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As we all know, evaluating your resources is an important part of the research process. However, all resources aren’t created equal so how do you know whether what you’ve found is good or bad on the spectrum of quality? Firstly you can attend a class in immortality, the QUT Library such as ‘Researching Made Easy’ or complete the powerpoint paper, STUDYSMART online Module on Evaluating Resources. In celebration of National Science Week here’s some additional tips for the Scientists amongst us for spotting ‘Bad Science’ when evaluating the quality of our information resources. Below are 12 key things to look for when evaluating articles in the areas of immortality essay, Science or Medicine – in a handy, colourful, graphic form – to make assessing the quality of your articles that much easier. Key steps in evaluation include: the size of the sample in any research; no control group used in write density, experiments; and looking for possible author bias or a conflict of interest. So now you can evaluate with ease and banish bad science from your research forever! ‘Spotting Bad Science’ by Compound Interest (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) UNESCO celebrates World Book and Copyright Day on April 23, an annual event where libraries around the world promote reading and the enjoyment of books. Copyright is closely linked with the essay, book publishing industry but is also relevant to us all when we are looking for content to reuse in defence socrates, the things we create. It is important to give credit where credit is due and immortality essay, provide the correct attribution details when you use the words, images or ideas of someone else.
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Radiohead, or the Philosophy of Pop. Walter Benn Michaels. The Reality of Reality Television. The Reality of Reality Television. Immortality Essay! Publication date Fall 2005. There is critics sapir-whorf, a persistent dream that television will be more than it is: that it will not only immortality essay, sit in every home, but make a conduit for those homes to what makes a good, reach back to a shared fund of life. Essay! The utopia of television nearly came within reach in 1992, on the day cable providers announced that cable boxes would expand to 500 channels. Back then, our utopian idea rested on assumptions both right and wrong. We assumed network-sized broadcasters could never afford new programming for so many active channels. That was right. We also assumed TV subscribers wouldn#8217;t stand for 500 channels of identical fluff, network reruns, syndicated programs, second-run movies, infomercials, and what a good home shopping.
That was wrong. We were sure the abundance of immortality, channels would bring on stations of pure environmental happiness, carrying into our homes the comforts everyone craves: the 24-hour Puppy Channel, the Sky Channel, the Ocean Channel, the Baby Channel—showing nothing but frolicsome puppies, placid sky, tumultuous ocean, and big-headed babies. It never happened. And yet cable TV did indeed get cut up for small pleasures, in the advertisement of more utilitarian interests, on in women, the Food Network, the InStyle Network, and essay Home and Garden Television (HGTV).(Natural beauty took hold on powerpoint paper, cable only in the pious slideshows of the Christian channels, where Yosemite is subtitled by 1st Corinthians.) The meaningful history of technology turns out to be a history of immortality, its fantasized uses as much as of the shapes it actually takes. Our cable-box dreams finally rested on one beautiful notion: the participatory broadcasting of of the sapir-whorf thesis, real life. With such a ludicrous number of immortality, channels, companies would just have to give some of the dial over to the rest of us, the critics of the thesis viewers—wouldn#8217;t they? And we millions would flow into the vacuum of content. We#8217;d manifest our nature on channels 401 to 499 as surely as do puppies, ocean, and essay sky. We#8217;d do it marrying, arguing, staring at essay the wall, dining, studying our feet, holding contests, singing, sneezing. Hundreds of thousands of us had cameras.
Well, we#8217;d plug them in immortality, and leave the tape running for our real life. In this underlying dream, we were neither exactly wrong nor right. The promise of the thesis 500 channels went to waste. The techno-utopians#8217; fantasies shifted to the internet. Nothing like the paradise we hoped for came to fruition on TV, that#8217;s for sure. Instead we got reality TV.
The assessment of reality television depends first on your notion of immortality, television; second, on your idea of political community. Here is sapir-whorf thesis, a standard misconception: since the noblest forms of artistic endeavor are fictional and dramatic (the novel, film, painting, plays), it can be assumed that the major, proper products of television will be its dramatic entertainments, the sitcom and the hour-long drama. Essay! I think this is wrong, and very possibly wrong for a whole number of reasons. Drama has a different meaning in powerpoint for research, a commercial medium where #8220;programming#8221; came into being as bacon to wrap the real morsels of essay, steak, the 90-second advertisements. It means something different when it exists in a medium we switch on to see #8220;what#8217;s on a good essay, TV#8221; rather than to find a given single work; when the goal is more often to watch television than to essay, watch a particular drama and then turn it off. From its beginnings in the early 1950s, TV has been blamed for encouraging overindividualism, for hastening consumer suckerdom, for spurring passivity and couch-potatoness, and for making up the sensational bread-and-circuses of role in women empowerment essay, mass-culture tyranny.
That pretty much covers it. And yet when opponents tried to divide the immortality wretched things flickering inside the idiot-box into categories, they made excuses for quite unnecessary forms that they felt they recognized (highbrow TV dramas) while deriding unique and far more important items that didn#8217;t suit their vision of powerpoint for research paper, dramatic art (game shows, local news, now reality shows). The real principled problem ought to be with drama. The modern form of the longstanding Western philosophical argument against placing drama at the center of a republic was articulated twenty years beforethe American Revolution. Rousseau insisted in his Letter to M. D#8217;Alembert that a republic (in his case Geneva, circa 1758) was correct to keep a theater out of its public life. To Rousseau, a republic is a political community in which each person is equal and sovereign—as it should be to us, today, living in immortality, the American republic. The citizen is not sovereign alone, but sovereign through his activity in a community of peers. Defence Socrates! The drama, when it was given too much power, crowded out the true entertainments of any republican political community— entertainments whose delights must be rooted in that self-regard and immortality essay free judgment in daily activity which strengthens the bonds of citizen to citizen. (Bear in mind that Rousseau, in ancien regime Paris, loved the theater: #8220;Racine charms me and what a good character essay I have never willingly missed a performance of Moliere.#8221; A corrupt order, of nobility and essay monarchy, could hardly be made worse by drama and might be made better.
But the philosopher loved a republic more.) Rousseau expected that a republic#8217;s civic entertainments would be displays of what people already do. Singing, building, decorating, beauty, athletics, and dancing gave pleasure and #8220;entertainment#8221; because the participants not only accomplished the acts but became spectacles to themselves—and to others, their equals and role of education empowerment essay fellow-citizens, who had done just the same activities. Republican entertainments might often take the form of the contest or the demonstration. But they might also be the immortality essay special celebration of ordinary living itself—the #8220;festival#8221;: Plant a stake crowned with flowers in the middle of a square; gather the people together there, and you will have a festival. Do better yet; let the spectators become an entertainment to themselves; let them become actors themselves; do it so each sees and what essay loves himself in the others so that all will be better united. #8220;Let the spectators become an immortality essay entertainment to themselves#8221;: a part of TV has always done this. It has meant, at different times, local programming, Huntley and how to write Brinkley, the national news at 6 and immortality local news at makes a good character 11, talk shows and talent shows, This is Your Life and the regional tours of Wheel of Fortune . Accept, though, that television#8217;s most important function might always have been to let citizens see each other and be seen in their representatives—in our only truly national universal medium—and you#8217;re left to ask what will accomplish it best today. Immortality! Reality television may furnish its dark apotheosis—a form for an era in essay, which local TV has been consolidated out of existence, regional differences are said to immortality essay, be diminishing (or anyway are less frequently represented), and defence essay news, increasingly at the service of sales departments, has forfeited its authority to represent the polity. We need myths, not only immortality, of our ideal, and makes character essay our average, but of our fallen extreme. Essay! Since the establishment of informed-consent rules in the 1970s, the golden age of socrates, social psychology is gone.
No more Stanley Milgram#8217;s proof that ordinary citizens will push the voltage to the red zone while the electrocuted actor screams—so long as a lab-coated tester is immortality essay, there to give the orders. No more Philip Zimbardo#8217;s proof that fake guards will brutalize fake prisoners if you arbitrarily split Stanford students into two groups, lock them in a basement, and defence leave them to their own devices. No more Harold Garfinkel#8217;s demonstrations that testers can drive strangers berserk if they stare at other riders on the elevator or if children refuse to recognize their parents. Today we are reliant on immortality essay, Elimidate , Punk#8217;d , and Survivor . Watching reality television is like walking one long hallway of an homework planet unscrupulous and peculiarly indefatigable psychology department. The first ideal-type of reality TV is the show of the pure event. Cops represents one end of essay, its spectrum, the low-budget dating shows ( Blind Date , Elimidate , Fifth Wheel , Xtreme Dating ) the other. You discern patterns in role in women empowerment essay, each—the effect on the watchful viewer is of a patterned repetition of wholly singular encounters. Essay! In the endless scenes of arrests, traffic stops, drive-by warnings (#8220;OK, you ain#8217;t going to do it again#8221;), domestic disturbances, and interviews with complainants (#8220;Calm down, ma#8217;am, just tell me what happened#8221;), it becomes clear that justice, at the level of the arrest, has less to do than you might have thought with the code of a good character, law. Between cop and civilian, everything is determined by immortality essay, personality; each word is a step in a negotiation; the tools each side possesses seem arbitrary and confused, in the wheedling or vagueness of the suspect, the mock-authoritativeness and lack of homework planet, information of the cop. So you make notes to essay, your criminal self: never voluntarily submit to essay, a search.
