of this right to have someone informed soon after arrest; (vi).Entry in the police diary about arrest and transmission of information to reflective next friend or relative; (vii).In case arrestee requests for examination of his bodily injuries at the time of arrest, the thesis on failure, request to be complied with; (viii).Subjection of the arrestee to medical examination by a trained doctor every 48 hours during custodial detention; (ix).Copies of documents to be submitted to magistrate; (x).The arrestee may be permitted to on motherhood meet his lawyer during interrogation, though not throughout the interrogation; (xi).Police control room in District or State headquarters to notify in the notice board about the fact of arrest within 12 hours from the moment of arrest. 1. Indian constitutional Framework.
The preamble the people of India has resolved to secure to all citizens the following four objectives:8Justice, social, economic and thesis on failure political; Liberty of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship; Equality of status and opportunity and to promote among them all and Fraternity assuring the dignity of the in malayalam, individual and thesis on failure the unity and integrity of the Nation. Indian criminal justice system has two primary responsibilities i.e, prevention and control of theory and practice, crime and the protection of rights. The most important factor in thesis preventing and determining crime is the certainty of punishment; the efficiency with which who commits crime is arrested, prosecuted, convicted and punished. No constitutional guarantee of fundamental rights existed before or during the regime of Britishers over India. The Indian Constituent assembly after considerable deliberations incorporated a chapter on fundamental rights in the constitution of India. The Supreme Court of mathesis engineers, India has interpreted the Indian Constitution’s fundamental rights guarantees expansively.9The Constitution protects ‘equality before the law’ and ‘equal protection of the laws’ under provisions which embody a broad guarantee against arbitrary or irrational state action more generally. Indian citizens are guaranteed the on failure, rights to speech and expression, peaceable assembly, association, free movement, and residence although Parliament may legislate ‘reasonable restrictions’ on some of these rights in the interests of the mathesis, ‘sovereignty and integrity of India,’ ‘security of the state,’ or ‘public order.’ As discussed below, the Constitution also authorizes suspension of judicial enforcement of on failure, these rights during lawful, formally declared periods of emergency. The criminal justice context, the meaning of essay in malayalam, Constitution prohibits ex post facto laws, double jeopardy, and compelled self-incrimination. Individuals arrested and taken into custody must be provided the basis for arrest ‘as soon as may be’ and produced before a magistrate within 24 hours. In its landmark case of D.K. Basu v. State of West Bengal, the Supreme Court extended the Constitution’s procedural guarantees further by requiring the police to follow detailed guidelines for arrest and interrogation10.
The Constitution also guarantees the thesis, right to counsel of the defendant’s choice, and the Supreme Court has held that legal assistance must be provided to indigent defendants at government expense, a right that attaches at the first appearance before a magistrate. These guarantees do not apply to laws authorizing preventive detention, which, as discussed below, the Constitution subjects to a more limited set of protections. While the reflective on christmas, Constitution does not explicitly protect ‘due process of law,’ it does prohibit deprivation of life or personal liberty from any person except according to ‘procedure established by law,’ and the Supreme Court has broadly interpreted this guarantee to encompass a range of on failure, procedural and substantive rights that approximate the concept of ‘due process.’11 Procedures must be ‘right, just and fair,’ and not arbitrary, fanciful or oppressive.12 The Court has held, based on its broad understanding of the right to life and how does paper like liberty, that the Constitution guarantees the right to privacy13 and freedom from torture or cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment14.The Court also has recognized a constitutional right to a fair criminal trial, including among other elements the presumption of innocence; independence, impartiality, and competence of the on failure, judge; adjudication at a convenient and non-prejudicial venue; knowledge by the accused of the citing in research paper, accusations; trial of the accused and taking of evidence in on failure his or her presence; cross-examination of prosecution witnesses; and presentation of evidence in defense15. The Constitution also requires a speedy trial, extending from the outset of an investigation through all stages of the criminal process16. Human Rights under Indian Constitution 17.
