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api testing resume Get via App Store Read this post in our app! I was applying for QA position and the SDET asked me this question: How do you test a backend API? In the dissertation index interview. I wasn't sure I answered it correctly. Just wondering if I can get some input from someone. How you approach testing an API depends on conservation of forests a lot of things.
Will the API be a public API that will be consumed by some external people/systems, or is it a part of a larger product's infrastructure? API is a general term that is sometimes used to describe anything from a COM interface, to dissertation index international, a DLL or JAR you can reference, to shy person essay, a REST web service. Dissertation Index! Different approaches can be applied to quotes, testing these different things. Often, if the API is part of dissertation international your infrastructure you can test it pretty thoroughly through unit testing and writing language, the use of the product that consumes it. International! If it is an externally consumable API then you need to be much more thorough because people could use it in different ways than you might expect and send data in essay much different formats, etc. Dissertation International! It also usually needs to make sense, be intuitive and be well documented if it is in german externally consumable. You would also need to be more cautious about what is private and public, which may not be as important for an API that is international only used by a single product.
Testing an API nearly always requires you to create some sort of consumer for shy person essay testing purposes. You have to dissertation international, be able to interact with the API. The consumer is usually very simple - or an existing tool - and driven by automated test cases and not manual user interaction, although I have seen cases where people created a complex GUI app for testing purposes, and cases where the testing was still mostly manual through exercising that app. If the API has dependencies, you may choose to mock those dependencies out so you can more thoroughly test all of those interactions and political research science, hit all of the positive and negative code paths. International! For instance, if the essay language API interacts with a database and dissertation index, has the ability to conservation of forests and wildlife essay, create, modify and delete data you may want to mock the interaction with the dissertation index database to more easily test cases such as deleting a record when it does not exist, or when it is the final record, or when it is unable to be deleted because of dependencies or even when the connection to romanticism essays, the database is unavailable - you can then see how your API would handle these situations. Index! In general I think you should not expect a mocked front-end that's hooked up to the API calls for testing (however if you have one lucky you!). Instead, API functions are generally tested with unit and integration tests. Paper Political Science! You'll need visibility into the API function calls themselves, so the testing will be white-box or at least grey-box. You should be provided with a Specifications Document which should list the signatures of each API function (the input parameters, the dissertation function or method name, and the return type). Then from the Spec Doc you'll write unit tests (in my case I prefer PHPUnit) to political research science, sanity check the input and index, returns for each API function, such as testing for boundary values and null inputs. Punctuation! Lastly, if the index API is part of a service you'll also want to to integration testing.
These tests will be similar to end to paper, end tests for the service where you test entire features that include calls to the API functions. You'll typically begin an integration test at a customer entry point, and verify the return as valid if it's correct for the customer. Personally I prefer Behat Mink or Cucumber for my feature tests. That's my high level overview of how I would go about international, testing an API, hope that helps! Choosing the tool is not the only decision you need to make when testing an API. As for any testing task you need to and wildlife essay, decide: What aspects of the program are you testing? What application features do you want to dissertation index, cover with API testing?
Are you going to conservation of forests and wildlife, verify some stateful scenarios (e.g. when user is logged in)? Or maybe you want to verify how an API behaves for different configurations? What types of problems are you looking for? What part of application is most probable to international, fail? In what conditions? Are there functional or performance problem?
This should help you understand what are scenarios that are easier/faster/cheaper to test with API instead of using frontend. How will you tell whether a test passed or failed? How to evaluate whether a system behave correctly after you made a request to the API? Will you evaluate only explicit API response (e.g. it confirms it has sent an email) or you want also to verify whether it actual did what it says (the email was actually sent your account)? Furthermore, how do you know what is an expected result for a given API call? What tasks, specifically, will you do? Depending on les miserables essays the directions taken in the previous answers, you can think of exploratory testing, when you just explore API behaviour, hunt for some particular bugs, or define thorough test cases in advance?
Whether you perform the dissertation index international manually or you automate them? Whether you will perform some functional tests or rather performance or load testing? Who will do the paper political testing ? Will you be the one who will test API, or maybe you will have some people who will write customer applications to test different parts of the API? How much do you know about dissertation, API related technologies to automate the tests? The answer will help you to choose the essay in german right tools to dissertation index international, test. Now you probably have too little information to make definitive decisions that could satisfy you, your interviewer and stakeholders in a company. So, you could ask interviewer more questions about the nature of the backend API: Who or what is the consumer of the API?
Front-end tier being a part of SUT or an external client app? Maybe there is essay quotes no frontend? Is this a public API or internal used only by a few people? The answer will tell you how thoroughly you should test the API? What scenarios have been covered in end-to-end test with frontend included and what scenarios have not been? What are the challenges when testing via frontend? The answers will guide you to dissertation index, the type of scenarios you should cover and those you should not. Romanticism! For instance, if invalid input validation functionality is implemented only on dissertation index the backend side, this is one area to stress in API tests. What technology is essay used to dissertation index international, expose an API? SOAP or REST Web service, RMI, CORBA, command-line, COM, etc. Essay! The answer will imply what kind of dissertation international tool or programming language you should use to of forests essay, implement test cases.
Is there some formal specification for API? Or you need to guess an index international expected behavior somehow, e.g., from specification for UI? Does the backend talks to other components in the system? To database? Does it contacts external services? There are a couple of political science areas that you will have to understand and index international, provide focus in testing. Understand the Purpose of the API that you are testing. What is it for? How is this going to be used?
Answering these questions should provide you with test ideas related to your context. Here are Sample Test ideas based on my personal experience in testing: Input Data where is essay quotes your data coming from? a database, another api, etc.? Data/Application Logic How is the Data Parsed? Is there a required schema or format so the data can be parsed? How is the parsed data stored? Does the data need further massaging for the output? Data Output What are the API endpoints? What are the international value types for each endpoint (string, integer, etc.)? What determines the correctness of the essay value in dissertation international each endpoint? What is the API protocol that's used? (REST, SOAP, etc.) Delivery Are there special rules regarding account access?
Are there usage limits? There are a bunch of essay quotes tools that you can use. Various chrome and firefox plugins will make your life easier when it comes to functional testing. SOAPUI is a pretty handy desktop client as well. If you are handy with a programming language, Python, PHP and Ruby has really easy to use REST API libraries.
Mocking is also a way to minimize dependencies, but this can get out of dissertation index international hand if not used properly. I've always liked using mocky.io so I can start writing tests even before the developers are done with the code. Actually your question is good but the answer may be too descriptive as it is a generalized one. We are in the domain of Online Media. The part of backend API testing that we used to do includes : First of all we understood the functionality of the system where the role of API comes in. Then we developed the end-to-end tests using JS and those API which are working in backend.
Once those tests are stable, we used Jenkins as a Continuous Integration to trigger those tests after a specific interval. Then we used to observe the literature summary results in the output of Jenkins test. If the tests is pass we are green to go, but if it failed then we used to investigate that and then a bug can be filed on dissertation index international that.
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Sample IELTS essay questions and dissertation index international topics. If you read enough IELTS books (or take the exam too often!), you’ll soon realise that there are very definite IELTS topics. There is a good reason for paper research science, this: IELTS is a very international exam and international the topics have to be suitable for conservation of forests and wildlife, all countries and all cultures. Accordingly, (nice word that) the people who set the dissertation, exam tend to choose relatively everyday topics – the sort of topics all educated people should be able to speak and and wildlife essay write about in their own language. So one obvious way to prepare for the exam is to practise writing and speaking about dissertation index these topics.
They are: While the essay writing in german, topics are predictable enough, the international, actual questions are invariably extremely precise. Paper Political Research Science? Again, there is also a good reason for this: the examiners do not want you to dissertation international learn an essay, they want to test your English and see if you can answer a precise question, rather than produce a general answer to a general topic. Remember that in the exam these words are always included: Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your knowledge or experience. This is no small point because it tells you that whatever the form of the romanticism, question, you need to be able to explain and exemplify your answer ( see coherence). How to like it, share it and dissertation index save it. Get more help with IELTS preparation on the main pages of writing language my site. Keep up with me on Facebook - all the updates and even more advice there.
Or just get all my free lessons by email. 108 Responses to Sample IELTS essay questions and index topics. if the task or question is “to what extent do you argree or disagree” should i still present both sides of the argument and on my conclusion i? will sight my opinion? or at the first part of the essay (introduction), should i give my side already? and on the body would be the evidences or reasons why i chose such side of the argument? Another good question. There is writing in german language no definite right or wrong answer here.
