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A Sample Car Rental Business Plan Template. Are you about psychology essay, starting a car rental business? If YES, here#8217;s a complete sample exotic car rental business plan template feasibility report you can use for FREE to essays, raise money . Okay, so we have considered all the requirements for psychology starting a car rental business. We also took it further by analyzing and drafting a sample car rental service marketing plan template backed up by actionable guerrilla marketing ideas for car rental businesses. So let#8217;s proceed to the business planning section.
Car rental business generally is a competitive business and any entrepreneur who intends to essay by david, go into this business, should ensure that they carry out thorough feasibility studies and market research so that the essay, risks in the business can be greatly minimized. What Does It Take to Start a Car Rental Business Successfully? The first thing to consider before launching this business is the niche of car rental businesses you intend to operate. You will have to know the niches available – contract hire and daily hire et al, and university, decide which you want to go on. Contract hire is usually for business customers who hire the vehicles for a set period of time, while daily hire is for perspectives individual customers who hire the vehicles usually for a shorter period of time. The next thing to consider before launching a car rental business is how to get your fleet of one thing in the essay, reliable cars. The options available are outright purchase or leasing; outright purchase is usually more expensive than leasing. You will also have to decide how many number of cars you intend to start with, bearing in perspectives, mind that the higher the number of cars your business owns, the more earnings your business makes. The cars have to diet pills paper, be well maintained, so that you could enjoy a high turnover. You could decide to contract the maintenance out, or hire your own maintenance staff, which could prove more expensive for your start-up business initially.
Here is a sample car rental business plan to help you plan through; A Sample Car Rental Business Plan Template. The car rental industry has grown more strongly in recent time, after previous years of recession. This was primarily due to psychology perspectives essay, the fact that airlines saw a decrease in customers which have now seen an increase too as compared to recent years, thereby linking air travel to of chicago admissions, car rentals. The car rental industry is expected to experience remarkable growth following an increase in the number of essay, passengers traveling by air, which is due to a rise in per capita income as well as corporate profit. Essay. The largest car rental companies in the industry have a competitive advantage over smaller firms, especially as they have strategic alliances with airlines and psychology perspectives, hotels, which the smaller car rentals do not have. Of Chicago Admissions. Basically, players in essay, this industry either rent or lease passenger cars to customers. Car rental services typically last a short period of time usually 30 days or less, while car leasing agreements are for longer period of time usually 12 months or more.
The major companies in this industry have created strong brand awareness and therefore enjoy its recognition. This helps in retaining customers for these businesses, and creating difficulty for new car rentals start-up towards getting customers and retaining them as well. Also, major companies constantly need to purchase fleets to meet up with customers’ demand, a feat that smaller companies cannot match up with, and yet regardless of the number of cars in one’s fleet, maintenance, storage, and essay kant enlightenment, then staff the psychology essay, rental location. The Car Rental Industry is indeed a large and thriving industry in developed countries and in most part of the world. Essay Enlightenment. Statistics has it that in the United States of America alone, there are about 2,716 licensed and registered car rental businesses responsible for employing about 113,499 employees and the industry rakes in a whooping sum of perspectives, $38bn annually with an annual growth rate projected at 3.0 percent. Pills Research Paper. The car rental companies that are dominating the market are Avis Budget Group Inc., Enterprise Rent – A – Car Company, and Hertz Global Holdings Inc. Psychology Perspectives Essay. Apart from the increase in essay by david sedaris, international travel, other key factors that drive the car rental market include the increasing population, as well as increasing internet usage amongst the people.
Most online car rentals are due to the increase in internet usage, which has made it more convenient for customers to psychology essay, access car rentals, and for car rental businesses to is that auden essay, increase their revenue. Psychology. The major restraint in this industry especially globally has been the increase in the implementation of environmental regulations around the by david, world. The high amount of environmental pollutants that is released by cars is highly responsible for these environmental regulations. Psychology Essay. Executive cars and MUVs are the leaders in the car rental business globally, followed by economy cars, SUVs, and luxury cars. Essays. Apart from revenue from the airport segment, other segments that contribute to the car rental business include outstation, local usage, event transportation, employee transportation, and self-drive.
Over and psychology perspectives, above, car rental businesses all over the world are still enjoying good patronage particularly if they are well positioned and if they know how to reach out to their target market. Car Rental Business Plan Executive Summary. McElroy® Car Rental Services, Inc. is a standard and registered car rental company that will be located in ap biology essays, Fort Lauderdale, Florida – United States of America and we plans to also cover other cities such as Green acres City, Miami, Jacksonville, Clearwater, Tampa, Miami Beach, North Miami, West Palm Beach, Palm Harbor, Deltona, Orlando, Palm Bay and Panama City et al. We chose to operate in these cities because we know that our car rental services will be in high demand due to the growing numbers of corporate organization and increase in business activities in these cities. McElroy® Car Rental Services, Inc. will offer care rental services such as leisure car rental, business car rental, car leasing, and car sharing services et al. We are set to service a wide range of psychology perspectives essay, clientele base in the locations where we choose to operate. University Of Chicago Admissions. We are well trained and equipped to service the market segments that require the services of car rental services.
Although our intention of starting McElroy® Car Rental Services, Inc. Psychology Perspectives. is to offer only the above stated services, but we will not close our doors to diversification (additional services) as long as it does not affect our core services. At McElroy® Car Rental Services, Inc. we are passionate in the pursuit of excellence and essay by david, financial success with uncompromising services and psychology perspectives, integrity which is why we have decided to start our own car rental business; we are in the industry to make a positive mark. We are quite optimistic that our values, highly reliable and pills paper, comfortable fleet of cars and of course the quality of service offering will help us drive our car rental business to enviable heights and also help us attract the psychology perspectives essay, numbers of clients that will make the business highly profitable. We are a company that will be dedicated to establishing good business relationship with our clients giving them value for by david sedaris their money and essay, reasons for them to ap biology essays, rent and lease our cars over and over again. We are quite aware that in order to psychology essay, become the number one choice in sound auden, our city, we must continue to deliver quality services and that is exactly what we will do. Our overall business goal is to position McElroy® Car Rental Services, Inc. to become one of the psychology essay, leading car rental company brands in the United States of is that sound auden essay, America within the psychology perspectives, first 10 years of operations. Sound Essay. This might look too tall a dream but we are optimistic that this will surely come to psychology, pass because we have done our research and feasibility studies and we are enthusiastic and confident that Florida is the right place to launch our car rental business.
Our client’s best interest will always come first, and everything we do will be guided by our values and professional ethics. To Change World Essay. We will ensure that we hold ourselves accountable to the highest standards by meeting our client’s needs precisely and completely. We will cultivate a working environment that provides a human, sustainable approach to earning a living, and living in our world, for our partners, employees and for our clients. McElroy® Car Rental Services, Inc. is owned and managed by McElroy Williams and his immediate family members. He is a notable figure in perspectives, the automobile industry in one thing to change essay, Florida.
Aside from this new car rental services business, the family owns an perspectives essay, automobile dealership business and one thing in the essay, also auto repair workshop all in Florida. McElroy® Car Rental Services, Inc. is a standard and psychology perspectives, licensed car Rental Company that offers a wide range of services that revolves around the car rental industry and other complementary services. We intend giving our customers every reason to always rent or lease of cars which is is that sound, why we have customized our services, we want to be known as the trucking company that truly care for her customers. Our intention of starting our car rental company is to favorable compete in the industry and of course to make profits from the industry and we will do all that is permitted by psychology perspectives, the law in university, the United States of America to achieve our aim and business goal. Our business offering are listed below; Leisure car rental services Business car rental services Exotic car rental Car leasing services Car sharing services. Our Vision is to become the perspectives, number one car rental company in the whole of Florida with active presence in major cities in the United States of America and Canada. Our mission as a car rental company is to develop a highly successful, profitable all round car rental business which provides quality services in our community and to admissions essays, become a standard for an ideal car rental business not only in the State of Florida but also throughout the United States of America and Canada where we intend selling our franchise. We are quite aware that the success of any business lies in the foundation on which the psychology, business is built on, which is essay kant, why we have decided to build our car rental services company on the right business foundation. As a matter of fact, we are set out to build a car rental services business that will compete favorably with leading brands in the industry such as Avis Budget Group Inc., Enterprise Rent – A – Car Company, and Hertz Global Holdings Inc. and perspectives essay, also become a standard for the car rental services business in the United States of America and Canada.
We want to build a business of dedicated workforce who will go all the way to ensure that our customers are satisfied and they get value for their money. In other to achieve this, we aware that it takes a business with the right employees and structure to achieve all what we have set to achieve, which is why will be putting structures and standard operating processes in by david, place that will help us deliver excellent services and run the business on auto pilot. The success of our car rental services business will be anchored on the team not on any individual. With the wide range of our service offerings, we are only expected to employ more than it is required to psychology perspectives, run a conventional car rental services business. Definitely, we will have various employees to man the various job roles available in McElroy® Car Rental Services, Inc. As a means of maximizing operational cost, we will contract the maintenance of all our cars to essay, service provider, we don’t intend to maintain a very large overhead from the onset. But as soon as the business grow and stabilize, we will assemble our own professional in – house maintenance team. Essay. McElroy® Car Rental Services, Inc. will employ professionals and skilled people to occupy the to change essay, following position; Manager (Owner) Accountant / Cashier Marketing and Sales Executive Client Service Executive Car Washer and Auto Detailers (6) Standby drivers. Roles and Responsibilities. Responsible for providing direction for perspectives the business Creating, communicating, and implementing the organization#8217;s vision, mission, and overall direction i.e. leading the development and implementation of the overall organization#8217;s strategy.
Responsible for fixing prices and signing business deals and payment of salaries Responsible for signing checks and by david sedaris, documents on behalf of the company Evaluates the success of the organization Responsible for managing the daily activities in the organization Ensures that the facility is in tip top shape and perspectives essay, conducive enough to welcome customers Prepares budget and reports for the organization Defines job positions for recruitment and managing interviewing process Carries out staff induction for new team members Responsible for overseeing the smooth running of HR and administrative tasks for the organization Designs job descriptions with KPI to drive performance management for all employees Regularly hold meetings with key stakeholders (clients and sedaris, member of the perspectives, board) to review the effectiveness of the o what is that sound auden essay, business Policies, Procedures and Processes Maintains office supplies by checking stocks; placing and expediting orders; evaluating new products. Ensures operation of equipment by completing preventive maintenance requirements; calling for repairs. Defines job positions for recruitment and managing interviewing process Carries out staff induction for psychology perspectives essay new team members Responsible for training, evaluation and assessment of employees Oversees the smooth running of the daily activities of organization. Kant. Marketing and psychology essay, Sales Executive. Identify, prioritize, and reach out to new clients, and business opportunities et al Identifies development opportunities; follows up on development leads and contacts; participates in the structuring and financing of projects; assures the completion of diet research paper, projects. Writes winning proposal documents, negotiate fees and psychology, rates in line with organizations’ policy Responsible for handling business research, market surveys and feasibility studies for clients Responsible for supervising implementation, advocate for the customer’s needs, and communicate with clients Develops, executes and is that auden, evaluates new plans for psychology essay expanding increase sales Documents all customer contact and information Represent McElroy® Car Rental Services, Inc. in strategic meetings Help increase sales and growth for McElroy® Car Rental Services, Inc. Responsible for preparing financial reports, budgets, and financial statements for the organization Provides managements with financial analyses, development budgets, and essay sedaris, accounting reports; analyzes financial feasibility for the most complex proposed projects; conducts market research to forecast trends and business conditions. Responsible for financial forecasting and risks analysis. Performs cash management, general ledger accounting, and financial reporting for the organization Responsible for psychology perspectives essay developing and managing financial systems and policies Responsible for administering payrolls Ensures compliance with taxation legislation Handles all financial transactions for essays 2008 McElroy® Car Rental Services, Inc. Serves as internal auditor for McElroy® Car Rental Services, Inc. Client Service Executive.
Monitors the locations of cars rented by clients via car tracker software apps Welcomes clients and psychology essay, visitors by greeting them in person or on by david the telephone; answering or directing inquiries. Ensures that all contacts with clients (e-mail, walk-In center, SMS or phone) provides the client with a personalized customer service experience of the psychology perspectives, highest level Through interaction with clients on the phone, uses every opportunity to build client’s interest in the company’s products and university of chicago admissions essays, services Manages administrative duties assigned by the manager in psychology perspectives essay, an effective and timely manner Consistently stays abreast of any new information on the organizations’ products and, promotional campaigns etc. to ensure accurate and enlightenment, helpful information is supplied to clients when they make enquiries. Car washers and Automobile Detailers (6): Responsible for cleaning, restoration, and finishing of all our cars, both inside and out, to produce a pristine level of detail Handle services that involves cleaning and essay, restoring or exceeding the original condition of the surface of the car#8217;s finish (usually a paint with a glossy finish), chrome trim, windows, wheels, and auden, tires, as well as other visible components on the exterior and of course interior of perspectives, a vehicle. Cleans up after customers and to change in the essay, clean work area. Psychology Perspectives Essay. Maintain a clean working area by sweeping, vacuuming, dusting, cleaning of glass doors and windows, etc. if required. Ensures that toiletries and supplies don’t run out of university of chicago, stock Handles any other duty as assigned by the manager. Perspectives Essay. Standby Professional Drivers: Responsible for driving, parking and re parking of cars as required Runs errand for the organization Handles any other duty as assigned by the manager. Car Rental Business Plan SWOT Analysis. Car rental business is one of the many businesses that can easily generate sales with little stress as long as they are well positioned and equipped to carry out their services. We are building a standard car rental services business with variety of complimentary services which is why we have decided to subject our business idea (company) to auden essay, SWOT Analysis.
Ordinarily we can successfully run a normal car rental services business without the stress of perspectives, going through the world essay, required protocol of setting up a new business including writing a detailed business plan, but because of the nature of the kind of perspectives, car rental business we want to ap biology 2008, establish and of course the huge start – up capital involved, we don’t have any option other than to follow due process. We hired the services of Dr. Angela Bozeman, an HR and Business consultant with bias in startups to help us conduct SWOT analysis for psychology our company and she did a pretty job for us. Here is a preview of the result we got from the SWOT analysis that was conducted on behalf of McElroy® Car Rental Services, Inc.; Aside from the large fleet of comfortable and highly reliable cars under our rental services, McElroy® Car Rental Services, Inc. is centrally located in a densely populated industrial and residential estate in Fort Lauderdale, Florida; our location is in fact one of our major strength. Another strength that counts for o what sound auden essay us is the power of psychology perspectives, our team; our workforce and management. We have a team that are considered expert in the car rental industry, a team of is that sound auden essay, hardworking and dedicated individuals. McElroy® Car Rental Services, Inc. is a new business which is owned by an individual (family), and we may not have the financial muscle to sustain the kind of publicity we want to give our business. As a new business, we are also quite aware that it will take time for us to build trust with our clients. We are centrally located in one of the busiest areas in Fort Lauderdale, Florida and we are open to psychology perspectives essay, all the available opportunities that the city has to admissions, offer. Psychology Perspectives Essay. Our business concept also positioned us to ap biology essays, be a one stop shop in psychology, the car rental line of business.
The truth is essay, that there is no standard and well – equipped car rental business within the psychology, area where ours is going to be located; the closest car rental services company to our proposed location is about 6 miles away. In a nutshell, we do not have any direct competition within our target market area. Some of the threats that are likely going to confront McElroy® Car Rental Services, Inc. are unfavorable government policies, seasonal fluctuations, demographic / social factors, downturn in the economy which is university of chicago, likely going to affect consumers spending and of course emergence of new competitors within the psychology, same location where our car rental business is located. Car Rental Business Plan MARKET ANALYSIS. If you are conversant with one of the latest trends in 2008, the car rental services industry, you will note that more people now book to rent cars via mobile application, and essay, other internet access rather than visiting the car rental office. Car rental mobile application usage has seen an increment in recent time.
The car rental business is also segmented into of chicago, organized and psychology essay, unorganized labor, with the organized labor expected to essay, provide the highest incremental opportunity going forward. No doubt, the Car Rental Services industry has indeed changed gears over the last five years, growing strongly after being forced into retrogression during the recession period. The fact that air travelers represent the industry#8217;s primary market, growth in air travel over the last five years has been most important in driving revenue expansion in this industry. Furthermore, the industry is perspectives essay, anticipated to continue growing going forward, driven by an increase in the number of essay by david sedaris, air travelers, rising per capita income and of course rising corporate profit as well. The industry#8217;s largest companies are expected to retain their competitive advantages over psychology perspectives smaller players, such as maintaining strategic alliances with airlines and hotels. Essay By David Sedaris. The trend in the car rental services industry is that most car wash companies in the bid to survive the perspectives essay, recent global economic meltdown included additional services to their core service offerings. Ap Biology Essays 2008. It is much easier for car rental companies to increase their revenues by diversifying as against increasing the scope of psychology essay, their market. Before choosing a location for our car rental services business, we conducted our feasibility studies and market survey and we were able to identify those who will benefit greatly from our service offerings. Basically those who will benefit from our service offering are households, traveling agencies cum tourists, corporate organizations and hotels et al. They cut across different sectors of the economy.
The demographic component of those who need the services of car rental services spreads across the public sector, the organized private sector, and individuals from different strata of the society and from all walks of by david, life. Below is a list of the psychology perspectives essay, people and organizations that our car rental service is designed for; Traveling Agencies and tourists Organized private sector Households Corporate Executives Business People Hotels Students Household. Our Competitive Advantage. Diet Research Paper. Car rental services business is an easy to set up business that does not require formal training to achieve; anybody can set a car rental services business if they have the required startup capital. It means that the possibility of perspectives essay, car rental services business springing up in is that, the location where our car rental company is located is high.
We are aware of this which is why we decided to come up with a business concept that will position us to become the leader in Fort Lauderdale Florida. Our competitive edge is psychology perspectives, that we are standard car rental service company with fleet of comfortable cars and affordable services. University Of Chicago. So also, the power of psychology perspectives essay, our team; our workforce and management. We have a team that are considered expert in by david, the car rental services industry, a team of hardworking and dedicated individuals. We can confidently say that the location of our car rental services business will definitely count as a positive for perspectives us amongst any competitor that might start a car rental services business in same location where ours is located. For the time being, McElroy® Car Rental Services Inc has no real competitors that can match compete with the quality of services we offer and kant enlightenment, our fleet of reliable and comfortable cars et al. Our customer service will be customized to meet the needs of all our customers. Lastly, all our employees will be well taken care of, and psychology perspectives essay, their welfare package will be among the best within our category (startups car rental services business in the United States) in the industry. It will enable them to be more than willing to essay kant, build the psychology, business with us and help deliver our set goals and 2008, achieve all our business aims and essay, objectives. Car Rental Business Plan SALES AND MARKETING STRATEGY.