The Indian Constitution shows that human rights have been classified under Indian Constitution into the following categories: a) Fundamental Rights and Rights to freedom (Fundamental freedoms) b) Civil, Political, Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, c) Human Rights for mathesis, all and Human Rights for citizens only, d) Justifiable Human Rights and Non-justifiable Human Rights. e) Enumerated Human Rights and Un-enumerated Human Rights. 2. Police and Criminal Justice System frame work. The legal and institutional framework that independent India inherited from the British to govern criminal law, criminal procedure, and thesis policing largely remains in place today. Police matters are governed primarily by a website, the Police Act of 1861, one of several framework statutes enacted in the wake of the Indian uprising of 1857 to more firmly establish British control. On Failure. The 1861 statute self-consciously followed the paramilitary model of policing that the British had established in Ireland, structuring the a website in research, police not to promote the rule of law, serve the community, or ensure accountability, but rather to ‘perpetuate British rule.’ In doing so, the British incorporated the feudal values already present in Indian society, hiring into the police rank and file Indians perceived to be loyal and willing to acquiesce to the place of British leadership within the social hierarchy. Upon independence, the British ‘bequeathed’ to on failure India and Pakistan the laws, institutions, philosophy, and norms of the colonial police. The new government implemented no significant changes in of essay in malayalam policing, and the police remained principally an instrument of thesis on failure, coercive state power and political intelligence. The strength of the single on motherhood, armed police continued to grow, reaching approximately 60 percent of all forces by the late 1960s18. Thesis. Despite reform proposals in reflective on christmas the intervening years, the Police Act of thesis on failure, 1861 continues to govern policing throughout India today19.
In the police institutions of contemporary India, notes a former senior police officer, ‘the Raj lives on.’20. These colonial-era laws and institutions are now situated within a post-independence constitutional framework that distributes power between the central and state governments. While the Indian Constitution establishes a strong central government, its role is particularly constrained in critical thinking policing and criminal justice matters, over which the states enjoy broad authority and play the predominant day-to-day role. The Constitution grants the central and state governments’ concurrent jurisdiction to enact substantive and thesis on failure procedural criminal laws, and authorizes the central government to legislate exclusively on critical, matters involving national security and thesis on failure the use of the military or central police forces to help state civilian authorities maintain public order. At the same time, the Constitution leaves public order and police matters principally to the states, which accordingly regulate, supervise, and exercise highly centralized control over the majority of mathesis engineers, police resources in their day-to-day operations21. The central government nevertheless retains an active, if circumscribed, role in policing and public order.
First, the central government maintains several police and paramilitary forces of its own, including the regular police forces of the seven so-called ‘union territories’ and the national capital territory of Delhi, which lack full autonomy from the central government. The central government also operates a number of police, investigative, and paramilitary services that have jurisdiction over specialized areas. Thesis. The Central Bureau of Investigation handles complex criminal investigations involving matters such as internal security, espionage, narcotics, and organized crime, particularly when such investigations concern matters of particular national importance or extend across interstate or international borders22. Several central paramilitary forces, with total force strength of over 685,000 individuals, may be deployed to help state police maintain order under appropriate circumstances23. Ordinarily, these central forces may be deployed only at the request or with consent of the relevant state government, given the Constitution’s division of central and state powers, but the precise scope of the central government’s authority to deploy these forces has been controversial24.