But let me give you a few guidelines. One of the dissertation index, things the examiner is punctuation quotes looking for is a clear point of view sustained throughout the essay. Index? Accordingly, it makes sense to literature summary state your point of view clearly in the introduction. This way it makes it easy for the examiner to see what you are doing. The one problem with this approach is that it makes your conclusion slightly harder to write, as you have already given your answer in international, the introduction. That much said, you can still wait until the conclusion to give your own personal opinion after looking at both sides of the argument. This is essay perhaps the slightly more academic approach and makes for a better balanced essay normally.
If you do take this approach, my advice would be to state clearly in the introduction that you are going to look at both sides of the issue first before giving your personal opinion. would there be a difference in index, the essay outline or format if the question is “do you agree or disagree” and “to what extent do you agree or disagree”? or same approach could be used? thanks so much! God bless? you! This is a good question and I apologise for not answering sooner. The short answer is romanticism that there is no major difference of approach required.
If the question was “Do you agree or disagree?” Then you can still answer in your conclusion that “There are strong arguments on dissertation index international both sides of the essay punctuation quotes, issue, but I tend to think that…” ie you can always agree to some extent. Likewise, if the question is “To what extent…” then you can still fully agree or fully disagree. Are there any sample question papers of writing? What about a discussion? Is the another format to write it or it can also be considered as a for and against index international essay? “To What Extent” should be answered by choosing arguments to support one of 3 major stances: to a great extent, to in german a certain extent / to dissertation index international some extent, or to a lesser extent.
The question is asking for a measurement. I have been experienced some issues about how to understand the “main” question whenever I come accross “to what extent do you agree or disagree?” For example: “Creative artists should always be given the freedom to conservation essay express their own ideas (in words, pictures, music or film) in whichever way they wish. There should be no government restrictions on what they do. To what extent do you agree or disagree?(Cambridge IELTS 4)” Is it OK if I say that the main question is ” Does government restrict freedom of speech?” As you said before, what’s the use of writting a good essay if you are not answering the question, but, how are we going to be sure that we have understood the dissertation index international, “hidden” argument? Thanks in advance! A really good question.
One possible problem is that the research science, question comes in dissertation international, 2 parts. This is really quite common in IELTS. If you do get a question like this, you need to make certain that you answer both parts of the shy person essay, question. in dissertation index international, your example. That is shy person essay not really the case as the “they” in dissertation index international, “There should be no government restrictions on what they do” clearly links to the creative artists in the first sentence. Shy Person? So your reformulation does not work as it does not relate to “creative artists”. In practical terms, my best suggestion is to underline key words in the question to dissertation make sure that you do not miss them out. one thing that why ielts exam performance sheet is not provided to candidate after result . beacuse if a candidate is essay not scoring the index international, bands more than 5 or 5.5 then after knowing mistakes a person will able to correct it in next exam.
How do we respond an political essay that asks for our opinion ? Do we simply give our views all the way through? No one answer to this. All I would say is index that you should make sure that any opinions are backed up with reasons/examples. If you do this, your essay will not just be all opinion even if every paragraph contains opinion. Can I please ask you two questions? Many people told me that I am not suppose to use ” I ” , “we” and ” you ” things like that in my writting. But I noticed you actually use them quite often. does that mean I could use these words in my writting? Also, how to conservation of forests essay overcome umfamiliar topics? I feel one of the most frustrate thing is to think out ideas.
I never can produce an essay in a limited time. I guess the problem for me is I do not have opinions at index international, all. do you have any good suggestion about shy person this? PS : I am going to index have my IELTS exam this 29th, urgently need your advice! ;-))) There are no hard and fast rules here. Paper Research? But it would certainly be a mistake to dissertation international overuse personal pronouns in your writing. However, given that that the essay task is frequently an opinion based task and asks you for to use your own experience, it would be strange if you avoided the literature summary, “I” altogether. International? IELTS is not academic writing – it is its own genre, The best advice is to les miserables essays answer the question. plz suggest me some tips my exam is on 18 may ,2016 And i am very confused bcos i am going to give this test first time. Dear Dominic Cole, in this forum, Could I ask you an assessment of my essay relate to IELTS writing assessment ? Sorry, not for now. I may start a grading service soon but sadly my time is too short. Hi What about international if you are not familiar with asked essay topic.
Can you answer the les miserables essays, question with general writing? You should do your best to answer the question as asked. You may get severely penalised if you write too generally and index international don’t answer the in german, question. The idea is that the questions are designed for anyone to answer and dissertation index international if you can’t you have a language problem. That sounds a little harsh, no? The trick is to use examples from paper research your experience and that way you should find enough to dissertation index international write. I do recognise the problem though and I am planning a series of postings giving ideas and language to deal with the literature, most common topic areas. Thanks for the post, keep posting stuff.
I was taking IELTS classes from a tutor. When she marked my Essay , because I gave example from my own experience she said I am subjective.She thinks in Academic Writing one should write on general ie effects on society. However, I argue and index told her that question stated that you can give example from your own experience.Do you think if I give my own experience the examiner will mark me down? Absolutely not. I hate to contradict other teachers – a very bad habit – but in this case I will. The rubric to the essay question almost always contains these words: “include any relevant examples from your own knowledge and experience” This means that you actually ought to include examples from your own knowledge/experience. Shy Person? From this point of view, academic IELTS is not exactly the same as general academic writing where you typically don’t do this so much. The question remains though how you do it. I would suggest that you don’t want to use the first person “I” too much and that maybe is what your tutor is worried about. This is an extremely good point that you have raised and I will post a lesson on this in dissertation international, the next couple of days.
It’s very true that it doesn’t matter if your writing is subjective or not. The way you express your ideas and construct your writing matter. IELTS is romanticism les miserables essays designed for the purpose of testing English capability so it shouldn’t take into account the index, level of your education. Feel free to express your ideas but on top of everything, keep it academic! Sir, i have been teaching ielts for about four years with excellent results. Punctuation? The latest rubrics for wrtiing task 2 state that the dissertation index international, essay has to be based on knowledge OR experience and quotes NOT on both. Please maintain contact with me for further details. Thank you for the correction on dissertation index the exact wording.
I do take issue with your interpretation of it though. It is entirely possible for candidates to use one example based on conservation of forests their knowledge and dissertation index another based on their experience: this satisfies both the rubric and the grading criteria. Candidates can choose between the two options and are not restricted to literature one or the other: if that were the international, case, the essay writing language, rubric would read “either knowledge or experience”. What has not happened is that the new rubric has invented a new dichotomy between “knowledge-based” and international “experience-based” essays. Incidentally, the summary, rubric was changed to put the emphasis on the task itself and to delete “complicated” language such as “written argument”. The idea is supposed to simple and international the key to romanticism essays understanding the new rubric is dissertation that it explicitly asks candidates to be “relevant” in shy person, their examples and that these support the main points.
Read this report by the chief IELTS examiner in Australia: http://www.englishaustralia.com.au/index.cgi?E=hcatfuncs#038;PT=sl#038;X=getdoc#038;Lev1=pub_c06_07#038;Lev2=c05_hogan. i am from Iran (just wanted you to know that people from my country visit your website, too). I’ve been searching the net for ages to index international find a website that can help me with my ielts essay questions and i now i can say yours is one of the bestests #128521; i have some questions. will you help me with them please? 1. in your “The three different types of IELTS essay question” you have clearly mentioned in which type of essay we should give our own opinion. can you see this page please: http://hubpages.com/hub/How-to-identify-the-type-of-essay-to-write-in-the-IELTS. i am confused a little. in conservation and wildlife, which type should i reflect my opinion? and more importantly in which paragraph? 2. under which type does advantage/disadvantage, cause and effect/ problem/solution essays fall? discussion or argument? you seem to insist that all of them are argument type, but hubpages.com seems to dissertation index differ. 3. Romanticism Les Miserables? what is explanatory essay? Except theses common essay topics that you’ve mentioned, are there any more to add to this list?in Iran it seems the recent ielts test have been exposing the examinees to some different topics (speaking:what qualities should a leader have?does your political one have?, etc) thanks an ocean for index, spending time for us. hlo dominic i do not get the ideas while writing an essay,what would you like to suggest to romanticism les miserables essays do thats why my essay is always too short and to make it bigger i repeat some lines in diffent way. Typically, I advise my students to think of dissertation examples and conservation reasons. It is very easy to get stuck when you are looking for ideas.
Ask yourself the questions “Why is that true?”or “how can I explain that?” if a question says ‘agree’ or ‘disagree’,then what should i write in dissertation index international, th body paragraphs. whether i have to stick to agree only through out the whole essay or also have to punctuation write something about why i diasgree please answer me correctly. hello mister Cole. In the ielts academic exam ( writing ) , I heard that there will only be an argumentative essay. is that true ? and index international if not what else ? Ah. It depends what you mean by argumentative. The problem is literature different teachers use different words to describe types of essay. I am guilty of this too. To try and answer your question, there are different types of essay you need to be able to index international write. These include: discussing both sides of an issue. commenting on a proposal to solve a problem. looking at two different options and deciding which is better. giving solutions to and wildlife essay a problem.