Marketing Strategy and ap biology essays, Sales Strategy. The marketing strategy for psychology essay McElroy® Car Rental Services, Inc. is by david sedaris, going to be driven basically by reliable and comfortable cars, excellent customer service, honesty and psychology, quality service delivery. We will ensure that we build a loyal customer base. Essay Kant Enlightenment. We want to drive sales via the output of our services and via referral from our satisfied customers. We are quite aware of how satisfied customers drive business growth especially businesses like car rental services. McElroy® Car Rental Services, Inc. is a car rental services business that is strategically located and we are going to maximize the opportunities that is psychology, available which is why we spend more to locate the business in a location that will be visible and enable us to enlightenment, access our target market. Our sales and marketing team will be recruited based on their vast experience in the industry and they will be trained on essay a regular basis so as to be well equipped to meet their targets and the overall goal of McElroy® Car Rental Services, Inc. Our goal is to grow McElroy® Car Rental Services, Inc. to become the leading car rental services company in Fort Lauderdale Florida which is why we have mapped out strategy that will help us take advantage of the o what, available market and grow to become a major force to psychology, reckon with in the car rental services industry. McElroy® Car Rental Services, Inc. is set to essay by david, make use of the following marketing and psychology essay, sales strategies to attract clients; Introduce our car rental services business by essay, sending introductory letters alongside our brochure to corporate organizations, traveling agencies, hotels, households and key stake holders in psychology, Fort Lauderdale Florida Print out fliers and business cards and strategically drop them in offices, libraries, public facilities, airports and train stations et al. Use friends and family to spread word about our business Post information about our company and the services we offer on pills research paper bulletin boards in places like schools, libraries, and essay, local coffee shops et al Placing a small or classified advertisement in the newspaper, or local publication about university admissions essays, our company and the services we offer Leverage on referral networks such as agencies that will attract clients who would need our customized services Advertise our car rental services company in relevant magazines, newspapers, TV stations, and radio station.
Attend relevant expos, seminars, and business fairs et al to market our services Engage in direct marketing approach Encourage the use of word of psychology essay, mouth marketing from essay sedaris loyal and satisfied clients Join local chambers of commerce and psychology perspectives, industry to market our services. Lastly, we need an online presence; a good website and ensure that it is Search Engine Optimization (SEO) Compliant if you intend to achieve a good number of visitors that would patronize your car rental business. The truth is ap biology 2008, that, a website ensures that our business remains visible to your existing and potential customers. McElroy® Car Rental Services, Inc. is established with the aim of maximizing profits in the car wash and auto detailing industry and we are going to go all the way out to ensure that we do all it takes to psychology perspectives, attract both individual clients and corporate clients on auden a regular basis. McElroy® Car Rental Services, Inc. Psychology Perspectives. will generate income by offering the following car rental services and to change in the world essay, other related services; Leisure car rental services Business car rental services Car leasing services Car sharing services. One thing is certain; there would always be corporate organization and individual clients who would need the services of essay, car rental services company. We are well positioned to take on the available market in Fort Lauderdale Florida and university essays, we are quite optimistic that we will meet our set target of generating enough income / profits from the first six month of psychology perspectives essay, operations and grow our car rental services business and our clientele base. We have been able to by david sedaris, critically examine the car rental services market and we have analyzed our chances in the industry and we have been able to come up with the perspectives, following sales forecast. The sales projection is based on university of chicago information gathered on the field and some assumptions that are peculiar to similar startups in Fort Lauderdale Florida. Below is the sales projection for McElroy® Car Rental Services, Inc., it is essay, based on the location of university essays, our business and of course the wide range of psychology essay, related services that we will be offering; N.B : This projection is done based on what is obtainable in the car rental services industry and with the to change world, assumption that there won’t be any major economic meltdown and there won’t be any major competitor offering same additional dance related services as we do within same location.
Please note that the above projection might be lower and at the same time it might be higher. Our pricing system is going to psychology essay, be based on what is obtainable in ap biology essays, the car rental services industry, we don’t intend to charge more (except for premium and perspectives, customized services) and kant, we don’t intend to charge less than our competitors are offering in Fort Lauderdale Florida. Be that as it may, we have put plans in place to offer discount services once in a while and also to reward our loyal customers especially when they refer clients to us. Psychology Perspectives Essay. The prices of our services will be same as what is obtainable in the open market. At McElroy® Car Rental Services, Inc., our payment policy will be all inclusive because we are quite aware that different clients would prefer different payment options as it suits them. Essay Enlightenment. Here are the payment options that we will make available to our clients; Payment by via bank transfer Payment via POS machine Payment via online bank transfer Payment via check Payment via bank draft Payment via mobile money Payment with cash.
In view of the above, we have chosen banking platforms that will help us achieve our plans with little or no itches. Our bank account numbers will be made available on psychology perspectives essay our website and promotional materials so that it will be easier for essays clients to make payments when necessary. Car Rental Business Plan Publicity and psychology perspectives essay, Advertising Strategy. McElroy® Car Rental Services, Inc. is set to create a standard for essay sedaris car rental services business in Fort Lauderdale Florida and throughout the United States which is why we will go all the way to adopt and psychology perspectives, apply best practices to promote our car rental services business. Good enough, there is no hard and fast rule on how to kant enlightenment, advertise or promote a car rental services business. The challenge is that most car rental services companies are not as proactive as we intend to be when it comes to effective publicity and advertising. Psychology. We will ensure that we leverage on all conventional and non – conventional publicity and advertising technique to promote our car rental services business. Here are the platforms we intend leveraging on to promote and advertise McElroy® Car Rental Services, Inc.; Encourage our loyal customers to is that auden essay, help us use Word of Mouth mode of advertisement (referrals) Advertise our car wash and auto detailing business in relevant magazines, local newspaper, local TV stations and local radio station Promote our business online via our official website List our business on local directories (yellow pages) Sponsor relevant community programs Leverage on the internet and social media platforms like; Instagram, Facebook , twitter, et al to promote our brand Install our Bill Boards on strategic locations in and around Fort Lauderdale Florida Leverage on direct coupon mailing approach Engage in road show from time to time in psychology essay, target communities Distribute our fliers and handbills in target area Ensure that all our staff members wear our branded shirts and all our official vehicles are well branded with our company logo et al.
Start – Up Expenditure (Budget) We have been able to pull cash that will be enough for us to successfully launch a standard car rental services company with fleets of comfortable and reliable cars. We will leverage on leasing opportunity as against outright purchase of cars meant for rental services. Ap Biology Essays. So also in perspectives, the bid to cut cost, we will contract the servicing and is that sound essay, maintenance of psychology, all our cars. These are the key areas where we will spend our start – up capital on; The Total Fee for Registering the Business in Fort Lauderdale Florida $750. Legal expenses for enlightenment obtaining licenses and permits $1,500. Marketing promotion expenses (2,000 flyers at $0.04 per copy) for the total amount of $3,580.
Cost for hiring Business Consultant – $2,000. Insurance (general liability, workers#8217; compensation and perspectives essay, property casualty) coverage at a total premium $60,800. O What Auden. Cost of accounting software, car tracker software apps, CRM software and Payroll Software $3,000 Cost for leasing standard office facility with large space for psychology perspectives essay parking our cars- $250,000. Cost for facility remodeling the facility- $70,000. Other start-up expenses including stationery $1000 Phone and utility deposits $3,500 Operational cost for the first 3 months (salaries of employees, fueling, maintenance, payments of bills et al) $2500,000 The cost for Start-up inventory $15,000 Cost for store equipment (cash register, security, ventilation, signage) $13,750 The cost for the purchase of furniture and gadgets (Computers, Printers, Telephone, TVs, Credit card machine, POS, tables and chairs et al): $4,000. The cost of Launching an official website: $600 The cost for our grand opening party: $5,500 Miscellaneous: $10,000. We would need an estimate of $1.5 million to successfully launch our mobile car rental services business in Fort Lauderdale Florida US. Generating Funding / Startup McElroy® Car Rental Services, Inc. McElroy® Car Rental Services, Inc. is a business that will be owned and managed by McElroy Williams and his immediate family members. Auden. They are the sole financial of the business which is why they decided to restrict the psychology essay, sourcing of the start – up capital for the business to just three major sources.
These are the areas we intend generating our start up capital; Generate part of the start – up capital from personal savings and sale of his stocks Generate part of the start – up capital from friends and other extended family members Generate a larger chunk of the startup capital from the essay sedaris, bank (loan facility). N.B: We have been able to generate about psychology, $500,000 (Personal savings $400,000 and soft loan from family members $100,000 ) and we are at the final stages of obtaining a loan facility of $1 million from our bank. All the papers and document has been duly signed and submitted, the loan has been approved and any moment from by david sedaris now our account will be credited. Car Rental Business Plan Sustainability and Expansion Strategy. Perspectives Essay. It is an established fact that, the future of a business lies in the numbers of loyal customers that they have, the capacity and competence of the o what is that sound auden, employees, their investment strategy and the business structure.
If all of these factors are missing from a business (company), then it won’t be too long before the business close shop. One of our major goals of starting McElroy® Car Rental Services, Inc. is to build a business that will survive off its own cash flow without the need for injecting finance from external sources once the business is officially running. We know that one of the ways of gaining approval and winning customers over is to perspectives essay, offer our car rental services a little bit cheaper than what is obtainable in the market and we are well prepared to survive on lower profit margin for a while. McElroy® Car Rental Services, Inc. Ap Biology. will make sure that the right foundation, structures and standard operating processes are put in place to psychology perspectives essay, ensure that our staff welfare are well taken of. Our company’s corporate culture is designed to drive our business to greater heights and training and re – training of essay by david, our workforce is at the top burner of our business strategy. As a matter of fact, profit-sharing arrangement will be made available to all our management staff and it will be based on their performance for a period of five years or more as determined by the board of the psychology perspectives essay, organization.
We know that if that is put in place, we will be able to successfully hire and retain the best hands we can get in the industry; they will be more committed to help us build the essays, business of our dreams. Business Name Availability Check: Completed Business Registration: Completed Opening of psychology perspectives, Corporate Bank Accounts: Completed Securing Point of Sales (POS) Machines: Completed Opening Mobile Money Accounts: Completed Opening Online Payment Platforms: Completed Application and Obtaining Tax Payer’s ID: In Progress Application for business license and permit: Completed Purchase of research paper, Insurance for perspectives essay the Business: Completed Acquiring facility and remodeling the facility: In Progress Conducting Feasibility Studies: Completed Generating capital from family members: Completed Applications for Loan from the bank: In Progress Writing of ap biology, Business Plan: Completed Drafting of Employee’s Handbook: Completed Drafting of Contract Documents and other relevant Legal Documents: In Progress Design of The Company’s Logo: Completed Graphic Designs and Printing of Packaging Marketing / Promotional Materials: In Progress Recruitment of employees: In Progress Purchase of the Needed pressure washing machines and industrial cleaning equipment, electronic appliances, office appliances and perspectives essay, bar accessories: In Progress Creating Official Website for the Company: Completed Creating Awareness for the business both online and in 2008, the neighborhood: Opening party / launching party planning: In Progress Establishing business relationship with vendors – car servicing and essay, maintenance, car dealership shops, and o what sound essay, gas stations et al: In Progress.
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Functional Classification and psychology Safety Statistics. Which types of urban roadways are the most dangerous? Major arterial or minor arterial? Freeway or local street? The field of motor-vehicle safety statistics is of chicago essays, more than a century old. Psychology Perspectives! One would expect such a mature field to have settled the basic question of the best way to report fatality risk.
But that’s not the case, and what’s more, the most common method of reporting risk may be mathematically invalid. We may be getting an incorrect understanding of the types of roadways that have the highest fatality risk. Engineers and traffic officials often say freeways are the safest roadways and local streets are the most dangerous. That fits the 2008, view of mainstream engineering, which points out that local streets have the closest spacing of driveways and intersections, and psychology essay therefore the densest occurrence of “conflict points” where crashes can happen. O What Sound! Freeways and expressways have strictly controlled access in order to perspectives, eliminate intersections and driveways. That view of one thing safety is one of the main justifications for the mandated federal policy called functional classification . The goal of functional classification is to psychology, channel a large percentage of sound traffic onto a small percentage of roadways, specifically freeways, highways, and arterial roads. Those roadway types are the most elaborate and designed to carry high volumes of fast traffic, often with full or partial access control. Functional classification has been very successful at psychology perspectives, achieving its basic goal of channeling and concentrating traffic.
Chart 1: Distribution of urban traffic and urban roadway miles. The chart shows the United States’ skewed pattern of travel, which is largely the product of hierarchical and dendritic roadway layouts supported by functional classification. Chart 1 shows how functional classification sorts roadways into a range of types. The nation’s skewed distribution of traffic is apparent. Seventy-seven percent of traffic is carried by essays 2008, eighteen percent of roadways — by the so-called “higher-class” freeways, expressways, and major arterials. Traffic in perspectives, the official statistics is reported as vehicle miles traveled (VMT).
National VMT is the sum of annual state estimates, which are based on gasoline consumption, traffic counters, personal travel questionnaires, and other methods. To compare the safety of roadways, engineers and university of chicago admissions administrators adjust the raw statistics to account for exposure. The Federal Highway Administration (and indeed the entire mainstream traffic engineering field) does that by dividing the number of fatalities by VMT. In other words, they use travel mileage as the measure of risk exposure. The chart based on that metric looks like this: Chart 2: Fatalities per VMT by functional class. Chart 2 confirms the mainstream view. Interstates are the safest facilities and local streets are the most dangerous. Psychology Perspectives Essay! But is that view truthful? Actually, the official statistics contain a critical logical flaw.
VMT (that is, travel distance) is the product of speed and time. Therefore speed is fundamentally intertwined in the fatalities-per-VMT metric. Enlightenment! The way the variables are related produces the following outcome. For any time span, and assuming identical roads and drivers, the fatalities-per-VMT metric will always report that faster speed is safer (see Appendix 1). But that’s opposite to perspectives essay, basic physics and everything we know from traffic safety research. Faster speed is more dangerous on most roadways, and it’s certainly more dangerous on full-access urban streets and arterials. Does a better metric exist?
A Computerized Method to Judge Streetscape Quality. Architects and essay urban designers have debated streetscapes for many decades. As early as 1889, the Austrian architect Camillo Sitte wrote of the psychology essay, importance of essays continuous, connected building facades that lined streets and defined their form. Beautiful public spaces have a sense of psychology essay enclosure, said Sitte; they feel like outdoor rooms. Essay Kant Enlightenment! A few years later the German architect and perspectives planner Josef Stubben covered the height-to-width proportion of streets in to change, his handbook of city planning. In the 1920s and 30s the architect Le Corbusier issued several emphatic rejections of such ideas. “DEATH TO THE STREET,” he thundered, decrying the traditional streetscape as dangerous, unhealthy, chaotic, and psychology perspectives congested. The ideas promulgated by Corbusier and of chicago admissions essays other modernist planners were in perspectives, tune with the needs of the motor industry: dispersed towers, wide buffers, and large highways. Research! The design of psychology essay new highways and arterials in cities came to resemble the auto-oriented visions of modernist planners. The chorus of voices defending traditional streetscapes snowballed during the by david sedaris, 1960s-1990s. Hundreds of new streetscapes were built based on traditional patterns. Infill development re-established traditional streetscapes in existing city districts.
Today one can find both patterns actively promoted in all cities of the world. The debate continues as vigorously, and sometimes as contentiously, as ever. One condition keeping the debate alive is the various arguments, theories, and polemics lack solid empirical support. Many designers and engineers have a gut feeling about the best way to design streetscapes but statistical evidence is thin. Several streetscape surveys have been developed, and researchers have used them to psychology essay, carry out a few studies. The surveys require teams that manually evaluate each street segment using checklists of tens or hundreds of factors. Sedaris! The process is laborious, slow, and expensive; and as a result, the studies to date have been limited and somewhat inconsistent.
That’s why a thesis by Chester W. Harvey titled “Measuring Streetscape Design for psychology essay Livability Using Spatial Data and Methods” (2014) is an important advance in the urban design field. Harvey developed a computerized method to evaluate the essential form of streetscapes. He tested the results against a survey of streetscape appeal and found significant relationships. The theories and speculations of the past 125 years have finally been confirmed with a large sample set: streetscapes shaped like outdoor rooms are perceived to be safer and more attractive to walk in. And that is only the beginning, as the method offers many other potential avenues of investigation. Sustainable Development and Mortgage Default. Multifamily properties with sustainability features have a significantly lower risk of mortgage default. That’s the conclusion of a May 2013 report by Professor Gary Pivo, which is available from one thing to change Fannie Mae. Psychology! The lengthy and self-explanatory title of the report is The Effect of Transportation, Location, and Affordability Related Sustainability Features on Mortgage Default Prediction and Risk in university, Multifamily Rental Housing . Professor Pivo was able to psychology essay, access Fannie Mae’s database of multifamily loans. The study looked at 37,385 loans that ranged in age from brand new to 30 years old; the average loan age was 6 years.
The default rate of properties in this study was a very low 0.86%. That means only a few hundred properties were in default. The average location on in the essay, the urban-rural spectrum was “metro city” — between the urban center and the urban outskirts. The average number of dwellings on psychology essay, each property was 95 (standard deviation was 125 dwellings) and the average construction date was 1968 (standard deviation was 26 years). Both of the latter two measurements had a large standard deviation, meaning the data values were spread over a wide range. The study tested the sound auden, portfolio of loans with seven sustainability variables. Psychology Essay! The variables were based on U.S. Diet Research! Census 2000 statistics for census tracts, census block groups, and psychology perspectives essay other sources. Commute time: Commute time in minutes for those who work outside the home Rail commute: Do at kant, least 30% of the residents take a subway or elevated train to essay, work? Walk commute: The percentage of residents who walk to work Retail presence: Are there at least 16 retail establishments nearby?
Affordability: Are some of the paper, units required to psychology perspectives, be affordable? Freeway presence: Is the property located within 1,000 feet of a freeway? Park presence: Is the sedaris, property located within 1 mile of a protected area? Washington DC, like hundreds of other cities in perspectives, the U.S., has a dirty water problem. The problem goes by the name of combined sewer overflow (CSO). CSO is a fancy way of essays 2008 saying when it rains a lot, our shit and piss go straight into the river untreated.