Second, while the regular domestic police services are subject to state government control, the research paper look, most senior officers in all police forces nationwide are drawn from the Indian Police Service, an thesis on failure, ‘all-India’ civil service cadre whose members are recruited, organized, trained, and disciplined by the Union Home Ministry25 IPS officers may be appointed at the rank of assistant superintendent of police or higher and may be assigned to positions with the state or central governments26.As of January 2005, just under 3,200 IPS officers were assigned to the senior ranks of the state police forces27. Third, the central government has constitutional authority to deploy the army ‘in aid of the civil [police] power.’28 This authority derives directly from powers granted under successive British colonial-era laws to deploy the army to maintain internal security29Pursuant to this authority, the central government has enacted several laws conferring sweeping search, arrest, and preventive detention authority upon the armed forces, even authorizing them to shoot to kill suspected terrorists or insurgents, and has deployed the engineers, army to maintain order in particular moments of crisis. Finally, the central government has limited authority to investigate and enforce directly some criminal matters that otherwise fall within the ambit of state authority, but may do so only under exceptional and highly constrained circumstances. The CBI may take over particular state criminal investigations, but ordinarily only at the request or with consent of a state government. Thesis On Failure. As discussed below, in more extreme situations, if the central government exercises its emergency power to impose ‘President’s Rule’ in a particular state, then the entire state government becomes subject to central control30. The Constitution guarantees the independence of the judiciary, which is a unitary, integrated system with jurisdiction over both central and state law issues. The independence and responsibility of the judiciary to interpret and enforce fundamental rights are considered ‘basic features’ of the Constitution that cannot be withdrawn even by constitutional amendment.
The judiciary consists of the on christmas, Supreme Court of thesis on failure, India, twenty-one High Courts, and an extensive system of subordinate courts and tribunals which are subject to the broad supervisory jurisdiction of the High Courts. The states are divided into districts which consist of civil district courts and criminal sessions courts. Judicial magistrates are authorized to adjudicate lesser criminal offenses, subject to oversight by mathesis engineers, the session’s courts, and thesis on failure have supervisory responsibility over police investigations and other pretrial matters. While the organization and theory jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and High Courts are, within constitutional constraints, largely subject to thesis central government control, state governments share concurrent authority to regulate the jurisdiction of all courts other than the Supreme Court for mathesis engineers, areas in which they have legislative authority. The Constitution confers both the Supreme Court and the High Courts with broad original jurisdiction to enforce fundamental rights through the filing of writ petitions. 3. Indian Judiciary ‘ Criminal justice system.
The Judiciary has been assigned supervisory role, it cannot take over the investigation process31.The Constitution of India, Criminal Procedure Code, Indian Penal Code, Indian Evidence Act and the Police Act.ets Important Statues for Criminal Justice System. For maintaining law and order and protection of liberty, criminal justice system operates through police, courts, prison and correctional system. Illegal detentions, Custodial violence, torture, lock up deaths are the Human rights violation cases are matters of concern. Judiciary has interpreted and evolved new concepts of Criminal Justice System. A fair criminal trail protects accuser’s right along with social security, human dignity and personal liberty. It is necessary to thesis on failure publicity made through vernacular languages, print and electronic media, NGO’s political parties, Academicians, judiciary, human rights organizations etc. to increase awareness of the human rights. Single On Motherhood. Human rights granted form the very essence of civilized life and to be ever attentive to protect freedoms and thesis basic human right.
Indian Constitution and other international documents, Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) 1948 which says: ‘Everyone is entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing by any independent and impartial tribunal in the determination of his rights and how does research paper look obligations and of any criminal charge against him.’ The right to life and personal liberty enshrined in Article 21 of the Constitution is of widest amplitude and several un-enumerated rights fall within Article 21. These rights are: a) Right to go abroad; b) Right to privacy; c) Right against solitary confinement; d) Right against Bar Falters; e) Right to free legal aid in criminal trail; f) Right to speedy trail; g) Right against handcuffing; h) Right against delayed execution; i) Right against custodial execution; j) Right against thesis, public hanging; k) Right to mathesis engineers health care or Doctor’s assistance; l) Right to Shelter; Other Rights which have been held to on failure emanate from single Article 21 are following: a) Right to know; b) Right to compensation; c) Right to Release and Rehabilitation of Bonded Labour; d) Right against thesis on failure, cruel and unusual punishment; e) Right of Inmates of protective Homes. 4. Prison Justice System. ‘Prisonization symbolizes a system of punishment and how does research paper look also a sort of institutional placement of under trails and suspects during the period of trial.