I could go on. You should understand that you need to index international be able to answer different types of questions. The secret as ever is to summary read the question and think hard about it before writing. Think about what it is asking you to do. The mistake is to learn one model essay and try and write the same essay all the time. Very helpful post for IELTS Students. (I am writing here since I could not find an email to write to) first of all I want to international compliment you for your website. It is a very usefull resource for the preparation of the language, IELTS Test, the information are presented in dissertation index, a clear and nice way.
They are structured very well and the user does not end up being overwhelmed by the amount of information. This is a very important point -at least to me-, because reading your site had the shy person, result of index international calming me me and improve my self confidence for the exam. This is essay punctuation quotes often not the case on the internet, where you mostly hand up panicking, which is higly counter-productive. Nevertheless I am writing you because I would like to present to you my essay for the writing academic task 2. I would really like to have a feedback from you, because unfortunately I can’t find no one to correct me one and I would like to index have an opinion before I take the exam (which is in 7 days: unfortunately I have found your website late #128577; ). I am not asking you to correct every mistake, just to read it once and essay give me your impression and maybe the dissertation, main points that I have to literature summary be careful about in the test (the first being word number: by rewriting to the computer I have just seen a lot of dissertation international mistakes that I could have corrected if I had the literature summary, time, thing which I haven’t). Index International? If it possible can you say to me around band score I am?
Or, is this essay enough good for romanticism les miserables, a minimum band score of 5.5? I am really looking forward to read an answer from you and I thank you in advance for your courtesy. Write about the following topic: In many countries schools have severe problems with student behaviour. What do you think ar the causes of this? What solutions can you suggest? One of the most important problem in the schools is the student behaviour.
In fact it is known that in many countries episodes of vandalism, disrespect or bullism are frequent in the schools. This issue should be handled particularly carefully, because we have not to dissertation index forget that the school has to prepare the of forests and wildlife essay, students to become responsible adult. It is dissertation therefore very important to individuate the causes and the possible solutions to be applied, in order for conservation, the school to fullfill its educational role in the best way. We should take into account the basic fact that no one has a bad behaviour only for dissertation index international, the reason to essay in german language be “bad”. Often those behaviours are the expressions of other, hidden problems. One of the main cause could be the dissertation international, stress that the students frequently have to essay writing in german face in the school. Exams, homeworks, presentations for many subjects put an incredible pressure over index international, the students, that sometimes will be incapable of handling the stress. Bad behaviour thus manifests itself has a rebellion against the stress, a hidden “stop it” shout. Nevertheless it is my opinion that the main source of bad behaviour of students is to be found outside the school, namely in the private life of the students.
With both my parents being teachers, I know with certainity that an instable family environment is punctuation very often the cause of arrogant and generally bad behaviour. Where the kids are left alone or treated bad by their family members, they can end up manifesting their anger at the school, during the dissertation index international, lessons or in the corridors. Those problems suggest their solutions. Summary? The amount of stress to which the students are underponed should be carefull analyzed by the teachers and accurately be revised and adjusted. The task is of course not easy, because a certain amount of stress is inevitable, is the quality of the school has to be preserved. Regarding family problems, it is dissertation index international my firm convinction that child that were raised (or still are) in instable family environment should be followed carefully by expers, such as psyhcologists and pedagogists, and sustained by teachers, in order to allow them to retrieve their happiness and bring their life back on the tracks. Summarizing, students can answer to punctuation exagerate stress acting bad: thus the international, solution is to carefully control and adjust the pressures on the students. A more important cause of problematic behaviour is the family where student lives, that can already be a source of problems and instability. Shy Person? Students should be therefore sustained by expers in dissertation international, their personal issues. (you can answer me via email if you want)
Sorry for the delay. Had a quick look and it looks an essay quotes extremely good essay. My one concern is length. sometimes shorter can be better. Sorry but I simply don’y have the index, time to look at essay, individual essays. This is a very good job.
It was clearly given how to approach a task since you already have given the dissertation index, clue how to practice a certain topic, and so, through this, many IELTS writing examinees will have the idea now on of forests how to write and speak appropriately. TheIELTSSolution.com. it is my first acknowlegment of this wonderful site. Please, i have started to dissertation index practice writing essay and I need a professional tutor to assess my writing. Essay Punctuation Quotes? I would like to know if I can send my essays to be assessed. hey can any one (specially Dominic Cole) tell some essay topics that might be asked in September 2011 (24th Sep.). Dissertation? please reply fast i need some important topics . Sorry, I have no way of telling – there’s a pretty large stock of questions. My general advice is to revise vocabulary for the key topic areas before the exam (you can find these on the essay question page) and then to make sure you read the exact question in quotes, the exam as closely as possible. I know that this is really boring advice – but be very careful about looking at “recent essay questions”. Index? For me, their only essay real value is to tell you the types of topic you will need to write about and dissertation index international what sort of vocab you need. Very frequently, the task part of the question – the bit that tells you what you need to do – is shy person essay wrongly reported.
Thank you very much for dissertation index international, your helpful hints and appreciable and dedicated efforts.As a candidate who took nearly 10 exams, I confess that I owe too much to you. This is a very simple way to say thank you. Pleasure. I hope it’s worked out for you now. Of Forests? 10 tests is international a lot – painful. Hi Dominic, very good exam website thankyou.
Please, how much is band reduce for short answer? Happy world rabies day! It rather depends how short the essay writing, answer is. My understanding/recollection is that you cannot get above 5.0 for task response unless you use 250 words. Your blog seems really good since you give sample IELTS essay questions and topics that would somehow helpful to those IELTS writing examinees. This would serve as a guideline for them because it discusses and dissertation international shows the exam process of IELTS writing through giving sample question formats, topics and tips. Through this, they can practice more in writing their essays and romanticism would develop their skills more on writing. TheIELTSSolution.com.
dear Dominic Cole, can you please suggest me i started my writing task 1 and task 2 at appropriate place but.in task 2 i need another page the invigilator give me page and stick behind task 2..but unfortunately i continue my task 2 on the first page (task 1)..if they will penalised me..p;ease answer me because i m in dilemma i write both task very well. when i came home then one of my friend told me that you have to write on 3rd page becz it’s task 2..no one give announcement for that..will it affect my score?? please answer as soon as possible.. I’m afraid I don’t have the answer to that one. I suspect that it wouldn’t make any difference. The examiner is likely to have worked out what you did. sir, i humbly wish to dissertation index draw your kind attention to the fact the literature, according to the latest rubrics, ielts essays have to dissertation index be based on knowledge or experience NOT knowledge AND experience .i have been teaching ielts for around four years and ask my students to scrupulously keep this fact in mind.Please answer. Are you seriously suggesting that candidates would be penalised for in german language, using both knowledge and experience?! As someone who holds a masters in philosophy, I would be delighted if you could enlighten me as to exact distinction between them. I feel perfectly certain that 100% of IELTS examiners would be unable to split that particular epistemological hair. Dissertation? I believe you will find that “or” enables candidates to do both.
If I offer you “coffee or tea”, I would not be offended if you decided to have both. The purpose of rephrasing the rubrics was to make them more accessible – if you read the source papers. Essays? The purpose was not to introduce a new challenge to dissertation index international candidates. sir, i personally think that words i , we , you should be eschewed from task one along with copying the introduction from the statement of question (from task 2 as well) and sole emphasis should be laid on grouping the subject matter and comparisons . This is what i ask my students to do . Eschewed! a long time since I saw that word used in shy person essay, earnest. I see your point about dissertation “you” and “I” in task 1, but cannot agree with you about shy person essay “we”. I agree with you about copying wording from the question.
The (difficult) skill is to rephrase the question without repeating it so that you have a valid introduction. I have given the IELTS recently and scored overall band 8 but the problem I faced was in my writing section I got only 6.5 and I need a score of dissertation international minimum to get into the university I desire for. CAN YOU PLEASE HELP ME.. Your blog is very helpful. With these guidelines, Ielts exam takers can have a better understanding and therefore feel more confident in their exams.
pls can anybody suggest me reading techniques ?? specially for headings n yes/no/not given i cnt get more thn 6. You will find my own suggestions on essay writing in german the reading page. The key is to understand the difference between No and Not Given. help me #128578; write for and against argumentative essay Taking exams : for and against. I’ll see what I can do for you.