This foul condition is caused by sewer systems that combine sewage flows (from toilets and drains) with stormwater flows (from lots and streets). Seven hundred and seventy-two cities in the U.S. Psychology Perspectives! have these antiquated systems that overflow when it rains a lot. Cities that were built after 1900-1910 solved the problem by building separate systems for sewage and essays stormwater. Washington DC is under a court order to fix the problem. The original court-ordered plan is a multidecade, multibillion-dollar program of installing giant water storage tunnels. It would reduce raw sewage discharges by 98 percent and essay would be paid for by doubling water bills over one thing in the, a 20-year period. In August 2011, the DC Water and psychology Sewer Authority proposed a test of low-impact development (LID) in order to reduce its costs and construction requirements. By David Sedaris! LID is a set of stormwater management practices that directs runoff to places where it can soak into psychology perspectives, the ground: swales, rain gardens, trenches, porous pavement, etc. If we put stormwater into the ground instead of sewer pipes, says DC Water, the pipes will overflow less often. But local environmental groups are wondering just how feasible the DC Water proposal is.
They are objecting to auden essay, it — in particular, the proposed eight-year delay in tunnel construction and potential reductions in tunnel capacity. While proven cleanup techniques are delayed, DC Water will experiment with LID techniques that may or may not provide significant reductions of stormwater runoff. Washington Post columnist Mike DeBonis describes the situation: New Urbanism and Congestion Reduction. A Wall Street Journal article, The Hidden Toll of Traffic Jams, covered several studies that linked vehicle exhaust with a variety of psychology perspectives essay health impacts. One Thing In The World! The WSJ spun this as a congestion problem, even though it mentioned only perspectives essay one study that investigated congestion (at a toll plaza on Interstate 95). The WSJ also called the redesign of Times Square a congestion reduction measure, but in reality the congestion impacts have been mixed and travel times have increased on some routes. The Times Square redesign primarily benefits livability and pedestrian safety and comfort. Maybe this goes without saying, but I think new urbanism has to essay sedaris, be careful about the kind of congestion relief it advocates. Psychology Perspectives! There are some street network improvements that help increase the walkability and research livability of an area. There are other types of construction that mostly help cars speed faster and increase sprawl.
The former can include a fine-grain mesh of small blocks, eliminating curb cuts for driveways, and intelligent systems like predictive navigation. The latter can include roadway widening, flyovers, and new freeways. There are also some measures that can go either way, like tunnels, intersection improvements, and traffic signal coordination. Depending on the design and psychology essay context, these can contribute to livability or make a thoroughfare more pedestrian-hostile. Hybrid vehicles like the Prius turn the congestion equation upside down: at lower speeds they rely more on electric propulsion, which reduces gas consumption, emissions, and health impacts.
Plug-in hybrids and essay kant enlightenment battery electric cars do even better. From the point of view of psychology street-level vehicle pollution, these cars are the best thing since unleaded gasoline. Entry limits for entire urban districts are the kant, most direct way to reduce congestion, but outside of historic European city centers there doesn’t seem to be much appetite for doing this. Congestion tolls/fees for urban districts can be effective, but they are regressive, and the political process gets hung up on the costs and discounts the benefits. Other transportation demand measures can help, and the framework and metrics used to identify congestion are critical. Todd Litman writes: … increased development density tends to perspectives essay, increase congestion measured as roadway level-of-service or delay per vehicle trip, since more trips tend to university, be generated per acre. From this perspective, Smart Growth tends to be harmful and sprawl tends to be helpful for reducing congestion problems. Psychology Perspectives! However, higher density tends to increase land use Accessibility and Transportation Options, resulting in shorter trip distances and shifts to alternative modes such as walking and public transit. Although streets in higher density urban areas may experience more level-of-service E or F, implying serious congestion problems, urban residents spend less time delayed by congestion because they have closer destinations and better travel options. As a result, per essay kant enlightenment capita (as opposed to per-vehicle trip or per-driver) congestion delay tends to be greater in lower-density, automobile-dependent suburban areas such as Los Angeles and Houston than in higher-density urban areas such as New York and San Francisco, because low-density areas have more per-capita vehicle mileage.
New urbanists have to be informed and nuanced when navigating the congestion debate, because it easily can be turned to favor sprawl. Below the fold: links about the level-of-service measure and its reform. I’m very pleased to say The Language of Towns Cities: A Visual Dictionary has been published and is available for psychology perspectives essay purchase. The massive tome was written by Dhiru Thadani with more than fifty contributors. I was the editor of the book as well as a contributor. My leading observation is o what auden, that the psychology perspectives, title is a misnomer. It’s not a visual dictionary, it’s a visual encyclopedia — a combination of by david reference book and coffee table book. It represents about 15 years of creative production by perspectives essay, Dhiru, including his maps of urban spaces around the world and his insights from one thing 30 years as an architect and town planner. Numbers also tell the tale: the book consists of 804 pages; more than 500 subject matter entries ranging from single paragraphs to psychology essay, full essays; and more than 2,500 diagrams, illustrations, and photographs. The book is physically heavy and bulky. Diet Pills Research Paper! Its dimensions are 10.4? x 10.4? x 2.75? and perspectives essay it weighs 9 pounds… not what you would call a portable book.
Once it gets parked on a desk or coffee table, it’s not going to move far. The Language of Towns Cities is a fine example of the admissions essays, craft of bookmaking. Credit is due to Rizzoli Publications and the Chinese firm that manufactured the book. It is beautifully printed, with heavy coated paper stock that showcases the vibrant, lush photography. The binding is sturdy and lies flat at any page, which many books these days are not made to psychology, do. The authorial tone of the book is accessible and straightforward, aiming for to change world essay clarity rather than obfuscation by jargon. Indeed, The Language of Towns Cities is a work of anti-jargon, because it introduces concepts, defines terms, explores patterns, and reveals history.
Being an encyclopedia, The Language of psychology perspectives essay Towns Cities is university, arranged alphabetically. Rob Krier’s review on Amazon.com describes his childhood joy at browsing reference works. Krier says that reading Language made him feel the psychology essay, same way. Each flip of the page brought a different subject into view, encouraging serendipitous exploration and discovery. To sum up, Language combines beautiful images, a wide variety of subject matter, accessible writing, and fine bookmaking.
I call it the ultimate browsing book on urban design. What follows is the dust jacket book description, list of contributors, and a sample from the book including the complete table of contents. Location, Transportation, and Urban Design in LEED 2012. The draft LEED 2012 rating systems were released for public comment today. The proposals contain new and essay by david sedaris revised credits that relate to the location, transportation options, and urban design of projects. Here I’ll review the changes that are of greatest interest to new urbanism and smart growth advocates. The following proposals are in the Building Design #038; Construction document, which includes most of the LEED rating systems. “LT” stands for Location and Transportation , which is psychology perspectives essay, a new category within LEED systems. Please note that “LEED 2012” is sound auden, my own personal shorthand for psychology these draft proposals.
The more accurate and official term is “proposed update to LEED” with no year associated. LT Prerequisite: Bicycle Storage. LEED has been critiqued for a variety of flaws both real and alleged. But one thing you can always count on kant enlightenment, is a mention of the essay, bike rack credit. O What Essay! Every critic or reporter has a sworn duty to point out that bike racks can earn a LEED credit point. Installing bike racks is cheap and perspectives easy compared to (for instance) making buildings more energy efficient, and may be worth the same number of credit points. This has consistently been presented as an example of LEED illogic.
Worry no longer! Installing bike racks is now a prerequisite for all LEED projects, except for those in totally unbikeable locations. One Thing To Change In The World! The racks have to perspectives essay, be safe and convenient — no stashing behind garbage dumpsters. Essays! Residential projects provide additional bike storage for their residents. This prerequisite is both functional and symbolic, providing a visible signal that transportation mode choice is an essential aspect of LEED. Also, creating a bicycle storage prerequisite allows the psychology essay, bar to be raised for performance in the “Bicycle Network, Storage and Changing Rooms” credit. The Power of Intersection Density. Intersection density is the number of intersections in an area. It corresponds closely to block size — the greater the intersection density, the smaller the blocks. Small blocks make a neighborhood walkable. This diagram shows three street layouts — extremely walkable, moderately walkable, and unwalkable — with their counts of intersections per square mile:
Intersection density makes surprising news in essays, a study by the formidable academic duo of psychology perspectives essay Reid Ewing and one thing in the world Robert Cervero. They have published Travel and psychology perspectives the Built Environment: A Meta-Analysis in the Summer 2010 issue of the Journal of the American Planning Association . As the title notes, the study is a meta-analysis: a study of 50 other studies about travel and the built environment. Ap Biology Essays! The authors look at the results from each of the 50 studies, and then pool all of those results into ten built environment measurements, including intersection density. Their findings? Of all the built environment measurements, intersection density has the largest effect on walking — more than population density, distance to a store, distance to a transit stop, or jobs within one mile.
Intersection density also has large effects on transit use and the amount of driving. Psychology Perspectives Essay! The authors comment, This is surprising, given the emphasis in the qualitative literature on density and diversity, and the relatively limited attention paid to design. In other words, intersection density is the most important factor for walking and one of the essay by david, most important factors for increasing transit use and reducing miles driven, but gets relatively little attention in research and in public policy. Dense and Beautiful Stormwater Management. Consider two views about sustainable cities.
Call one the essay, Green City, and the other the Compact City. Green City: A sustainable city is a green city. It has lots of plants and trees that make the city more beautiful, provide habitat for wildlife, and help clean the air and water. It even has community gardens where people grow food and flowers. Compact City: A sustainable city is a compact city. It has lots of buildings and activities conveniently close together so people can walk, bike, and take transit. University Of Chicago Admissions! It even has paved squares and plazas where people gather and participate in markets, performances, free speech, and recreation. The Green City is popular as never before. Everyone wants more trees, more landscaping, more living green in their neighborhoods. Stormwater standards are shaping up to psychology essay, be the major vector by which the Green City is essay, delivered — even mandated, in many cases. What does this mean for psychology perspectives essay the Compact City?
Is there a conflict between the two views? In fact, both views are necessary. We have the research paper, technical know-how to create neighborhoods that are both compact and green. But sometimes standards and regulations don’t recognize this, particularly stormwater standards. Well-intentioned stormwater standards and regulations can put compact urban development at a disadvantage. They may have the unintended consequence of promoting sprawl, which hurts watersheds more than compact development. Unlike many barriers to compact development, this is not a technical, social, financial, or even political problem. It is largely an administrative problem. Doing the right thing is simply more difficult for administrators.
This essay suggests four guidelines for perspectives essay stormwater management that support and encourage compact neighborhood development. Essay! These guidelines can help put regulations back on the right track, and may also help to psychology essay, make the job of administering stormwater more manageable: Recognize density as a best management practice Allow off-site mitigation, preferably in the neighborhood Plan according to the Transect (neighborhood context) Design according to the Transect (neighborhood context) Robert Charles Lesser #038; Co. Market Studies. In a September 2009 paper The Market for Smart Growth, market researchers at university of chicago essays, Robert Charles Lesser #038; Co. reported strong market demand for housing in psychology perspectives, new urban communities.
In a number of U.S. cities, their consumer surveys found at least one-third of the market prefers new urbanism, transit-oriented development, and essays urban and suburban infill communities: Proprietary consumer research conducted by perspectives essay, Robert Charles Lesser #038; Co. LLC (RCLCo) in various U.S. real estate markets has consistently found that about a third of respondents, given the option, would seriously consider New Urbanist communities and housing products in selecting a new home. The majority of the RCLCo studies were conducted for university of chicago builders and perspectives developers as input to planning new smart growth developments. … An examination of the survey evidence relative to o what auden essay, consumer housing preferences in the context of psychology perspectives essay demographic projections demonstrates that the size of the market for dense walkable communities is increasing . (emphasis added) An Introduction to LEED-ND for CNU Members. This summer, members of the Congress for the New Urbanism will vote on LEED for paper Neighborhood Development.
LEED-ND is a system for rating the psychology perspectives, sustainability of neighborhoods. The vote is a membership referendum on whether CNU endorses the release of LEED-ND in its present state. To encourage informed participation in the vote, the DC chapter of of chicago admissions essays CNU has released An Introduction to LEED-ND for psychology CNU Members. The six-page article covers the essential points that CNU members should know as they consider their ballot. Topics include the background of LEED, how the o what is that essay, system is administered, credits of special interest to new urbanism, what the essay, system does and does not do, and to change in the essay the purpose and meaning of the vote. Perspectives Essay! The article is written by Laurence Aurbach, CNU DC Chapter secretary and member of the LEED Location and Planning Technical Advisory Group. Towards a Functional Classification Replacement (Part Three) Part One of this essay covers the background, characteristics and drawbacks of functional classification, and evaluates some of the leading alternatives. Part Two continues by proposing a replacement, a sustainable transportation network classification, covering the pills, block-scale and neighborhood-scale relationships. Part Three concludes by perspectives, covering the city-scale relationship and the congestion-related impacts of a sustainable network.
The ideal pattern of regional growth has been debated at least since the 19th century. In the 1960s and 70s the focus of the debate sharpened on efficiency and sustainability, and the “Compact City” was suggested to be the ideal. The Compact City redirects all growth into a single urban core, maximizing density while minimizing the consumption of sound farms, forests and agricultural land. It explicitly counteracted the perspectives essay, dominant trend of decentralized suburban sprawl. Some of the benefits of the Compact City idea have been confirmed by researchers. Cities with higher density and more compact form have much less per capita driving (Newman and Kenworthy, 1999). In existing cities, the trend of to change essay sprawling suburban growth causes an explosion in the amount of auto driving; a policy of refocusing growth, mixed use and psychology perspectives essay transit in sound, the urban core will halt that explosion and slightly reduce the amount of driving (Simmonds and Coombe, 2000). Analysis of city-scale development patterns shows that focusing growth on essay, high-capacity transit nodes will have the greatest CO2 reduction effect.
Image credit: Eliot Allen, “Cool Spots” Towards a Functional Classification Replacement (Part Two) Part One of this essay covers the background, characteristics and drawbacks of functional classification, and evaluates some of the leading alternatives. Part Two continues by proposing a replacement, a sustainable transportation network classification, covering the block-scale and neighborhood-scale relationships. Part Three concludes by covering the city-scale relationship and the congestion-related impacts of a sustainable network. A sustainable network classification ideally will do several things. Actively encourage sustainability (as defined previously in the sustainable transport section); do not support unsustainable network patterns and operations.
Be concise, easy to ap biology essays, remember and easy to essay, explain. University Of Chicago Essays! Address a range of scales, a range that is at least as wide as that covered by functional classification. Incorporate advanced knowledge about network function and best practices in network planning. To reach these goals, a sustainable network classification is proposed. The classification has three primary relationships, each applying to a different scale. The three scales are block scale, neighborhood scale, and city scale.
This allows each relationship to perspectives essay, focus on the factors most relevant to kant, its scale, without unnecessarily confusing factors from different scales or combining them inappropriately. Towards a Functional Classification Replacement (Part One) Every field has its foundational working concepts and the field of traffic engineering is no exception. It has a concept called functional classification , which is the core, guiding idea underlying the roadway system of the essay, United States and many other nations. One Thing Essay! Functional classification is the conceptual foundation of the auto-dependent built environments where most Americans live. The primary vision of psychology perspectives functional classification is moving more and more cars at faster and faster speeds. This has certain benefits, but also a wide range of disastrous consequences for the built environment and sedaris the people who live in it. Hundreds, possibly thousands of reform-minded transportation planners and engineers have determined that the roadway functional classification system should be replaced. It should be replaced by guiding concepts that support a more efficient, safer, less-polluting transportation system – concepts that support a wider range of psychology perspectives choices for neighborhood living and daily travel. What factors should be considered when formulating a sustainable transportation system? What proposals have already been made?
Part One of this essay explores those questions. Part Two continues by proposing a replacement, a sustainable transportation network classification, covering the block-scale and neighborhood-scale relationships. Enlightenment! Part Three concludes by essay, covering the city-scale relationship and the congestion-related impacts of a sustainable network. The Brad Pitt-narrated PBS series e? ( “the Economies of being Environmentally conscious”) has several episodes about urban design and planning. For a general introduction to walkable, transit-oriented design and planning, I recommend the episode “Portland: A Sense of Place.” It focuses on essays, the city’s rail transit and aerial tram, the Pearl District redevelopment, and the quality of life that can result from downtown revitalization with good urban design. Even better is the episode “Seoul: The Stream of Consciousness” which focuses on Seoul’s Cheonggyecheon Restoration Project.
This was a major freeway in the heart of the city that was torn down and replaced with a linear park and recreated running stream. The best thing about this episode is the sense of hope and renewal for the city that is conveyed by the residents’ pride in psychology, their new park.
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An Interesting Day: President Bush's Movements and psychology perspectives essay, Actions on essay 9/11. By Allan Wood, Paul Thompson. DISCLAIMER: The analytical articles published on this website were written and published by “project managers” of certain investigative projects hosted by the History Commons website. Therefore, any views, conclusions, or opinions expressed in this or any other article should not be attributed to History Commons. For questions concerning an article, please contact the psychology, author(s) directly. #8220;It was an interesting day.#8221;#8212;President Bush, recalling 9/11 [White House, 1/5/02] Both images taken at ap biology essays, 9:03 a.m.: Bush takes part in perspectives essay, a meaningless photo-op, knowing full well the US is already under attack. [left, from Booker video, right from Getty Images] At approximately 8:48 a.m. on the morning of September 11, 2001, the auden essay, first pictures of the burning World Trade Center were broadcast on perspectives essay live television. Essay By David? The news anchors, reporters, and psychology, viewers had little idea what had happened in lower Manhattan, but there were some people who did know. By that time, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD), the National Military Command Center, the essay kant enlightenment, Pentagon, the White House, the Secret Service, and psychology perspectives, Canada#8217;s Strategic Command all knew that three commercial airplanes had been hijacked. They knew that one plane had been flown deliberately into kant, the World Trade Center#8217;s North Tower; a second plane was wildly off course and also heading toward Manhattan; and a third plane had abruptly turned around over Ohio and was flying back toward Washington, DC.
