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Should Voting Be Mandatory? - The …

Voting should not be mandatory essay

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Should Voting Be Mandatory? - The …

Possibilities of voting should mandatory Power and essays egyptian numeration system Purpose. Politics is a spectrum of the possibilities of power. It defines relations among humans and the purposes they pursue. Voting Not Be Mandatory Essay? At one end of the spectrum is sheer exploitative domination, where the thesis bombing of pearl, only question is, as Lenin said, ‘Who [is able to dominate] whom?’ There was no single birth of the idea of voting domination; all too many societies in human history have been marked by it. At the other end of the spectrum of politics is a much rarer ideal: that of a regime of free and othello thesis equal citizens with the mandatory, power to decide and act.

There is no monopoly on apa citation for master's, this practice either; it has evolved in many places and in many forms. Yet one set of ideas, from one particular era and one part of the voting should not be essay, world, has been enormously influential in delineating a vision of that ideal that continues to resonate powerfully in our own times. The ancient Greeks and Romans gave birth to a vocabulary still at work in the analyses and aspirations of many of those concerned with politics across the globe today. One important dimension of Greek and Roman political ideas includes the essay writing university, claims and practices of self-government, exemplified especially in Athenian democracy and the Roman republic. Not Be Mandatory Essay? What makes their ideas so rich a resource for thinking politically is that those forms of apa citation style for master's self-rule were accompanied by philosophical and literary and not be rhetorical challenges to them. Essay Wife? Some orators and writers debunked political ideals of self-rule, of justice and equality, as illusory or exploitative; others argued that self-rule was better achieved in ethics than in politics, or in some form of voting should not be fellowship distinct from the existing political community. In other words, Greek and Roman political philosophy embodies both those practices of self-government and the reactions to them.

This makes it a resource not only for those who want to celebrate politics today, but also for those who are critical of it. This book treats historical practices and philosophical reflections together, on the grounds that what makes Greek and Roman ideas such good resources for thinking is the remarkably wide spectrum of possibilities of power that they covered. It is hard to canterbury bath find a modern critique of Greek and Roman politics (on slavery, on gender, on elitism, on imperialism) that some particular Greek or Roman did not make first. For every incarnation of a political regime, there were critics scrutinizing its claims. Alongside the distinctive ideas of democracy and voting should republic, Greeks and essays Romans also explored the limits of those political ideals of citizenship; investigated the claims of oligarchies, kingships and even tyrannies; and questioned whether any claim to embody justice in voting civic relations could be valid.

Rather than confine the value of the numeration, Greeks and should mandatory essay Romans to just one position on the spectrum of politics – as either proudly committed to style for master's popular self-rule or philosophical critics of should mandatory it, for revenge thesis, example – we can learn most by exploring the whole range of ideas that they generated. To respond to the ranks of critics and to the plight of the outsiders, to not be mandatory essay think for ourselves about the writing open, value and limits of politics, we need to understand the voting should not be essay, development of these influential classical ideas. Why turn back to classical ideas and models rather than simply think about what these terms have come to mean today? Greek and Roman versions of these ideas are radical in the original sense of the term. They serve as the roots (the etymological meaning of ‘radical’) of a multitude of apa citation style modern ideas, roots that have sprouted in many different ways in the intervening centuries, in should the West but also beyond it. Indeed, these ideas have been recovered, revised and contested in all parts of the world where the classical thinkers have been read or classical practices prevailed. Wife Bath? They have been debated from Marseille to Ai Khanoum in Afghanistan (where a student of Aristotle inscribed celebrated Greek maxims on a funerary monument), from not be mandatory Tunis to Tarsus, in Byzantium and among its Ottoman conquerors; and also in wife the parts of the world where Greek and not be essay Roman ideas were brought by conquest and colonization, taken up by apa citation for master's thesis rulers and ruled alike, across other parts of Africa and Asia as well as Latin America. Roots bear little visible resemblance to the plants that spring from them. Voting Should Mandatory Essay? Sometimes the Greeks and Romans are held to thesis statements for the harbor be too different from modern peoples to be of much use for current understandings. Perhaps they are of little use because they are too good for us: in this light they are sometimes celebrated as public-spirited citizens in comparison with our modern self-interested counterparts.

Or perhaps it is because we are too smart or too lucky for them to be relevant any more: in this alternative perspective, liberal and voting not be essay representative democracy in the context of capitalism is seen as a game-changing innovation that makes ancient models of only limited use. Both points are intertwined in Enlightenment philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s critique of system ancient politics as irrelevant to modern circumstances, a critique that manages to be at once nostalgic in tone and should essay uncompromising in implication. Rousseau in 1764 issued a warning to the citizens of Geneva (of whom he was one by birth) that they should not be tempted by flattering comparisons of themselves as citizens of a ‘republic’ with the peoples of classical times: Ancient Peoples are no longer a model for modern ones; they are too alien to them in every respect … [Addressing Genevans as ‘you’] You are neither Romans, nor Spartans; you are not even Athenians. Leave aside these great names that do not suit you. You are Merchants, Artisans, Bourgeois, always occupied with their [ sic ] private interests, with their work, with their trafficking, with their gain; people for whom even liberty is only a means for acquiring without obstacle and for possessing in safety.1. The fundamental political implication of revenge thesis this contrast, Rousseau concludes, is that ‘Not being idle as the ancient Peoples were, you cannot ceaselessly occupy yourselves with the Government as they did.’2 In other words, Rousseau implies that without the slaves and voting not be mandatory essay the wartime spoils that allowed Greek and Roman citizens to othello thesis be idle, their distinctive brand of political involvement is impossible, and so there is mandatory essay little or nothing to be learned from it. But, in apa citation for master's thesis fact, against his insinuation, the allocation of voting should not be mandatory essay effort and leisure is a political allocation that both classical and style modern societies have made, one that is not wholly determined by economic forces. Not Be Essay? Slavery was one (brutal and important) form of exploitative wealth-appropriation, but it was not the pivotal or dominant form of wealth accumulation in Greek or Roman societies outside certain specialized sectors; conversely, plenty of similar societies had slaves without devoting themselves to tales politics. Meanwhile, modern societies have accumulated sources of wealth, energy and capacity (through the division of labour, non-animal energy sources and new media, among others) that could be used to allow more people to devote time to politics, if they (we) so chose.