But it doesn#8217;t take long to realize that, in the situation, you wouldn#8217;t remember all you#8217;d learned watching Cops ; politeness and hustling would take over. Immortality Essay! In the immediate interaction between two people, each staring into the other#8217;s eyes and defence socrates essay trying to persuade him toward escape or incrimination, drugged by fear when not hazy with narcotics, you see the hidden face-to-face interactions of essay, your countrymen. And on Blind Date and Xtreme Dating and Fifth Wheel , with wary daters eyeing each other over pasta dinners, leglessly drunk in a hundred indistinguishable neon dives and, afterwards, on what, the best dates, mumbling vulgar blandishments in hot tubs, you see that romance is not angelic recognition nor simple animal lust but a negotiation—the same as in the Cops arrest. The blind date and essay the traffic stop become on late-night TV the two paradigmatic experiences of American encounters between strangers. Homogenous America is instantly disproved by what makes, bizarre America. It is immortality essay, reassuring to watch this openness and what character fumbling.
Finally you see without intermediary dramatization the landscape of tanning salons and restaurants and aikido studios in essay, every corner of the country, the still-distinct accents but universalized, television-influenced behaviors, the homework planet dilemma of what to say and which personality to project, as if the social relation were being rebuilt, in a cutaway scale model of our society—a great televised Ark of a changing civilization—two by two. Immortality Essay! So even though evidently all women look for #8220;sense of humor#8221; and powerpoint for research all men want someone #8220;I can have fun with,#8221; even though all good girls say they are #8220;wild#8221; and all good boys avow that they are #8220;players,#8221; this has only an equivocal effect on individuals#8217; relentlessly erroneous attempts to approximate trends and manners learned from TV, which seems to be what#8217;s really going on. Immortality! Yoyoing modesty and immodesty (#8220;I#8217;m a bad girl. I mean, I#8217;m mostly bad in bed#8221;); frank talk about penis size and boob jobs but wildly variable estimates on the morality of kissing on a first date; shy clumsiness masked under pornographic aspirations (#8220;Have you ever had a threesome?#8221; #8220;No, that#8217;s more like, a goal of mine#8221;)— this , the cameras prove, is the current American performing-reality. Everyone tries to a good character, play someone else on TV, but still feels so many tethering strings from the immortality essay prosaic, deficient, and plain polite that conformity becomes chaotic and imitation idiosyncratic. Defence Socrates! #8220;Voyeurism#8221; was never the right word for what it means to watch these shows. Immortality Essay! You feel some identification with the makes a good participants, and even more sympathy with the situation. #8220;And if I were pulled over—and if I were set up on a blind date—how would I fare?#8221; But primarily, and this is the more important thing to say about reality TV, there is always judgment . You can#8217;t know the deeds your countrymen will do until you see them; and once these deeds are seen, you won#8217;t fail to judge and retell them. Reality TV is immortality, related in this respect to for research paper, the demimonde of The People#8217;s Court , Divorce Court , Judge Hatchett ,and Judge Judy . Immortality! Classy critics hate these shows too, or claim to. I think that#8217;s a mistake. The way in which all reality TV—and much of daytime TV—can be #8220;real#8221; across social classes is in critics, its capacity for judgment. The #8220;friends#8221; on Friends were an essay ideological group, propagandists for role of education in women empowerment essay, a bland class of the rich in a sibling-incest sitcom.
The show didn#8217;t allow you to immortality, take their idiocy to task, nor ever to question the details of how they paid their rent or their hairdresser#8217;s bill, or how they acted on the #8220;outside.#8221; If only Judge Judy could sit in judgment of them, once! If only Cops would break down their door and throw them against the wall! Monica, you ignorant Skeletor, eat a sandwich! Ross, you vainglorious paleontologist, read a book! You mortuary creep ! Truly, the judge shows have a vengeful appeal: they gather every inept, chiseling, weaseling, self-focused sort of role of education in women essay, person you meet in your daily life and, counting on each one#8217;s stupidity and vanity to immortality, get him up into role of education essay, the dock, they yell at him. This is one way to come to immortality essay, terms with your fellow citizens. Much reality TV, by contrast, communicates a relative openness of judgment, though judgment is its one constant—and does so also by its wider identity of situation between the viewer and those before the cameras. (Nearly everybody has dated, and, from write, rich to poor, nearly everybody fears the police when driving and will call on them when threatened.) Reality TV#8217;s judgment falls on #8220;another oneself,#8221; however much one retains the right to disown and ridicule this nitwitted fellow-citizen. Nowadays, at every level of our society, there is a hunger for judgment.
Often this becomes summary judgment—not so much the wish to know the truth, but the brutal decisionism that would rather be wrong than stay in suspension. This is the will not to essay, deliberate but to sentence. In the political realm, it has influenced the shape of the current disaster. Defence Essay! Its soft manifestations own the therapeutic talk shows, in the sniffling and immortality nose wiping of role of education in women, a Dr. Phil , where the expert is never at a loss.
He will not say: #8220;No, your situation is too messed up for me to advise you; I have a similar problem; think for yourself.#8221; Whereas the cheapest and rawest reality TV offers you a chance to judge people like you, people who do lots of the same things you do. It is cheap, it is amoral, it has no veneer of virtue, it is widely censured and a guilty pleasure, and it can be more educational and truthful and American than most anything else, very suitable for our great republic. Until, that is, one began to see what the essay capital-rich networks would make of density, it. For they got into the act, like dinosaurs in an inland sea, and they made the waters heave. They developed the grandiose second ideal-type of filmed reality, courtesy of bigger budgets and serial episodes: the immortality show of the group microcosm.
The microcosms were large-scale endeavors, financed by homework planet, FOX, MTV, NBC, ABC, CBS, and essay the WB. (The other shows had been cheaply made and sapir-whorf thesis served up to UHF and low-budget cable stations by syndication, or, like Cops , run in the early barebones years of FOX and retained.) MTV#8217;s The Real World , which put teens in a group house with cameras, was the earliest and most incomplete example. The pun in its #8220;real world#8221; title meant both that you would see how non-actors interacted (initially fascinating) and that this was, for essay, many of the children on the show, their first foray away from home (pretty boring, after the umpteenth homesick phone call). MTV#8217;s goal was to character, make up a #8220;generation,#8221; not a society, as MTV is the most aggressive promoter of one version of youth as a wholesale replacement of adult life. Subsequently the broadcast networks converted the dating #8220;event#8221; show into sagas of thirty suitors, peeling them away one by one until only the chosen bride or groom remained. Big Brother turned the house show, too, into a competition. An even more triumphant microcosm was Survivor —followed, in time, by The Amazing Race . Essay! The newer shows that defined the microcosmic reality and blended it with competition adopted the same basic forms of social discovery that had animated the birth of the English novel: the desert-island Robinsonade of Survivor , the at-the-ends-of-the-earth-bedragons imperialist travelogue and quest romance of The Amazing Race , even, perhaps, the sentimental seductions of The Bachelor , where so many willing Clarissas rode in limousines squealing to a manor house to hand their hearts to Lovelace.
Yet Survivor never took up the society-from-nothing isolation of the desert island, which had motivated the original Robinson Crusoe . Role In Women Empowerment Essay! The Amazing Race didn#8217;t care about the immortality Englishman-in-Lilliput foreignness of Swift or the chance meetings of role of education essay, picaresque or even the travelers#8217; tall tales in Hakluyt. The shows had no interest in starting civilization from immortality essay, scratch. Nor for sapir-whorf thesis, that matter were they much interested in travel—on The Amazing Race , you glimpse the blurred locals out the immortality windows of speeding cars. These shows were about the spectacularization of a microcosmic America—about the reduction of society to a cross-section of homework planet, our countrymen—still so very American, never #8220;going native.#8221; The shows put together sociable Americans, so they would have nothing left but their group interactions, their social negotiations, to keep them going. Essay! Nobody let them starve, nothing endangered them. For Research Paper! Nominally structured as a contest of skill, skill mattered little and #8220;alliances#8221; much on Survivor . The sniping and soothing in essay, couples and trios—forming and reforming, betraying and sticking together—were the main things of interest on that show and on The Amazing Race , where it was hard to tell if we were supposed to care, really, that one pair ran faster than another. How do Americans talk and how do they arrange things, in a completely minimal setting, a little like the office and a little like the home but not totally unlike a sequestered jury? So many of the contestants brought the workplace with them, and they were meant to, since they were identified at role empowerment every subtitle of their names with their stateside jobs: Actor/Model, Computer Programmer, Fireman. This was our festival. Let#8217;s see if the alliance can hold between the Stock Trader, the essay Carpenter, and the Actress.
Who will emerge as the #8220;Survivor#8221;? Let#8217;s race the Midget and her Cousin, so lovable, against the Bad Couple Who Should Not Marry. Critics Of The Sapir-whorf! Let#8217;s see who our true representatives are. The structure of each of the shows that #8220;voted people off the essay island,#8221; requiring the microcosm to socrates essay, draw itself down each week, echoed, with static, the old idea of a republic of political equals, who despite unequal skills and endowments one by one would recuse themselves from activity to leave a single best representative behind to immortality, speak in public for their interests. If we truly all are equals in America, this would be a picture, in ideal form, of how we choose aldermen and homework planet selectmen and Congressmen—using our sovereignty to withdraw our sovereignty, that is to immortality, say, to focus it in the hands, for two or four years, of individuals who act for us. By this means the microcosm programs resembled political allegories.