So why, at 9:03 a.m.#8212;fifteen minutes after it was clear the psychology essay, United States was under terrorist attack#8212;did President Bush sit down with a classroom of second-graders and essay, begin a 20-minute pre-planned photo op? No one knows the answer to that question. Psychology Perspectives? In fact, no one has even asked Bush about it. Bush#8217;s actions on September 11 have been the subject of lively debate, mostly on essay the internet. Details reported that day and in psychology perspectives essay, the week after the attacks#8212;both the media reports and one thing to change world, accounts given by Bush himself#8212;have changed radically over essay, the past 18 months. Culling hundreds of reports from essay enlightenment newspapers, magazines, and psychology, the internet has only made finding the #8220;truth#8221; of what happened and university essays, when it happened more confusing. Essay? In the changed political climate after 9/11, few have dared raise challenging questions about Bush#8217;s actions. A journalist who said Bush was #8220;flying around the o what auden, country like a scared child, seeking refuge in psychology essay, his mother#8217;s bed after having a nightmare#8221; and another who said Bush #8220;skedaddled#8221; were fired. [Washington Post, 9/29/01 (B)] We should have a concise record of ap biology where President Bush was throughout the day the US was attacked, but we do not. What follows is an psychology essay, attempt to diet pills research, give the most complete account of Bush#8217;s actions#8212;from Florida to Louisiana to Nebraska to perspectives essay, Washington, DC. Bush#8217;s appearance at the Emma E. Booker Elementary School in Sarasota, Florida, on September 11, 2001 had been in the planning stages since August [Booker web site], but was only publicly announced on the morning of September 7. [White House, 9/7/01] Later that same day, 9/11 hijackers Mohamed Atta and Marwan Alshehhi traveled to Sarasota and essay enlightenment, enjoyed drinks and dinner at a Holiday Inn only two miles down the sandy beach from where Bush was scheduled to stay during his Sarasota visit. [Longboat Observer, 11/21/01, Washington Post, 1/27/02] The Colony Beach and Tennis Resort, where Bush stayed the night before 9/11. [Colony Resort web site] On the night of perspectives September 10th, Bush stayed at essay, the Colony Beach Resort#8212;#8220;an upscale and relatively pristine tropical island enclave located directly on the Gulf of Mexico, a spindly coral island#8230; off Sarasota, Florida.#8221; [AP, 07/29/01] Zainlabdeen Omer, a Sudanese native living in Sarasota, told the local police that night that someone he knew who had made violent threats against Bush was in town and Omer was worried about Bush#8217;s safety.
The man was identified only as #8220;Ghandi.#8221; A police report states the Secret Service was informed immediately. [Hopsicker, 7/22/02] After a private dinner with various Florida politicians (including his brother Jeb) and Republican donors, Bush went to bed around 10:00 p.m. [Sarasota Magazine, 11/01, Washington Post, 1/27/02] Surface-to-air missiles were placed on psychology perspectives the roof of the resort [Sarasota Herald-Tribune, 9/10/02], and an Airborne Warning and Control System (AWACS) plane circled high overhead. [ Fighting Back: The War on Terrorism#8212;From Inside the Bush White House , by Bill Sammon, 10/02, p. 25] It#8217;s not clear if this type of protection was standard for the president or whether security was increased because of possible threats. An Assassination Attempt? Bush awoke a little before 6:00 a.m. on research September 11, pulled on shorts and an old T-shirt and laced up his running shoes. [CBS, 11/1/02] At 6:30 a.m., Bush, a reporter friend, and his Secret Service crew took a four-mile jog in the half-light of dawn around a nearby golf course. [Washington Post, 1/27/02, Washington Post, 09/11/01] At about the same time Bush was getting ready for his jog, a van carrying several Middle Eastern men pulled up to the Colony#8217;s guard station. The men said they were a television news crew with a scheduled #8220;poolside#8221; interview with the psychology, president. They asked for a certain Secret Service agent by name. The message was relayed to a Secret Service agent inside the resort, who hadn#8217;t heard of the agent mentioned or of plans for an interview. He told the men to contact the president#8217;s public relations office in Washington, DC, and had the essay by david sedaris, van turned away. [Longboat Observer, 9/26/01] General Ahmed Shah Massoud. The Secret Service may have foiled an essay, assassination attempt. Two days earlier, Ahmed Shah Massoud, leader of Afghanistan#8217;s Northern Alliance, had been murdered by a similar ruse.
Two North African men, posing as journalists from is that sound #8220;Arabic News International,#8221; had been requesting an perspectives essay, interview with Massoud since late August. Ahmad Jamsheed, Massoud#8217;s secretary, said that by the night of September 8, #8220;they were so worried and excitable, they were begging us.#8221; An interview was arranged for the following day. As it began, a bomb hidden in the video camera exploded, killing the enlightenment, two journalists. Massoud was rushed by helicopter to a hospital in Tajikistan, but was pronounced dead on perspectives arrival (although his death was not acknowledged until September 15). [International Policy Institute for Counter-Terrorism, 10/30/01, Newsday, 10/26/01] The assassination is widely believed to have been timed to remove the Taliban#8217;s most popular and respected opponent in anticipation of the backlash that would occur after the 9/11 attacks. [BBC, 9/10/01, BBC, 9/10/01 (B), Time, 8/4/02, St. Petersburg Times, 9/9/02] The Northern Alliance blamed al-Qaeda and the ISI, Pakistan#8217;s secret service, for the attacks. [Radio Free Europe, 9/10/01, Newsday, 9/15/01, Reuters, 10/4/01] Nearly three hours after the research, incident at the Colony, another Longboat Key resident reported a run-in with possibly the same men. Psychology? At about 8:50 (when reports of the first World Trade Center crash were first broadcast), while standing on the Sarasota bay front waiting for the presidential motorcade to pass by, this man saw two Middle Eastern men in ap biology, a dilapidated van #8220;screaming out the windows #145;Down with Bush#146; and essay, raising their fists in the air.#8221; The FBI questioned the man, but it#8217;s not known if this was the same van that had visited the Colony. [Longboat Observer, 9/26/01] Later on the morning of September 11, the essay enlightenment, Secret Service searched a Sarasota apartment looking for further corroboration of Zainlabdeen Omer#8217;s report of an assassination threat. Three Sudanese men were questioned for psychology essay about ten hours. The Secret Service also raided a beauty supply store in Sarasota, whose owner, identified as #8220;Hakim,#8221; told the agents that #8220;Ghandi#8221; was a member of the Sudanese People#8217;s Liberation Army, a group fighting against the fundamentalist Muslim government in in the world essay, Sudan. [Hopsicker, 7/22/02] Monica Yadav of Sarasota#8217;s ABC News 40 reported that a few days after the Secret Service visit, the beauty supply store was closed up and Hakim was long gone.
Yadav also learned that Zainlabdeen Omer had suddenly quit his jobs and vacated his apartment. #8220;All I know is he can#8217;t leave town,#8221; a friend of Omer#8217;s told Yadav. Essay? #8220;Omer got in a lot of trouble with the law.#8221; The Special Agent in charge of the Presidential detail in o what, Sarasota told Yadav that Bush was never in essay, any danger and the various warnings and enlightenment, possible terrorist connections were all #8220;just a coincidence.#8221; [Hopsicker, 7/22/02] Yet, as we will see below, there are more details of a threat against Bush before he left Sarasota. Bush Is Briefed as the essay, Hijackings Begin. After his jog, Bush showered, then sat down for his daily intelligence briefing around 8 a.m. #8220;The President#8217;s briefing appears to pills research paper, have included some reference to the heightened terrorist risk reported throughout the summer, but contained nothing specific, severe or imminent enough to psychology perspectives, necessitate a call to essay enlightenment, [National Security Advisor] Condoleezza Rice.#8221; [Telegraph, 12/16/01] While Bush was being briefed, the psychology, planes that would be hijacked began taking off. American Airlines Flight 11 was first, leaving Boston#8217;s Logan Airport at 7:59 a.m. Ap Biology Essays 2008? The others soon followed, except for perspectives essay United Flight 93, scheduled to leave at 8:01, but which was delayed on the runway for pills about 40 minutes. [Boston Globe, 11/23/01] (For more information on the four flights, see Flight 11, Flight 175, Flight 77, Flight 93.) At approximately 8:13, Flight 11 was instructed by air traffic controllers at the FAA#8217;s Boston Center, in Nashua, New Hampshire, to climb to perspectives essay, 35,000 feet. The plane did not obey the order and its transponder was turned off. Air traffic control manager Glenn Michael said, #8220;we considered it at one thing world, that time to be a possible hijacking.#8221; [AP, 8/12/02, emphasis added] According to FAA regulations, that was the psychology, correct decision: #8220;Consider that an aircraft emergency exists#8230; when#8230; there is essay, unexpected loss of radar contact and radio communications with any#8230; aircraft.#8221; [FAA Air Traffic Control Regulations, Chapter 10, Section 2-5 ] Air traffic controller Matt McCluskey stands in the Boston tower where the Flight 11 hijack was first detected. [AP] If air traffic controllers believed Flight 11 had been hijacked at psychology essay, 8:13, NORAD should have been informed immediately, so military planes could be scrambled to investigate. However, NORAD and the FAA both claimed NORAD was not informed until 8:40#8212;27 minutes later. [NORAD, 9/18/01, AP, 8/12/02, AP, 8/19/02, Newsday, 9/10/02; one NORAD employee said it took place at 8:31, ABC News, 9/11/02] Indeed, before contacting NORAD, Boston air traffic controllers watched Flight 11 make an unexpected 100-degree turn and university of chicago, head south toward New York City [Christian Science Monitor, 9/13/01], told other controllers of the hijacking at 8:25 [Guardian, 10/17/01], continued to hear highly suspicious dialogue from the cockpit (such as, #8220;Nobody move, please, we are going back to the airport. Don#8217;t try to make any stupid moves#8221; ) [Guardian, 10/17/01, New York Times, 10/16/01], and even asked the pilots of psychology perspectives Flight 175 to scan the skies for the errant plane. [Guardian, 10/17/01, Boston Globe, 11/23/01] Is NORAD#8217;s claim credible? If so, the 2008, air traffic controllers (including Mr. Michael) should have been fired and subject to possible criminal charges for their inaction.
To date, however, there has been no word of any person being disciplined at any institution at psychology perspectives essay, any level for what happened on o what sound 9/11. If NORAD#8217;s claim is false, and perspectives essay, it was indeed informed within the one thing to change world, time frame outlined in FAA regulations that Flight 11 may have been hijacked, that would mean NORAD did absolutely nothing for perspectives almost thirty minutes while a hijacked commercial airliner flew off course through some of the ap biology 2008, most congested airspace in the world. Presumably, that would warrant some very serious charges. Again, no one associated with NORAD or the essay, FAA has been punished. According to phone calls made by fight attendants Betty Ong and Amy Sweeney, the hijackers had stabbed and essay kant, killed at least one passenger and two flight attendants by about 8:21. [ABC News, 7/18/02, Boston Globe, 11/23/01, AP, 10/5/01, Los Angeles Times, 9/20/01] (One hijacker may have been riding in the cockpit and begun the hijacking earlier.) After 8:21, both women apparently remained on essay the phone with American Airlines#8217; headquarters for 25 minutes, until their plane crashed into essay kant enlightenment, the World Trade Center#8217;s North Tower. [ABC News, 7/18/02, AP, 10/5/01] These calls make NORAD#8217;s supposed ignorance of psychology perspectives essay a crisis even more dubious. Bush#8217;s motorcade arrives at Booker Elementary. [A still from Booker video] Bush Leaves for Booker Elementary. Around the same time the Flight 11 hijackers were stabbing passenger Daniel Lewin#8212;at 8:20 a.m.#8212;Bush#8217;s briefing ended and essay kant, he said good-bye to the Colony#8217;s general manager. [Telegraph, 12/16/01, Sarasota Magazine, 11/01] The first event on Bush#8217;s schedule was what is known as a #8220;soft event#8221; #150; a photo-op with children at Emma Booker Elementary School#8212;promoting his proposed education bill. [Sarasota Herald-Tribune, 9/11/01] After spending about 20 minutes with the children, Bush was scheduled to give a short press conference at about 9:30. [White House, 9/7/01, Federal News Service, 9/10/01] Accounts of when Bush#8217;s motorcade left for the school vary from 8:30 to 8:39. [8:30, Washington Post, 1/27/02, 8:35, Sarasota Magazine, 9/19/01, 8:39, Washington Times, 10/7/02] One account has the Bush party leave the Colony suite at 8:30 and drive away at 8:39. Whenever he left, the essay, motorcade traveled quickly: #8220;The police shut down traffic in both directions, leaving roads utterly deserted for Bush#8217;s long motorcade, which barreled along at university of chicago essays, 40 mph, running red lights with impunity.#8221; [ Fighting Back: The War on Terrorism#8212;From Inside the perspectives, Bush White House , by Bill Sammon, 10/02, pp.
37-38] At 40 mph, it would take about 14 minutes to in the essay, travel the nine-mile distance to the school. Perspectives Essay? Several accounts say the journey took about 20 minutes [New York Times, 9/16/01 (B), St. Petersburg Times, 9/8/02 (B), MSNBC, 10/29/02], which means that Bush arrived shortly before 9:00. Essay? [8:46, ABC News, 9/11/02, 8:55, Washington Times, 10/7/02, 8:55, Sarasota Magazine, 9/19/01, #8220;just before 9:00,#8221;Telegraph, 12/16/01, #8220;shortly before 9:00,#8221;Sarasota Herald-Tribune, 9/10/02, #8220;just before 9:00,#8221;New York Times, 9/16/01 (B), 9:00, Albuquerque Tribune, 9/10/02] When Did Bush First Learn of the Attacks? Why does it matter when Bush left the resort and arrived at the school? Because this is the psychology perspectives, crucial time when Bush was first told, or should have been told, of the attacks.
Official accounts, including the words of Bush himself, say Bush was first told of what was happening in New York City after he arrived at the school. [Telegraph, 12/16/01, CBS, 9/11/02] However, this statement does not stand up to sound auden, scrutiny. There are at psychology perspectives, least four reports that Bush was told of the first crash before he arrived at the school. In this map, the yellow star is roughly where Bush#8217;s motorcade is when Flight 11 crashes at 8:46, and the orange star is where he is when told about the is that sound auden, crash a few minutes later. [Made with Yahoo Maps] Two accounts explicitly state Bush was told while in perspectives essay, the motorcade. #8220;The President was on Highway 301, just north of Main Street#8230; [when] he received the news that a plane had crashed in New York City.#8221; [Sarasota Magazine, 11/01] (See adjacent map for the location where he is told.) Another account states, #8220;Bush was driving to the school in a motorcade when the phone rang. An airline accident appeared to have happened. Ap Biology 2008? He pressed on with his visit.#8221; [Observer, 9/16/01] The first media reports of Flight 11#8217;s crash into the World Trade Center began around 8:48, two minutes after the crash happened. [New York Times, 9/15/01] CNN broke into its regular programming at that time [CNN, 9/11/01], though other networks, such as ABC, took a few more minutes to begin reporting. [ABC, 9/14/02] So within minutes, millions were aware of the story, yet Bush supposedly remained unaware for about another ten minutes. Claims of psychology perspectives Bush#8217;s ignorance become harder to believe when one learns that others in his motorcade were immediately told of the attack. For instance, Kia Baskerville, a CBS News producer traveling with Bush that morning, received a message about a plane crash #8220;as the presidential motorcade headed to President Bush#8217;s first event.#8221; Baskerville said, #8220;Fifteen minutes later I was standing in a second grade classroom [waiting for Bush#8217;s entrance]#8221;#8212;which means she got the news at of chicago admissions, about 8:47#8212;right as the psychology perspectives, story was first being reported. [CBS, 8/19/02] A news photographer in the motorcade overheard a radio transmission that Press Secretary Ari Fleischer would be needed on arrival at the school to discuss reports of essay by david sedaris some sort of psychology essay crash. [Christian Science Monitor, 9/17/01] Another account notes Fleischer got the news that the essays, crash had occurred #8220;just minutes before,#8221; but notes that Bush was not in the same car as Fleischer. [CBS, 11/1/02] Senior presidential communications officer Thomas Herman said, #8220;Just as we were arriving at the school, I received a notification from our operations center than [sic] an airliner had struck one of the towers#8230;.#8221; [Marist College Magazine, Fall 2002] Meanwhile, CIA Director George Tenet was told of the psychology perspectives essay, crash a few minutes after it happened.
A messenger gave him the news as he was eating breakfast with former Senator David Boren in a Washington restaurant three blocks from the ap biology essays 2008, White House. Boren says Tenet was told that the World Trade Center had been attacked by an airplane: #8220;I was struck by the fact that [the messenger] used the essay, word attacked.#8221; An aide then handed a cell phone to essays, Tenet, and Tenet made some calls, showing that at essay, least some at the highest levels of the Bush administration were talking about an attack at this time. Tenet then said to Boren, #8220;You know, this has bin Laden#8217;s fingerprints all over it.#8221; [ABC, 9/14/02] Some people at the school also heard of the news before Bush arrived. Around 8:50, Tampa Bay#8217;s Channel 8 reporter Jackie Barron was on diet the phone with her mother, who mentioned the first news reports. At almost the psychology essay, same time, Brian Goff, a Fox reporter from Tampa, heard the essays 2008, same thing on psychology perspectives essay his cell phone. [Sarasota Magazine, 11/01] Associated Press reporter Sonia Ross was also told of the crash by in the world essay, phone from a colleague. [AP, 9/12/01 (D)] Florida Congressman Dan Miller, waiting in psychology, front of the school as part of the official greeting party, was told by o what is that, an aide about the crash at 8:55, before Bush arrived. Perspectives? [Sarasota Magazine, 11/01] Given all this, how could Bush have remained ignorant? Could he have been out of the loop because he was in a car?
No. The previous night, Colony Resort manager Katie Klauber Moulon toured the presidential limousine and marveled #8220;at all the phones and electronic equipment.#8221; [Sarasota Magazine, 11/01] Karl Rove, Bush#8217;s #8220;chief political strategist,#8221; who presumably was riding with Bush, used a wireless e-mail device on 9/11 as well. [Newsweek, 10/14/02] There seems to have been ample opportunity and the means to alert Bush. White House Situation Room Director Deborah Loewer. If Bush wasn#8217;t told while in his limousine, he certainly was told immediately after he got out of it. US Navy Captain Deborah Loewer, the director of the White House Situation Room, was traveling in the motorcade when she received a message from an essay by david, assistant back in Washington about the first crash. Essay? Loewer said that as soon as the car arrived at Booker, she ran quickly over to Bush. University Admissions Essays? #8220;It#8217;s a very good thing the Secret Service knows who I am,#8221; Loewer later said. Perspectives? She told Bush that an aircraft had #8220;impacted the World Trade Center. Is That Sound Essay? This is all we know.#8221; [Catholic Telegraph, 12/7/01, AP, 11/26/01] Meanwhile, More Hijackings. Flight 77#8217;s intended and actual routes. Psychology Perspectives Essay? [USA Today] Note the strange loop off course about halfway along the essay by david sedaris, route to the west, which was the first sign the essay, plane was hijacked. Is That Auden Essay? Such a large diversion is perspectives, extremely uncommon, and should have triggered an immediate fighter response. Essay Sedaris? Even though Flight 175 left about the same time as Flight 11, it appears to have been hijacked much later.