Certainly there are striking differences between ancient and modern societies in terms of economics, technology, religion and voting mandatory essay bureaucracy. Essay Bath? The Greeks and Romans had productive economies based on agriculture, mining and artisanal production as well as trade and wartime plunder, but no exponential economic or technological growth, nor any idea of a capitalist market relatively emancipated from other aspects of the social order. They had communal religious rites honouring a range of deities, rather than monotheistic religions that could be divorced from public control. And they had no notion of a state as an abstract separate entity, distinct from the voting not be, particular personnel who govern it and also from the people who compose it. These differences are real, but the egyptian, very differences can reveal certain important points about politics more clearly. Without an extensively bureaucratized and specialized state apparatus, the Greeks and Romans conceived of politics as fundamentally about relations among those in the political community, and about relations with those who were inside or outside its boundaries without full membership. Indeed, this is why it is sometimes even said that they had no special idea of ‘politics’ at all as something distinct from general community concerns: politics was not separate and specialized, but a pervasive and abiding concern for the matters belonging to the community in common.3 This means that classical ideas can provide a lens for should not be essay, focusing on the broad constitution and purposes of a community – something that is too often obscured in modernity by so many specialized aspects of the essays numeration system, political apparatus. Voting? This is not to say that all Greeks and Romans idealized those relations among citizens (or that their societies were composed of citizens only: the essay open university, politics of exclusion and inclusion were also a form of politics). On the voting mandatory, contrary, some saw civic ties and pursuits as inherently exploitative or as less fulfilling than other ways of spending one’s life. Those criticisms are as instructive as the ideas and ideals that they challenge. This book will explore both the similarities and differences between ancient and modern politics.

The point is not to come up with a net tally – are they more different or more similar? Rather, it is to reveal a range of statements bombing harbor ancient and not be essay modern preoccupations, so that common ground can be traced and light shed on those areas where they differ – and to do so in a way that is most productive for thinking about essay writing open university politics in whatever circumstances one finds oneself. Ancient ideas may prove radical both in voting not be mandatory the etymological sense of serving as roots, and resume also in the sense of offering profound challenge. For example, the internet and voting should mandatory social media magnify the realization that politics today is dominated by apa citation style for master's thesis rhetoric, just as it was in should not be mandatory essay Athens; we are forever searching for new mechanisms to produce the social knowledge that the Athenians enjoyed. The opinionated blogosphere makes the questions of thesis Plato and Aristotle – whether social knowledge is enough, and should not be how politics can take account of scientific expertise – pressing once again. And, meanwhile, rising levels of economic inequality and social immobility raise a challenge faced continually in antiquity, with fresh force: how, and in what circumstances, if at all, can the apa citation style, rich and the poor be enabled to act as political equals? To explore classical ideas with an eye to their modern resonances, I have chosen eight ideas that are vital for thinking politically today and that have Greek and Roman roots (even though not always exact Greek or Latin translations). A more thoroughgoing antiquarian concerned only to not be mandatory essay represent Greek and Roman ideas in their historical contexts, with no thought of the present, would probably choose some startlingly different candidates: Polytheism, say, or Patronage. Equally, a modern philosopher guided only by contemporary politics would undoubtedly choose differently too: Rights, say, or Legitimacy.

My guiding principle has been to choose ideas that can be used to illuminate key aspects of ancient thought while also informing contemporary reflections. They provide an overview of essential aspects of political thought and practice in ancient Greece and numeration Rome over 700 years, from the late 6th century BCE to the late 2nd century CE , with a special focus on the ‘classical eras’ from roughly the 5th to voting not be mandatory the 1st centuries BCE (remember that BCE centuries are numbered downward to the birth of Christ, which marks the beginning of the Christian era, as in egyptian numeration Figure 1). Each chapter is centred around an idea, while each idea in turn is presented as emblematic of a particular time, place or author, notwithstanding the fact that each was also explored in many others. 5th?4th Century bce. 2nd?1st Century bce. 1st?2nd Century bce. Across such a vast chronological range, a short book must necessarily be far from comprehensive, even in voting should not be mandatory essay its coverage of the chosen eight ideas. For example, it leaves out the Jewish and Christian thinkers who remade crucial aspects of political thought in statements for the of pearl harbor Greece and Rome. It focuses primarily on 5th- and voting should 4th-century Greece and on the latter half of the history of the Roman republic, with only a brief and partial survey of aspects of the essay writing, early imperial period of should not be mandatory essay Roman history. And even within the classical eras of Greek democracy and thesis bombing the Roman republic, it is voting should essay highly selective, aimed at informing readers who are interested in better understanding the politics of Greek and system Roman antiquity both in themselves and also as a way of understanding the contemporary world. To explain how those two projects might be connected, I consider now five dimensions of politics, along the axes of which power is related to possibility, illustrating them primarily by reference to voting the Greek societies in which our story begins.

Every idea of politics must answer five questions about how power can be mobilized to shape certain possible outcomes: Who? Where? Why? How? When? While the Greeks lacked a special notion of ‘politics’ as something clearly different from, say, economics or military affairs, they certainly recognized and responded to what have been called the ‘circumstances of politics’. They developed ideas that for essay writing, us count as political ideas, addressing what they themselves called ta politika : the things or matters of concern to a certain – we would say political – community. To flesh out the range of ideas that they developed, let us consider how those varying ideas addressed each of the voting should, five questions in turn. Who were those who concerned themselves with ta politika ? Answer: the citizens ( politai , plural of polites ),* understood as sharing in a common condition and concern that made them equals, even though some were rich, others poor. That equality was Janus-faced.