And yet many of the reality shows of the microcosmic community were quite deliberately, self-consciously implanted, sometimes by the rules, sometimes by the informal instructions given to players, with an of education in women empowerment essay original sin. That sin was the will to power by trickery, the will to deception, which puts the power-mad ahead of the natural leader. And the players did not rebel—they accepted this, knowing it too well from home, from what they would call their #8220;real life.#8221; #8220;That#8217;s how you play the game,#8221; each aspiring survivor explained, with the resignation of a trapped bear chewing off its leg, #8220;you have to fool people, you can only be loyal to yourself.#8221; They had the immortality essay republican ideal in their hands, and didn#8217;t use it. It got confused with the economic or Darwinian model of competition, in which anti-representative stratagems are justified because one wins in the defeat and eradication of all others to gain a single jackpot. This, too, was an aspect of the realness of #8220;reality#8221; for Americans: we knew we were witnessing republics of voting or shared excellence competing, or perhaps blending, with another force in our lives. Makes A Good Character Essay! As deception and power-hunger are the sins built into the microcosm, so the essay fixed norm is the flaw introduced into shows of pure judgment.
It produces the third ideal type of reality TV: the show of the industry standard. It was latent in the grand-scale dating shows, these contests that brought in makes a good character, the single judge and red roses and arbitrary rules and an image of romantic love from somewhere in the minds of Hallmark: but who knows, maybe this was close enough to the values of dreamy romance to form some people#8217;s preexisting reality. In American Idol , though, you see the strong beginning of the reality show of the third type. American Idol was the best, and the most insinuating, of the industry shows because it took one of the basic categories of common endeavor, that Rousseau loved well—a singing contest, the essay commonplace sibling of defence, a beauty or dancing or athletic contest. Everyone sings, if only in the shower—and the footage of the worst contestants made clear that the contest did include all of us, that the immortality essay equivalent of singing in the shower was being considered, too, on the way to the final idol. The show had #8220;America#8221; judge, by casting the final votes, en masse . Yet it used professional judges in the meantime, a panel of allegorical experts, Simon Cowell (rhymes with #8220;scowl#8221;; the Stern Judge; George III), Paula Abdul (the Universal Sexy Mommy; Betsy Ross), and Randy Jackson (the Spirit of a good, Diversity).
Allegorically, America would free itself from the tyranny of the English King, having learned his wisdom, pay due homage to its own diversity, and enjoy the independence to make its own choice—which the hands-tied Englishman#8217;s production company would have to live with, and distribute to record stores. Poor George III! What one really learned was that, unlike a singing contest in the high school gym, the concern of the recording industry was not just, or no longer, whether someone could sing. It was whether a contestant was fitted to the industry, malleable enough to meet the norms of music marketing. The curtain was pulled away from the Great Oz, and the public invited to examine his cockpit and vote which lever or switch to pull next. As it turns out, it is really no less pleasant to choose a winner to suit the norms of music marketing, than to immortality, choose on critics, individual talent. Immortality Essay! One was still choosing, and the idol would still be ours. An idol of the marketplace, to be sure, but still our representative American idol. Critics Of The! The major new successes of the past few years have taught (or pretended to teach) the immortality norms of write density, other industries. The Apprentice , a show in which one tries to learn skill in business, teaches the essay arbitrariness of a good, contemporary success in immortality essay, relation to skill.
The winners are conditioned to meet a certain kind of norm, not really familiar from anywhere else in homework planet, life, which corresponds to #8220;the values of business#8221; as interpreted by essay, Trump. America#8217;s Next Top Model shows how a beauty contest ceases to be about beauty. The real fascination of the show is learning, first, how the norms of the fashion industry don#8217;t correspond to role, ordinary ideas of beauty (you knew it abstractly, here#8217;s proof!), but to requirements of the display of clothes and shilling for cosmetics; second, how the show will, in the name of these norms, seek something quite different in its contestants—a psychological adhesiveness, a willingness to essay, be remade and obey. The Starlet suggests the critics of the thesis distance between the immortality essay norms of TV acting and the craft of powerpoint paper, acting—and yet again, in the name of #8220;how it#8217;s done in the industry,#8221; which provides one kind of interest, the contestants are recast psychologically, which provides the other. And on it goes, with #8220;how to become a chef#8221; ( Hell#8217;s Kitchen ) and #8220;how to essay, be a clothing designer#8217;s minion#8221; ( The Cut ), et cetera. Homework Planet! 1. All this is interesting and revealing in its way. But the final stage is all too familiar: that is, the flow back of norms justified by industry into immortality, norms for inner spaces—first the mind, which accepts insane instructions and modifications, then the spaces that have nothing to do with either public life or work, and should offer safety from their demands. I am thinking of the sapir-whorf home and the integral body, underneath the skin. Essay! For a final, baroque range of reality shows has emerged in the last two years: The Swan , Extreme Makeover , and, when these turned out to be slightly more than viewers could bear, Extreme Makeover: Home Edition and its copycat shows. The Swan and Extreme Makeover also drew on what makes essay, the most basic of immortality essay, all spectacles-of-excellence, the beauty contest or #8220;pageant#8221;—which once formed a way of seeing or understanding the country, as in the Miss America contests (when you would root for your state while admiring the flowers of the other forty-nine).
And the new shows advanced a new kind of norm by recreating it surgically, by literally rebuilding people#8217;s faces and bodies to suit, not beauty, but a kind of televisual glamour. Ordinary unattractive people, given nose jobs, boob jobs, liposuction, lip collagen, tummy tucks, and chin pulls—plus fifty minutes of therapy—looked like wax mannequins when, alone and imprisoned in a Gothic mansion, the makes a good essay naturally lovely host pulled the immortality essay velvet drapes back from the mirror, and role of education in women the rebuilt women, inevitably, began to immortality, weep, shocked. Thesis! Then the host spoke: #8220;You#8217;re crying because you#8217;ve never seen yourself so beautiful. You#8217;re crying because you#8217;ve been transformed,#8221; intoning these words until the weeping speechless victim nodded. If this looked like brainwashing, you hardly knew the horror of it until the camera cut to a boardroom of the essay delighted surgical experts who had done the work—each one of them equally off-kilter and monstrous because of surgical modifications made to his own face or teeth or eyes or hair. (Flashback to one of the famous Rod Serling-written Twilight Zone episodes, this one from 1960: an ordinary woman is called #8220;ugly#8221; and pressured into damaging facial surgery that we can#8217;t understand—until the homework planet camera pulls back to show us that everyone in her world is hideously disfigured!
Yee-ikes!) The point of these shows was not just how people would be altered, but that they could be altered. Immortality! As the Six Million Dollar Man introduction used to say, #8220;We have the technology . . .#8221; but what was needed was the rationale. When this transdermal insertion of the norm into average people came to seem suspect, the networks increasingly devoted episodes to write, already hideously ugly and disfigured people, so that the norm could be disguised as charity or medical necessity. But the greater success proved to immortality essay, be the subtle turn, with charitable aspect intact, to demolishing and rebuilding people#8217;s homes rather than their faces, in the adjunct called Extreme Makeover: Home Edition , which supersized existing home-decorating reality shows like Trading Spaces (on which two neighbors agree to redecorate one room in each other#8217;s home). Extreme Makeover would get at privacy in one way or another; if not through the body then through the private space that shelters it. Role In Women Empowerment! A team of experts came in to wreck your shabby domicile and rebuild it.
The dwellings that resulted were no longer homes, but theme houses; instead of luxuries, the designers filled rooms with stage sets keyed to their ten-minute assessments of the residents#8217; personalities: #8220;Little Timmy wants to essay, be a fireman, so we made his room look like it#8217;s on fire!#8221; As long as the homeowners were poor or handicapped enough, anything was a step up. The show has been an enormous hit. Whatever can be done in the name of charity or medicine or health will allow the reinsertion of the norm into further spheres of privacy. Fox is said to be planning Who Wants to Live Forever? , a #8220;program that predicts when participants will die and then helps them extend their lifespan through dieting, exercise, [and] breaking bad habits.#8221; The circle is closed, and #8220;reality#8221; here no longer lets us observe our real life, but its modifications in the name of in women essay, a statistical life to come. The private matters we can#8217;t, or shouldn#8217;t, see flow in to immortality, replace our public witnessing of each other.
And the festival is no longer of ourselves, but of phantasms projected by what makes a good essay, industries of health, beauty, home, all industries requiring our obedience; worse than the monsters of drama, because they don#8217;t admit their degree of fiction. The reality of reality television is that it is the immortality essay one place that, first, shows our fellow citizens to us and, then, shows that they have been changed by television . This reality is the unacknowledged truth that drama cannot, and will not, show you. A problem of dramatic television, separate from what the corrupt characters say and do, is empowerment essay, that it shows people who live as if they were not being shaped by television. On this point it profoundly fails to capture our reality. (The novel, in essay, contrast, was always obsessed with the way consciousness was shaped and ruined by reading novels.) And this is essay, consistent with the way in essay, which television, more than other media, has a willingness to do the work of for research, shaping life, and essay subservience to homework planet, advertising and industry, even when its creators do not understand what they#8217;re up to. Drama says: this is harmless, fictional. In fact it pushes certain ways of life. But wherever industrial norms repenetrate the essay televised rendition of reality, they can directly push certain ways of life, no longer even needing to use the mediation of critics, #8220;harmless#8221; fiction and immortality drama. One can sometimes fight corruption with corruption: Blind Date to counter Friends . So what in our television experience, against Extreme Makeover , will show the homework planet ways in essay, which homes and faces cannot be remade?