One cannot think of a society without crime and on failure criminals, thus, the institution of prison is obligatory for every country32.The Prison Statistics of India shows , a total of 1,391 prisons across the country, as on 31 st December, 2013 have 4, 11,992 prison inmates against authorized capacity of 3, 47,859, which amounts to 118.4% of occupancy rate. The rate of imprisonment in India, as per number of prison inmates, is 32 prisoners per critical theory one lakh population during 2013, which is demonstrably one of the lowest in the world. The prison inmates in India comprise of 67.6% under trials, 31.5% convicts and remaining 0.9% as civil prisoners and detainees33. Purpose of thesis, Prisons. Maintenance of law and order lies in the hands of the state and therefore if a person violates the law of the state and commits crime, he is of essay in malayalam, put behind the bars so that he cannot commit another crime. The place where he is thesis, put is called ‘prison’ or ‘jail’. Jail is the oldest institution for incarcerating offenders. It is the portal of the criminal justice system. It can be described as ‘cesspools of research paper look, crime’ the thesis on failure, ultimate ghetto, ‘dumping grounds’ and festering sores in the criminal justice system34.
The purpose of prisons can be broadly categorized as punishment, deterrence, isolation, reformation and reintegration. If a person commits a crime, is put behind the bars. Prison acts as agents of punishment on behalf of the society. The powers of the trial court are very wide and reflective essay the legislative intent of providing a fair trial and presumption of on failure, innocence in favour of the accused is the essence of the criminal justice system. A magistrate is competent to direct further investigation in parents essay on motherhood terms of on failure, Section 173 (8) Code of Criminal Procedure in the case instituted on a police report. Similarly, the Magistrate has powers under Section 202 Code of Criminal Procedure to direct police investigation while keeping the trial pending before him instituted on the basis of a private complaint in terms of that Section. Paper Look Like. The provisions of Section 210 Code of Criminal Procedure use the on failure, expression ‘shall’ requiring the Magistrate to stay the proceedings of inquiry and a website paper trail before him in the event in a similar subject matter, an investigation is found to be in progress. 5. International human rights norms. The idea of thesis on failure, Human Rights is universal concept for all mankind and it has evolved gradually through the world. It is based on natural rights.
The Magna Carta(1215), Petition of Rights (1628), Bill of Rights(1689), Charter of essay on christmas, New Plymouth (1620), State of Virginia declaration of rights (1776), French Declaration of the Rights of thesis, Man and of the Citizen(1789), Bill of Rights in America (1791),Babylonain laws, Hittile laws, Dharma of the thinking theory and practice, Vedic period in India and sangam literature etc. have roots for the protection of rights of man. The first democracy use of the expression ‘ human rights’ is to be found in the charter of the United Nations, Which was adopted (after the second world war) at San Francisco on June 26, 1945 and ratified by a majority of its signatories in October that year. UN’s Universal Declaration of on failure, Human Rights (1948), Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and reflective Covenant on Economic, Social and on failure Cultural Rights (1966) are international instruments. India has long recognized the importance of ensuring its own compliance with these international human rights obligations. While international treaties do not automatically become part of domestic law upon citing a website paper, ratification35, the Constitution provides, as a Directive Principle of State Policy, that the government ‘shall endeavor to thesis on failure foster respect for thinking theory, international law and treaty obligations in the dealings of organized people with one another,’ and also authorizes the central government to enact legislation implementing its international law obligations without regard to the ordinary division of central and state government powers. The Supreme Court of on failure, India has frequently emphasized that constitutional and statutory provisions should be interpreted in light of India’s international law obligations 36 and has looked for guidance when interpreting the paper, Constitution’s fundamental rights provisions to the UDHR, which was adopted while the Constitution was being drafted. India also is bound by customary international law norms, to the extent it has not persistently objected to those norms, and is absolutely bound by norms that have attained the status of jus cogens. In 1993, India established the thesis on failure, National Human Rights Commission, an independent government commission whose mandate is to protect and promote international human rights norms. The NHRC is empowered to receive and investigate individual complaints of human rights violations, initiate such investigations on its own, monitor and mathesis engineers make non-binding recommendations to the government on domestic implementation of international human rights norms, and promote public awareness of human rights standards. To conduct these activities, the NHRC has the on failure, powers of a civil court, including the reflective on christmas, ability to compel appearance of witnesses, examine witnesses under oath, compel discovery and thesis on failure production of documents, and order production of engineers, records from courts and government agencies.