Some lucky few were included as citizens by means of excluding all others (foreigners and slaves) from their common privileges. Most harshly excluded were those whom Greek societies enslaved. Resume? Citizens could count themselves as equals even under a tyrant, at least in the sense that even a tyrant would treat citizens and slaves differently. For the Romans, the voting should essay, common concern would be called res publica , literally the people’s thing or affair, from which derives the revenge thesis, English word ‘republic’. Voting Should Not Be Mandatory? A Roman citizen was someone who was free, as opposed to a slave, who was protected in his private affairs and who enjoyed important powers related to the welfare of the dock building resume, common thing, the common concerns. Should Mandatory Essay? The place of egyptian numeration system women as (passive) citizens in the classical regimes – with certain privileges and duties, but no voice in key political forums, albeit sometimes dramatic political agency in a broader sense – will be considered in the chapters that follow. Where did concern for ta politika take place? In Greece, primarily, though not always, in a polis . A polis was a particular kind of territory and settlement, combining an urban core, often walled, with a region of agricultural hinterland. About 1,000 separate polis communities have been counted in archaic and classical Greece. In size of territory, they ranged from less than 12 square kilometres in size to several thousand – with Sparta as an should not be mandatory, outlier at about 8,000 square kilometres (and with a relatively small population).

In size of population, a polis might include anything from a few thousand upward – with Athens as the dock building resume, outlier at about 250,000 inhabitants, of voting not be whom about 60,000 were male citizens at its zenith in the time of the 5th-century statesman and general Pericles (in a relatively large territory of about 2,500 square kilometres).4. While land was important to a polis ’s identity, both practically and essay symbolically, it was ultimately secondary to voting should not be the identity of its inhabitants. A polis was defined most fundamentally in terms of its people. Statements For The? The Greeks never spoke of ‘Athens’ or ‘Sparta’ as political actors in the way that we speak of ‘France’ or even ‘Paris’; they spoke always of ‘the Athenians’ or ‘the Spartans’. And, in desperate moments, the survival of the polis meant the survival of the people holding ta politika in common, even at the cost of sacrificing some of their land. (Famously, at one stage in their 5th-century wars with Sparta, the Athenians followed the advice of the general and orator Pericles and abandoned their countryside to the pillagers, crowding together in the urban core of the polis under the protection of the Long Walls, where they continued to care for voting should, ta politika together.) Polis is often translated as ‘city-state’, because it was in the urban civic centre that politics was concentrated. Indeed, it can even be translated as ‘citizen-state’, since it was the people, more than the place, who made the polis .5 As we will see throughout the course of the book, this idea of politics as taking place within city walls would later become subject to philosophical critiques that opened up potentially wider and more inclusive ideas of how and where ethical and political communities might arise.

Rome, for its part, also began as an urban centre with a rural hinterland. But it soon grew beyond all recognition into a very different kind of place, a huge geographical expanse incorporating pre-existing political communities by conquest or treaty. After recurrent bouts of conflict, the Romans gradually and sometimes grudgingly extended the condition of citizenship to the inhabitants of their expanded domains: first, to almost all those who were not slaves living in revenge what is now Italy south of the Po River; and, eventually, in 212 CE , to all the free men living in any Roman territory. In the earlier expansion, citizenship was sometimes extended to voting should not be essay new groups sine suffragio (without the vote). In another way, too, Roman citizenship was dramatically expansive and thesis statements for the bombing of pearl inclusive, because slaves who were freed by means of recognized civic procedures thereby became citizens (unlike in essay Greece).6 Still, relatively few of these new citizens created by manumission (i.e., by being freed) or incorporation could come to Rome in statements bombing harbor practice to attend the assemblies where officials were elected and laws passed. So a gulf opened up between the not be essay, condition of essay writing citizenship and not be the actual practice of politics – a gulf that is likewise alarmingly wide in many parts of the world today. Why did Greek citizens so prize the polis and the possibility of caring together for ta politika ? They valued being respected as equals (as well as the possibility of essay bath being esteemed differentially as individuals), and they valued collective flourishing. The polis was a space in which the collective well-being could be defined, pursued and voting should not be mandatory shared.

Each polis community was vulnerable to invasion and so was constantly jockeying for advantage and sometimes even permanent domination over its neighbours. The political community could marshal its men (along with non-citizen residents and mercenaries, and style sometimes slaves) to fight others, Greeks and non-Greeks alike: offensively, with the prospect of winning booty and tribute; and voting should mandatory defensively, to apa citation thesis protect their people and resources against domination – which could mean despoliation, enslavement or death. Though a good number of adventurous spirits chose to hazard their personal fortunes as merchants or travellers, living abroad to teach, trade or advise, the voting not be essay, personal safety and welfare of most Greeks depended crucially on the fate of their polis . In Rome, the standing of a Roman citizen in the republic meant protection from outrage of one’s person, in canterbury essay wife bath the form of arbitrary flogging, illegal imprisonment and the like. Many citizens also had the duty of serving in the military if conscripted – with the prospect of voting not be mandatory essay gain and glory, but also the danger of defeat and the horrors that might bring. It is perhaps in their answer to bombing of pearl how that the Greeks innovated most dramatically: by developing mechanisms of decision-making and accountability that allowed ta politika to be considered and determined collectively. These included practices of formal voting in assemblies and courts, sometimes using written ballots; the use of lottery and election to choose officials on a rotating annual basis; and scrutinizing the accounts of those officials to hold them accountable for their actions.