It’s the sort of topic you need to international be able to essay punctuation write and speak about. I’ll try and post something next week. Thanks but I need it for dissertation index, Monday. Essay? #128578; good job, Dominic. which kind of English should i register for, general or academic? my intention is to apply for a job as a nurse. I’ve seen somewhere, they were saying there are some professions which requires academic English, i am afraid nursing might fall under that category but I’ve already registered for index, general English. If you are headed for the UK, it will be academic IELTS you need. Essay Writing? I’m not sure about Australia, but I imagine that there too the dissertation, IELTS requirement would be academic. When did you apply? Normally, you can get a refund of your fee if you cancel 5 weeks before. Contact your local test centre. It may be that they might also take pity on you and allow you to essay transfer to academic.
This is the first time i visited this site. In Australia, you need a minimum of 7.0 in dissertation index, every exam including the OBS. And the requirement there is Academic. I have a very big problem with preparing for IELTS( Academic). I took IELTS for 3 times and my overal band score was 6.0 in all of them. My first time I scored 6.0 in literature, every module. The second and the third I had 5.5 in Listening, 6 in index, Reading and Writing and 6.5 in Speaking. I really don’t know from where to start with studying, I have many books for IELTS, but I don’t know which one is the best. Please suggest me only 4 four books (one for every part of the exam) which are the best according to you. I desperately need 7.0 in in german language, every part of the index international, test.
Appreciation for this infmortiaon is over 9000-thank you! Can i use pencil to attempt IELTS writing test?please anyone must reply me. I want to find out shy person whether it is appropriate to write less that three words where it is stated that one should use no more than three words. Also, I would like to inquire maybe it is important to interpret a graph, line, table or chart by beginning from any point. Front, Middle or Back. I shall be looking forward to dissertation international receiving your reply. Thanking you in romanticism essays, advance. No more than 3 words means 1, 2 or 3 words.
you helped me a lot. I have studying on your website recently. Dissertation Index? I found it great and a resourceful webpage. I have taken the IELTS at least 7 times now, and les miserables I have not achieved my required results yet. I need a band score of 8 in each module. My next exam is on index international the 31.03.12, any more advice Sir?In my last 2 exam, I got 6.5 in Writing. Your website is paper political research science of great help for those who want to take IELTS #128521; I just want to dissertation index ask you this question: Other cultures highly value old people, while others value young people.
Discuss both opposing views and give your opinion. I wanted to ask you a question about the IELTs and in literature summary, partictular about paragraphs. When I did my ielts test, I finished the writing task 2, and left one line empty between each paragraph. However, when I wrote the dissertation index, conclusion, I left 4-5 empty lines and then started the conclusion. I did this because I was sort of running out of time, and didnt know if I wanted to add anything else in of forests and wildlife essay, the last paragraph( the one before conclusion.
so it looked a bit like this. Do you thing this will affect the mark I get? No, I very much doubt it- examiners are intelligent people. I am really grateful to you as I only prepared for my IELTS examination from this website and I got band 8 in all modules except writing where I got 7.5. You are awesome. In simply words . No you shoulndot give your side immediately give yours conclusion step by step.
Firstly explain both sides and then which you like most give him side . Agree or disagree is most important part choose 1 thing . Yes you should choose a type of dissertation index argument the main factor. i m so confused which book to essay writing in german choose for preparing ielts so plz woud u like to suggest me which book to index international study. After I initially commented I clicked the shy person, -Notify me when new comments are added- checkbox and now each time a comment is added I get 4 emails with the same comment. Dissertation Index International? Is there any means you possibly can remove me from that service? Thanks! Sorry there is conservation nothing I can do about that as I do not have details of that service. I can only dissertation suggest that you move the post to spam!! Congrats on your blog. One question thou, some literature state there are 4 different types of essays instead of the 3 types you mention in writing in german, your blog, these are: Do you agree with this? if so, when we have a “to what extent do you agree or disagree” type of dissertation index international question, which kind of essay will that be from the 4 types mentioned above?x.
Hmmmm. Essay Quotes? I do need to go back to that post. The division you maker does make sense. In truth though I increasingly wonder how helpful it is to categorise different essay types rather than just looking at the particular question in dissertation index international, front of quotes you and answering the question as it is asked. I say this because I feel some candidates get trapped by trying to index follow a particular formula. I will put this on my to romanticism do list. Thank you for your comment. firstly thanks for the effort you have made for us.anyway i am having problem in differentiating between agree/disgree and to what extent do you agree/disagree..i have seen essays written both by discussing both topic in dissertation index, 4 paragrpah model and also taking only one position.does the topic content make difference on choosing the format of such essay? Good question. Summary? You will find advice that gives you quite strict guidelines on international how to answer different question types -setting out formulae/formulas for each type of question. I am never really convinced by that approach, I much prefer the approach of les miserables essays looking at each question on its own merits and focussing on answering the question as it is asked.
I realise that that may not seem particularly helpful, so here is my general advice. The introduction and conclusion are the areas where you need to focus on addressing the index international, question and giving your clear answer to it. Romanticism Les Miserables? So in those paragraphs you need to outline your your position in relation to the question and give your answer. Even if the dissertation, question is “do you agree?”, it is literature open to you to say I agree but only up to a point. The content paragraphs are where you introduce the reasons for your point of dissertation international view. Typically, the academic thing to do is to look at both sides of the issue – even if you have a strong opinion for one point of view.
This can work with almost IELTS agree/disagree type questions. Certainly, with my own students, I encourage them to look at both sides of the issue, as for them IELTS is simply a passport to academic courses at language, university and dissertation index international I want them to learn the skills of academic writing.That said, it is open to writing you to take just one position and argue that – on condition that you outline this is your introduction and the question does not ask you to look at both sides of the question. Hi Dominic Cole i introduced of your blog before few days of my IELTS exam; i also took suggestion as far as possible. i participated on IELTS exam 1st September 2012 but unfortunately my writing task was out of my general knowledge of the topics. Dissertation International? I frustrated what i should write? my topic was quoted you. It was. ” It is a natural process of animal species to become extinct (e.g dinosaurs, dodos etc).
There is no reason why people should try to happening this. Do you agree or disagree?” in this case how i prepare myself to romanticism essays get excellent score? any suggestion? please. Hi Dominic cole, I have given Ilets exam in General three times and every time i got 6.5 in writing but i need 7 each.How can i practice writing at home and know where is the mistake in dissertation international, my writing to improve.Please give some tips. Thank you. i m having my exam on 22nd sept i m not able to pass i m giving 2nd time plzz give some suggestion what should i do i m not having that much time to prepare plzzz try to essay in german give suggestion abt ielts. you done very well. your blog guide me to significant progress… thanks a lot… Hi there to every single one, it’s in fact a pleasant for me to go to international see this website, it includes precious Information. Awesome blog! Do you have any suggestions for aspiring writers? I’m planning to start my own blog soon but I’m a little lost on.
everything. Shy Person Essay? Would you suggest starting with. a free platform like WordPress or go for index, a paid option? There are so many options out literature summary there that I’m completely confused .. Any recommendations? Cheers! Practiced essay need to get it reviewed, How can i do that. I suggest you contact one of the tutors on the site. As an ESOL teacher , this is index a well thought out, clearly presented and, importantly, helpful website. I have found it extremely useful for my own and my students’ use. Hy, I dont have much to ask for essay writing language, right now. Index International? Just wanted to clarify a query for punctuation, writing test.
Do we get choice to select the essay types as in, for instance choose 2 from dissertation given 3 topics…kind of. I hope you get what I mean in essay, this context. Please excuse my lame language. Hello, I was just wondering is there any difference in scoring of academic and index general writing ? I felt, the vocab section in political research science, academic test , requires more academic words.If not, candidates will not score a 7 or 8 in it (. ). And what about ‘ agree or disagree / positive or negative types questions? Is it necessary to stick with one side in the opinion paragraph? ie; 2 positive points and 1 negative point. Can I still conclude it as ‘positive’ ? Logically, it doesn’t make sense as the negative side would nullify one of the dissertation index international, positive effects, wouldn’t it? Could we go like ‘ it may be positive’ in this case ( if the question is ‘ is les miserables essays this positive or negative’)? Why many students are not getting 9 in task response? Is it mainly because of the lack of relevant example ? If you could be any of my assistance, I’d really grateful.
I have had a question for index, writing task 2. When I went to school to literature summary prepare for IELTS, they said I should not use “I, you” when I write task 2. Dissertation Index International? I could use “It is said/ believed/ stated that…”. Generally, they said I should not use 1st 2nd like “I, U”, should use negative voice. What do you think about this opinion? Good question. My own preference is to romanticism essays avoid the “I”, but that does not mean you can never use it. There are times when you want to make it clear that this is your opinion and then personal language is more appropriate. It may be more stylist though to use “In my view” rather than “I think” what will happen if i write agree/disagree while question ask for dissertation index, both view. Thank you for the great ideas. I have to focus on some time I choose to adopt to write a article. It is very important that you keep to of forests and wildlife the topic. Don’t stray onto something else!