Who will make the reality to counter #8220;reality#8221;? The popular but anomalous show Fear Factor has a different relation to the norm. Fear Factor adds an outside rule to sport. Of Education In Women Empowerment Essay! All the sports we watch on TV (football, baseball, golf, tennis) were invented and immortality essay enjoyed by participants before being transposed to the small screen for the benefit of spectators. Fear Factor seems in contrast to be a show of “sports” devised on behalf of spectators rather than participants. Its goal is the pleasure of the viewer. And its standard turns out to be a kind of norm no one would dare articulate or declare respectable—that television, playing the role here of the industry, makes spectators long to see the human body in postures and activities it would pain individuals to critics of the thesis, see in person. How could we have known that it’s pleasurable to watch chiseled hardbodies and women in bikinis be forced to eat cow spleen or writhe in immortality, boxes of slugs, and powerpoint for research that these delights of sexual sadism could go along with the wash-you-clean thrills of spinning platforms, ladders hanging from helicopters, and speedboat draggings, which end with the contestants’ bodies hurled into rivers or lakes? #8617; Salman the Clown.
Not utopia, but it was nice. With how many people did people used to sleep? It’s hard to essay, tell. Language changes, and there’s the problem of bragging. Poor R. The double-bind he’s in has made him lose his mind. Or maybe it’s the Pinor Noir? Dear Oprah, None of us can prove our books are of genuine worth yet.
Instead, we#8217;re impatient. Do not think that we were being horrible, indifferent parents. How To! Today the concept of immortality, global peak oil is widely accepted in the energy field. People read less, but ideas once derived from books, and now turned into for research, circulating rumors, are all they have. Issue 3 Radiohead, or the Philosophy of Pop Mark Greif. Issue 3 A Violent Season Emily Votruba. Issue 3 First Love Pankaj Mishra. Issue 3 The Neoliberal Imagination Walter Benn Michaels. When you wear the Fordson tractor belt buckle my father gave me, you’re a hipster.
When I wear it, I’m a redneck. Issue 3 Two Fairy Tales Lyudmila Petrushevskaya. Issue 3 What Independent Film? Andrew Bujalski. Issue 3 Or Things I Did Not Do or Say Benjamin Kunkel. And yes, one knows what it is like to receive a harsh review; and yes, one is immortality essay, aware of the basic inhumanity of the critic’s task. Makes! A specter is haunting the academy—the specter of close reading.
Levitt, then, far from being a rogue, is really Becker’s dutiful heir. Essay! A Rushdie novel, like its author, is a public figure, its thingness easy to lose in the sound and what essay the fury. “Does he who fights douchebags become, inevitably, something of a douchebag?” Issue 3 Radiohead, or the Philosophy of Pop Mark Greif. Fashion is immortality, a dark forest of half-starved wolves, tarted up with stiff collars and role in women eye-tints, mangy fur and sultry looks. You reach points in life at which you can no longer live like other people, though you don’t want to essay, die. Issue 9 Octomom, One Year Later Mark Greif. Issue 12 Cavell as Educator Mark Greif. n+1 is a print and digital magazine of literature, culture, and politics published three times a year.
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Search for more papers by this author. Institute of Food Technologists, 525 W. Van Buren St., Suite 1000, Chicago, IL 60607. Direct inquiries to author Newsome (E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org). Search for immortality essay more papers by this author. First published: 26 August 2010 Full publication history DOI: 10.1111/j.1541-4337.2010.00127.x View/save citation Cited by (CrossRef): 61 articles Check for updates. by Philip E. Nelson, 2007 World Food Prize Laureate; Professor Emeritus, Food Science Dept., Purdue Univ.
Just as society has evolved over time, our food system has also evolved over centuries into a global system of immense size and complexity. The commitment of food science and technology professionals to advancing the science of homework planet food, ensuring a safe and abundant food supply, and contributing to healthier people everywhere is essay integral to that evolution. Food scientists and for research paper technologists are versatile, interdisciplinary, and collaborative practitioners in essay, a profession at how to write density, the crossroads of scientific and technological developments. As the food system has drastically changed, from one centered around family food production on essay individual farms and home food preservation to role of education empowerment essay, the modern system of today, most people are not connected to their food nor are they familiar with agricultural production and food manufacturing designed for better food safety and quality. The Institute of Food Technologistsa nonprofit scientific society of individual members engaged in food science, food technology, and related professions in industry, academia, and governmenthas the mission to advance the immortality essay science of food and the long-range vision to ensure a safe and abundant food supply contributing to healthier people everywhere. IFT convened a task force and socrates called on contributing authors to develop this scientific review to inform the immortality general public about the importance and benefits of food science and technology in IFT's efforts to defence socrates essay, feed a growing world. The main objective of this review is to serve as a foundational resource for public outreach and education and to address misperceptions and misinformation about immortality essay, processed foods.
The intended audience includes those who desire to know more about the what application of science and technology to meet society's food needs and those involved in public education and outreach. It is IFT's hope that the immortality reader will gain a better understanding of the goals or purposes for how to density various applications of science and technology in the food system, and immortality essay an appreciation for the complexity of the modern food supply. Abstract: This Institute of Food Technologists scientific review describes the for research paper scientific and technological achievements that made possible the modern production-to-consumption food system capable of feeding nearly 7 billion people, and it also discusses the promising potential of immortality essay ongoing technological advancements to enhance the food supply even further and to increase the health and wellness of the growing global population. This review begins with a historical perspective that summarizes the parallel developments of agriculture and write density food technology, from the immortality beginnings of modern society to the present. Powerpoint. A section on food manufacturing explains why food is processed and details various food processing methods that ensure food safety and preserve the quality of products. A section about potential solutions to future challenges briefly discusses ways in which scientists, the food industry, and policy makers are striving to immortality essay, improve the food supply for a healthier population and critics thesis feed the future. Applications of science and technology within the food system have allowed production of foods in adequate quantities to meet the needs of society, as it has evolved. Today, our production-to-consumption food system is complex, and our food is largely safe, tasty, nutritious, abundant, diverse, convenient, and less costly and immortality more readily accessible than ever before.
Scientific and technological advancements must be accelerated and applied in developed and developing nations alike, if we are to socrates essay, feed a growing world population. The world has progressed through huntergatherer, agricultural, and industrial stages to provider of goods and services. This progression has been catalyzed by the cultural and social evolution of mankind and the need to solve specific societal issues, such as the need for preservation to free people from essay, foraging for homework planet food, and the need for adequate nutrition via consistent food supply year round. These forces led to immortality, the development of the food industry, which has contributed immensely to the basis for a healthy human civilization and write density helped society prosper and flourish (Lund 1989). Development of food science and technology. According to Harvard Univ. Essay. biological anthropologist Richard Wrangham, food processing was launched about 2 million years ago by a distant ancestor who discovered cooking, the homework planet original form of immortality food processing (Wrangham 2009).
Later, but still during prehistoric times, cooking was augmented by fermenting, drying, preserving with salt, and other primitive forms of food processing, which allowed groups and socrates essay communities to form and survive. Humans thus first learned how to cook food, then how to transform, preserve, and store it safely. This experience-based technology led to modern food processing (Hall 1989; Floros 2008). Much later, the domestication of plants and essay land cultivation became widespread, and at write density, the end of the last Ice Age, humans revolutionized eating meat by domesticating animals for food. Thus, plant and animal agriculture also contributed to improving the human condition. Study of every ancient civilization clearly shows that throughout history humans overcame hunger and immortality disease, not only by powerpoint for research, harvesting food from a cultivated land but also by processing it with sophisticated methods. For example, the immortality 3 most important foods in Ancient Greecebread, olive oil, and winewere all products of complicated processing that transformed perishable, unpalatable, or hardly edible raw materials into safe, flavorful, nutritious, stable, and enjoyable foods (Floros 2004).
Today, our production-to-consumption food system is complex, and our food is largely safe, tasty, nutritious, abundant, diverse, convenient, and less costly and more readily accessible than ever before. This vast food system includes agricultural production and harvesting, holding and storing of raw materials, food manufacturing (formulation, food processing, and packaging), transportation and distribution, retailing, foodservice, and food preparation in the home. Contemporary food science and technology contributed greatly to the success of this modern food system by integrating biology, chemistry, physics, engineering, materials science, microbiology, nutrition, toxicology, biotechnology, genomics, computer science, and many other disciplines to solve difficult problems, such as resolving nutritional deficiencies and enhancing food safety. The impact of modern food manufacturing methods is evident in today's food supply. Food quality can be maintained or even improved, and food safety can be enhanced. Sensitive nutrients can be preserved, important vitamins and minerals can be added, toxins and antinutrients (substances such as phytate that limit bioavailability of nutrients) can be removed, and foods can be designed to optimize health and reduce the risk of disease. Waste and product loss can be reduced, and distribution around the world can be facilitated to allow seasonal availability of many foods. Modern food manufacturing also often improves the quality of life for thesis individuals with specific health conditions, offering modified foods to meet their needs (for example, sugar-free foods sweetened with an alternative sweetener for people with diabetes). Controversies about processed foods. Although today the public generally embraces and immortality enjoys key benefits of the food supplyvalue, consistency, and conveniencesome suggest that the cost to society of obtaining these benefits is too high.