Some democracies, most conspicuously Athens, innovated further in using large popular juries to decide almost all legal cases and eschewing professional judges, taking such power out of the hands of archaic aristocratic bodies. Should Essay? These mechanisms were both protective and writing open productive, seeking to protect the not be essay, polis and its institutions against essays numeration system damage or corruption, and to marshal its collective powers in pursuit of prosperity. In Rome, the election of officials and the making of laws became a peculiar form of art, with elaborate group voting procedures and a key role for certain elected officials in proposing laws to those assembled for the purpose of approving them. The Athenian poor defended their interests themselves, especially in the law-courts that they controlled by force of voting should mandatory numbers; the Roman commoners forced the establishment of special elected officials (‘tribunes’) to open university protect them. These practices also give us a clue as to should mandatory when Greek and Roman politics happened: for if politics is the othello revenge, domain of power and possibility, it must happen in time as well as in space. That is, while political institutions are bounded by space, the pursuit of actions and decisions within them is done in time. To practise politics is to decide and to act, or to authorize action: using forms of voting mandatory essay power to make certain possibilities real. The Greeks and Romans controlled the timing of political actions in diverse and complex ways: the Athenians timed the speeches in jury trials by means of dock building a water-clock, for example; while the Romans consulted augurs, priests who were charged with determining when crucial political or military actions should be taken in accordance with divine favour.7 Within institutions, opportunities to act were carefully prescribed and allocated; outside them, an ambitious man might perceive and seize the opportunity to rewrite the rules and take power as a tyrant or as one of a group of oligarchs. Inside and outside established institutions, in voting should classical antiquity and tales wife bath today, politics is in large part an art of timing. Eight ideas will constitute the core of this book, and will help us envision what politics might be. All arise at the levels identified earlier: the level of philosophical reflection and the level of political practice.

Two ideas address what power might possibly achieve: Justice (especially a concern in the histories of the classical regimes) and Virtue (especially a concern for the philosophers, who incorporated their own special ideas of justice into it). Six address how to organize and tame the relations of power among people, and the extent to which varying kinds of control should be brought to voting should essay bear upon these relations: Constitution, Democracy, Citizenship, Cosmopolitanism, Republic and Sovereignty. All these ideas took special and distinctive forms in Greece or Rome, or both, though related families of ideas may be found in other societies. Tales Essay Wife? While all were developed by a wide range of thinkers, my presentation focuses on each one primarily in the context of one or a few thinkers at a certain time period, chosen because they contributed rich material to the development of voting mandatory that idea. This approach will help to guide readers who are less familiar with Greece and Rome on what will be a broadly chronological journey, while at the same time highlighting the thematic power of the ideas.

Of course, a case could be made for other ideas over those I have chosen. A list of the for the bombing, most important political ideas of the Greeks and Romans from some absolute standpoint would surely include Equality, Liberty and Law (these three thread throughout most of the chapters here, in fact), and we will also have occasion to think about ideas like Friendship and Sociability. My claim is mandatory not that these eight are exclusively or pre-eminently important. It is rather that they offer the essay open, best way I have found of telling a story in these pages that illuminates classical ideas while also resonating with contemporary readers. The eight ideas begin in Chapter 1 with Justice as the fundamental – and contested – basis of common citizenship for all. For if the rich can exploit and even enslave the poor, if the voting should essay, poor are always afraid of the violence or fraud that might be perpetrated upon them by the rich, the extreme of domination reigns, with little hope that power might be used for any other possibility. Egyptian? To establish justice requires a politeia , often translated in English as ‘constitution’, meaning in Greek a condition of citizenship that involves the voting mandatory, broad ordering of the way of life of a society. The Greeks were acutely aware of the canterbury essay bath, merits and demerits of rival constitutions in not be essay this sense, as we will see in Chapter 2. Chapter 3 looks at the specific Athenian idea, and constitution, of Democracy. Here the comparison between ancient and modern is most direct. While the people played far more extensive and diverse roles in ancient democracy than they do in modern forms of government, central ideas, including accountability, control and judgement, are common to both, though institutionally manifest in different ways.

Appreciating the numeration, special qualities of Athenian democracy – a task that will involve dispelling a number of myths about it – allows us to think hard about voting not be mandatory essay how well modern democracies achieve, or could achieve, the ideas that they value most. It proves that a political system can exist in which the richest citizens cannot use their wealth to dominate the poor or to accumulate a lasting and far-reaching power base in politics. While the style for master's, rich had certain opportunities and responsibilities in Athens and could make the most of those, they were always subject to the judgements of the wider political community and so restricted, for voting mandatory, the most part, to the pursuit of the interests of that wider community, as the dominant group within it saw them. The Greek menu of constitutions was arguably far wider than that served up in polite international society today. But, to a lineage of writing open university philosophers living in Athens across three generations, that menu did not go far enough, for voting essay, it did not include any genuinely valuable regimes. In different ways, these philosophers all argued that existing regimes were marred by greed and canterbury lust for power, producing endemic conflicts without actually making their inhabitants truly better off.

As we will see in voting should not be Chapter 4, the lineage began with Socrates, who questioned his fellow Athenians incessantly about the nature of justice, knowledge and virtue; it continued with Plato, his pupil, born to a privileged family but in thrall to the ugly plebeian Socrates, and the source of our most scintillating writings about him; and then, turning to Chapter 5, it was passed on to Aristotle, who came from a family serving the Macedonian court in northern Greece to join the Academy that Plato had established in Athens, later setting up a rival school of his own. Each of these philosophers envisaged another form of politics, even an ideal politeia (this is the title of what we call in egyptian numeration system English Plato’s Republic ), which would be based on a deeper idea of justice and achieve a more genuine human good. For Plato and Aristotle, Virtue and Citizenship would ideally coincide in a good politeia . For some of voting not be mandatory essay Socrates’ followers in subsequent generations, however, the vision of an ideal politeia was radicalized to constitute a permanent ethical fellowship that might never take any conventional political form. This was the birth of the idea of Cosmopolitanism (Chapter 6), referring to the entire universe ( Kosmos ) as a realm of citizens ( politai ), an idea that we will find turned to a dizzyingly wide range of ethical and political purposes. Alongside the debate about Cosmopolitanism in the post-classical Hellenistic period of Greek politics following the death of Alexander the Great in the late 4th century BCE was a related discussion about the naturalness of politics and of human fellowship. Was politics truly natural, a feature of resume human nature, as Aristotle especially would define it? Or might it be a makeshift tool, a useful social contract that does not answer to our highest capabilities of forming relationships? The tensions between politics as rooted in natural sociability and politics as rooted in utility, and between a polity limited in voting mandatory essay space to one’s actual fellow citizens and one in which one’s fellow citizens were one’s true peers in virtue wherever they might reside, were played out essay university again and again in the schools that either followed Socrates or rejected his example in the post-classical era. As we shall see, one school of voting Hellenistic philosophers, the Stoics, argued for natural sociability and style for master's thesis saw politics as a healthy outgrowth of that, though perfected in the republic of fellow sages; a rival school, the voting should mandatory, Epicureans, argued for politics as a matter of apa citation style for master's utility rooted not in voting should not be mandatory essay nature but in contract, contrasting it with a higher human ideal of thesis friendship. Voting Should Not Be Mandatory Essay? In such ways, the philosophers of the late 4th to 1st centuries BCE mapped out basic terms of political debate that set the dock resume, stage for Roman politics. For the Romans came to dominate Greece politically, only to reappropriate Greek philosophical distinctions, which they then put to work in should governing the dock resume, expanding republic and empire – a story we will trace forward into not be essay, the 2nd century CE . Chapter 7 tells the story of the constitution of the Roman republic, seen through the lenses of an analyst of its rise and a participant in its decline. ‘Republic’ is a transliteration of the thesis, Latin term ( res publica ) at the core of the constitution that the should mandatory, Romans developed.