At 8:41, its pilot was still talking to ground control [New York Times, 10/16/01], but at 8:42 it sharply veered off course, and a flight controller noted that its transponder had been turned off and communication cut. [Boston Globe, 11/23/01, New York Times, 10/16/01] One minute later, at 8:43, NORAD was notified the plane had been hijacked. [NORAD, 9/18/01] The hijackers turned the transponder back on essay but used a different signal code. This allowed flight controllers to in the, #8220;easily#8221; track the plane as it flew toward New York City. [Washington Post, 9/17/01] At about 8:46, Flight 77 began to psychology, go severely off course. According to regulations, a fighter is required to essay kant, be dispatched if a plane strays from psychology its official course by one thing to change in the world essay, more than two miles or 15 degrees [MSNBC, 9/12/01]. As the adjacent map shows, Flight 77 returned to its proper course for a time, but its last radio contact occurred at psychology, 8:50. [Guardian, 10/17/01] Supposedly, NORAD was not officially notified that Flight 77 has been hijacked until 9:24 [NORAD, 9/18/01], but the New York Times reported that by around 8:50, military officials at the Pentagon were already discussing what to do about Flight 77. O What Is That Essay? [New York Times, 9/15/01] Note the difference in notification times: 27 minutes for Flight 11, 1 minute for Flight 175 and perspectives, 38 minutes for Flight 77. Flight 93 wasn#8217;t hijacked until about 9:16, but by about 8:50, it was clear that at least three planes had been hijacked. Vice President Dick Cheney, speaking on NBC#8217;s Meet the Press, said, #8220;The Secret Service has an essays, arrangement with the FAA.
They had open lines after the World Trade Center was#8230;#8221; [Meet the essay, Press, 9/16/01] Cheney never finished his sentence (interesting in in the, itself#8212;did he say too much?), but it seems safe to say that his next word would have been #8220;hit.#8221; Cheney#8217;s statement makes it clear the Secret Service knew the extent of the situation well before 9:00 am. Psychology Essay? Intelligence agencies were suffering #8220;warning fatigue#8221; from so many warnings of an al-Qaeda attack [Independent, 9/7/02], some specifically mentioning the admissions, use of hijacked airplanes as missiles (see this essay). Bush himself was given an intelligence briefing a month earlier entitled #8220;Bin Laden to Strike in essay, US,#8221; and it contained a warning from the British government that the university, US should expect multiple airline hijackings from al-Qaeda. [Sunday Herald, 5/19/02] So with the clear knowledge that three planes had been hijacked, with one of them already crashed into the World Trade Center, who would have possibly assumed that Flight 11#8217;s crash was an accident? Yet that is psychology essay, precisely what the official story claims. There are a number of different #8220;official#8221; accounts, but all of them stress that Bush wasn#8217;t told until after he arrived inside the school (contrary to one thing in the world, the account of perspectives Captain Loewer) and that it was assumed to be an accident (contradicting Tenet being told that it was an attack). Karl Rove [Reuters], Andrew Card [AP], and auden essay, Dan Bartlett. In some accounts, #8220;President Bush had emerged from his car and perspectives, was shaking hands with local officials standing outside the school when Chief of Staff Andrew Card sidled up to him with the news.#8221; [CBS, 11/1/02] Bush later recalled that it was Card who first notified him: #8220;#145;Here#8217;s what you#8217;re going to be doing; you#8217;re going to paper, meet so-and-so, such-and-such.#146; Then Andy Card said, #145;By the way, an aircraft flew into the World Trade Center.#146; #8221; [Washington Times, 10/7/02] At a press conference later that day, Press Secretary Ari Fleischer also claimed it was Andy Card who first informed him, #8220;as the President finished shaking hands in a hallway of school officials.#8221; [Knoxville News Sentinel, 9/11/01] In other accounts, it was advisor Karl Rove who first told Bush. According to photographer Eric Draper, who was standing nearby, Rove rushed up, took Bush aside in a corridor inside the psychology essay, school and said the cause of the crash was unclear. Bush replied, #8220;What a horrible accident!#8221; Bush also suggested the pilot may have had a heart attack. Kant? [Daily Mail, 9/8/02] Dan Bartlett, White House Communications Director, says he was there when Bush was told: #8220; [Bush] being a former pilot, had kind of the psychology perspectives, same reaction, going, was it bad weather? And I said no, apparently not.#8221; [ABC News, 9/11/02] A reporter who was standing nearby later said, #8220;From the demeanor of the President, grinning at the children, it appeared that the enormity of essay what he had been told was taking a while to sink in.#8221; [Daily Mail, 9/8/02] One account explicitly says that Rove told Bush the World Trade Center had been hit by a large commercial airliner. [Telegraph, 12/16/01] However, Bush later remembered Rove saying it appeared to be an accident involving a small, twin-engine plane. [Washington Post, 1/27/02, MSNBC, 9/02] In yet another account, Blake Gottesman, Bush#8217;s personal assistant, while giving the president some final instructions as they walked to psychology perspectives, the school, remarked, #8220;Andy Card says, #145;By the way, an aircraft flew into the World Trade Center.#146; #8221; [ Fighting Back: The War on Terrorism#8212;From Inside the Bush White House , by Bill Sammon, 10/02, pp.
41-42] Condoleezza Rice. [AP] Told Again, Yet Still Clueless. Booker principal Gwen Tose-Rigell was waiting for Bush outside the essay, school. #8220;The limousine stops and the president comes out. He walks toward me. I#8217;m standing there in psychology essay, a lineup; there are about ap biology 2008, five people. He walks over and says he has to psychology perspectives, make a phone call, and he#8217;ll be right back.#8221; [MSNBC, 09/02, Telegraph, 12/16/01] The phone call was with National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice. From a room with secure communications, Rice updated Bush on the situation. [Christian Science Monitor, 9/17/01, Time, 9/12/01] The fact that Bush immediately said he had to of chicago essays, make an perspectives, important call strongly suggests he was told about the situation while in sound essay, the motorcade. But some accounts have Andrew Card saying to Bush as he gets out of his limousine, #8220;Mr. President, you really need to take this phone call,#8221; thereby implying that Card knows what#8217;s going on, but Bush doesn#8217;t. [St. Petersburg Times, 9/8/02 (B)] As National Security Advisor, Rice had to psychology, have had as much information as anyone. By the time she spoke to Bush, she must have known that three planes had been hijacked and that the country was under attack.
We know very little about the conversation#8212;only that Rice later claimed, #8220; [Bush] said, what a terrible, it sounds like a terrible accident. Keep me informed.#8221; [ABC News, 9/11/02] One reporter noted: #8220;Bush did not appear preoccupied [after the phone call] #133; There was no sign that Rice had just told [him] about the first attack [on the World Trade Center].#8221; [Cox News, 9/12/01 (B)] Tose-Rigell was then summoned to a room to talk with Bush: #8220;He said a commercial plane has hit the World Trade Center, and we#8217;re going to go ahead and go on, we#8217;re going on kant enlightenment to do the reading thing anyway.#8221; [AP, 8/19/02 (D)] One local reporter notes that at this point, #8220;He could and arguably should have left Emma E. Booker Elementary School immediately, gotten onto Air Force One and psychology essay, left Sarasota without a moment#8217;s delay#8230; But he didn#8217;t.#8221; [Sarasota Herald-Tribune, 9/12/01 (B)] The only possible excuse is that Bush was completely clueless as to what was happening. Sure enough, at essay, a press conference on psychology perspectives essay the evening of 9/11, Press Secretary Ari Fleischer was asked by a reporter, #8220;And then this morning, when Andy Card told him about the first accident, was Andy Card or Condi Rice or any of those aware of the hijackings? What did they know when they#8212;-#8221; Fleischer cut in diet, and replied, #8220;No, at that point they were not.#8221; [Knoxville News Sentinel, 9/11/01] So supposedly, 15 minutes after the first crash, none of psychology essay Bush#8217;s aides, not even Rice back in Washington, DC, knew a thing about the hijackings that had been reported to NORAD 20 minutes earlier? This simply is not plausible. Booker Elementary School. [MSNBC]
Bush#8217;s Confused Recollection. Bush#8217;s own recollection of the first crash only complicates the picture. Less than two months after the attacks, Bush made the preposterous claim that he had watched the sound auden essay, first attack as it happened on essay live television. Essays? This is the seventh different account of how Bush learned about the first crash (in his limousine, from Loewer, from Card, from Rove, from perspectives essay Gottesman, from Rice, from television). On December 4, 2001, Bush was asked: #8220;How did you feel when you heard about the essay, terrorist attack?#8221; Bush replied, #8220;I was sitting outside the classroom waiting to go in, and I saw an psychology perspectives, airplane hit the enlightenment, tower#8212;the TV was obviously on.
And I used to psychology perspectives, fly, myself, and I said, well, there#8217;s one terrible pilot. I said, it must have been a horrible accident. By David? But I was whisked off there, I didn#8217;t have much time to think about essay, it.#8221; [White House, 12/4/01] There was no film footage of the first attack until at to change, least the following day, and perspectives essay, Bush didn#8217;t have access to a television until 15 or so minutes later. [Washington Times, 10/7/02] The Boston Herald later noted, #8220;Think about that. Bush#8217;s remark implies he saw the first plane hit the tower. But we all know that video of the ap biology essays 2008, first plane hitting did not surface until the next day. Could Bush have meant he saw the second plane hit#8212;which many Americans witnessed? No, because he said that he was in psychology perspectives essay, the classroom when Card whispered in his ear that a second plane hit.#8221; [Boston Herald, 10/22/02] Bush#8217;s recollection has many precise details. Is he simply confused? It#8217;s doubly strange why his advisors didn#8217;t correct him or#8212;at the sound essay, very least#8212;stop him from repeating the essay, same story only four weeks later. [White House, 1/5/02, CBS, 9/11/02] On January 5, 2002, Bush stated: #8220;Well, I was sitting in a schoolhouse in Florida#8230; and my Chief of Staff #150; well, first of all, when we walked into the classroom, I had seen this plane fly into research, the first building. Psychology? There was a TV set on. And you know, I thought it was pilot error and one thing essay, I was amazed that anybody could make such a terrible mistake.
And something was wrong with the plane#8230;#8221; [White House, 1/5/02] Unfortunately, Bush has never been asked#8212;not even once#8212;to explain these statements. His memory not only contradicts every single media report, it also contradicts what he said that evening. In his speech to psychology perspectives essay, the nation that evening, Bush said: #8220;Immediately following the first attack, I implemented our government#8217;s emergency response plans.#8221; [White House, 9/11/01] It#8217;s not known what these emergency plans were, because neither Bush nor anyone in his administration mentioned this immediate response again. Implementing #8220;emergency response plans#8221; seems to university admissions essays, completely contradict Bush#8217;s #8220;by the way#8221; recollection of a small airplane accident. Perspectives? Bush meets teacher Sandra Kay Daniels. [A still from Booker video] Inside the Classroom and the Second Plane Crash. O What Is That Sound Auden? Shortly after his call with National Security Advisor Rice, Bush entered Sandra Kay Daniels#8217;s second-grade class for a photo-op to essay, promote Bush#8217;s education policies. By David? [Daily Mail, 9/8/02] The event was to begin precisely at 9:00, but the call pushed it back to about 9:03. [Washington Times, 10/8/02, Telegraph, 12/16/01, Daily Mail, 9/8/02] Numerous reporters who were traveling with the president, as well as members of the local media, watched from the back of the room. [AP, 8/19/02 (D)] Altogether there were about 150 people in the room, only 16 of psychology them students. Enlightenment? Bush was introduced to the children and psychology perspectives, then posed for a number of pictures. Daniels then led the students through some reading exercises (video footage shows this lasted about three minutes). By David? [Salon, 9/12/01 (B)] Bush later related what he was thinking at the time: #8220;I was concentrating on the program at this point, thinking about what I was going to say [about the psychology perspectives, plane crash]. One Thing In The Essay? Obviously, I felt it was an accident.
I was concerned about it, but there were no alarm bells.#8221; [Washington Times, 10/7/02] At 9:03, Flight 175 crashed into psychology perspectives, the South Tower of the World Trade Center. Sedaris? News of this traveled extremely rapidly. In fact, some of Bush#8217;s Secret Service agents watched the second crash live on television in an adjacent room. [Sarasota Herald-Tribune, 9/10/02] Press Secretary Ari Fleischer, in perspectives, the same room as Bush but not near him, immediately received the news on his pager. [CBS, 9/11/02] Other pagers were going off as well. Andrew Card tells Bush the second tower has been hit. [White House via AP] See a video of Bush#8217;s reaction here: [ABC, 9/14/02] Chief of Staff Andrew Card was in a nearby room when he heard the news. He waited until there was a pause in the reading drill to walk in and tell Bush. [Washington Times, 10/7/02, Washington Times, 10/8/02] The children were getting their books from pills research under their seats to essay, read a story together when Card came in. O What Is That Sound Auden? [Daily Mail, 9/8/02] Card whispered to Bush: #8220;A second plane hit the psychology perspectives, second tower.
America is under attack.#8221; [San Francisco Chronicle, 9/11/02] Another account has Card saying: #8220;A second plane has hit the World Trade Center. America is under attack.#8221; [Telegraph, 12/16/01] Accounts vary as to when Card gave Bush the news. Essay Enlightenment? Some say 9:05 [Salon 9/11/01, New York Times, 9/16/01 (B), Telegraph, 12/16/01, Albuquerque Tribune, 9/10/02], and some say 9:07. [Washington Post, 9/11/01, Washington Times, 10/8/02] ABC News reporter Ann Compton, who was in the room, said she was surprised by the interruption and #8220;wrote [the time] down in my reporter#8217;s notebook, by my watch, 9:07 a.m.#8221; [ABC News, 9/11/02] The Reaction#8212;Or Lack of One. Another picture of perspectives essay Andrew Card telling Bush the second tower has been hit. Pills Research Paper? [White House via AP] Descriptions vary greatly as to how Bush responded to psychology essay, the news. It is diet pills, said he #8220;blanched#8221; [Richmond Times-Dispatch, 10/1/02], #8220;the color drained from the psychology perspectives, president#8217;s face#8221; [AP, 9/12/01 (D)], he #8220;wore a bemused smile#8221; [Orlando Sentinel, 9/12/01], #8220;because visibly tense and serious#8221; [Time, 9/12/01], and 2008, so on.
Watch the essay, video and diet, draw your own conclusions (the 11-minute video can be viewed at the Center for Cooperative Research, Buzzflash, Global Free Press, The Emperor#8217;s New Clothes, or Liberty DYNU). Bush later recalled his own reaction: #8220;I am very aware of the cameras. Perspectives? I#8217;m trying to absorb that knowledge. I have nobody to in the, talk to. I#8217;m sitting in the midst of a classroom with little kids, listening to a children#8217;s story and psychology perspectives essay, I realize I#8217;m the Commander in essay enlightenment, Chief and psychology essay, the country has just come under attack.#8221; [Telegraph, 12/16/01, CBS, 11/1/02] Asked again what he thought after he heard the news, Bush said, #8220;We#8217;re at war and somebody has dared attack us and we#8217;re going to essays, do something about psychology, it.
I realized I was in a unique setting to receive a message that somebody attacked us #133; [I]t became evident that we were, you know, that the essay sedaris, world had changed.#8221; [CBS, 9/11/02] So what did the Commander in psychology essay, Chief do with the knowledge that the United States was under attack? Bush did not say one word. He did not ask Card any questions. He did not give any orders. He did not know who (or which country) was attacking, whether there would be more attacks, what military plans had been taken, what military actions should be taken#8212;indeed, he knew virtually nothing about what was going on university of chicago admissions outside the room. He just sat there.
Bush later recalled: #8220;There was no time for discussion or anything.#8221; [ Fighting Back: The War on Terrorism#8212;From Inside the essay, Bush White House , by university, Bill Sammon, 10/02, pp. 83-84] Even stranger, as one newspaper put it, although the nation was under terrorist attack, #8220;for some reason, Secret Service agents [did] not bustle him away.#8221; [Globe and Mail, 9/12/01] Military pilots must have #8220;permission from the essay, White House because only the president has the authority to order a civilian aircraft shot down.#8221; [CNN, 10/26/99] But if retaliatory strikes needed to the authorized, Bush was not available. If one of the planes had to pills research, be shot down to save more lives on the ground, Bush was not available. Perspectives Essay? Although several fighters had been dispatched to defend New York City, the pilot of essay enlightenment one of the planes flying to catch Flight 175 later noted that it wouldn#8217;t have mattered if he caught up with it, because only Bush could order a shootdown, and psychology essay, Bush could not be reached in the classroom. By David? [Cape Cod Times, 8/21/02] Bush not long after being told of the second plane crash. [A still from Booker video] Secret Service agents and other security personnel had set up a television in a nearby classroom. They turned on the TV just as Flight 175 crashed into the World Trade Center. Perspectives? According to Sarasota County Sheriff Bill Balkwill, who was in the room, a Marine responsible for carrying Bush#8217;s phone immediately said to Balkwill, #8220;We#8217;re out of here. Can you get everyone ready?#8221; [Sarasota Herald-Tribune, 9/10/02] But he must have been overruled by essay by david, someone, because Bush did not leave. Psychology Perspectives? Meanwhile, Secret Service agents burst into Vice President Cheney#8217;s White House office. Essay Kant? They carried him under his arms#8212;nearly lifting him off the essay, ground#8212;and propelled him down the steps into the White House basement and through a long tunnel toward an to change essay, underground bunker.
Accounts of when this happened vary greatly, from 9:06 [New York Times, 9/16/01 (B), Telegraph, 12/16/01] to after 9:30. [CBS, 9/11/02, Washington Post, 1/27/02] Cheney#8217;s own account is vague and psychology, contradictory. [Meet the Press, 9/16/01] The one eyewitness account, by White House photographer David Bohrer, said it happened just after 9:00. O What Is That Essay? [ABC, 9/14/02 (B)] It#8217;s easy to see why the White House would have wanted this event placed at a later time (after Bush#8217;s initial statement to perspectives, the nation rather than after the second crash) to avoid the ap biology essays 2008, obvious question: if Cheney was immediately evacuated, why wasn#8217;t Bush? The Photo-Op Goes On. Psychology Perspectives? After Card told Bush about the second plane and quickly left, the classroom was silent for kant about 30 seconds or so. [Tampa Tribune, 9/1/02] The children were about to take turns reading from a story called The Pet Goat . [AFP, 9/7/02] Bush picked up the psychology perspectives essay, book and began to read with the children. By David Sedaris? [Tampa Tribune, 9/1/02] In unison, the children read out loud, #8220;The#8212;Pet#8212;Goat. A#8212;girl#8212;got#8212;a#8212;pet#8212;goat. But#8212;the#8212;goat#8212;did#8212;some#8212;things#8212;that#8212;made#8212;the#8212;girl#8217;s#8212;dad#8212;mad.#8221; Bush mostly listened, but occasionally asked the children a few questions to encourage them. [Washington Times, 10/7/02] At one point he said, #8220;Really good readers, whew!#8230; These must be sixth-graders!#8221; [Time, 9/12/01] Who was really in control? Certainly not Bush. Perspectives? In the back of the room, Press Secretary Ari Fleischer caught Bush#8217;s eye and held up a pad of paper for him to see, with #8220;DON#8217;T SAY ANYTHING YET#8221; written on it in big block letters. [Washington Times, 10/7/02] Some person or people had overruled the in the, security who wanted Bush evacuated immediately, even as Vice President Cheney was taken from his White House office to essay, a safe location. Essay Kant? Bush#8217;s security overruled Bush on security matters later in the day on Air Force One, but who overruled them that morning? Bush with his Pet Goat book in Sandra Kay Daniels#8217;s elementary school classroom. [Eric Draper] When Did Bush Leave the Classroom?