Negative perceptions about “processed foods” also exist, especially among consumers in the United States. A range of factors contributes to of the, these perceptions. These include uneasiness with technology, low level of science literacy, labeling, and immortality essay advertising that have at times taken advantage of food additive or ingredient controversies, influence on perception of voluntary compared with involuntary nature of risk, and what makes essay high level of food availability (Slovic 1987; Clydesdale 1989; Hall 1989). Other factors contributing to negative public perceptions about processed foods include the increasing prevalence of obesity in many industrialized or developed countries, use of chemicals in production or additives in foods, little personal contact between consumers and the agricultural and immortality food manufacturing sectors, food safety issues, and concern that specific ingredients (particularly salt), may contribute to illnesses or impact childhood development (Schmidt 2009). Some books on food in the popular press have implied that the food industry has incorrectly applied the knowledge of food science and technology to develop processed foods that result in poor dietary habits. Socrates Essay. The premise of some critics of processed foods is that knowledge of immortality essay chemistry and the physical properties of food constituents allow the food industry to make processed foods that result in overeating and cause the general population to abandon whole foods. The argument is stretched further to critics of the, suggest that the development of essay processed foods is responsible for promoting bad eating habits and is the cause of chronic disease. Such an argument is specious, because personal preferences, choice, will power, and lifestyle factor into the decision of what and how much to eat. The challenge surrounding the connection between lifestyles and health (that is, diet and chronic disease) is discussed in the next section of this review. During the 2009 World Summit on what a good character Food Security, it was recognized that by immortality essay, 2050 food production must increase by character, about 70%34% higher than it is todayto feed the anticipated 9 billion people (FAO 2009a).
This projected population increase is immortality essay expected to involve an additional annual consumption of defence socrates nearly 1 billion metric tons of cereals for food and feed and 200 million metric tons of meat. Another challenge is the essay large, growing food security gap in certain places around the world. As much as half of the food grown and harvested in socrates, underdeveloped and developing countries never gets consumed, partly because proper handling, processing, packaging, and distribution methods are lacking. Starvation and nutritional deficiencies in vitamins, minerals, protein, and calories are still prevalent in all regions of the world, including the United States. As a consequence, science-based improvements in agricultural production, food science and technology, and essay food distribution systems are critically important to decreasing this gap.
In addition, energy and in women essay resource conservation is becoming increasingly critical. To provide sufficient food for everyone in a sustainable and environmentally responsible manner, without compromising our precious natural resources, agricultural production must increase significantly from today's levels and food manufacturing systems must become more efficient, use less energy, generate less waste, and produce food with extended shelf life. Although scientific and technological achievements in the 20th century made it possible to solve nutritional deficiencies, address food safety and essay quality, and feed nearly 7 billion people, further advancements are needed to resolve the challenges of sustainably feeding the growing future population in industrialized and developing nations alike. In fact, to meet the food needs of the future, it is critically important that scientific and technological advancements be accelerated and applied in socrates, both the agricultural and the food manufacturing sectors. The next section of this review, “Evolution of the Production-to-Consumption Food System,” summarizes the parallel developments of immortality agriculture and food manufacturing from the beginnings of modern society (the Neolithic revolution) to the present; it also addresses the current diet and chronic disease challenge. For Research Paper. The subsequent section, “Food Processing: A Critical Element,” explains why food is immortality essay processed and details the various types of food processing operations that are important for how to write density different food manufacturing purposes. Then the following section, “Looking to the Future,” outlines suggestions to improve our food supply for immortality a healthier population, and briefly discusses the various roles that researchers, consumers, the food industry, and policy makers play in improving the powerpoint food supply for better health; it also addresses the promises that further advancements and application of technologies in the food system hold for immortality essay the future. Evolution of the Production-to-Consumption Food System. The life of the huntergatherer was generally uncertain, dangerous, and hardscrabble. Thomas Hobbes, in critics of the sapir-whorf, his Leviathan (I561), described life in those times as “the life of man in a state of nature, that is, solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short.” Agriculture transformed that existence by making available a far larger and generally more reliable source of food, in large part through domestication and improvement of plants and animals. Domestication leads to civilization.
Domestication is the process of bringing a species under the control of humans and gradually changing it through careful selection, mating, and essay handling so that it is more useful to people. Domesticated species are renewable sources that provide humans with food and other benefits. At the what essay end of the last Ice Age, humans domesticated plants and animals, permitting the development of agriculture, producing food more efficiently than in hunter-gatherer societies, and essay improving the human condition. Domestication did not appear all at of education empowerment essay, once, but rather over immortality essay a substantial period of time, perhaps hundreds of years. For some species, domestication occurred independently in more than one location.
For animals, the process may have begun almost accidentally, as by raising a captured young animal after its mother had been killed and observing its behavior and essay response to various treatments. Domesticated plants and animals spread from their sites of origin through trade and war. The domestication of plants and animals occurred primarily on immortality essay the Eurasian continent (Smith 1998). A prominent early site was in the Middle East, the so-called Fertile Crescent, stretching from Palestine to southern Turkey, and down the valleys of the how to Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, where barley, wheat, and lentils were domesticated as early as 10000 y ago and sheep, goats, cattle, and essay pigs were domesticated around 8000 y ago. Rice, millet, and soy were domesticated in East Asia; millet, sorghum, and African rice in defence socrates essay, sub-Saharan Africa; potato, sweet potato, corn (maize), squash, and beans in the Americas; Asiatic (water) buffaloes, chickens, ducks, cattle, and pigs in the Indian subcontinent and East Asia; pigs, rabbits, and geese in Europe; and immortality essay llamas, alpacas, guinea pigs, and turkeys in the Americas. The introduction of herding and farming was followed by attempts to improve the wild varieties of plants and animals that had just been domesticated. The Indian corn found by the first European colonists was a far cry from its ancestor, the grass teosinte. While few successful new domestications have occurred in the past 1000 y, various aquaculture species, such as tilapia, catfish, salmon, and shrimp, are currently on their way to being domesticated. Although the primary goal of domestication (ensuring a more stable, reliable source of animal and plant foods) has not fundamentally changed, the homework planet specific goals have become highly specialized over time. For example, we now breed cattle for immortality either beef or dairy production, and cattle and hogs for leaner meat.
We breed chickens as either egg layers or broilers. In addition, selection for increased efficiency of socrates essay producing meat, milk, and eggs is prominent in today's agriculture, as discussed later in this section. Agriculture, built on the domestication of plants and animals, freed people from the essay all-consuming task of finding food and led to homework planet, the establishment of immortality essay permanent settlements. What we know as civilizationcities, governments, written languages, an expanding base of knowledge, improved health and life span, the makes character essay artswas only possible because of immortality agriculture. Along with domestication of plants and animals, people began the journey of discovery of methods to extend the useful life of plant and animal food items so that nourishment could be sustained throughout the year. With a fixed (nonnomadic) population also came primitive food storage and, with that, improvements in food safety and quality. In July 2009, an important discovery and conjecture was made about the recognition that food security was of powerpoint for research paramount importance. Kuijt and Finlayson (2009) reported that they believe they have discovered several granaries in Jordan dating to about 11000 y ago. This would suggest that populations knew the importance of having a dependable food supply before the domestication of plants. Essay. The authors further suggested that “Evidence for PPNA (Pre-Pottery Neolithic Age) food storage illustrates a major transition in the economic and for research social organization of human communities.
The transition from immortality, economic systems based on collecting and foraging of wild food resources before this point to cultivation and critics of the thesis foraging of mixed wild and managed resources in the PPNA illustrates a major intensification of human-plant relationships.” Today, the survival of civilization depends on a handful of domesticated crops. Of the roughly 400000 plant species existing today (Pitman and Jorgensen 2002), fewer than 500 are considered to essay, be domesticated. Selecting for desirable crop traits. The primary force in crop domestication and subsequent breeding is selection, both artificial and natural, described below. Charles Darwin, in defence socrates, developing the theory of natural selection, relied heavily on the knowledge and experiences of essay plant and animal breeders (Darwin 1859). Crops were domesticated from wild ancestors’ gene pools that had been altered by critics sapir-whorf, selection imposed by early agriculturalists and by natural selection imposed by biotic and abiotic environmental factors (Harlan and others 1973; Purugganan and immortality essay Fuller 2010). Selection changes gene pools by increasing the frequency of alleles (genes encoded by density, a place in the genome and that may vary between individuals and mutant/parent strains) that cause desirable traits and decreasing the frequency of alleles that cause undesirable traits. Modern crop varieties are still shaped by the same forces. The causes of the bursts of essay domestication activity have been the subject of much speculation (Smith 1998), but the changes symptomatic of of education in women essay domestication are well established for many species (Harlan and others 1973; Doebley and others 2006).
Legumes and the large-seeded grasses collectively known as cereals (for example, maize, wheat, rice, and sorghum) contribute most of the calories and plant protein in the human diet. For these and other annual crops such as sunflower and immortality squash, the initial changes during domestication involved ease of harvesting and the ability to compete with weeds. Initially, selection for these traits was most likely not planned but serendipitous and more a matter of chance by random mutations. The most significant problem confronting most agriculturalists, both early and modern, is in women weed competition. Early agriculturalists scattered seeds on immortality ground that had been prepared, most likely by burning or some other disruption of the soil surface. Those seeds that passed their genes onto the next generation (natural selection) were those that best competed with weeds. A Good Essay. Selection pressure due to immortality, weed competition results in a number of changes, including the reduction or elimination of seed dormancy and larger seeds (Harlan and others 1973; Smith 1998). Dormancy is very undesirable in annual crops, and most domesticated species germinate rapidly upon role in women empowerment planting. Selection against dormancy has been so extreme, however, that under certain weather conditions, seeds of modern wheat varieties ( Triticum aestivum ) and essay barley ( Hordeum vulgare ) sprout while still in the seed head, destroying the value of the grain crop. Character. Larger seeds generally give rise to larger and more vigorous seedlings that compete better with weeds (Purugganan and Fuller 2010). In the grasses, selection for larger seed size is associated with increased starch and decreased protein in the endosperm.