Polybius, a hostage Greek historian who analysed the statements for the bombing, Roman constitution, viewed that constitution as a balance among three elements – consuls, Senate, and should not be mandatory people – each representing one of the simplest three forms of for the of pearl constitution known to the Greeks (kingship, oligarchy and democracy). This idea of powers of not be essay government that are in varying ways divided and balanced (and, for some, mixed) would evolve into the republican ideal of ‘checks and balances’ adopted by the American founders and othello their followers. Animating this recurrent tension was the struggle to attain equal liberty, involving respect for even the commonest and poorest citizen in voting should not be mandatory essay his person, property and powers. Respect for the poor, however, went alongside special privileges for a meritocratic elite, one largely overlapping with inherited or earned wealth. Whereas the Athenians used democratic powers to constrain their elites, the Romans allowed them a more significant and independent set of political powers.

The Romans balanced the role of the political elite (overlapping with the economic elite) against the role of ordinary Romans, whereas the Athenian democrats had allowed the poor to control and adjudicate, in crucial ways, the claims of the elite. Writing in the 2nd century BCE , Polybius, an historian of Rome’s rise who wrote his account in Greek, witnessed republican Rome at its height – but he prophesied that it could not last. Public devotion to egyptian numeration duty, to the Roman understanding of the virtues that must be exercised if the ‘common thing’ (the res publica ) is to should be protected, would eventually and essays numeration inevitably lapse. That undermining was witnessed a century later by the philosopher and statesman Marcus Tullius Cicero, who had clambered up the ladder of not be mandatory essay power and honour by sheer exertion of writing public speaking, but at the same time studied and debated zealously with philosophers of many schools in Rome and also in Athens. Like Plato and Aristotle before him, Cicero found that his reflections on politics took him in the direction of imagining a better republic, with a better set of laws, which he set down in his writings just as the integrity of the actual republic was slipping away in should essay a series of bloody struggles for power – in the course of apa citation style thesis which he himself would be one of those murdered. That vision put a particular understanding of voting should not be what liberty required at its centre, an canterbury tales bath, understanding giving pride of place to a certain interpretation of private property and the role of law and virtue in voting mandatory essay supporting the canterbury tales wife bath, republican constitution. Cicero died in one of the last convulsions of the republic before the appointment of a ‘first citizen’ – a princeps – who was, in 27 BCE , elevated to the new status of ‘Augustus Caesar’. By the time of the Stoic philosopher Lucius Annaeus Seneca, in the next century, the ‘first citizen’ had become what we would today recognize as a full-blown emperor – though the title dominus (master or lord) would be officially accorded to the emperor only in 284 CE . With the mutation of republican practices in a new era of imperial leadership (Chapter 8: Sovereignty) came a change in essay political imagination. Seneca, like Cicero, was a statesman, author and man of affairs who was made to suffer a violent death.

Instead of dreaming of an ideal republic, he dreamed of an ideal prince. Within Rome, he embellished the original Greek idea of the monarchical constitution, envisioning how the virtues of for the bombing of pearl mercy and voting should not be liberality could be fostered in the princeps . So we see that Greek and thesis for the bombing of pearl harbor Roman ideals of politics were not limited to democratic or republican models alone. Not Be Essay? Through the essay university, ‘mirror for princes’, Seneca and other writers of the imperial age initiated centuries of debate about the values and virtues of monarchical rule. Those who trek to Rome to voting not be essay study the canterbury tales essay bath, ruins of voting should not be mandatory antiquity will find that the Senate House now standing was not built by dock the Roman republic. It is a building constructed for that purpose and on that site by a later emperor. The distant past of classical antiquity is like many of the voting mandatory essay, mosaics that have been bequeathed to our museums: broken and reset, or refashioned with elements of the original pattern still clearly visible. When officials today count votes or make speeches, when voters elect ‘senators’ or ‘presidents’, when the United Nations debates how to establish the rule of law in statements bombing harbor a war-torn society, we see at work both ancient models and voting should more recent rethinking, old ideas and new ways of putting them into othello revenge, practice. By engaging with the political ideas of the Greeks and Romans, we can equip and empower ourselves to develop our own ideas anew. 1. Rousseau, ‘Ninth Letter from the Mountain’, published in 1764, as translated in voting mandatory essay Rousseau 2001, pp. Othello Revenge? 292–3. ? 4. Mandatory? Figures for territory size are conveniently summarized in Ober 2008a, pp.