Nearly every news account fails to mention when Bush left the classroom after being told America was under attack. Three mention 9:12 a.m. [New York Times, 9/16/01 (B), Telegraph, 12/16/01, Daily Mail, 9/8/02] Remaining in the classroom for approximately five to essay, seven minutes is inexcusable, but the video of pills research Bush in the classroom suggests he stayed longer than that. The video contains several edits and essay, ends before Bush leaves the room, so it also doesn#8217;t tell us exactly how long he stayed. One newspaper suggested he remained #8220;for eight or nine minutes#8221;#8212;sometime between 9:13 and 9:16, since Card#8217;s arrival is uncertain. [Tampa Tribune, 9/1/02] When Bush finally did leave, he didn#8217;t act like a man in a hurry. In fact, he was described as #8220;openly stretching out the moment.#8221; [ Fighting Back: The War on Terrorism#8212;From Inside the Bush White House , by Bill Sammon, 10/02, p. 89] When the lesson was over, Bush said to the children: #8220;Hoo! These are great readers. Very impressive! Thank you all so much for university of chicago essays showing me your reading skills.
I bet they practice too. Don#8217;t you? Reading more than they watch TV? Anybody do that? Read more than you watch TV? [Hands go up] Oh that#8217;s great! Very good. Very important to practice! Thanks for having me.
Very impressed.#8221; [Transcribed from psychology Booker video, Fighting Back: The War on Terrorism#8212;From Inside the Bush White House , by Bill Sammon, 10/02, pp. O What Is That Sound Auden Essay? 89-90] Bush still continued to talk, advising the children to stay in school and perspectives, be good citizens. [Tampa Tribune, 9/1/02, St. O What Is That Sound Essay? Petersburg Times, 9/8/02 (B)] One student asked Bush a question, and he gave a quick response on psychology perspectives his education policy. [New York Post, 9/12/02] The only source to describe what happened next is Fighting Back by Bill Sammon. Publishers Weekly described Sammon#8217;s book as an #8220;inside account of the Bush administration#8217;s reaction to 9-11 [and] a breathless, highly complimentary portrait of the kant, president [showing] the great merit and unwavering moral vision of his inner circle.#8221; [Publisher#8217;s Weekly, 10/15/02] Sammon#8217;s conservative perspective makes his account of Bush#8217;s behavior at the end of the photo-op all the more surprising. Bush is psychology, described as smiling and chatting with the paper, children #8220;as if he didn#8217;t have a care in the world#8221; and #8220;in the most relaxed manner imaginable.#8221; White House aide Gordon Johndroe, then came in as he usually does at the end of press conferences, and said, #8220;Thank you, press. Perspectives? If you could step out the door we came in, please.#8221; A reporter then asked, #8220;Mr. President, are you aware of the reports of the plane crash in New York? Is there anything#8230;,#8221; But Bush interrupted, and no doubt recalling his order, #8220;DON#8217;T SAY ANYTHING YET,#8221; Bush responded, #8220;I#8217;ll talk about it later.#8221; But still the president did not leave. #8220;He stepped forward and shook hands with [classroom teacher] Daniels, slipping his left hand behind her in another photo-op pose.
He was taking his good old time.#8230; Bush lingered until the university of chicago, press was gone.#8221; [ Fighting Back: The War on Terrorism#8212;From Inside the Bush White House , by Bill Sammon, 10/02, p. 90] Think about that: rather than rush out essay, of the room at auden, the first chance, Bush actually stayed until after all the psychology perspectives, dozens of reporters had left! Having just been told of a Pearl Harbor-type attack on research paper US soil, Bush was indeed #8220;openly stretching out the moment.#8221; But he still wasn#8217;t done. Bush then turned to principal Tose-Rigell, who was waiting to take him to the library for his speech on education. He explained to her about the psychology perspectives, terror attacks and why he had to leave. [ Fighting Back: The War on Terrorism#8212;From Inside the Bush White House , by Bill Sammon, 10/02, p. 90] Finally, he went to an empty classroom next door where his staff was based. Essay? [ABC News, 9/11/02] Given that Bush#8217;s program was supposed to end at 9:20, he left the classroom only a couple of psychology perspectives essay minutes earlier than planned, if even that. [Sarasota Herald-Tribune, 9/16/01] The reason given why Bush didn#8217;t leave as soon as Card told him the kant enlightenment, news is: #8220;Without all the facts at hand, George Bush had no intention of psychology perspectives upsetting the o what, schoolchildren who had come to essay, read for him.#8221; [MSNBC, 10/29/02] Advisor Karl Rove said, #8220;The President thought for a second or two about getting up and walking out essay, of the room. But the psychology, drill was coming to a close and in the world, he didn#8217;t want to psychology perspectives, alarm the children.#8221; [ABC, 9/11/02] This excuse is patently absurd, given the is that sound auden, security risks and psychology essay, importance of Bush being informed and diet pills research, making decisions as Commander in Chief. Psychology Perspectives Essay? Nor was the drill coming to a close: one drill had ended and another was about to kant, begin#8212;it was a perfect time to simply say, #8220;Excuse me#8221; and psychology perspectives essay, leave the room. Sarasota-Bradenton International Airport is only 3frac12; miles away; in by david sedaris, fact, Booker was chosen as the location for the photo-op partly because of its proximity to the airport. Psychology Essay? [Sarasota Herald-Tribune, 9/12/02] Hijackers could have crashed a plane into Bush#8217;s publicized location and his security would have been completely helpless to stop it. Remember, Bush#8217;s schedule had been announced on September 7 and two of the 9/11 hijackers came to university admissions essays, Sarasota that same day. [White House, 9/7/01, Longboat Observer, 11/21/01, Washington Post, 1/27/02] Furthermore, the Secret Service was aware of the strange request for an interview a few hours earlier and perspectives essay, the previous night#8217;s report of a person in to change in the essay, town who had made violent threats against Bush. Indeed, a few days after 9/11, Sarasota#8217;s main newspaper reported, #8220;Sarasota barely skirted its own disaster. As it turns out, terrorists targeted the president and Air Force One on perspectives essay Tuesday, maybe even while they were on the ground in Sarasota and certainly not long after.
The Secret Service learned of the threat just minutes after Bush left Booker Elementary.#8221; [Sarasota Herald-Tribune, 9/16/01] Bush in a holding room before giving his speech. Communications director Dan Bartlett points to essays, the TV, and psychology perspectives, the clock reads 9:25. [White House] Once he was out of the classroom, did Bush immediately leave Booker? No. Diet Pills? He stayed in the adjacent room with his staff, calling Vice President Cheney and National Security Advisor Rice, and preparing a speech. Psychology Perspectives Essay? [Telegraph, 12/16/01, St. Petersburg Times 9/8/02] Incredibly, even as uncertain information began to to change in the world essay, surface, suggesting that more planes had been hijacked (eventually 11 planes would be suspected) [CBS, 9/11/02], Bush was allowed to make his remarks at 9:30#8212;exactly the time and place stated on his advance schedule. [Federal News Service, 9/10/01, see the perspectives, transcript of his speech here] Why hasn#8217;t Bush#8217;s security staff been criticized for their completely inexplicable decision to stay at the school? And why didn#8217;t Bush#8217;s concern for sedaris the children extend to not making them and the rest of the 200 or so people at essay, the school terrorist targets? President Bush speaks at 9:29 in the library of Booker Elementary School. Auden Essay? [From Booker Elementary website] At 9:16, NORAD was notified that Flight 93 had been hijacked, and at essay, 9:24 it was notified that Flight 77 had also been hijacked and o what is that sound auden, was heading toward Washington (though, as discussed above, the hijacking was known long before this). [NORAD, 9/18/01] No media report has suggested that the possible shooting down of hijacked airplanes was discussed at this time, however. Perspectives Essay? It appears the discussion was not broached until after 9:55. [Washington Post, 1/27/02, CBS, 9/11/02] At about 9:26, it was either FAA head Jane Garvey or FAA administrator Ben Sliney (and not Bush) who decided to is that sound auden essay, halt all airplane takeoffs in the US. [Time, 9/14/01, USA Today, 8/13/02] Additionally, no evidence has appeared suggesting Bush had a role in ordering any fighters into perspectives essay, the skies. Essay By David? Finally, to psychology perspectives essay, the Airport.
Bush talks on a cell phone on the way to the Sarasota airport. Andrew Card is in front of is that sound auden him. [AP] By 9:35, Bush#8217;s motorcade was ready to take him to the Sarasota airport where Air Force One was waiting. [Telegraph, 12/16/01] At 9:37, Flight 77 crashed into the Pentagon. Bush was informed as his motorcade got near the airport. (Apparently Bush could be reached by phone in his limousine at essay, this time.) [Washington Times, 10/8/02, Telegraph, 12/16/01] The motorcade arrived around 9:43 and pulled up close to Air Force One. Security conducted an extra-thorough search of all the essay by david, baggage for psychology essay the other passengers, delaying takeoff until 9:55. University? [St. Perspectives? Petersburg Times, 9/8/02 (B)] A year later, Chief of Staff Andrew Card recalled that, #8220;As we were heading to kant enlightenment, Air Force One#8230; [we] learned, what turned out to psychology perspectives essay, be a mistake, but we learned that the Air Force One package could in fact be a target.#8221; [MSNBC, 9/9/02] This echoes the report mentioned above that #8220;terrorists targeted the president and essays 2008, Air Force One#8230; maybe even while they were on the ground in Sarasota#8230;#8221; [Sarasota Herald-Tribune, 9/16/01] This only perspectives essay increases the strangeness that Bush wasn#8217;t immediately evacuated at 9:03 as some of his security had recommended. Dogs thoroughly check luggage underneath Air Force One. [AP]
Bush spoke by kant enlightenment, telephone to Cheney as the motorcade raced to psychology essay, the airport. [St. Petersburg Times 9/8/02] Supposedly, during this call Bush issued an order to ground all flights within the by david, country. [Sarasota Magazine, 11/01] The FAA did shut down the psychology essay, nationwide air traffic system at around 9:45. [MSNBC, 9/22/01, CNN, 9/12/01, New York Times, 9/12/01, Newsday, 9/10/02, Washington Post, 9/12/01] But other reports state that it was FAA administrator Ben Sliney who made the decision without consulting anyone. O What Is That? [USA Today, 8/13/02, USA Today, 8/13/02 (B)] For some time it was claimed that Transportation Secretary Norman Mineta had made the decision, but it was later revealed that Mineta didn#8217;t even know of the order until 15 minutes later. Apparently, #8220;FAA officials had begged [the reporter] to maintain the fiction.#8221; [Slate, 4/2/02] The idea that Bush made the psychology perspectives, decision is even less plausible. In fact, there is to change in the world essay, no evidence at all to suggest that Bush had by essay, this point made even one decision relevant to essay, his security or that of the country. Psychology Essay? Where is the security covering Bush as he leaves Sarasota? Is a good public relations photo more important than security, minutes after the Secret Service was told Bush could be attacked as he left Sarasota? [AP] Air Force One Takes Off Without Fighter Escort. Air Force One took off at one thing to change in the essay, either 9:55 or 9:57 a.m. [CNN, 9/12/01, New York Times, 9/12/01, Telegraph, 12/16/01, CBS, 9/11/02, Washington Post, 9/12/01, Washington Post, 1/27/02, AP, 9/12/01] Communications Director Dan Bartlett remembered, #8220;It was like a rocket. For a good ten minutes, the plane was going almost straight up.#8221; [CBS, 9/11/02] But, incredibly, Air Force One took off without any military fighter protection. This defies all explanation.
Recall that at essay, 9:03 a.m., one of Bush#8217;s security people said, #8220;We#8217;re out of one thing here. Can you get everyone ready?#8221; [Sarasota Herald-Tribune, 9/10/02] Certainly, long before Bush left the elementary school at 9:35 a.m., arrangements would have been made to get fighters to essay, Sarasota as soon as possible. Not only one thing world essay would it have been advisable to protect Air Force One, but it would have been only sensible as another way to perspectives, protect Bush on the ground from by david terrorist attack even before he left the school. In Florida, there were two bases said to psychology essay, have fighters on ap biology 24-hour alert, capable of getting airborne in approximately five minutes. Homestead Air Station, 185 miles from psychology perspectives essay Sarasota, and Tyndall Air Station, 235 miles from Sarasota; both had the highest readiness status on 9/11.
Presumably, as happened at other bases across the essay by david sedaris, country, just after 9:03, base commanders throughout Florida would have immediately begun preparations to get their fighters ready. [Aviation Week and Space Technology, 6/3/02] Fighters left bases on perspectives the same alert status and traveled similar distances to reach Washington, DC, well before 10:00, so why were the fighters delayed in Florida? [Aviation Week and Space Technology, 9/9/02] Military planes should have been over Sarasota by the time Bush left Booker at essay enlightenment, 9:35 a.m. Perspectives? Yet, as will be described below, more than one hour after Air Force One took off, there were still no fighters protecting it! Air Force One departs Sarasota. [AP] An administration official claimed, #8220;The object seemed to be simply to o what auden essay, get the perspectives essay, President airborne and out of the way.#8221; [Telegraph, 12/16/01] But without fighter cover this makes little sense, because the sky was arguably more dangerous than the essay, ground. At the time, there were still over 3,000 planes in the air over the US [USA Today, 8/13/02 (B)], including about half of the planes in the region of Florida where Bush was. [St. Petersburg Times, 9/7/02] Recall, too, that the Secret Service learned of psychology perspectives a threat to Bush and world essay, Air Force One #8220;just minutes after Bush left Booker Elementary.#8221; Karl Rove, also on psychology Air Force One, confirmed that a dangerous threat was known before the plane took off: #8220;They also made it clear they wanted to ap biology, get us up quickly, and they wanted to get us to a high altitude, because there had been a specific threat made to Air Force One#8230;. A declaration that Air Force One was a target, and said in psychology essay, a way that they called it credible.#8221; [New Yorker, 10/1/01] Cheney, right and sitting, talks to one thing in the world, Bush. Condoleezza Rice, center and essay, sitting, and others, look on. [White House] Shoot Down Authorized#8212;Too Late. Essay? Once he was airborne, Bush talked to Cheney again and Cheney recommended that Bush #8220;order our aircraft to shoot down these airliners that have been hijacked.#8221; [CBS, 9/11/02] #8220;I said, #145;You bet,#146; #8221; Bush later recalled. Perspectives Essay? #8220;We had a little discussion, but not much.#8221; [Newsday, 9/23/01, USA Today, 9/16/01, Washington Post, 1/27/02] However, even though only essay by david Bush had the authority to order a passenger plane shot down [CNN, 10/26/99], the order was apparently given before Bush discussed it with Cheney. One flight commander recalled, #8220;After the Pentagon was hit, we were told there were more [airliners] coming.
Not #145;might be#146; ; they were coming.#8221; A call from someone in the White House declared the Washington area #8220;a free-fire zone,#8221; meaning, according to one of the responding fighter pilots, #8220;we were given authority to use force, if the psychology, situation required it.#8221; [Aviation Week and Space Technology, 9/9/02] Extraordinary times can demand extraordinary measures, so having someone other than Bush give this order could be understandable. But Bush was available and talking to people like Cheney after 9:30 a.m. Around this time, officials feared that as many as 11 airliners had been hijacked [CBS, 9/11/02], so why weren#8217;t Bush and essay by david, Cheney even considering this course of action until about 10:00 a.m.? Was Bush being kept out of the loop in reality, or only in the media reports? Is the lateness of this discussion merely political spin to perspectives, reduce speculation that Flight 93 had been shot down? Flight 93 was still in the air after the Bush authorization, and fighters were given orders to shoot it down if necessary. [ABC News, 9/11/02] NORAD knew at is that sound essay, 9:16 a.m. Psychology Essay? that Flight 93 was hijacked [NORAD, 9/18/01], but supposedly fighters weren#8217;t scrambled until minutes before it crashed at 10:06 a.m.
Going Nowhere as Threats Increase. Shortly after takeoff, Cheney apparently informed Bush of #8220;a credible threat#8221; to Air Force One. [AP, 9/13/01 (D)] US Representative Adam Putnam #8220;had barely settled into by david, his seat on Air Force One#8230; when he got the psychology essay, news that terrorists apparently had set their sights on the plane.#8221; [Orlando Sentinel, 9/14/01] The Secret Service had received an anonymous call: #8220;Air Force One is next.#8221; The caller allegedly knew the kant enlightenment, agency#8217;s code words relating to Air Force One procedures. Pilot Colonel Mark Tillman was told of the threat and he asked that an armed guard be stationed at essay, the cockpit door. The Associated Press reported that the threat came #8220;within the essay, same hour#8221; as the Pentagon crash ( i.e. , before 10:00 a.m., roughly when the essay, plane took off). [AP, 9/13/01 (D)] Details suggest this threat was not the same as the university of chicago admissions, earlier one, but it#8217;s hard to psychology perspectives essay, know for sure. In his comments at Booker, Bush said he was immediately flying back to Washington, but soon after takeoff, he, Cheney and the Secret Service began arguing whether it was safe to diet pills, fly back to the capital. [Telegraph, 12/16/01] Andrew Card told Bush, #8220;We#8217;ve got to let the dust settle before we go back.#8221; [St. Petersburg Times, 9/8/02] The plane apparently stayed over psychology essay, Sarasota until the essay, argument was settled. Essay? Accounts differ, but until about 10:35 a.m. 2008? [CBS, 9/11/02 (B), Washington Post, 1/27/02], Air Force One #8220;appeared to be going nowhere. Perspectives Essay? The journalists on board #150; all of whom were barred from communicating with their offices #150; sensed that the plane was flying in big, slow circles.#8221; [Telegraph, 12/16/01] Cheney apparently called Bush again at essays, 10:32 a.m., and told him of another threat to psychology perspectives, Air Force One. Within minutes, the argument was over, and the plane turned away from ap biology Washington and psychology perspectives essay, flew to Louisiana instead. [Washington Post, 1/27/02] Bush recalled: #8220;I wanted to come back to Washington, but the circumstances were such that it was just impossible for the Secret Service or the national security team to clear the way for Air Force One to come back.#8221; [CBS, 9/11/02] Given that the essays 2008, rocket-like takeoff was due to a threat, this must have been another threat, possibly even a third threat. Psychology Perspectives? Colonel Mark Tillman in the cockpit of essay by david Air Force One. [CBS] Around 10:55 a.m., there was yet another threat to Air Force One.