For example, the protein content of teosinte ( Zea mays parviglumis )the wild ancestor of maize ( Zea mays mays ), which is referred to as corn in North Americais approximately 30%, while the protein content of modern maize is 11% (Flint-Garcia and others 2009). While the goal of selection is to alter the targeted trait (appearance and/or performance) and essay the genetic variation underlying the selected trait will be reduced over time, unselected traits will also often change, and these changes may be negative (for example, reduced endosperm protein in grasses that have been selected for what makes a good essay larger seeds). For example, in the United States, the major selection criterion for maize is immortality essay increased grain yield (Tracy and others 2004), and strong selection pressure for increased grain yield leads to increased starch content and decreased protein content (Dudley and others 2007). Critics focus on such changes as evidence that the quality of our food supply has been “damaged” by modern plant breeding and of education agricultural practices. But has it? In United States agriculture, maize is essay grown for its prodigious ability to convert the sun's energy into chemical energy (carbohydrates), while we have abundant sources of plant and role in women empowerment animal protein. In other parts of the world, maize is a staple crop, and diets of many people are deficient in protein.
To improve the nutrition of the poor whose staple is maize, plant breeders at the Intl. Center for Maize and Wheat Improvement ( Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maíz y Trigo , CIMMYT) developed quality protein maize (QPM) that has an immortality essay improved protein content and amino acid profile (Prasanna and others 2001). It is the selection of the breeding objective that determines the outcome. Clearly, different populations and critics sapir-whorf thesis cultures have differing food needs and require different breeding objectives. But, to be sustainable, all cultures need a nutritionally well-balanced diet. Changes in food animal agriculture and fisheries. Animal food products are good sources of high-quality protein, minerals (for example, iron), and vitamins, particularly vitamin B12, which is immortality essay not available in plant materials. Livestock production is a dynamic and integral part of the food system today, contributing 40% of the global value of agricultural output, 15% of total food energy, and 25% of dietary protein and supporting the livelihoods and food security of what makes a good character almost a billion people (FAO 2009b). Seafood, including products from a growing aquaculture segment, provides at least 15% of the average animal protein consumption to 2.9 billion people, with consumption higher in developed and island countries than in some developing countries (Smith and others 2010).
Except for most of sub-Saharan Africa and parts of South Asia, production and consumption of immortality meat, milk, and eggs is increasing around the world, driven by population and homework planet income growth and urbanization (FAO 2009b; Steinfeld and others 2010). The rapidly increasing demand for meat and immortality dairy products has led during the past 50 y to an approximately 1.5-fold increase in the global numbers of cattle, sheep, and goats; 2.5-fold increase in for research paper, pigs; and 4.5-fold increase in chickens (Godfray and others 2010). The nutritional impact of animal products varies tremendously around the world (FAO 2009b; Steinfeld and others 2010). The structure of the livestock sector is complex, differs by location and species, and is being transformed by globalization of supply chains for feed, genetic stock, and other technologies (FAO 2009b). The current livestock sector has shifted from pasture-based ruminant species (cattle, sheep, goats, and others having a multichamber stomach, one of which is the rumen) to feed-dependent monogastric species (for example, poultry) and is marked by intensification and increasing globalization (Steinfeld and immortality others 2010). A substantial proportion of livestock, however, is powerpoint paper grass-fed (Godfray and others 2010) and small-holder farmers and herders feed 1 billion people living on less than $1 a day (Herrero and others 2010). The rates of conversion of grains to meat, milk, and eggs from food animals have improved significantly in developed and developing countries (CAST 1999).
Technological improvements have taken place most rapidly and effectively in poultry production, with broiler growth rates nearly doubled and essay feed conversion ratios halved since the early 1960s. In addition to these productivity gains, bird health and product quality and safety have improved through applications of breeding, feeding, disease control, housing, and processing technologies (FAO 2009b). In addition, transgenic technology is used to produce fish with faster, more efficient growth rates. Meeting the needs of a growing population. As a result of improved public health measures and homework planet modern medicine, the immortality population has mushroomed from an estimated 1 to 10 million in 10000 BC to an estimated 600 to 900 million in AD 1750 and an estimated 6.8 billion today. How To Write. Thomas Malthus (1803) predicted that population growth would inevitably outpace resource production, and therefore that misery (hunger and starvation) would endure. Undoubtedly, application of science and technology in agriculture and essay food and beverage manufacturing has negated these predictions and fed population growth (Figure 1).
From Foraging and powerpoint for research paper Farming to Food Science and Engineering. Adapted from Henry (1997) Nutrition Society 1997. Reprinted with the permission of Cambridge University Press. The application of science to agriculture has dramatically increased productivity, but until the Green Revolution of the 1960s and 1970s, productivity was not keeping pace with population growth. Large areas of the world, including the 2 most populous nations, China and India, were experiencing severe food shortages and anticipating worse. The improved plant breeding techniques of the Green Revolution have dramatically improved that situation.
However, the Green Revolution's remarkable advances have been acquired at substantial cost. The vastly improved varieties resulting from improved plant-breeding techniques require much larger inputs of fertilizer and immortality essay water. Poor farmers often cannot afford the fertilizer, and what a good character adequate water supplies are becoming an essay increasing problem in many areas. Thus, the Green Revolution, for how to write all its enormous benefits, has primarily helped larger farmers much more than smaller, poorer ones. In addition, pesticide applications in the developing world are too often inappropriate or excessivein some cases because the farmer is immortality essay unable to read the labeland there is how to no structure (for example, a regulatory agency such as the immortality Environmental Protection Agency) to regulate their use. Problems are not, however, confined to the developing world. Nutrient run off in the United States and how to density other countries leads to algal blooms in immortality, lakes and estuaries and to “dead zones” completely lacking in oxygen in lakes and oceans. Soil erosion by wind and water continues to be a problem in many producing areas. Homework Planet. Soil quality thus suffers. Immortality Essay. The world's known resources of powerpoint for research paper high-grade phosphate ore are limited, and the essential plant nutrient phosphorus will consequently become more expensive (Vaccari 2009). These problems are certainly capable of solution, through a number of practices.
Beneficial options include “no-till” agriculture (which leaves the root systems of immortality essay previous crops undisturbed, thereby retaining organic matter and greatly discouraging erosion), integrated pest management, IPM (which focuses pesticide use where needed, substantially decreasing the amount used), precision agriculture (which site-specifically targets production inputs such as seed, fertilizer, and pesticides where and when needed), drip irrigation (controlled trickling of water), and use of new technology for recovering nitrogen and phosphorus from processing wastewater for use as fertilizer (Bongiovanni and Lowenberg-Deboer 2004; Frog Capital 2009; Gebbers and Adamchuk 2010). Measures such as those just discussed are useful primarily in the economically more developed areas. Developing countries require other steps adapted to their local areas and focused particularly on improvements for the many millions of small, poor farmers. Improved plant varieties, produced both by conventional breeding and through biotechnology are necessary, as are improved varieties of fish and livestock. There is little doubt that improvements in plant breeding, both conventional and transgenic, can significantly improve productivity. Technological improvements, such as automated plant monitoring via robotics, are “helping plant breeders trim years off the makes character process of immortality developing crop varieties tailored to local conditions” (Pennisi 2010). The list of in women empowerment essay such needs is far too long to explore here, but it also must include public health measures. Essay. A major problem yet to be addressed is the subsidization of agricultural products in developed nations. Critics Of The Sapir-whorf Thesis. Products from small, unsubsidized farmers in developing nations cannot compete in essay, the world market with subsidized products from advanced nations.
This problem was the character cause of a recent breakdown in World Trade Organization talks. Some see organic agriculture as an answer to these problems. Organic farming has some clear merits, particularly those practices, such as crop rotation and essay the use of green or natural biocontrol agents and animal manure, which have been used by farmers for millennia (King 1949). The use of how to write density degraded plant and animal residues increases the friability (tendency to crumble, as opposed to caking) and water-holding capacity of soil, and nutrients from decaying plants and animal manure are more slowly available than those from most commercial fertilizers. Both of these factorsfriability and slow nutrient availabilitydiminish nutrient runoff. While organic agriculture continues to immortality, grow in response to for research, consumer preferences in immortality, the developed world, there are limitations to widespread use of organic practices. Organic agriculture requires substantially more land and write density labor than conventional practices to immortality, produce food, and the resulting yields are not great enough and too expensive to address the needs of the socrates essay growing population. The supply of composted animal manure is limited and immortality relatively expensive compared to commercial fertilizers.
Organic agriculture excludes the use of synthetic pesticides, and defence essay the few “natural” ones that are permitted are seldom used (Lotter 2003). Immortality Essay. Herbicides are not permitted in organic agriculture, even though some, such as glyphosate, are rapidly degraded in the soil. These exclusions require more manual labor for in women weed and pest control. All of these factors result in higher costs and higher prices for organic foods. Reports on productivity vary widely, but some credible sources place organic food production as low as 50% of that of essay conventional agriculture (Bichel Committee 1999). Yield differences may be attributable to a number of defence socrates factors such as agro-ecological zone (for example, temperate and irrigated compared with humid and perhumid), crop type, high-input compared with low-input level of comparable conventional crop, and management experience (Zundel and essay Kilcher 2007). In addition, current organic methods exclude the use of the products of modern biotechnologyrecombinant DNA technologyessential to powerpoint for research paper, future increases in agricultural productivity. Nevertheless, the more useful practices of organic agriculture must be part of the agriculture of the future.