Hey DC .. I need essay writing templates that include some general words, necessary for any kind of essay.. Please help me. dear dominic i m writing from india my exam on international 6 september 2014 …..pls help me in writing topics….for ex…….SMOKING SHOULD BE BANNED ON PUBLIC PLACES……TO WHAT EXTENT DO U AGREE OR DISAGREE……..can i discribe in introduction that smoking should banned …then in writing in german language, first body paragraph problems by smoking in public places then in second paragraph effects of smoking in public places …..then in conclusion about goverment should take hard step to stop this………….also tell me in agree disagree we must have to index dicusss both …….answer soon.. I find your website really helpful. but i have faced a problem regarding your section of letter writing for general ielts. I need to prepare for general ielts but as soon as i click on essay punctuation the section, error occurs. So please fix the problem. Regards. Can you point me to the exact link that doesn’t work.
It all seems fine to index me. Many of the links for of forests essay, the topics are broken. How many people have visited your website? Of them, what is the % from index international China? DCielts provides useful information in of forests and wildlife essay, helping Chinese students who are planning to sit Ielts or Toefl. Thanks. I found your website very useful for me. Thanks to your sample essays, I was able to get 8 for dissertation, writing. Thank you very much sir. Actually I m very confuse about writing task 2 ( Essay Writing ).Is it possible that Same Essay topic will come again next IELTS exam?Which topic I refere maximum for exam?Can you please guide me sir? thank’s dominic you helped me a lot.
Sir my IELTS test will be on essay punctuation next week: and index international i need at least 6 bands in writing: Some people claim that not enough of the waste from homes is recycled. They say that the only way to increase recycling is for governments to make it a legal requirement. Mostly the recycled product is come from the home wastage’s, but nowadays concerned department are claiming that waste material from home is not properly enough as it should be. Some people of the society believe that it is the negligence of literature people that waste material are not receiving enough by the concerned organization from the society, therefore, they believe that a legislation should be passed for making it a legal requirement.
As far as my opinion is concerned there should be a law for recycling, but, it is also the responsibility of the society and media as well. Organizations for index, recycling are doing their job in a proper manner. Literature? They collected every garbage from the street even from the gutters as well. In contrast, residents of the society are not participating with the recycling workforce; moreover, it happens due to lack of awareness in people for dissertation international, the importance of summary recycling garbage. Secondly, there is the negligence factor as well in the society in index, participating with recycling department. For instance, people throw their house waste material into science their dustbins without separating the recycled material from the un-recycled material. Even a recently conducted survey revealed the fact that the 50% materials which can be recycled are wasted because they are not separated from the non-recyclable material by the residents of the society. Secondly, citizens of the society are not giving enough importance in the recycling of wastage, therefore, government should pass the legislation that garbage should be separated as recycled and non-recycled wastage, moreover, people should pack that recyclable product and put them in a separate box instead of throwing in the dustbin. In addition, government should also penalize those people who are not obeying the law. Dissertation International? Therefore, these acts restrict the citizens to literature summary follow the law and help the recycling department to dissertation index get as much garbage as the organizations wanted to recycle. After viewing above all discussion, it would lead me to conclude on the note that people should feel the importance material and legislation should be passed for waste material.
These kind of acts would be enough to enhance the proportion of waste material. […] Sample essay questions and sample essays […]
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5 Tips for index, Creating a Photo Essay with a Purpose. As a photographer, you are a storyteller. The nouns are your subject matter; the verbs are the color and contrast that keep the story moving. Quotes. A cast of characters all working together to get your point across. Instead of proper grammar, you ensure proper exposure. Instead of spelling errors, you watch for tack-sharp focus. For those times when the story is index international, especially important and meaningful, or for when one image doesn’t say it all, there is the photographic essay. With blogging and essay language social media, photo essays are more popular than ever: humorous or emotionally relevant, sparking debate or encouraging compassion, each with a story to international, tell. I’ve mentioned before that taking on essay, a photo project is one of my favorite ways to reignite my love for photography, but beyond that, it’s a great way to get your message across and have your work seen by a larger group. A photo essay is intriguing; it’s something to talk about after people hear that you’re a photographer and dissertation want to know about the essay punctuation quotes glitz and index international glamour of it all.
It’s the perfect thing to punctuation quotes, tell them after you’re done going on and on about all of the red carpets, the celebrities, the index international fame, and the fortune. It also can be extremely satisfying and kick-start your creative wonderment. Paper Science. By definition, a photographic essay is a set or series of photographs intended to tell a story or evoke emotions. It can be only index international images, images with captions, or images with full text. Paper Science. In short, it can be almost anything you want it to be. Which is index international, where I struggle mostwhen the options are limitless.
In this freelance world we live in, I love a little guidance, a little direction. Ideally, someone to tell me exactly what they want and romanticism essays promise to be thrilled with whatever I produce, for my fragile artist ego can’t take any less. While I continue my quest for that, I offer you these 5 tips for dissertation, creating your own, completely without bounds, photographic essay: Each time I’ve had a very specific concept in mind before I started shooting, it’s never been the end result. An example: for a hot minute, I offered a “day in the life” session to essay, my clients. I was photographing so many of the same clients year after year that I wanted to be able to offer them a different spin on the portrait sessions I was doing for them. I asked a long-time client if her family could be my guinea pigs for index, this and told them that we could do whatever they wanted. We went out for ice cream, had a mini dance party in their living room, and I photographed a tooth that had been lost that very morning. Then, very last, I photographed the two young daughters with notes they had written, which to be honest, I’m not even sure how they had come about. Writing. I rushed home after the session and edited those last note pictures first just because they were so different from what I usually shoot, and index posted them on my personal Facebook page the heading Notes Girls Write . Within minutes a dear friend, and fellow photographer, commented that this was big. Essay. Bigger than just the two pictures. Dissertation Index International. She and I would spend the next year working on a photo essay that became a blog, that in turn became a book entitled Notes Girls Write . We photographed hundreds of essay women of all ages with their notes, each one later expressing having their portrait taken with their own words was an extremely powerful moment for them.
Beyond my beautiful children, the fact that I can make a bed with hospital corners like no one’s business, and the award I won in the 4th grade for dissertation index, “Most Patient”, Notes Girls Write is one of my proudest accomplishments. It evolved on its own, starting from a few similar photographs that struck a cord in viewers and becoming a large and literature summary powerful project, one of the dissertation index biggest markers in punctuation quotes, my career so far. TIP: Don’t be so set in dissertation index international, your idea that your project can’t outgrow your original concept. Your images will guide you to your end result, which may end up being different than you originally envisioned it. 2) If you think there’s something there, there’s likely something there. For the last year I have been a “foster mom” with a dog rescue group.
Volunteers transport dogs that would otherwise be put down from overpopulated shelters, or seized from terrible situations, to summary, my area, where dog adoption rates are much higher. Dissertation. These dogs live in foster homes while they receive medical care and basic training so that they can be adopted out to conservation, loving homes. It’s incredibly rewarding. Especially when I had hardwood floors. I knew from the first time I met the international transport van I wanted to document what it looked like: a van full of dogs that just narrowly escaped death arriving to temporary homes where they will experience a level of love and care which they’ve likely never known. I tear-up every time I see it. Essays. I am also put to work every time I am there, so taking photos while holding onto dissertation index international a 100 pound German Shepard is tough. It’s going to essay language, take me several trips to have enough images to dissertation international, do anything with, but that’s fine. I have no idea what I will be doing with these photos.
I know they will find a home somewhere: maybe with the rescue group to raise awareness, or to help bring in volunteers, or maybe they will do nothing more than document my own story with volunteering, or perhaps something more. I’m not sure yet, but the point is essay language, that I have the images, ready for their time, whenever that is. TIP: If you think there is something to it, there likely is. Even if it’s just a personal passion project. Take photos until you find the dissertation international direction or purpose and save them until your essay takes shape.
You may not end up using all, or any of the images, but in literature, continuing to take photographs, your project will be defined. I’m the “World’s Worst Over-Shooter”. Need one image? Let me take a hundred so we know we have it. Luckily for my bad habit, the photographic essay needs over shooting. Whether you know what your plan is, or have no idea want your end result will look like, the more coverage you have, the better. This is one of the few times I push my luck and ask my subjects to work for me until they never want to see me again (I only photograph people though, so if you are photographing mountains or something, you have the dissertation index added advantage of not pushing people until they cry or yell).
Don’t be shy. Shoot everything you know you don’t need, just in essays, case you need it. Should your end product need supporting images or take a different direction than you originally thought, you’ll be ready. Take advantage of digital (if that’s how you shoot) and fill a memory card. You may end up trashing everything, or you may not. I had no idea that my Notes Girls Write project would span for as long as it did, but because I didn’t turn down anyone who was interested in the very beginning I ended up with some shots that told complete stories and expanded on the original concept.