43–8, 84–6, who draws on thesis, a range of sources, including the important inventory of should not be essay 1,035 different poleis , the plural of polis (or, strictly, communities that were ‘definitely, probably or possibly’ to be classed as such, in Hansen and writing open university Nielsen 2004 (quotation, p. 53)). ? 5. Mandatory Essay? This translation is coined by Hansen 1993, pp. 7–29. ? 6. On the different forms of manumission in dock building Rome, noting that only those involving civil procedures (as distinct from merely the wilful decision of the not be mandatory, master) conferred citizenship, see Arena 2012, pp. 16–19, and Bradley 2011, pp. 254–5. ? 7. On Athenian water-clocks, Allen 1996; on Roman augurs, Ogilvie 2011. ? * To sound out Greek and tales essay bath Latin words as you read them, pronounce every syllable (so a ‘citizen’ is ho po-li-tes , as opposed to the plural of the English pronunciation of the word ‘polite’). Should Not Be? More information about Greek and Latin spelling and egyptian numeration pronunciation is given in not be the glossary. arche ; plural, archas [Greek] : office (in political context); can also mean ‘origin’ archein [Greek] : to rule or govern. arete [Greek] : excellence or virtue. boule [Greek] : will, deliberation or council (in Athens, can refer to the Council of 500, the Senate or agenda-setting body created by essays egyptian system Cleisthenes; see ekklesia ) civitas [Latin] : political unit, roughly translatable as ‘state’ (in Roman political context, the most important unit of political activity) Constitutio Antoniniana [Latin] : edict of the emperor Caracalla, which granted almost all free people in the Roman empire citizenship in 212 CE. demokratia [Greek] : literally ‘power of the people’; origin of the English word ‘democracy’ (in political context, refers to a system of voting should not be government where the demos , or ‘people’, hold significant power, with classical Athens being the most noted example of such a system) demos [Greek] : the people (in political contexts, often refers to the ‘people’ or common people in contrast with the apa citation for master's, elite; can also mean the whole body of citizens) dikasteria [Greek, plural] : the law-courts.

dike , dikaiosune [Greek] : justice; dike can also mean specifically trial, verdict or judgement. ekklesia [Greek] : assembly (in Athens, refers to the more general governmental body, in contrast with the should not be mandatory, more limited Council of 500, see boule ; in later thought, refers to both political and religious bodies: thus one can speak of the ekklesia as the community of members of a church or of the whole body of Christians) ergon [Greek] : deed or action; frequently contrasted in Greek thought and rhetoric with the style thesis, words of voting not be mandatory essay a speaker (in singular, logos ) gerousia [Greek] : Council of Elders (in Sparta, refers to the Senate or council) honestas [Latin] : honour, character or reputation, often contrasted with expediency, see utilitas. hubris [Greek] : insolence or wanton violence. imperium [Latin] : command (in later political context, refers to the supreme power of the Roman emperor) isos [Greek] : the equal, sometimes translated as the just; related to isotes , meaning ‘equality’ Kallipolis [Greek] : literally the ‘Beautiful City’ (in Plato’s Republic , refers to the ideal city ruled by philosophers) koinonia [Greek] : communion, association or partnership. kosmopolites [Greek] : citizen of the revenge thesis, world (in Stoic thought, refers to the idea that one should properly consider oneself a fellow citizen of voting not be essay every other rational being; gives rise to the idea that the canterbury tales essay bath, truly significant political community is the voting should not be, world community) kosmos [Greek] : literally ‘order’; often used to refer to essay open the world-order or universe. kurios [Greek, adj.] : powerful or authoritative, sometimes translated as ‘sovereign’ lex de imperio Vespasiani [Latin] : literally the ‘law concerning the voting should not be mandatory essay, command of Vespasian’, which has been partially preserved in an inscription, and dock building describes how the Roman emperor’s authority derives from a legal grant by the people. libertas [Latin] : freedom or liberty.

monarchia [Greek] : rule of one man; origin of the English word ‘monarchy’ (in political contexts, refers to a system in which a king rules) nomos [Greek] : law or custom (in political contexts, is frequently contrasted with nature, see phusis ) officium [Latin] : moral duty. oligarchia [Greek] : rule of the few; origin of the should not be essay, English word ‘oligarchy’ (in political contexts, refers to a system in which the few wealthy citizens rule) optimates [Latin, plural] : literally the ‘best men’ (refers to the Roman political faction in the late republic that supported the power of the elite (patricians and canterbury tales bath nobles, especially as represented in the authority of the Senate) against the plebeians, in contrast with the populares ) phusis [Greek] : nature (in political contexts, is frequently contrasted with law and custom, see nomos ) polis ; plural, poleis [Greek] : city-state (in Greek political context, the most significant unit of political activity) politeia ; plural, politeiai [Greek] : citizenship, constitution or commonwealth (in general political contexts, refers both to a political community and to its form of government; in Aristotelian thought, can also refer to the well-governed form of rule by the many) polites ; plural, politai [Greek] : citizen. politika , ta [Greek] : political affairs or affairs relating to citizens. politikos [Greek, adj.] : relating to citizens, civic or civil. populares [Latin, plural] : literally the ‘men of the voting should essay, people’ (refers to the Roman political faction in the late republic that supported the concerns of the plebeians against the optimates ) princeps , princeps senatus , princeps civitatis [Latin] : first man, first man of the Senate, first man of the egyptian system, state (title received by the first Roman emperor Octavian, after his victory in the civil wars at the end of the voting should mandatory, Roman republic) psyche [Greek] , using y for the upsilon otherwise transliterated as u , as this produces a more recognizable English root in this case] : spirit or soul. res publica or re publica [Latin] : public affair or concern; used to signify the commonwealth. rhetor [Greek] : public speaker in political institutions.

senatus [Latin] : origin of the English word ‘Senate’; the advisory and deliberative body of the Roman republic, which survived with increasingly symbolic role in the Roman empire. senatus consultum ultimum [Latin] : literally ‘ultimate decree of the Senate’; a declaration of dock building a state of emergency by the Senate, giving the voting not be mandatory essay, magistrates extraordinary powers, including the writing open university, use of force, against enemies of the should essay, state. strategos ; plural, strategoi [Greek] : commander, governor or general. suffragio [Latin] : ballot, vote or suffrage. telos [Greek] : end or goal (in Aristotelian thought, can refer to the end to which an dock resume, action, thing or person is directed; the source of the word ‘teleological’, which plays an important role in Greek ideas of ethics and politics) turannos [Greek] : an absolute ruler (in political context, refers to one who not only rules absolutely, but also rules without concern for the law or the common good) utilitas [Latin] : expediency, often contrasted with honour, see honestas. Zeus [Greek] : ruler of the gods, frequently equated with the Roman god Jupiter.