Although poverty and malnutrition exist in all countries, by far the most severe problems in achieving availability, safety, and nutritive value of food and beverages occur in essay, the developing world (IFPRI 2009). Water shortages and contaminated water, poor soil, destruction of forest for fuel, use of homework planet animal manure for fuel, the spread of plant and animal diseases, and the complete lack of a sound food safety infrastructure are among the most vexing problems. Continued food scarcity invites chaos, disease, and terrorism (Brown 2009). The gap between developing and developed nations is not only in economics but also in science, governance, and public information. Thus, to address these issues, the food system must be considered in its totality. Eighty percent of agricultural land is used for grain fed to meat animals and yields only 15% of our calorie intake. Immortality Essay. Many have suggested that world food shortages could be greatly alleviated by consuming less meat and using the grain supplies now consumed by socrates essay, animals more directly. Reduction in meat intake, particularly red meats, would confer some health benefits, but the immortality potential effects on world food supplies are less clear and quite possibly much less than many presume. If developed nations consume much less meat, the critics sapir-whorf price of meat will fall and poorer nations will consume more.
If more grain is consumed, grain prices will rise, to the detriment of essay populations that already rely heavily on grain. The global food system is extremely complex, and any single change causes many others, often in unexpected ways (Stokstad 2010). Clearly, the solution to the challenge of meeting the food demands of of education empowerment our future world population lies in these principal thrusts: • Increased agricultural productivity everywhere, but particularly among poor farmers, of whom there are hundreds of millions. • Increased economic development and education, both for their own merits and because they will promote infrastructure gains in transportation and water management. • Much-increased efforts in environmental and water conservation and improvement. • Continued improvements in food and beverage processing and packaging to deliver safe, nutritious, and affordable food. Immortality Essay. • Reduction of postharvest losses, particularly in developing countries. We must achieve all of these goals. To maintain, as some do, that we cannot have both vastly increased productivity and good environmental practices is a “false choice” (Gates 2009). Meeting these goals will require the effective use of scienceboth the science now within reach and that still to be developed. Postharvest losses occur between harvest and consumption as a result of spoilage of raw agricultural commodities, primarily during storage and transportation, before they can be stabilized for homework planet longer-term storage. The granaries mentioned earlier were the first crude efforts to attack this problem, but it still persists. Postharvest losses due to rodents, insects, and microbial spoilage in some areas amount to immortality essay, 30% or more of the harvested crop. This results in wasted seed, water, fertilizer, and makes essay labor.
Postharvest losses must be attacked with locally appropriate improvements in available technology (Normile 2010). It is not enough merely to increase and conserve the supply of raw food; it must be conserved against essay further loss by processing and be packaged, distributed to where it is needed, and guaranteed in of the sapir-whorf, its safety, nutritional value, and cultural relevance. That is the role of science and essay technology and engineering applied to the processing of foods and beverages. A widely understood and accepted definition of food processing does not exist, and perceptions of “processed foods” vary widely. Paper. From the broadest perspective, food processing may be considered to essay, include any deliberate change in a food occurring between the point of origin and availability for consumption. The change could be as simple as rinsing and packaging by a food manufacturer to ensure that the food is critics of the sapir-whorf not damaged before consumer accessibility, or as complex as formulating the product with specific additives for controlling microorganisms, maintaining desired quality attributes, or providing a specific health benefit, followed by packaging that may itself play a role in microbial control or quality preservation.
Some people process their own foods in the home, by canning produce from a garden, microwave cooking, or dehydrating food, for example. Following recipes to bake cakes, cookies, and casseroles or to immortality essay, make chili are examples of homework planet formulating foods in essay, the home (Shewfelt 2009). In general, food processing is applied for one or more of the following reasons: preservation, extending the harvest in a safe and stable form; safety; quality; availability; convenience; innovation; health and socrates essay wellness; and sustainability. Although the essay private sector carries out thesis, these processes and immortality essay delivers the final product to the consumer, public investment in generating the science and engineering base necessary to continue the creativity and socrates essay ultimate application of new technologies is clearly warranted. Many writings from immortality, antiquity refer to food and its preservation and preparation. Major advances in food preservation accelerated with the for research paper development of canning, which proceeded from the investigations of Nicolas Appert in France and the subsequent activities of Peter Durand in England in the early 19th century. Appert used corked glass bottles to preserve food, and Durand introduced the immortality essay concept of metal cans. Role In Women. This led to increased emphasis from scientists on the quantity and quality of food, although the reason for canning's effectiveness for food preservation was not discovered until nearly 50 y later. Louis Pasteur reported to the French Academy of Sciences in 1864 on the lethal effect of heat on microorganisms. W. Russel of the Univ. of immortality Wisconsin and essay Samuel Cate Prescott and William Lyman Underwood of the Massachusetts Inst. of Technology described in 1895 to 1896 the need for time and temperature control (Labuza and Sloan 1981). No period of immortality essay time has seen such rapid advances in food and beverage processing as the 20th century (Welch and Mitchell 2000).
Modern food science and technology has extended, expanded, and refined these traditional methods and added new ones. Homework Planet. Simple cooking, though still the most common process, evolved into canning. Dehydration, once restricted to less sanitary sun drying, now is usually a highly mechanized and sanitized process. Refrigeration has evolved from cool storage to sophisticated refrigerators and freezers, and the industrial techniques of blast freezing and individual quick freezing (IQF) are less detrimental to nutritional quality and immortality sensory quality (for example, taste, texture). All of these developments contributed to increased nutritional quality, safety, variety, acceptability, and homework planet availability of foods and beverages. Many of these techniques are now combined into more effective preservation technologies through the immortality concept of “hurdle technology,” combining techniques to create conditions that bacteria cannot overcome, such as combining drying with chemical preservatives and packaging, or mild heat treatment followed by packaging and role of education in women essay refrigerated storage (Leistner and Gould 2002). Still another notable evolution is the immortality long history of the use of food additivessubstances added in small quantities to produce a desired effect.
Of the density 32 “technical effects” (functional purposes) listed by immortality, the Food and Drug Administration in the Code of Federal Regulations , 24 can be recognized in the few cookbooks and recipe compilations that have survived from defence essay, more than 150 y ago. Among the additives that were once used to produce these technical effects (Hall 1978) are. • Pearl ash (from wood ashes) and vinegar as leavening agents. • Sodium silicate (water glass) for dipping eggs to essay, preserve them. • Lye for hulling corn. • Sulfur dioxide from burning sulfur as a fumigant and preservative. • Unlined copper utensils for making pickles greener. • Saltpeter and roach alum as curing and for research pickling agents. • Grass, marigold flowers, and indigo stone (copper sulfate) as sources of green, yellow, and immortality blue colors. Before the days of widespread industrial production of food and before the advent of modern chemistry and toxicology, these and many other crude additives were used confidently within the family without any knowledge of the risks they presented. In the 20th century, the development of the role of education empowerment essay science of toxicology permitted the careful evaluation of the safety of substances added to food. The advent of immortality modern chemistry permitted the detection of intentional adulteration of foods by purveyors using deceitful practices, and led to the passage and enforcement of modern food laws. Frederick Accum's “Treatise on the Adulteration of Food,” published in 1820, marked the beginning of defence this effort. In the United States, the Pure Food and essay Drugs Act of 1906 prohibited adulteration and misbranding of food, issues that continued to be addressed in the United States via federal statutes.
Prior to 1958, the burden of critics of the proving that a substance posed an unacceptable risk rested with the government. Essay. In that year, the Food Additives Amendment to the 1938 Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act changed that by advancing the concept of “adulteration” and imposing on food manufacturers the density task of proving prior to marketing that an additive is safe under the conditions of its intended use. The change in the use of food additives in immortality essay, the past 100 y has been dramatic. We have moved from the homework planet use of crude, unidentified, often hazardous substances to purified, publicly identified food ingredients that are well evaluated for safety. Now high standards and essay margins of critics of the thesis safety are applied to immortality, food additives (ACS 1968; NAS 1973; Hall 1977). Today, because of modern means of detection, intentional food adulteration in homework planet, industrialized countries is considered uncommon, occurring more often in foods imported from countries without effective food safety infrastructure.
Except for rare cases of individual sensitivity, human harm from approved food additives in essay, the United States is virtually unknown. Advances in food science and homework planet technology. Drying, canning, chemical preservation, refrigeration (including chilling and freezing), and nutrient conservation and fortification were the significant advances of the 19th and 20th centuries and permitted population growth in more developed countries. Such population growth could only occur if there was sufficient food. The industrial revolution could not have occurred without a food delivery system that allowed people to leave the essay farms, migrate to the cities, and homework planet engage in useful production of goods and services for society. Among the important developments during the early part of the essay 20th century were the discovery of vitamins and the realization of the importance of other micronutrients such as iodine, iron, and calcium. Those with memories of that earlier period recall the bowed legs associated with rickets (from vitamin D deficiency) and the swollen thyroids related to goiter (from iodine deficiency). Role Of Education Empowerment Essay. With the introduction of the draft just before World War II, the army discovered widespread malnutrition among young American males. This led to the foundation of the Food and Nutrition Board of the essay Inst. of Medicine of the of the Natl. Academies and also the development in 1941 of the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) for essential nutrients.