The pilot, Colonel Mark Tillman, said he was warned that a suspect airliner was dead ahead. #8220;Coming out of Sarasota there was one call that said there was an airliner off our nose that they did not have contact with.#8221; Tillman took evasive action, pulling his plane even higher above normal traffic. [CBS, 9/11/02 (B)] Reporters on board noticed the rise in psychology perspectives, elevation. [Dallas Morning News, 8/28/02, Salon, 9/12/01] The report was apparently a false alarm, but it shows the folly of having Bush fly without a fighter escort. Were There Threats to Air Force One? The threat or threats to Air Force One were announced on essay enlightenment September 12, after mounting criticism that Bush was out of perspectives essay sight in Louisiana and o what sound, Nebraska during most of the day and did not return to Washington until 10 hours after the attacks. Psychology Perspectives? White House spokesman Ari Fleischer said there was #8220;real and essay by david, credible information that the White House and Air Force One were targets.#8221; [White House, 9/12/01] On September 13, New York Times columnist William Safire wrote#8212;and Bush#8217;s political strategist Karl Rove confirmed#8212;that there was an #8220;inside#8221; threat that #8220;may have broken the secret codes [showing a knowledge of perspectives presidential procedures].#8221; [New York Times, 9/13/01] Had terrorists hacked their way into sensitive White House computers? Was there a mole in the White House? No.
It turned out the entire story was made up. Ap Biology? [Washington Post, 9/27/01] The press expressed considerable skepticism about the story. For instance, one Florida newspaper thought Fleischer#8217;s disclosure was #8220;an apparent effort to explain why the psychology, president was flown to Air Force bases#8221; before returning to Washington. [St. Essay Kant? Petersburg Times, 9/13/01] When asked on September 15 about the #8220;credible evidence,#8221; Fleischer said, #8220;we exhausted that topic about two days ago.#8221; [White House, 9/15/01] On September 26, CBS News reported: #8220;Finally, there is psychology, this postscript to ap biology 2008, the puzzle of how someone presumed to be a terrorist was able to call in a threat against Air Force One using a secret code name for psychology the president#8217;s plane. Well, as it turns out, that simply never happened. Sources say White House staffers apparently misunderstood comments made by their security detail.#8221; [CBS, 9/26/01] One former official who served in George Bush Sr.#8216;s administration told Human Events Online, which bills itself as #8220;the national conservative weekly,#8221; that he was #8220;deeply disappointed by [Bush#8217;s] zigzagging across the country.#8221; [Human Events Online, 9/17/01] At the end of the month, Slate magazine awarded its #8220;Whopper of the kant enlightenment, Week#8221; to psychology essay, Karl Rove, Ari Fleischer, and Dick Cheney. [Slate, 9/28/01] No one knew exactly where the bogus story originated from, but #8220;what can be safely said is that it served the White House#8217;s immediate purposes, even though it was completely untrue.#8221; [Telegraph, 12/16/01] What were those purposes? A well-informed, anonymous Washington official said, #8220;It did two things for [Cheney]. Ap Biology? It reinforced his argument that the President should stay out of psychology perspectives town, and it gave George W. an one thing to change in the world essay, excellent reason for psychology doing so.#8221; [Telegraph, 12/16/01] When Bush was asked in May 2002 why he had flown to two Air Force bases before returning to Washington, Bush said, #8220;I was trying to get out of harm#8217;s way.#8221; [White House, 5/21/02] The most obviously bogus threat#8212;the mole knowing secret codes#8212;came from essay by david sedaris Cheney in a pivotal moment in his argument with Bush over where Bush should go. But were the other threats, for instance, the one made before Air Force One even took off, or the airline suspected of crashing into Air Force One, also bogus? The approximate route of perspectives essay Bush#8217;s journey on Air Force One is shown in yellow.
Keep in mind the university admissions essays, plane flew in circles somewhere over Florida for about 40 minutes before heading west. Why did the first planes scrambled to defend the perspectives, plane come from ap biology Ellington, Texas, and not any of the three likely Florida bases? When Does the psychology, Fighter Escort Finally Arrive? Much like the time when Bush left the Booker classroom, the time when fighters finally reached Air Force One is essays, rarely mentioned, and perspectives, when it is, the facts are highly debatable. One Thing To Change In The World Essay? According to one account, around 10:00 a.m. Psychology Perspectives Essay? Air Force One was #8220;joined by one thing to change in the world, an escort of F-16 fighters from a base near Jacksonville, Florida.#8221; [Telegraph, 12/16/01] But one month later, it was reported that in Cheney#8217;s 10:32 phone call, he told Bush that it would take another 40 to 90 minutes [as late as noon] to get protective fighters up to escort Air Force One. Perspectives Essay? [Washington Post, 1/27/02] Another account said, #8220;Air Force One headed toward Jacksonville [at 10:41] to meet jets scrambled to give the presidential jet its own air cover,#8221; but it isn#8217;t said when the plane actually met up with the fighters. [New York Times, 9/16/01 (B)] We know that when Air Force One took evasive action around 10:55, there was no fighter escort. O What Sound Auden Essay? NORAD commander Major General Larry Arnold later said, #8220;We scrambled available airplanes from Tyndall [note this is near Tallahassee, not Jacksonville, Florida] and then from Ellington in psychology, Houston, Texas,#8221; but he doesn#8217;t say when. [Code One Magazine, 1/02] In another account, the admissions, first two F-16s to arrive are piloted by perspectives essay, Shane Brotherton and Randy Roberts, from the Texas Air National Guard, not from any Florida base. [CBS, 9/11/02] All that#8217;s known for sure is that by 11:30 there were six fighters protecting Air Force One. [Sarasota Magazine, 9/19/01] President Bush (center, stooped down) and of chicago admissions, staff look out the windows of Air Force One to see their newly arrived fighter escorts. [White House] It would appear that fighters arrived some time between 11:00 and 11:30. These fighters were supposed to be on 24-hour alert, ready to get into the air in psychology perspectives essay, about five minutes. If we assume the fighters flew at a speed of 1,100 mph, the same speed Major Gen.
Arnold said fighters used to reach New York City earlier in enlightenment, the day when traveling a comparable distance [MSNBC, 9/23/01 (C), Slate, 1/16/02], the fighters should have reached Sarasota in about 10 minutes. Yet they took around two hours to perspectives, reach Air Force One from when they were likely first needed, shortly after 9:00. This clearly goes beyond mere incompetence, yet no newspaper article has ever raised the issue. Was Cheney able to prevent the fighters from reaching Air Force One, perhaps to kant, convince Bush not to psychology perspectives, return to Washington? If so, why? Did Cheney assume (or know) that Bush was in no real danger? Like so many other questions surrounding 9/11, we do not know. Barksdale Air Force Base. Air Force One at Barksdale Air Force Base. [AP] Air Force One landed at Barksdale Air Force base near Shreveport, Louisiana at about 11:45 a.m. [CBS, 9/11/02, Telegraph, 12/16/01, Sarasota Magazine, 11/01] #8220;The official reason for by david landing at Barksdale was that Bush felt it necessary to make a further statement, but it isn#8217;t unreasonable to assume that #150; as there was no agreement as to what the President#8217;s movements should be it was felt he might as well be on perspectives essay the ground as in is that, the air.#8221; [Telegraph, 12/16/01, CBS, 9/11/02] Ironically, the landing came only a short time after Bush#8217;s plane was finally protected by fighters.
There was quite a difference in the protection afforded Bush at Barksdale and what was in Sarasota. Bush was left unprotected at perspectives essay, a known location in Sarasota for nearly 30 minutes. At Barksdale, a location that was at the time unknown, Congressman Dan Miller #8220;was amazed at the armored equipment and soldiers with automatic weapons that immediately surrounded the plane.#8221; [Sarasota Magazine, 11/01] Bush was driven to base headquarters in a Humvee escorted by pills, armed outriders. Reporters and others remained under strict orders not to give out their location. [Telegraph, 12/16/01] Bush walking inside Barksdale Air Force Base. Psychology? [White House] Bush was taken to essays, a secret and psychology perspectives essay, secure place on the base. [Louisiana Life, Autumn 2002] Shortly after 12:30 p.m., Bush taped a short speech, which he wrote on a napkin. [Louisiana Life, Autumn 2002, Salon, 9/12/01, Washington Times, 10/8/02] The tape was broadcast on television at sedaris, around 1:20 p.m. [Salon 9/11/01] He also #8220;spent the psychology, next hour and a half talking on the phone,#8221; again arguing with Cheney and o what sound auden essay, others over psychology perspectives, where he should go next. [Sarasota Magazine, 11/01] The Secret Service felt the sound essay, situation in Washington was still unsafe. [CBS, 9/11/02] Bush told Karl Rove: #8220;I want to go back home as soon as possible.#8221; Rove answered: #8220;Our people are saying it#8217;s unstable still.#8221; [AP, 9/13/01 (D)] Bush was told he could get to psychology perspectives essay, the US Strategic Command center in one thing world essay, Offutt, Nebraska, quicker than he could fly to Washington, so he agreed to go to psychology perspectives essay, Nebraska. Diet Paper? [Telegraph, 12/16/01, AP, 9/13/01 (D)] Just after 1:00 p.m., Bush supposedly #8220;received an intelligence report from the base commander that a high-speed object was headed for his ranch in Crawford, Texas.#8221; It turned out to be another false alarm. Psychology Essay? [ Fighting Back: The War on Terrorism#8212;From Inside the Bush White House , by Bill Sammon, 10/02, p.117] This may well be another bogus report designed to explain why Bush didn#8217;t return to Washington at this time, since US airspace was declared clear except for some military and emergency flights at 12:16 p.m. [USA Today, 8/12/02 (C)] By 12:30, the FAA reported that only about 50 of pills research paper these flights were still flying in US airspace, and none were reporting problems [CNN, 9/12/01, New York Times, 9/12/01], so how could an unknown plane have been headed toward Bush#8217;s ranch 30 minutes after that? Offutt Air Force Base. Air Force One left Barksdale for Offutt Air Force Base around 1:30 p.m. [CBS, 9/11/02, Telegraph, 12/16/01, Salon, 9/11/01, Washington Post, 9/11/01, MSNBC, 9/22/01, CNN, 9/12/01] The Air Force One entourage was pared down to a few essential staffers such as Ari Fleischer, Andrew Card, Karl Rove, Dan Bartlett, and Gordon Johndroe [White House, 9/11/01], plus about psychology perspectives essay, five reporters. [AP, 9/12/01 (D)] During the flight, Bush remained in essay kant enlightenment, #8220;continuous contact#8221; with the White House Situation Room and Vice President Cheney. Essay? [CNN, 9/11/01 (B)] Air Force One landed at Offutt shortly before 3:00 p.m. [Washington Post, 9/11/01] At 3:06, Bush passed through security to essay sedaris, the US Strategic Command Underground Command Center [Salon, 9/11/01, CBS, 9/11/02] and perspectives, was taken into ap biology essays, an underground bunker designed to psychology essay, withstand a nuclear blast. [Telegraph, 12/16/01] Bush, center, with Andrew Card to his left, takes part in one thing, a video conference from inside Offutt Air Force Base. Psychology Essay? [White House] There, he held a teleconference call with Vice President Cheney, National Security Advisor Rice, Defense Secretary Rumsfeld, Deputy Secretary of State Richard Armitage, CIA Director Tenet, Transportation Secretary Norman Mineta, and essay, others. [ABC News, 9/11/02, Telegraph, 12/16/01, Washington Times, 10/8/02] The meeting lasted about an psychology perspectives, hour. [Telegraph, 12/16/01, Salon, 9/11/01, AP, 8/19/02] Rice recalled that during the meeting, Tenet told Bush, #8220;Sir, I believe it#8217;s al-Qaeda. We#8217;re doing the assessment but it looks like, it feels like, it smells like al-Qaeda.#8221; [CBS, 9/11/02] By this time, people were anticipating and expecting another reassuring public statement from Bush. [Orlando Sentinel, 9/12/01] The White House staff was preparing for Bush to o what essay, address the psychology, nation from the Offutt bunker, but Bush decided instead to return to Washington. [CBS, 9/11/02] As a side note, Warren Buffett, one of the richest people in the world, was hosting an unpublicized charity benefit inside the ap biology essays 2008, high security Offutt military base at perspectives essay, 8:00 a.m.
With him were business leaders and several executives from the o what is that sound, World Trade Center, including Anne Tatlock of Fiduciary Trust Co. Perspectives Essay? International, who likely would have died had it not been for the meeting. [San Francisco Business Times, 2/1/02] They watched a lot of the to change essay, television coverage that morning, but it#8217;s unknown if any of psychology perspectives these people were still at Offutt by the time Bush arrived in diet paper, the afternoon. This photo of Bush speaking to perspectives, Cheney shortly after leaving Offutt was later used for Republican fundraising. [White House] Back in Washington. Sedaris? Air Force One left Offutt around 4:30 p.m. [MSNBC, 9/22/01, CNN, 9/12/01, Telegraph, 12/16/01] and landed at psychology perspectives essay, Andrews Air Force Base at 6:34 p.m., escorted by two F-15 fighters and one F-16. [CNN, 9/11/01] Bush then took the Marine One helicopter to the White House [Salon 9/11/01], arriving shortly before 7:00 p.m. In The World? [CNN, 9/12/01, Telegraph, 12/16/01, AP, 8/19/02] Bush gave a nationally televised speech at 8:30 p.m. [CNN, 9/12/01, White House, 9/11/01], speaking for about five minutes. Psychology? [US News, 9/14/01] In what would later be called the Bush Doctrine, he stated, #8220;We will make no distinction between the in the world essay, terrorists who committed these acts and those who harbor them.#8221; [Washington Post, 1/27/02] Bush addresses the nation. [White House] Around 9:00 p.m., Bush met with his full National Security Council, followed roughly half an hour later by psychology perspectives, a meeting with a smaller group of key advisors. Bush and diet paper, his advisors had already decided bin Laden was behind the psychology essay, attacks. CIA Director Tenet told Bush that al-Qaeda and the Taliban in Afghanistan were essentially one and the same. [Washington Post, 1/27/02] The many accounts of what happened to Bush on 9/11 are riddled with disinformation of false threats, omitted details, fudged timing, and more. But around September 11, 2002, the kant, heavily publicized first anniversary of the attacks, there was an obvious attempt to further rewrite the story. Psychology Perspectives Essay? Chief of essays 2008 Staff Andrew Card claimed that after he told Bush about the second World Trade Center crash, #8220;it was only a matter of seconds#8221; before Bush #8220;excused himself very politely to the teacher and to the students, and he left#8221; the classroom. Card also stated that Bush #8220;quickly excused himself to a holding room.#8221; [San Francisco Chronicle, 9/11/02] In a different account, Card said, #8220;Not that many seconds later the president excused himself from the classroom.#8221; [MSNBC, 9/9/02] The Booker school video shows these statements are lies#8212;unless #8220;a matter of psychology seconds#8221; means over 700 seconds! Sandra Kay Daniels, the teacher whose second-grade classroom Bush visited on 9/11, told the 2008, Los Angeles Times that after Card informed Bush of the second crash, Bush got up and psychology perspectives essay, left. #8220;He said, #145;Ms.
Daniels, I have to sedaris, leave now.#146;#8230; Looking at his face, you knew something was wrong. I said a little prayer for psychology perspectives essay him. He shook my hand and is that sound, left.#8221; Daniels also said, #8220;I knew something was up when President Bush didn#8217;t pick up the perspectives essay, book and participate in the lesson.#8221; [Los Angeles Times, 9/11/02] However, the Booker video clearly shows that Bush did follow along after being told of the second plane. [Video: Center for Cooperative Research, Buzzflash, Global Free Press, The Emperor#8217;s New Clothes, or Liberty DYNU] The New York Post reported, #8220;A federal agent rushed into the room to inform the president of the United States. Is That Auden Essay? President Bush had been presiding over [Daniels#8217;s] reading class last 9/11, when a Secret Service agent interrupted the essay, lesson and is that essay, asked, #145;Where can we get to a television?#146; #8221; Daniels then claimed that Bush left the class even before the psychology, second crash: #8220;The president bolted right out of here and told me: #145;Take over.#146; #8221; When the second crash occurred, she claims her students were watching TV in essay, a nearby media room. [New York Post, 9/12/02] This article is psychology perspectives essay, riddled with errors. As mentioned previously, the Secret Service was already watching the second plane crash live on television in an adjacent room at 9:03#8212;long before this supposedly happened. Nor did Bush #8220;bolt#8221; out of the essay by david, room; in perspectives, fact, even pro-Bush author Bill Sammon called Bush #8220;the dawdler in essay by david, chief#8221; for perspectives essay taking so long to o what is that sound, leave the room. Psychology Essay? [ Fighting Back: The War on Terrorism#8212;From Inside the Bush White House , by Bill Sammon, 10/02, p. 90] Bush shows a CBS reporter around Air Force One as part of his 9/11 anniversary interview. Ap Biology Essays? [AP/CBS] Bush himself took part in psychology, the historical revisionism. In an extensive video interview shown on one thing in the CBS#8217;s #8220;60 Minutes,#8221; he again repeated his bizarre belief that he was watching television when the essay, first crash took place. CBS also revived the false story that terrorists had broken Air Force One#8217;s secret codes, even though it was CBS who debunked that same story nearly a year earlier. Essay? [CBS, 9/11/02] Vital Questions Remain Unanswered. Needless to say, in the anniversary hoopla, Bush and other leaders were described as #8220;resolute,#8221;#8220;brave,#8221;#8220;strong,#8221; and so forth. Even the minor level of media criticism just after 9/11 that led to several reporters losing their jobs was absent.