If the NHRC concludes that violations occurred, it may recommend compensation to the victim or prosecution of those responsible. The government must report any actions taken within one month, and the NHRC publishes these responses along with the report of its own investigation and conclusions. Thesis. The NHRC only may investigate alleged violations within the previous year and may not investigate allegations against essay on christmas, the armed forces. India and International Conventions on Human Rights. Rights UDHR Indian Constitution. Right to Life, liberty and security of person Article 3 Article 21.
Probation of slavery, slavery trade etc Article 4 Article 23. Equality before law and non-discriminate Article 7 Article 14 and 15(1) Right to effective remedy Article 8 Article 32. Right against arbitrary arrest, detention etc Article 9 Article 22. Right against ex-post factor laws Article 11 (2) Article 20(1)
Right to freedom of movement Article 13(1) Article 10(1) (d) Right to own property and not to be deprived of property (But it was omitted by the constitute (42 Amendment Act, 1978) Article 17 Article 19(1) (f) Right to freedom of thought, conscience and Religion Article 18 Article 25(1) Right to freedom of opinion and expression Article 19 Article 19(1) (a) Right to freedom of thesis on failure, peaceful assembly and association Article 20 (1) Article 19 (1) (b) Right to equal access to public service Article 16 (1) Article 21 (2)
Right to social security Article 22 Article 29 (1) Right to form and to join trade unions Article 19 (1) (c) Article 23 (4) 6. Balancing Rights of the accused and the victim. The protection of human rights through the criminal justice delivery system is an indispensable feature of any system governed by the rule of law. the essay on christmas, protection of human rights have been acknowledged to varying extents across time, but since the Second World War, the universality of human rights has been recognized by the United Nations as inherent in thesis the very nature of human beings ‘ a reflection of their common humanity. The Constitution of mathesis engineers, India, in its Part III, guarantees a set of Fundamental Rights to on failure citizens. A few of these rights are also available to the accused, a suspect as well as an under trial. These rights are guaranteed under Articles 14, 19, 20, 21 and 22. Prisoners are also entitled to the benefits of Articles 32 and 226 of the Constitution. In addition to the fundamental rights, the accused, suspects and under trail prisoners enjoy certain other legal rights provided under the Indian Penal Code, 1860 (IPC); the Criminal Procedure Code, 1973(Cr.P.C); and the Indian Evidence Act, 1872 (IEA).
The Supreme Court of India and High Courts have not only played a vital role in attaching constitutional significance to these rights but, through humane judicial interpretation and acumen, also expanded their contents. An attempt is made to highlight briefly a few prominent rights of the reflective essay on christmas, accused, a suspect, an under trial and to offer some suggestions to ensure their promotion and thesis on failure protection. Rights of the Accused37. 1. Right to Life. 2. Right to Speedy Trial. 3. Right to Counsel. 4. Right to Free Legal Aid. 5. Right to Fair Trial.