TIP: Think big. Dissertation Index International. If you are shooting an essay where mountains are your subject matter, see the mountain in pieces and photograph the surrounding trees, rocks, and whatever else. This will save you having to return to summary, the beginning of the project for supporting shots, or having to reshoot if your essay takes a different turn than you planned. 4) Ask for help with image selection. Dissertation International. I struggle with this oneI let my personal feelings get involved. Throughout our Notes Girls Write project I was constantly picking images based on les miserables, my personal feelingsthe subjects that I had connected with more, and the girls that I knew were most interested in the project. This is where it is so helpful to dissertation, have someone else help. Someone who has no personal feelings towards the images and will help you pick based only on literature summary, the strength of the image and not your own feelings. Even if people were not involved as subjects, you tend to have personal feelings toward images that the general public may not see the power behind. I recently photographed several dozen sexual assault survivors as part of a photographic essay for a victim advocacy’s annual gallery show. This event is meant to put faces on the survivors and raise awareness, and has been a large local event for years.
I was thrilled to be selected to be the exclusive photographer, though this was one of the hardest projects I’ve ever taken on. The photo sessions themselves, whether five minutes or 30, were extremely emotional for the survivors and in the time I spent with them, I often learned a lot about their journey and experience. This made it difficult for me to index international, pick which final images would be used for the show, based only on the power of the image and not my personal feelings. In the end several select friends helped me narrow each survivor’s images down, and the subjects themselves selected which would be the and wildlife final image used, as ultimately this is dissertation international, their story. TIP: All creative work is personal, and looking at photographs we take ourselves is incredibly hard to romanticism, do with clear eyes. Dissertation. We see the mistakes, the personal feelings, the shot that could have been better. It’s impossible to always set these aside so when working on a project that is incredibly important to you, or large in scale. Have others help you decide what images to use for your final pieces. Bring in people who are interested in photography and les miserables essays people that aren’t.
People that know about your subject matter and people that don’t understand it at all. But above all, bring in people who will be honest and not tip-toe around your feelings. Lastly, also bring a thick skin. 5) Tell your story, in fact shout it from the rooftops if you can. Dissertation International. Maybe your original idea for your photographic essay was to post it on your blog. Awesome, nothing wrong with that, but are you sure it can’t be more? Shop it around, who can it help? Does this benefit a group, an organization, or a person? Could it inspire people? If you feel passionately about the photos, chances are that someone else will too.
Your photographic eye doesn’t stop when your shooting is done. If you felt compelled to shy person, take the dissertation international time to create a photographic essay, there are likely “readers” for your story. Romanticism Les Miserables. TIP: This isn’t the dissertation international time to be humble. Taking on a photo essay is a large endeavour. While there’s nothing wrong with having it be something you only literature did for your own personal growth, showing it around can be helpful both in experience and longterm benefit. Post it on social media, find appropriate places your essay could be displayed, and index think about how it helped you.
Every single photo essay I have done has led to an outstanding connection, or more work, and there is nothing wrong with getting those things along with the personal gain of romanticism les miserables accomplishing something you’re proud of. International. The ideas are truly for a photographic essay are limitless. Truly. Want a few more ideas for projects, try these? Have you ever done a photographic essay? What is essay quotes, your experience? Share with in the comments if you have, or have considered it. International. If you haven’t, what are you waiting for?
Read more from our Tips Tutorials category. Lynsey Mattingly photographs families, kids, couples, and other groups of people who, for whatever reason, kind of like each other. Summary. Her portrait work has been featured in international, People Magazine, Us Weekly, BBC Magazine, and on national TV including CNN, Oprah, and Ellen, but most importantly, in the personal galleries of essay clients across the country. International. Her photography can be viewed at summary, www.lynseymattingly.com or on dissertation international, Facebook. Excellent post Lynsey. Conservation Essay. I suffer from the dissertation international same challenges as you in tip #4. I get caught up in paper political, my personal meaning behind some of my pictures. Apparently, others feel the same way. Dissertation Index. http://www.picture-power.com/my-most-powerful-picture.html.
I have an idea for a photo essay I wanted to pursue, this article helped grow it further. Thank you. Wonderful article. I liked the essay quotes picture for #3. This is the main reason why I think a blog is a much more interesting format than a photo sharing site such as flickr or 500px to index, show your work; for me, the images are just part of the story, but the words and texts can help define them, giving them context and conservation of forests and wildlife essay body. For me, an image rarely works alone and usually comes in dissertation international, a set with a particular rhythm and flow; what precedes and what follows is a very important element of essay each capture, as well. One example from my blog, a short walk that I took recently along a humble neighborhood in Bangkok: I think the issue in Tip #4 is common to all creative endeavors: We all get too close to the material. Dissertation. In a previous life, I was a writer and and wildlife essay editor, but when it came time for me to edit my own stuff, I had somebody else look at dissertation international, it. We have too much of ourselves tied up in the work to be objective sometimes. Wonderful article, thank you #128578; some of the examples are awesome and thought-filling. Thank-you for telling me about this!!
It pretty much rocks. I am so glad that I came across this article this morning. Conservation And Wildlife Essay. I am no pro photographer but just someone who loves capturing images to share. I have been asked to volunteer my time to capture a group of students in Beijing, who would be traveling to Xian, the home of the terracotta warriors, to help out in a orphanage just 2 weeks from international now. I have never done this before. They are not expecting much. Just pictures for the event. However, I wanted to tell a story. A story of these volunteers as well as the orphans and I have been struggling over the past week of whether is that what I should do.
After reading this article, I know that I am on the right path and hopefully help not to take pictures of people, but take pictures of the story behind the people. Thank you again very much. This is my first opportunity to use my hobby for a good cause, and paper political research I am very excited about it. Thank you again for this great article. Dissertation Index International. Really good points and very motivational to get me on a riveting photo essay again. I did attempt one such photographic essay which I titled #8220;The World of essay Weeds.#8221; Would appreciate a few visits with any helpful comments or critiques. It#8217;s over at one of my blogs and can be found here: http://thegoldenumber.blogspot.com/2013/07/the-world-of-weeds.html. you have some beautiful images there, but I would keep the focus similar. the shift in focus from 1, 2, 3 and index 5 is radical.
5 the green plant on the corner and paper research then 7 seems another sudden change. The drain-pipe is beautiful because the eye follows the path of the pipe and so tightly focused. Dissertation International. It seems to be erratic because you have the wonderful still life of dried plants against paper nearly solid backdrops like walls and then sudden change to international, green plants that don#8217;t seem to writing language, have the same focus.. Index. but the essay dried plants and index wall work, the drain beautiful and shy person interesting. The green plants against dissertation index international walls work well with dried plants because they have similar conceptual style. Overall, is interesting group and essay punctuation quotes should be developed some more. I recently completed my first photo essay as an international eBook. Essay. It took me a long time to figure out how to index international, work with iBooks Author, but it was a great platform to construct such a vehicle to of forests and wildlife essay, display digital photographs in international, a meaningful way. Political Research. Unfortunately, it only publishes to iBooks, which translates, effectively, to having the eBook only on dissertation index international, iPads.
Photo essays in black and paper political research white. This post inspired me to start my website of photo essays. My current ongoing series is about a band I went on index international, tour with and research science the different things I learned and encountered: http://www.quietandconstant.com/on-tour-with-lemuria-part-1/ I recently made a photo essay which was published in a mainstream web portal so I#8217;m quite happy about that. I agree that sometimes, photographs have to be put in context by dissertation using words to quotes, string them together. Also believe that any subject can be turned into a photo essay. The Photo Essay is a piece where its the photographer#8217;s voice through and dissertation index international through. Landscape Photography Tips. Photo Composition Tips. Beginner Photography Tips.
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Early modern English – an overview. The early modern English period follows the Middle English period towards the end of the fifteenth century and coincides closely with the Tudor (1485–1603) and Stuart (1603-1714) dynasties. The battle of Bosworth (1485) marked the end of the dissertation international long period of civil war known as the Wars of the Roses and the establishment of the Tudor dynasty under Henry VII (1485–1509), which brought a greater degree of stable centralized government to England. Not long before, the introduction of the craft of printing in paper political science 1476 by index William Caxton marked a new departure in the dissemination of the written word. The end of the period is marked by the religious and political settlement of the shy person essay ‘Glorious Revolution’ (1688), the transition to the Augustan age during the reign of Queen Anne (1702–14), and the achievement of political unity within the British Isles through the Act of Union between England and Scotland (1707).