The topic of Bush#8217;s behavior on 9/11 has been barely mentioned in the media since. There are many questions that deserve answers. So many pieces of the puzzle do not fit. Simply by reading the mainstream media reports, we can see that mere incompetence doesn#8217;t explain what happened to Bush on that day. For instance, it makes no sense that Bush would listen to perspectives, a story about a goat long after being told the essays, US was under attack, and even after the Secret Service decided to immediately evacuate him from the psychology perspectives, school. By David? It defies explanation that Air Force One#8217;s fighter escort took two hours to appear. And it is mind-boggling that there are seven different versions of how Bush learned about the first crash. It#8217;s doubtful that the Independent Commission investigation will look critically at perspectives, what Bush did on 9/11 and why he did it. Despite the contradictory reports, no one in the mainstream media has yet demanded clarification of the ap biology 2008, many obvious inconsistencies and problems of the official version.
Anyone even asking questions has been quickly insulted as anti-American, accused of bashing the president in a time of war, or branded a conspiracy nut. Psychology Perspectives Essay? Only a few relatives of the 9/11 attacks have been able to o what, raise these issues publicly. For instance, Kristen Breitweiser told Phil Donahue: #8220;It was clear that we were under attack. Why didn#8217;t the Secret Service whisk [Bush] out of that school?#8230; [H]e is the commander-in-chief of the United States of America, our country was clearly under attack, it was after the second building was hit. I want to essay, know why he sat there for 25 minutes.#8221; [Donahue, 8/13/02] But so far, few have listened to their concerns. Because the media has failed in sedaris, its role to essay, ask these questions, much less attempt to answer them, it is now the responsibility of university of chicago admissions essays ordinary Americans#8212;of you, of psychology perspectives essay me, and the people we know#8212;to gather the research paper, information, look for answers, and sound the alarm. Allan Wood has assisted with the research for, and editing of, the 9/11 Timeline. He is psychology perspectives essay, also a member of kant enlightenment 911CitizensWatch.org. Any questions, comments, or additional information regarding this article can be sent to his email: aninterestingday @hotmail.com (remove the psychology perspectives, space). Essays? Thanks to Melissa Kavonic for assisting in the proofreading of the psychology perspectives essay, article. The Center for Cooperative Research needs your support.
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Essay Writing Guide for Psychology …
essay contest winner In the summer of 2017, we partnered with one of psychology perspectives essay, Washington’s top foreign-policy outlets to bring college students’ voices into our nation’s foreign policy conversation and to take a small step toward restoring a healthy, balanced civic debate on the proper scale of essays, our nation’s ambitions and actions abroad. We received a deluge of excellent submissions from psychology essay young voices all across the country, all answering this question: “What benefits could a more restrained, careful foreign policy strategy offer to is that sound auden the United States?” First prize went to Andrew Beddow , who is also president of our University of essay, Michigan chapter. In his essay, Beddow calls for America to set a clear grand strategy that recognizes the world’s complexity and thus does not treat international problems as separate and readily fixable. Thus, “Intervention is occasionally justified, and the United States both improves the paper condition of psychology, mankind and benefits itself through its continued participation in international humanitarian efforts and multilateral cooperation. However, intervention must be guided by is that sound auden essay, a grand strategy, one that explicitly enumerates the core interests of the United States and limits activity abroad to the securing of perspectives essay, these interests. American policymakers must consider whether or not foreign adventures, e.g. taking a moral stand against Russian annexation of Crimea, are sufficiently important all-things-considered to essay by david outweigh the plausible negative consequences that will result from this action. In light of the dynamic nature of the international order, we must also recognize the inherent unpredictability of intervention.
Prudence, not beneficence, should be the guiding virtue of essay, foreign policy.” One of our runners up was Enea Gjoza of the Harvard Kennedy School. Gjoza’s essay examines our current strategy of global primacy – of “seeking to shape the world through frequent military intervention and by maintaining and essay by david sedaris, exercising overwhelming dominance over potential competitors.” He argues that this strategy has come at a high price in blood and treasure, and yet has failed to make America safer. And this strategy is a departure from America’s traditional posture of restraint. Under that approach, Gjoza writes, “As the other great powers of the perspectives essay day exhausted themselves in world, conflict against each other throughout the nineteenth and first half of the twentieth century, the United States developed its economy and society in relative peace, intervening substantially only to tip the balance in the World Wars. This allowed the psychology perspectives essay United States to emerge as an unmatched superpower after the wreckage of the Second World War, with an unscathed homeland and o what is that, approximately half of the world’s GDP. Today, however, the United States is on psychology perspectives essay the other end of the essays spectrum, taking upon psychology perspectives essay, itself the burden of maintaining the global order while other nations enjoy the benefits of peace and commerce.” Our other runner up was Matthew Petti of Columbia University. Petti challenges the essay by david sedaris conventional view in Washington that America needs to double down on support for one of our most problematic allies, the perspectives essay Kingdom of Saudi Arabia – to treat their enemies as our own and to accept their account of the problems in their region. Petti’s essay highlights the o what is that sound auden essay failures of such an approach, calling the current U.S.-Saudi relationship “a valuable case study of allied nations’ sometimes detrimental effect on U.S. foreign policy.” Thus, he writes, “U.S. support has essentially shielded Saudi Arabia from the negative effects of its campaign, removing incentives the psychology perspectives essay kingdom has to restrain its own actions.
From the beginning of Saudi Arabia’s intervention in is that sound auden essay, Yemen, the psychology essay Obama administration supported the Saudi-led coalition with mid-air refueling and advanced munitions. This aid hasn’t quite made up for poor military leadership, but it has passed the o what is that mounting economic costs onto a foreign guarantor, allowing Saudi forces to maintain their technological edge despite a budget crisis in the kingdom. Consequently, American calls for a political solution have fallen on deaf ears; as the psychology Trump administration considers removing some restrictions on support to the Saudi-led coalition, Riyadh will only be encouraged to pursue the disastrous status quo.” He adds that the war has enabled Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula, one of the most dangerous branches of the terrorist group, to take advantage of the chaos, meaning that “while attempting to please a U.S. ally, America is essentially undermining its own domestic security, giving a geographic base to the people responsible for o what auden essay the USS Cole bombing and the Charlie Hebdo shooting.” We received many other excellent submissions that highlight the growing number of perspectives, talented young leaders across the political spectrum who are eager to bring prudence and restraint back into our foreign policy. We at the Society are here to help them.
Below is the original prompt for essays the essay contest, along with rules for submission. It’s clear that the foreign policy conversation here inside the Beltway is perspectives essay too narrow. No matter what the question is, the answer always seems to be that the United States needs to paper do more – even after fifteen years of war, even with massive national-security expenditures, and even with our already-huge network of psychology perspectives, alliance commitments and essays, overseas bases. We need your voice to psychology perspectives essay help change the conversation. That’s why we’re partnering with The National Interest – one of Washington’s most important foreign policy magazines – to launch a new essay contest for college students. The winners will run in TNI, meaning they’ll be read by many of those who make the decisions and shape the discussions that set our country’s course in the world.
And by appearing in such a respected forum, you’ll help make a name for yourself as a thoughtful, professional voice in ap biology essays, international affairs. It’s a tremendous opportunity to restore balance to psychology perspectives essay the discourse in DC – and to build your own personal brand. Moreover, winners will receive a hefty cash prize, and the first twenty submissions will receive a free subscription to TNI. Undergraduate, graduate, and doctoral students who will be attending institutions in the United States in the Fall 2017 semester are welcome to participate. The winning essays will run on pills research TNI’s website and be promoted on social media by both TNI and JQA.
Prizes are as follows: • First prize: $1000, essay featured on TNI, two year subscription to TNI. • Runner up (two): $250, essay featured on TNI, one year subscription to TNI. Additionally, the first twenty submissions will receive a free one-year subscription to the National Interest . Submissions shall answer the following question: What benefits could a more restrained, careful foreign policy strategy offer to perspectives the United States? Submissions shall be between 1000 and 1500 words, and are due by 11:59pm Eastern Time on Sunday, June 18, 2017, by essay enlightenment, following the instructions at this link. Sources should be hyperlinked, rather than footnoted, when possible. Complete rules follow: Student Foreign Policy Essay CONTEST RULES. 1. SPONSOR: The sponsor of the essay Student Foreign Policy Essay Contest (the “Contest”) is the John Quincy Adams Society. (the “Sponsor”).
2. ELIGIBILITY: Contest entrants must be legal residents of the of chicago fifty (50) United States and the District of Columbia aged 18 years or older, except where prohibited. Employees, officers, and directors of the Sponsor, and its subsidiaries, affiliates, and divisions (“Related Entities”) and their immediate families (parents, children, siblings and psychology perspectives essay, their spouses) and essay enlightenment, household members (whether or not related) of each are not eligible to perspectives enter. Anyone serving as a contest judge is ineligible for the Contest. The Contest is void outside the university admissions essays fifty (50) United States, the District of Columbia and where prohibited and restricted by any federal, state, or local law, rule, or regulation (“Law”). The Contest is subject to all Law. 3. Psychology Essay. HOW TO ENTER: The Contest begins on April 26, 2017 at 12:00PM ET and ends at 11:59PM ET, Sunday, June 18, 2017 (the “Contest Period”). To be eligible for the Contest, you must: • Before the end of the Contest Period, go to world the Contest entry page at psychology essay, this link, and to change in the essay, submit an essay between 1000 and 1500 words in length on the topic of essay, “the benefits of a more restrained, careful foreign policy for university the United States.” To be eligible to submit a Contest entry, you must be enrolled as of the fall of 2017 in an accredited postsecondary institution or program listed in the U.S.
Department of psychology perspectives essay, Education’s most recent database (http://ope.ed.gov/accreditation/GetDownLoadFile.aspx). No person may submit more than one Contest entry. Attempting to submit multiple Contest entries will result in your disqualification from the Contest. Your participation in the Contest is optional and at your sole and absolute discretion. 4. 2008. PROHIBITED CONTENT: By entering the perspectives Contest you agree not to create or submit a Contest entry that: • Infringes on essay sedaris any patent, trademark, trade secret, copyright, or other proprietary or property rights of any party; • May be deemed, within the meaning of Law, to be electioneering communications, intervention in a political or electoral campaign, or lobbying; • Is unlawful, threatening, harassing, abusive, obscene, vulgar, harmful, tortious, defamatory, libelous, false, invasive of another’s privacy, hateful racially, ethnically, or otherwise, or in any other way objectionable; • You do not have the legal or contractual right to make available pursuant to any Law, or under any contractual or fiduciary relationship (such as inside information, proprietary information, and psychology perspectives, confidential information, learned or disclosed as part of ap biology 2008, employment relationships or under nondisclosure agreements); • Harms minors in perspectives, any way; or. • Violates any Law, intentionally or unintentionally. The Sponsor reserves the right to disqualify any and all Contest entries that violate the paper above conditions, or for any other reason at any time without prior notice. 5. JUDGING AND SELECTION OF PRIZE WINNERS: All contest entries will be judged based on the following criteria: • Originality in thought (40%) • Demonstrated understanding of foreign policy (40%) • Composition and style (20%)
6. Psychology. PRIZES : On or about June 23, 2017, three prize winners will be announced (the “Prize Winners”). University Of Chicago Essays. The Prize Winners shall receive the following (the “Prize(s)”): • First Prize – $1000.00, two years’ subscription to The National Interest. ?• Runners Up (2) – $250.00, one year subscription to The National Interest. All Prizes will be paid in United States Dollars. The approximate retail value of the psychology Prizes are as follows: First Prize – $1039.95; Runner Up – $279.95. The winning essays will be published on The National Interest ’s website. 7. PRIZE RESTRICTIONS: The specifics of essays, all elements of the Prizes stated in these Contest rules shall be determined by Sponsor in its sole and absolute discretion. If an alternate prize is substituted and awarded: any portion of the alternate prize not used by any Prize Winner is psychology essay forfeited and no substitute will be offered or permitted; all elements of the Prize being offered are: (a) provided “as is” with no warranty or guarantee either express or implied by essays 2008, Sponsor; (b) without warranty other than that offered by servicers or as required by Law; (c) provided without making the Sponsor responsible or liable for psychology perspectives any warranty, representation, or guarantee, express or implied, in fact or in is that sound auden, law, relative to the Prize, including but not limited to their quality or fitness for a particular purpose; and (d) if applicable, not transferable or redeemable for cash and may not be extended, transferred or substituted, except that the Sponsor may substitute a prize of equal or greater value when necessary (not to exceed $1039.95 for the First Prize or $279.95 for the Runner Up), as determined in its sole and absolute discretion (any such changes will be announced at psychology essay, the sole and essay kant enlightenment, absolute discretion of the Sponsor). Each Prize Winner assumes sole responsibility for psychology perspectives essay all costs associated with any elements of the Prize not explicitly included as part of the Prize, including without limitation, all federal, state and local taxes (if any), fees, surcharges, or other expenses.
Other restrictions may apply. In compliance with United States Internal Revenue Service regulations, the Sponsor will send a Form 1099-MISC to pills any Prize Winner, which requires disclosure to the Sponsor of the perspectives Prize Winner’s Social Security number. Essay. Prize Winners remain solely responsible for paying all federal and other taxes in accordance with Laws that apply in the Prize Winner’s state of residence. 8. PRIZE WINNER NOTIFICATION: The Prize Winners will be announced by a means reasonably calculated by the Sponsor to reach all Contest entrants. Psychology Essay. Following the to change essay announcement of the Prize Winners, the individuals selected as the Prize Winners will be notified via email or telephone within three days from the date of selection by psychology perspectives, the Sponsor based on the information provided by that person on essay sedaris his or her entry form.
The Prize Winners will be required to complete, sign, and return an Affidavit of Eligibility, Liability Release, and Publicity Release (the “Winners Affidavit”) within fourteen days of the date the Sponsor provides a Prize Winner the notification email or call. Essay. If a Prize Winner fails to satisfy any eligibility requirements, declines to accept the Prize, or is ineligible for any other reason, the Prize Winner may be disqualified and an alternate winner may be selected at the sole and absolute discretion of the Sponsor. Noncompliance with any of these Contest rules may result in disqualification. The Sponsor is not responsible for fraudulent communications made by third parties to Contest entrants or the Prize Winners. A Prize Winner is not an official winner until the Prize Winner returns the auden essay Winner’s Affidavit and psychology perspectives, eligibility has otherwise been formally verified by the Sponsor. 9. OWNERSHIP OF YOUR CONTEST ENTRY : By submitting your Contest entry you hereby relinquish, grant, transfer, assign, and deliver to the Sponsor all right, title, and interest of every kind and ap biology 2008, nature whatsoever that you have in the essay you write as part of your Contest entry, including the copyright and all other intellectual property rights thereto. As a condition of receiving your prize, you may be required to execute additional documentation such as copyright assignments to sponsor of your Contest Essay. In addition, you hereby irrevocably assign to the Sponsor all causes of action, including accrued, existing, and essay, future causes of action, arising out of or related to the rights, including copyrights, in and to the essay you write as part of your Contest entry. 10. Essay. DISPUTES: By participating, entrants release Sponsor and its parent companies, affiliates, subsidiaries, and perspectives, their members, directors, officers, employees, and agents from any and o what essay, all liability with respect to all aspects of the Contest including all losses, damage or bodily injury resulting from psychology essay participation in ap biology essays, this Contest, and perspectives essay, the possession, acceptance, or misuse of prizes.
By entering the sound essay Contest, you agree that (a) any and all disputes, claims, and causes of action arising out of or connected to perspectives essay the Contest or the Prize, shall be resolved individually, without resort to any form of of chicago essays, class action; (b) any and perspectives, all claims, judgments and awards shall be limited to actual out-of-pocket costs incurred, including costs associated with entering the Contest but in no event attorneys’ fees; and (c) under no circumstances will any entrant be permitted to obtain any award for, and you hereby waive all rights to, any claim; punitive, incidental, or consequential damages; and essay kant enlightenment, any and all rights to have damages multiplied or otherwise increased and any other damages, other than for actual out-of-pocket expenses. All issues and questions concerning the construction, validity, interpretation, and enforceability of these Contest rules, or the rights and psychology perspectives essay, obligations of the entrants and Sponsor in connection with the Contest, shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of Virginia without giving effect to any choice of law or conflict of law rules or provisions that would cause the sedaris application of the laws of any jurisdiction other than the Commonwealth of Virginia. Any legal proceedings arising out of this Contest or relating to these Contest rules shall be instituted only in the federal courts located in the Eastern District of Virginia, and psychology perspectives, the parties consent to jurisdiction therein with respect to any legal proceedings or disputes of whatever nature arising under or relating to these Contest rules. The invalidity or unenforceability of any provision of these Contest rules shall not affect the validity or enforceability of any other provision. University Essays. In the perspectives essay event that any provision is determined to be invalid or otherwise unenforceable or illegal, these Contest rules shall otherwise remain in effect and be construed in accordance with their terms as if the invalid or illegal provision were not contained in by david, these Contest rules. 11.
INTERNET: If for any reason this Contest is not capable of running as planned due to an infection by a computer virus, bugs, tampering, unauthorized intervention, fraud, technical failures, or any other causes beyond the control of the perspectives Sponsor that corrupt or affect the administration, security, fairness, integrity, or proper conduct of this Contest, the Sponsor reserves the right at its sole and essay enlightenment, absolute discretion to cancel, terminate, modify, or suspend the Contest. The Sponsor assumes no responsibility for any error, omission, interruption, deletion, defect, delay in operation or transmission, communications line failure, or theft, destruction, or unauthorized access to or alteration of entries. The Sponsor is perspectives not responsible for any problems or technical malfunctions of o what, any telephone network or telephone lines, computer online systems, servers, or providers, computer equipment, software, failure of any email or entry to be received by the Sponsor due to technical problems, human error or traffic congestion on the internet or at any website, or any combination thereof, including any injury or damage to your or any other person’s computer relating to or resulting from participating in essay, this Contest or downloading any materials in this Contest. CAUTION: ANY ATTEMPT TO DELIBERATELY DAMAGE ANY WEBSITE OR UNDERMINE THE LEGITIMATE OPERATION OF THE CONTEST MAY BE A VIOLATION OF CRIMINAL AND CIVIL LAWS. SHOULD SUCH AN ATTEMPT BE MADE, THE SPONSOR RESERVES THE RIGHT TO SEEK DAMAGES OR OTHER REMEDIES FROM ANY SUCH PERSON(S) RESPONSIBLE FOR THE ATTEMPT TO THE FULLEST EXTENT PERMITTED BY LAW. Uses of automated devices are not valid for entry. 12. USE OF INFORMATION: The information that you provide in connection with the Contest may be used by Sponsor to inform you about related opportunities and developments involving charitable or educational topics that the Sponsor thinks may be of interest to you.
WINNERS’ LIST/CONTEST RULES: To request an official Prize Winners list or a copy of these Contest rules, both available through September 1, 2017, send an email to email@example.com. Note: Section 2 was updated on 5/4/2017 to update the list of eligible locations.