6. Right against Double Jeopardy. 7. Right against Self-incrimination. 8. Right against in malayalam, Third-Degree Methods. 9. Thesis On Failure. Right to Fair Treatment. In India the fundamental rights guaranteed under our constitution is the repository of those inalienable human rights, which inhere in a person. The words ‘life’ and ‘liberty’ appearing in Article 21 has been construed by the Hon’ble Supreme Court of India in an open all encompassing way that it has now matured to an extent not seen in their mind’s eye by engineers, the fathers of the Constitution or by the Judges who gave it an initial lustre. In Maneka Gandhi’s case 38, the thesis on failure, Hon’ble Supreme Court, held that the reflective essay, Article is a recognition and declaration of rights, which inhere in every individual. Thesis. It was a major departure from the narrow interpretation of Article in A.K.Gopalan’s Case39.This remarkable expansion of Article 21 paved way for the resurrection of engineers, many non-justifiable Directive Principles as enforceable fundamental rights. The word ‘deprived’ used in Article was supposed to impose upon the State the negative duty not to interfere with the life or liberty of an individual without the sanction of law. Thesis. With the magic wand of judicial activism, Judges imposed a positive obligation upon the State to initiate steps for ensuring to the individual a better enjoyment of his life and dignity.
This positive aspect of the article essentially is a suitable tool for the higher judiciary to protect victim’s rights. The past three decades saw many judgments by the higher judiciary invoking Article 21 to protect the right of the accused in single on motherhood criminal proceedings. Prisoners’ right of speedy disposal 40, handcuffing of prisoners 41, delay in execution of death sentence 42, right to open fair trial 43, are few of the countless number of instances when the Apex court came to the aid of the thesis, accused to mathesis guard their rights. Thesis On Failure. Victims’ rights did receive the research paper look, attention of thesis on failure, our apex court especially in the recent times though instances are not many. Single Parents Essay. The rights of the victims of thesis on failure, crime and abuse of power are still not effectively acknowledged. The fundamental rights guaranteed in the Constitution of India and mathesis other statutory rights, victims can fall back on the International Conventions to which our country is a party, to establish their rights. The Supreme Court in several cases accepted International Conventions as enforceable when these Conventions elucidate and bring into thesis on failure, effect the fundamental rights under the Constitution.
They have also been read as part of domestic law, as long as there is no inconsistency between the Convention and reflective on christmas domestic law44. It is now an accepted rule of judicial construction that regard must be had to thesis international conventions and norms for construing domestic law when there is engineers, no inconsistency between them and there is a void in the domestic law. Any International Convention not inconsistent with the fundamental rights and in thesis harmony with its spirit must be read into these provisions to enlarge the meaning and content thereof, to promote the a website in research paper, object of the thesis, constitutional guarantees. This is implicit from Article 51(c) and the enabling power of the parliament to enact laws for implementing the International Conventions and norms by look like, virtue of Art.253 read with Entry 14 of the Union List in Seventh Schedule of the Constitution45. All Criminal Justice Systems in democratic World have three separately organized parts; The Police as law enforcement agency; The Courts; which, serve to establish the guilt or innocence of the thesis, apprehended person and, if his guilt is established, pass sentence upon him as provided by the sanctity of the code violated; and The prison and correctional system. Each one of the components of the how does paper, Criminal Justice System shares certain common goals. They collectively exist to protect society, maintain law and order and thesis on failure protect crime. But they also individually contribute to these goals in their own special way.
The Indian Criminal Justice System has incorporated human rights friendly provisions of the international instruments, particularly the judiciary have responded to the new situation in a positive manner and sincerely hoped that in the long run we will have international standards enforced in the criminal justice administration in India. Malimath Committee recommendations are implemented immediately. 1.State of Punjab v.Ajaib Singh, AIR 1953,SC 10. 2.Avinash v.State of Maharastra (1983) Cr.L.J 1833 (para 9) Bombay. 3.Anand Swarup Gupta, Police Reform in Retrospect, XXIV Indian Journal of Public Administration (Silver Jubilee Issue, 1978) p.59. 5.H.N.Rishbud and Indersingh v.State of Delhi [(1955) 1 SCR 115] 6.Manohar Lal Sharma v. Principal Secretary [2013 STPL (Web) 1017 (SC)] para.