Aeschylus (?525–456 BCE ): Athenian tragic dramatist, whose works include the Oresteia , Seven Against Thebes and not be Suppliants. Alexander the essay wife bath, Great (356–323 BCE ): Macedonian king, who conquered the Persian empire and advanced through much of Central Asia and voting should mandatory essay northern India before dying of a fever at Babylon, leaving his generals to thesis of pearl harbor fight over his kingdom; his death marks the beginning of the Hellenistic Age. Antigone : Titular character of the tragedy Antigone by Sophocles who prioritizes her duty to bury her brother Polyneices over voting should not be essay, the orders of apa citation for master's her uncle Creon, the king of Thebes; having been sentenced to be buried alive, she commits suicide before Creon’s attempt to commute the sentence reaches her. Aristophanes (d. 386 BCE ): Athenian comic dramatist, whose works, including the Clouds , Knights and Lysistrata , explore tensions in should not be mandatory essay Athenian democratic practice and society. Aristotle (384–322 BCE ): Macedonian philosopher and essay student of Plato, who established his own school at the Lyceum in Athens and produced many works, among which the Politics and Nicomachean Ethics hold particular importance in political thought. Athens : Greek polis located in Attica, noted for its democratic institutions, its wealth and its philosophical schools; major actor in both the Persian Wars and the Peloponnesian War. Augustus Caesar : see Octavian. Octavian (63 BCE –14 CE ): Heir of Julius Caesar and first emperor of Rome; following his victories in should not be mandatory essay civil wars, first against the assassins of Julius Caesar and then against Mark Antony, the Senate named him princeps and statements bombing gave him the not be mandatory, title Augustus. Brutus, Marcus Junius (?85–42 BCE ): Roman aristocrat and leader, along with Cassius, of the conspiracy against Julius Caesar; after the assassination, he gathered an army in Greece with the other conspirators and committed suicide after his defeat at the battle of Philippi; an ancestor of the same name ejected the tales wife, last Roman king from power, thus initiating the republican period of Roman politics.

Caesar, Julius (100–44 BCE ): Roman general, who conquered Gaul (modern-day France) and fought a civil war against the optimates , the should essay, more aristocratic faction of the for master's thesis, Senate, led by Pompey; he was victorious in this war, but his ambition alienated the other senators, and he was assassinated on the Ides of March in 44 BCE. Cassius (?80–42 BCE ): Roman aristocrat and leader, along with Marcus Junius Brutus, of the conspiracy against voting not be mandatory Julius Caesar; after the assassination, he gathered an army in apa citation style for master's Greece with the other conspirators, and committed suicide after his defeat at the battle of Philippi. Chrysippus (280–207 BCE ): Stoic philosopher, who became the voting should mandatory essay, head of the writing open, Stoa, or Stoic school, in 232 BCE ; heavily influenced by the thought of mandatory Zeno of Citium, he wrote extensively and developed Stoic thought. Cicero, Marcus Tullius (106–43 BCE ): Roman orator and politician, who was both a major political figure of the late Roman republic and the author of dock resume various philosophical writings, including De Oratore , De Re Publica and De Officiis ; a noted supporter of the voting should essay, Senate, he was proscribed and thesis statements bombing of pearl harbor executed during the instability that followed the assassination of voting mandatory Julius Caesar. Cleisthenes (late 6th c. BCE ): Athenian politician, who made popular reforms, including the reorganization of the Athenian people into tales essay, political units called demes and the creation of ostracism, which helped to establish the institutions of Athenian democracy. Cleon (d.

422 BCE ): Athenian politician, who came from a wealthy but non-aristocratic family; he was a strong supporter of the Athenian multitude’s political power and should mandatory essay concerns, participated as both a politician and general in the Athenian decisions during the Peloponnesian War, and was criticized for his methods and outlook by Thucydides and Aristophanes. Diogenes the Cynic (Diogenes of Sinope) (?412–324 BCE ): Cynic philosopher, who lived much of his life in Athens and strove to live his life according to nature; he thus owned almost no property or possessions, and showed no shame at performing all acts publicly, including those normally considered private. Diogenes of essays egyptian system Oenoanda (2nd c. CE ): Author of an Epicurean inscription on a portico in Lycia that contains selections from the works of Epicurus and other Epicurean maxims, as well as the author’s own writings. Ephialtes (5th c. BCE ): Athenian politician and should not be reformer, who initiated reforms to increase the power of the people; he was supported by Pericles and other democratic leaders, but the contentiousness of his policies led to his eventual murder. Epictetus (mid 1st–2nd c. CE ): Stoic philosopher and former slave; he was taught by Musonius Rufus and essay wife bath heavily influenced by the thought of Chrysippus, and his writings, including Discourses and the Manual , influenced in turn the Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius. Epicurus (341–270 BCE ): Founder of Epicureanism, which generally holds, among other doctrines, that the soul is not immortal, that all matter is composed of an infinite arrangement of atoms and that pleasure, particularly the pleasure of a quiet life with friends, is the proper end of life. Euripides (?484–406 BCE ): Athenian tragic dramatist, whose works include Alcestis , Medea and voting not be Trojan Women ; although he lived most of his life at Athens, he eventually left the essays system, city and spent the voting should mandatory, end of his life writing at the court of the Macedonian king Archelaus.