The defining events of the sixteenth century were those of the Reformation , initiated under Henry VIII in the 1530s, which severed both religious and political links with Catholic Europe. During the seventeenth century the new science gradually achieved prominence, beginning with the writings of Francis Bacon (1561-1626) and issuing in index the foundation of the paper political Royal Society (chartered in 1662). At the start of our period English was spoken throughout England except in western Cornwall, where it was rapidly replacing Cornish. The English speach doth still encroche vpon it [Cornish], and hath driuen the same into the vttermost skirts of the shire. Index. Most of the Inhabitants can no word of Cornish; but very few are ignorant of the essay English. Richard Carew, The Survey of Cornwall (1602) Wales was integrated administratively and legally into England by dissertation international parliamentary acts of 1536 and 1543; the essay in german former made English the only language of the law courts and dissertation index, excluded those who used Welsh from any public office in Wales. However, apart from the ruling gentry, the inhabitants remained Welsh-speaking throughout the period. In Scotland, Scots (see below) was spoken in most of the essay writing in german Lowlands, Gaelic (called Erse in this period) in the Highlands and Galloway, and the Scandinavian language Norn in Shetland and Orkney. The Tudor monarchs asserted their claim to dissertation international, the lordship of literature, Ireland. Hitherto the English speaking presence had been small, restricted to the English pale . A series of military conflicts and plantations under Elizabeth, James I, and Oliver Cromwell led to the political domination of the country by English-speakers.
The era of overseas commercial venture and colonization was initiated in 1496–7 by the visit to Newfoundland (compare new-found adj. 2) of the Italian explorer John Cabot, commissioned by Henry VII. Index. Newfoundland was subsequently claimed for England in 1583. Settlement on the mainland of North America began with Jamestown (1607); the mainly Puritan Pilgrims [ pilgrim n. 4a] or ‘Pilgrim Fathers’ founded the Plymouth Colony (1620). During the shy person last part of the seventeenth century economic hardship led to large-scale Scottish emigration to Ireland and North America. Bermuda was colonized in 1612, followed by St Kitts (1623) and Barbados (1627) in the West Indies. After the defeat of the index international Spanish Armada (1588) English merchant voyages to the Indian Ocean began. The East India Company established its first trading factory in India in 1612 and took possession of Bombay in 1668. During the Middle English period numerous regional dialects existed in England and romanticism les miserables, Scotland. Middle English manuscripts, even copies of the same work, differ linguistically from dissertation international, one another to a greater or lesser degree. In the later Middle Ages London gradually emerged as the seat of administration and the court.
The speech of the capital acquired social prestige and written forms of it became usual in official documents and essay writing in german, literature, though it could only loosely be called a ‘standard’. Since printing was based in London this form of English was adopted by the early printers. But Caxton himself was acutely aware of variation and change within English. Certaynly our langage now vsed varyeth ferre from that which was vsed and dissertation index, spoken whan I was borne. William Caxton, Prologue to Eneydos (1490). Nevertheless, compared with Middle English texts, early modern texts seem much more uniform. It was recommended that literary English should be based on the speech of the London area. Ye shall therfore take the vsual speach of the Court, and that of paper political science, London and the shires lying about London within lx. myles, and index international, not much aboue. George Puttenham, Arte of writing language, English Poesie (1589).
A high degree of dissertation index international, spoken regional variety still existed and was generally recognized. Although regional dialects were scarcely recorded, their extent can be deduced from dialect study undertaken from the eighteenth century onwards. Within England, northern and essay in german language, western dialects were generally known to be markedly different from written English. Dissertation Index International. Evidently (as today) particular differences were specially prominent. Pronouncing according as one would say at London I would eat more cheese if I had it, the Northern man saith Ay suld eat mare cheese gin ay hadet, and essay writing, the Westerne man saith Chud eat more cheese an chad it. Richard Verstegan, A Restitution of dissertation international, Decayed Intelligence (1605).
There was a stylized stage version of western speech, as, for example, used by Edgar when posing as a countryman in King Lear . Good Gentleman goe your gate, let poore volke passe: and chud haue been zwaggar’d out of conservation and wildlife essay, my life, it would not haue bene zo long by a vortnight: nay come not neere the olde man, keepe out cheuore ye, or ile try whether your costard or my bat be the harder, chill be plaine with you. Shakespeare, King Lear , IV. vi (2nd Quarto, 1619). Scots was a special case. In 1500 Scotland and England were separate countries and during the sixteenth century Scots can be regarded as a language distinct from the dissertation international English spoken south of the border. In Scotland under James IV (1488–1512) there was a cultural flourishing, with the beginnings of Renaissance influence from the continent. After the accession of James VI of Scotland to writing, the throne of dissertation international, England in 1603 the paper political status of Scots declined. The court moved to London with the king, so that Scots lost its social prestige. Moreover writers like John Knox, who were in the forefront of the international Scottish Reformation (1560) and greatly influenced Scottish literary culture, wrote mainly in language southern English.
Already, around 1590, the number of books printed in Edinburgh in English had overtaken those printed in Scots and after 1603 Scots ceased to be a book language. Gif ?e, throw curiositie of nouationis, hes for?et our auld plane Scottis quhilk ?our mother lerit ?ou, in tymes cuming I sall wryte to ?ou my mynd in Latin, for I am nocht acquyntit with ?our Southeroun. Ninian Win?et, Letter to dissertation international, John Knox (1563). Social dialects (essentially those used by people regarded as inferiors) were also widely recognized by contemporaries, but we can make only very partial reconstructions from the surviving evidence, such as comments by grammarians and the dialogue in stage plays. Writing In German. A particular, though perhaps somewhat artificial, social dialect that received special attention was the canting slang of rogues and vagabonds (see, for example, John Simpson on the first dictionaries of English). Early in the period, English was frequently compared unfavourably as a literary language with Latin. It was also initially seen as not possessing advantages over other European languages, as this dialogue shows. ‘What thinke you of this English, tel me I pray you.’ ‘It is a language that wyl do you good in index international England but passe Dover, it is shy person woorth nothing.’ ‘Is it not used then in other countreyes?’ ‘No sir, with whom wyl you that they speake?’ ‘With English marchants.’ ‘English marchantes, when they are out of England, it liketh hem not, and they doo not speake it.’ John Florio, Florio his firste fruites (1578), ch. Dissertation. 27. The inferiority of English was often explained in terms of the mixed origin of its vocabulary. It is a language confused, bepeesed with many tongues: it taketh many words of the latine, and mo from the conservation of forests and wildlife French, and mo from the Italian, and dissertation, many mo from the Duitch, some also from the Greeke, and from the Britaine, so that if every language had his owne wordes againe, there woulde but a fewe remaine for in german English men, and yet every day they adde.
Florio, Florio his firste fruites , ch. Index. 27. English was also criticized for being inelegant and uneloquent. But there was a sudden change between 1570 and 1580. English began to of forests, be praised, in index international contrast with other languages, for its copious vocabulary, linguistic economy (in using words of essay writing in german, mainly one or two syllables), and simple grammar. Dissertation Index International. For example, a lengthy and spirited defence of English, as compared with Latin, is given by the educationist Richard Mulcaster. The English tung cannot proue fairer, then it is at summary this daie. Richard Mulcaster, The First Part of the Elementarie (1582). During the seventeenth century the status of Latin rapidly declined and by the end of the century even works of science were being written in English. The vocabulary of English expanded greatly during the early modern period. Writers were well aware of dissertation index international, this and argued about it.
Some were in favour of loanwords to express new concepts, especially from Latin. Others advocated the use of existing English words, or new compounds of them, for this purpose. Others advocated the revival of obsolete words and the adoption of essay, regional dialect. A notable supporter of the introduction of new words was the humanist and diplomat Sir Thomas Elyot (c.1490–1546). International. Among now common words, he introduced participate v. in five of the senses given in OED and persist v. in three.
Among less popular words, he introduced obtestation n. and summary, pristinate adj. Dissertation. Elyot frequently explained his coinages: for example his use of the words maturity (maturity n. 3: he was unaware that the word had already been used in essay other senses in English) and modesty (modesty n. 1) in The Boke Named the Gouernour (1531). Yet of these two [sc. celeritie and slownesse] springeth an excellent vertue, whervnto we lacke a name in englishe. Wherfore I am constrained to vsurpe a latine worde, callyng it Maturitie. Sir Thomas Elyot, The Boke Named the index international Gouernour (1531) Many early modern writers criticized the les miserables use of Latinate expressions (usually loanwords from international, Latin, sometimes words modelled on Latin) in order to elevate the style of writing, especially in language inappropriate contexts or for concepts which had ordinary English equivalents. These were known as inkhorn terms (an inkhorn being ‘a small portable vessel, originally made of horn, for holding writing-ink’).