29. 7.(1997) 1 SCC 416: 1997 SCC (Cri) 92: AIR 1997 SC 610. 8.K.P.Saksena, Human Rights and the Constitution- Vision and the Reality, 2003, p.246. 9.Pathumma v. State of thinking theory, Kerala, A.I.R. 1978 S.C. 771. 11.Maneka Gandhi v. Union of thesis, India, A.I.R. 1978 S.C. 597;
12.Kartar Singh v. State of Punjab, (1994) 2 S.C.R. 375, 1994 Indlaw SC 525, para. 216. 13.Kharak Singh v. State of Uttar Pradesh, A.I.R. 1963 S.C. 898. 14.Francis Coralie Mullin v. Union Territory of how does research, Delhi, A.I.R. 1981 S.C. 746. 15.State of Punjab v. Baldev Singh, A.I.R.
1999 S.C. 2378. 16.Antulay v. R.S. Naik, A.I.R. 1992 S.C. 1701. 17.Arun Ray, National Human Rights Commission of India: Formation, Functioning and Future properties, Vol.1, 2004, p.50-52. 18.T.
Anantha Chari, Democracy and Social Defence, SEMINAR, Oct. 1977, at 26, 29 (quoting Report of the thesis, Delhi Police Commission, 1966-68). 20.Verma, supra note 25. 25. R.K. Raghavan, The Indian Police: Problems and Prospects,Sept. 2003, at 119, 129.
26. R.K.Raghavan, supranote 39, at 131 n.14; seeINDIA CONST. art. 311. 27.MHA, ANNUAL REPORT 2004-05, supranote 37, at 105. 28. Indian Constitution., 7th sched., List I (Union List), ” 2A; see also id.art.
355. 31.State of Bihar v. J.A.C. Saldhana, 1980 SCC (Cri) 272, 286. 32.Dr.Shivani Gosami , Prison reforms in India, Nyaya Deep , Vol.XIII, Issue 2 3 , April July, 2012, National Legal Service Authority, New Delhi, p. 65. 34. Dr.Shivani Gosami , Prison reforms in India, Nyaya Deep , Vol.XIII, Issue 2 3 , April July, 2012, National Legal Service Authority, New Delhi, p. 66. 35.State of Madras v. G.G. Menon, A.I.R. Research Look. 1954 S.C. 517.
37. On Failure. Shivraj B.Nakade. Rights of the Accused ‘Some Reflections on the Legislative Scheme in India.In, Criminal Justice System (A Human Rights perspective of the Criminal Justice Process in India) Editd. Dr.K.I.Vibhute. Eastern Book Company, Lucknow, 2004.pp.129. 38. Essay. AIR 1978 SC 597.
39. AIR 1950 SCR 88. 40. Raghbir Singh v. State of Bihar 1987 SC 149; Ramdas v.State of Bihar 1987 SC 1333; A.R.Antulay v. Thesis On Failure. R.S.Nayak 1992 SC 1701. 41. Paper Like. Aeltemesh v. Union of India, 1988 SC.1765. 42. Triveniben v.State of Gujarat 1989 SC 1335.
43. Thesis. Kehar Singh v. State 1988 SC.1883. 44. R.D.Upadhaya v. State of A.P. AIR 2006 Supreme Court 1946=2006 AIR SCW 2274. 45. Vishaka v. state of Rajasthan [(1997)] 6 SCC 241. 46. 1998 CRLJ 4561.
47. Jacob George (Dr.) v.State of Kerala, 1994 SCC (Cri.)774; (1994) 2Crims 100. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Law essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to meaning a high level in our area of thesis, expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Law work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours.
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