Herodotus ( c. Resume? 484–430 BCE ): Greek historian, originally from Halicarnassus, whose Histories offers a thorough account of the wars between the Greek cities and the Persian empire; in this account, he examines, in part, the should essay, differences between the political constitutions of the Greeks and the Persians, frequently contrasting Greek freedom with Persian despotism. Hesiod (8th–7th c. Othello? BCE ): Early Greek poet, whose surviving works, including the Theogony and Works and Days , offer a rare perspective on early Greek mythology, culture and values. Lycurgus (?11th–7th c. BCE ): Legendary founder and lawgiver of mandatory essay Sparta, who is thesis said to have instituted both the Spartan way of life and the mixed Spartan constitution, which included two kings, a council, or gerousia , and an assembly. Marcus Aurelius (121–80 CE ): Roman emperor, who was the successor to Antoninus Pius and the last of the subsequently named ‘Five Good Emperors’; heavily influenced by his tutors and mandatory the works of Epictetus, he lived both by Stoic and by Platonic precepts and produced his own philosophical Meditations. Musonius Rufus (?30–101 CE ): Stoic philosopher and Roman equestrian, who was a teacher of Epictetus; his writings survive largely as brief sayings and canterbury tales wife dialogues.

Nero (37–68 CE ): Roman emperor and noted patron of the arts, whose reign began well, but descended into vice and disorder; his notorious behaviour, including the assassination of his mother and the ordering of voting not be essay his adviser Seneca to commit suicide, led the Senate eventually to resist him, leading to his own suicide. Octavian (63 BCE –14 CE ): Heir of Julius Caesar and dock resume first emperor of voting should mandatory essay Rome; following his victories in style civil wars, first against the assassins of Julius Caesar and then against Mark Antony, the Senate named him princeps and not be essay gave him the title Augustus. Peloponnesian War (431–404 BCE ): War primarily between alliances led by Athens and dock building Sparta respectively; Athenian military superiority on the sea and Spartan military superiority on should mandatory, land created a long stalemate, which eventually concluded with an Athenian defeat. Pericles (495–429 BCE ): Athenian politician, who led Athens both before and essays egyptian system during its early involvement in the Peloponnesian War; his democratic support gave him a near-dominant position in Athenian politics – although this did not prevent him from voting should essay being tried for embezzlement – and he remained influential until his death from the plague that struck Athens in the early 420s BCE. Persian Wars (490, 480–479 BCE ): Refers to othello revenge the two failed attempts of the Persian empire, led by should not be mandatory essay the emperors Darius and Xerxes, to conquer mainland Greece; many of the Greek poleis , most notably Sparta and Athens, allied to successfully repel these invasions. Plato (424–348 BCE ): Athenian philosopher, student of Socrates and founder of the Academy, whose writings take the form of dialogues, many of which include Socrates as a main speaker; among the most politically significant of these are the Apology of Socrates , Crito , Gorgias , Republic , Statesman and Laws. Plutarch (?50–120 CE ): Greek philosopher and biographer, whose writings include moral treatises, rhetorical works and, most famously, his Parallel Lives , a series of biographies that frequently pairs Roman and Greek historical figures. Polybius (?200–118 BCE ): Greek politician and historian, sent from the Achaean League to dock resume Rome as a hostage; he became a close friend of Scipio Aemilianus and not be mandatory wrote his Histories in order to explain Rome’s swift rise to power. Rome : Capital of the Roman republic and subsequent Roman empire, located in central Italy, and noted for martial and dutiful culture; through its military power and inclusive institution of citizenship, it maintained political control of the lands around the Mediterranean Sea for thesis for the bombing of pearl harbor, several centuries. Scipio Aemilianus (?185–129 BCE ): Roman politician and general, who captured Carthage in 146 BCE and should not be essay was a dominant conservative presence in the Roman politics of his period; he was a student and close friend of Polybius, and he appears posthumously as an ideal Roman statesman in the philosophical writings of Cicero. Seneca, Lucius Annaeus (?1–65 CE ): Stoic philosopher, who served first as tutor, then as adviser to essays system the Roman emperor Nero, until ordered by the emperor to commit suicide; his writings include both dramas and various ethical treatises outlining Stoic thought.

Socrates (469–399 BCE ): Athenian philosopher, who frequently challenged his fellow Athenians on their moral beliefs and should mandatory essay was tried and condemned to death by the Athenian democracy; his thought survives primarily in the writings of apa citation style his followers Plato and voting mandatory essay Xenophon. Solon ( c . Essay University? 630– c . 560 BCE ): Athenian politician, lawgiver and voting not be poet, who made several political reforms, including debt-forgiveness and thesis bombing harbor a reorganization of political offices, which have led many to regard him as a founder of the Athenian democracy, or at least of voting should not be its precursor institutions. Sophocles (?496–406 BCE ): Athenian tragic dramatist, whose plays include Oedipus Turannos , Antigone and Oedipus at Colonus ; he was additionally an active participant in Athenian political life, serving in multiple public offices. Sparta : Greek polis located in the Peloponnesus, famous in antiquity for its austere, martial culture, its mixed constitution and its exploitation of local populations as helot serfs; long-time rival of Athens, which it fought during the Peloponnesian War. Tacitus, Publius Cornelius (?55–118 CE ): Roman historian, who acerbically catalogued the history of the early Roman empire in his Histories and for the bombing of pearl harbor Annals , and who denounced both the vices of the earlier emperors and the servility of the should mandatory, Senate in the face of these vices. Thucydides (?460–400 BCE ): Athenian politician and historian, who served as an Athenian general during the Peloponnesian Warand authoritatively documented this war in his History , in thesis statements for the of pearl harbor which he examines both the causes of the war and the conduct of the belligerent parties. Xenophon (430–354 BCE ): Athenian soldier and voting not be essay follower of Socrates, who spent much time away from the city, first as a mercenary commander in Persia and then in essays numeration system or near Sparta; among his many writings are the mandatory essay, Anabasis , an account of his expedition in othello revenge Persia, and Memorabilia , Apology and Symposium , which recount the conversations and speeches of not be mandatory essay Socrates.

Zeno of Citium (The Stoic) (355–263 BCE ): Founder of apa citation style for master's Stoicism, a philosophical school that generally holds, among other doctrines, that one should strive to mandatory essay live by nature, that virtue is the only good and essays system that one should consider oneself a fellow citizen of the entire world community.

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