A notable critic was Thomas Wilson, writing on the important art of rhetoric. This should first be learned, that we neuer affect any straunge ynkehorne termes, but so speake as is dissertation index international commonly receiued. Sir Thomas Wilson, The Arte of Rhetorique (1553). Further on Wilson holds up to ridicule an example of a (probably fictitious) ‘ynkehorne letter’. Romanticism Les Miserables. A typical clause from this runs ‘I obtestate your clemencie , to inuigilate thus muche for me’: all three italicized words were quite new in 1553; two of them have survived.
It is notable that many of the words that were objected to then as unnecessary were soon accepted into the language. Index. Such controversy waned after about 1600, partly because so many Latinate words had been accepted and were now regarded as an of forests enrichment. By contrast the royal tutor Sir John Cheke translated part of the New Testament avoiding loanwords wherever possible. Index. (This translation was not, however, published until 1843.) For example, he uses moond for shy person ‘lunatic’, onwriting for ‘inscription’, and tabler for ‘banker’. Our own tung shold be written cleane and dissertation, pure, vnmixt and vnmangeled with borowing of paper research science, other tunges. Sir John Cheke, in his letter to Thomas Hoby, printed at the end of Hoby’s translation of Castiglione’s Courtier (1561). Ralph Lever, in his Arte of Reason, rightly termed, Witcraft (1573), attempted to render Latin logic terms with English compounds such as nay-say ‘negation’, but none caught on. Nathaniel Fairfax, a Baconian scientist, managed to write a book devoid of obviously learned loanwords, called A Treatise of the Bulk and Selvage of the World (1674), ‘bulk and selvedge’ here meaning ‘volume and boundary’; other terms include bodysome ‘corporeal’, nowness ‘the quality of being always present’, and international, onefoldness ‘singleness’.
However, Fairfax’s language is often misleading and political, sometimes incomprehensible. The poet Edmund Spenser was the dissertation index leading proponent of the use of archaic and dialectal words, especially in The Shepheardes Calender (1579) and The Faerie Queene (1590). The former has a preface defending the practice, written by Spenser’s friend ‘E.K.’ And firste of the wordes to speake, I graunt that they be something hard, and of most men vnused, yet both English, and essay writing in german language, also vsed of most excellent Authours and most famous Poetes. ‘E.K.’, preface to Edmund Spenser, The Shepheardes Calender (1579). Examples of Spenser’s archaisms include nempt ‘named’ ( nemn v.), prow adj. ‘worthy, valiant’, and queme ‘please’ ( queem v.). A number of seventeenth-century poets imitated Spenser, although they did not always use his archaic and dialectal words correctly. International. Even errors, however, played a part in the formation of of forests essay, poetic vocabulary: derrynge do ( derring do n.) arose as a misprint for the verbal phrase dorryng do ‘daring to do’ in dissertation index sixteenth-century editions of Lydgate’s History of Troy , which was then misunderstood by Spenser as a noun phrase, explained in the Glossary to the Shepheardes Calender as ‘manhood and chevalrie’.
An eloquent language was one which made use of the devices of romanticism essays, classical rhetoric. Rhetoric, originally referring to the art of public speaking, had come to be applied to literature in general. Index International. It was a normal part of the study of Latin and literature summary, was carried over by educated writers into their use of English. From the dissertation international mid-sixteenth century onwards books on rhetoric began to appear in English, such as Thomas Wilson’s The Arte of Rhetorique (1553) referred to above. The figures of rhetoric covered a wide range of literary devices and their presence in a work was noticed and praised. They would have been immediately spotted, for example, in essay punctuation quotes Mark Antony’s speech in Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar, III. ii . ‘I am no Orator, as Brutus is; But..a plaine blunt man [topos of modesty]…I..Shew you sweet C?sars wounds, poor poor [epizeuxis] dum mouths [oxymoron and metaphor] And bid them speak [prosopopoeia] for me: But were I Brutus, and Brutus Antony [synoeciosis]…’ The classical languages, not being current spoken languages, do not change, and can therefore be described by a set of fixed grammatical rules. International. This was frequently regarded as the ideal condition of a language. From about 1660 there were proposals for an academy similar to the Academie Francaise which would regularize and purify the language: supporters included John Dryden and later Daniel Defoe and Jonathan Swift. Writing Language. Dryden’s Defence of the dissertation index Epilogue (1672) marks the beginning of the tradition of criticizing supposed grammatical errors in English. From Jonsons time to ours, it [English] has been in a continual declination.
John Dryden Defence of the Epilogue (1672). Dryden criticizes Ben Jonson himself for such mistakes as placing a preposition at the end of romanticism les miserables essays, a sentence and index international, using the shy person essay plural ones . This desire for regulation was to some extent met by the expansion of the number and dissertation index, coverage of dictionaries and by the development of English grammars, most of which, however, were modelled on grammars of Latin and had very little to say about sentence structure. (For more on paper political, this see the related article on grammar in early modern English.) The Restoration period also saw the beginnings of criticism of affected vocabulary, focusing initially on the adoption of French expressions. We meet daily with those Fopps, who value themselves on their Travelling, and dissertation index, pretend they cannot express their meaning in English, because they would put off to us some French Phrase of the last Edition. Dryden, Defence (1672). But this by of forests and wildlife essay no means implies the rejection of all foreign loanwords: John Evelyn in his Letter to international, Sir Peter Wyche (20 June 1665; published in 1908) suggested for adoption a number of French and political science, Italian words which ‘we have hardly any words that do so fully expresse’: a number of these did indeed become current at dissertation index around this time, including bizarre , chicanery , concert , and naivete . Between about 1540 and 1640 there was a movement for spelling reform in England. Early advocates were Sir John Cheke (see above) and of forests, Sir Thomas Smith, who as classical philologists were conscious of the disparity in spelling between English and Latin. John Hart produced three works on the subject between 1551 and 1570 and proposed a phonetic spelling system using a number of additional symbols.
In opposition to this approach, Richard Mulcaster (above) advocated only dissertation international mild reform, and there are very few improvements in his word-lists when compared with modern spelling. (For more, see early modern English pronunciation and spelling.) Fresh perspectives: Old English and new science. Old English (or Anglo-Saxon) began to be studied during this period. Manuscripts were collected and Old English texts published. The first Old English dictionary (edited by William Somner) appeared in conservation essay 1659 and dissertation index international, the first grammar of the language (edited by George Hickes) in 1689. Research Science. The original motivations for the undertaking were mixed: either to demonstrate the continuity of the Church of England, to show that the English legal system descended from index international, Anglo-Saxon law, or to support the cause of biblical translation. Nevertheless it had the shy person effect of introducing a historical understanding of the English language and paved the way for later etymological and philological investigation. At the same time the seventeenth-century scientific movement, heralded pre-eminently by Francis Bacon, had the effect of establishing English finally as an adequate medium of technical writing in place of dissertation international, Latin. It also led to the cultivation of a plain style of writing, without the paper research use of the devices of rhetoric. Bacon, who wrote in both English and Latin, himself criticized the valuing of style above matter.
His followers carried the attack much further. The Royal Society, according to its historian, Bishop Thomas Sprat, was to be praised for correcting stylistic excesses in dissertation writing. They have therefore been most rigorous in putting in execution, the only Remedy, that can be found for this Extravagance, and that has been, a constant Resolution, to reject all the writing amplifications, digressions, and index, swellings of style; to return back to the primitive purity, and shortness, when men deliver’d so many things, almost in an equal number of words. Conservation Of Forests Essay. Thomas Sprat, History of the Royal-Society of London (1667). Charles Barber, Early Modern English (1976) Manfred Gorlach, Introduction to Early Modern English (1991) there’s a growing list of commentaries on English in time, charting historical lexicography from Old English to index international, the modern day. As well as this introduction to early modern English (1500-1700), you can read an of forests and wildlife essay overview of Old English by Philip Durkin of the dissertation index OED . the early modern period witnessed a huge expansion of the of forests and wildlife essay English language: the index OED includes nearly 90,000 words with a first reference in these two centuries; between 1600 and 1700 over 8000 words entered the language to literature, describe aspects of the life and physical sciences. for the decade after 1660 , the OED includes more than 250 new words of French origin, including apropos , bijou , en passant , and dissertation index international, lemonade . How do I search for these?
With subscriber access to the OED Online you can search for entries by date, usage, origin, region, and and wildlife essay, subject using the dissertation Advanced Search option. To group entries by time period, use Advanced Search/date of entry or entry range; use the Subject and Origin options to focus on words relating to particular categories or derived from other languages. More about the OED Sign up for Word of the Day, delivered daily to your in-box, using the sign-up box in the right hand panel What’s new? Recent updates, plus more features on English—past and present. Please sign in to search the dictionary. Copyright © 2017 Oxford University Press.
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