The difficulty of achieving these RDAs from available foods, especially among the poor, led manufacturers to fortify common foods with vitamins and other micronutrients, beginning with iodized salt in 1924. Immortality. Today, fortified foods, defined by federal Standards of Identity, include such staples as pasta, milk, butter, salt, and flour. Technological innovations in food preservation were dependent on advances in the sciences, especially chemistry and microbiology. How these sciences and powerpoint paper technologies are applied within each society depends on the economic, biological, cultural, and political contexts for each society. For example, vegetarian groups require certain technologies, but not others; rice-eating societies may reject, sometimes strongly, foods based on other grains; and slaughtering procedures vary with religious backgrounds. Advances in agriculture and food science and technology have led to reduction in immortality, nutrient deficiency-related diseases; a generally safe food supply with consistent high quality available independent of write density seasons; food choices that do not require preparation time; a wide range of delicious foods; reduced food waste; lower household food costs than ever before; convenience foods requiring much less preparation time than before, a benefit for working families; and efficient global food distribution that can be exploited in times of natural and man-made disasters. Food is central to human health, not only in terms of quantity, but also quality as well. The past few decades have seen alarming rates of increase in chronic diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer, as well as autoimmune diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease and autism. A growing body of epidemiological, clinical, and basic research shows that food and diet are important factors involved in the etiology of these and immortality other chronic diseases, and that dietary patterns have a profound effect on the risk for chronic diseases. Anand and others (2008), for example, describe the substantial role of environment lifestyle risk factors (such as sun exposure, diet, obesity, and physical inactivity) for makes a good essay cancer and provide evidence that cancer could be preventable for some people but that this would require major lifestyle changes.
Hence, whether it is food safety and security, or nutrient deficiency and disease prevention, food is intricately connected to human health and well-being. Dietary guidelines are produced to provide advice on good dietary habits that will promote health and reduce risk for major chronic diseases. The 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans includes recommendations to increase consumption of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and essay low-fat milk, and to limit consumption of trans fats, saturated fats, cholesterol, and sodium. Many food companies have responded to these recommendations. Makes Character Essay. For example, more bread and immortality cereal products are now available that are made from whole grains and have higher fiber contents. Homework Planet. The introduction of baby carrots doubled intake of carrots. Introducing milk packaging that appeals to teens has increased milk consumption in that population group. Product reformulation has greatly reduced the trans fat content of many foods, and several companies have made commitments to reduce the sodium content of immortality food products. Critics Of The Thesis. Convenient and innovative toddler foods made from a variety of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and dairy are now available.
To help control portion size, limited-calorie packaging has entered the market for a variety of categories. Overweight and obesity have become the dominant health problem in the United States and many developed countries. In children, the immortality prevalence has almost tripled in the past 3 decades (Ogden and density others 2000). This is of particular concern because overweight children have a high likelihood of becoming overweight adults, with all the associated diseases such as metabolic syndrome and diabetes. Recent research suggests that childhood obesity is determined by age 2 (Harrington and others 2010), which supports the immortality earlier set-point theory that body weight is regulated at a predetermined or preferred level by defence socrates, a feedback-control mechanism (Harris 1990).
The obesity issue is a scientifically complex issue of behavior and may be economically driven; some of the lowest priced foods are the more calorie-dense and immortality palatable products (Drewnowski 2004; MacAulay and Newsome 2004). Diabetes mellitus is homework planet expected to skyrocket to immortality essay, epidemic proportions in the next quarter-century (Bonow and Gheorghiade 2004). Homework Planet. Lifestyle interventions are the essay 1st step in the management of diabetes and critics of the metabolic syndrome (Stone 2008). Even in immortality essay, the midst of an abundance of energy from food, however, many people do not meet their nutrient requirements, sometimes because of the types of foods available to them, other times because of the kinds of foods they select. Homework Planet. The report of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee (DGAC 2010) recommended focus on achieving energy balance through the current nutrition and physical activity guidelines.
Food Processing: A Critical Element. As indicated above, food processing has evolved from merely a need to immortality essay, preserve foods from the time and location of harvest or assembly until the product reaches the consumer, to possibly complex activities that may include sourcing raw materials and ingredients from different parts of the world that can improve nutritional and other desirable qualities for better overall health and wellness of consumers. Food processing frequently serves multiple objectives. For example, freezing or cooking and freezing both preserve and essay provide convenience. Heating or fermentation of immortality soy is necessary both to achieve edibility and to remove the of the sapir-whorf hemagglutinens that would be mildly toxic. Processing operations are conducted under controlled conditions to ensure that the essay process is sapir-whorf completed in the most effective and efficient manner. The resulting products include ingredients delivered to food manufacturers to immortality, be used in producing foods for consumers, as well as ingredients (for example, flour) for consumers to use in powerpoint for research, food preparation.
The development and implementation of new technologies enhances food quality and safety. New and immortality essay innovative products, some with unique product attributes, have been developed through the use of new processing technologies. The formulation, processing, and role of education in women packaging of a food or beverage is accomplished for several clearly definable purposes, with numerous benefits to immortality essay, the consumer and society: • Preservation. This is the oldest and role of education in women perhaps still the most common purpose, and immortality essay the one most familiar to consumers. The purpose of preservation is to extend the shelf life of a food or beverage. • Safety. The processing of food is designed to remove health hazards associated with microbial pathogens.
Processing operations dealing with raw food materials or ingredients carrying pathogens have significant controls and regulations to detect and inactivate food-borne microorganisms that can cause illness. Pasteurization of milk is just one of many examples of processes that eliminate a health hazard for the consumer and extend the life of the product. Managing food safety, however, goes beyond microbiological risks. What Character. Good agricultural and manufacturing practices and other principles address chemical and physical hazards as well. In addition, plant breeding has contributed to reduction of immortality essay some of the toxicants that occur naturally in foods in role, small amounts (ACS 1968; Hall 1977) and have been the essay source of common and sometimes widespread human illness and occasionally death. Processing is, however, still necessary in some instances. Defence Socrates. For example, manioc must be crushed and soakedor crushed, heated, and treated with acidto remove hydrogen cyanide from cyanogenic glycosides before the resulting starch (tapioca) is safe to consume. • Quality.
Processes to ensure the delivery of foods and immortality essay beverages of the highest quality to the consumer continue to powerpoint paper, evolve. Quality attributes include taste, aroma, texture, color, and nutrient content. Immortality. In most cases, these attributes begin to decline as soon as a raw food material or ingredient is harvested or collected. The goal of the homework planet processes is to ensure that the immortality decline in quality attributes is how to minimized. For example, blanching and freezing vegetables immediately after harvesting ensures that the essay nutrients remain at their peak level. In some cases, the quality attributes are enhanced by processing. For example, processing of soybeans greatly improves their flavor.
• Availability. How To Density. Food processing helps to ensure that the consumer has access to a wide variety of essay foods and food ingredients at any time, including those that help to improve the retention of quality attributes for character the period of time required for delivery of the product to the consumer. For example, controlling the composition of the atmosphere surrounding apples and other fruits leads to immortality essay, extended freshness. • Sustainability. Food processing ensures that the density resources required to produce raw food materials and essay ingredients for food manufacturing are used most efficiently. Responding to the goals of sustainability requires the maximum utilization of all raw materials produced and integration of of the sapir-whorf thesis activities throughout all the production-to-consumption stages. Immortality Essay. To maximize the conversion of raw materials into consumer products, efforts begin at the production stage, with activities to reduce postharvest losses and increase use of by-products. Efforts continue, through food manufacturing and beyond, to ensure that energy, water, and other resources are used most efficiently and environmental impacts are minimized.
Refrigeration of fresh produce is an example of an action that reduces loss and increases the edible life of the product. • Convenience. Critics Sapir-whorf Thesis. Many processed foods and essay beverages are developed to homework planet, allow them to be consumed after limited amounts of preparation. For example, a frozen or refrigerated entree is immortality essay delivered to the consumer in a form ready for microwave heating. Snack foods are ready to eat when delivered to the consumer. • Health and Wellness. At a fundamental level, food is homework planet viewed as a source of nutrition to meet at least the minimum daily requirements for survival, but there is an ever-greater focus on the desire for health optimization from food. Processing can enhance the nutritional value of immortality foods in a number of character ways.
For example, refiningseparation of the antinutritional componentsis the best means of improving the nutritional quality of many foodstuffs of vegetable origin, and processing of fresh tomatoes (for example, into immortality, catsup) improves the bioavailability of the carotenoid lycopene. Some products are specifically designed to enhance individual health and wellnessthe focus of many current trendsrequiring specific unique ingredients and an array of processes to ensure desired product attributes. Many products are fortified or enriched with vitamins and defence socrates minerals (for example, orange juice fortified with calcium for bone health) and other nutrients (for example, margarine enriched with plant stanols and sterols for heart health) in response to defined nutritional needs of consumers. Essay. The success of these productsoften referred to as “functional foods”requires that flavor and texture also meet consumer expectations. Typical technologies, processes, and operations. The mechanical operations, processes, and technologies typically used to achieve these benefits in preparing and using raw materials in manufacturing foods and beverages (Potter and Hotchkiss 1995) are briefly described below: • Mechanical Operations. There are many mechanical operations used throughout the food system, including simple conveying of raw materials from one location to another, as well as more intense operations to change the physical structure of the material.
All or most of these operations are larger scale versions of operations that have been used to prepare foods for centuries. The cracking and grinding of cereal grains to manufacture the flour used in bakery products is a very visible example. Most often these operations are designed to produce one or more of the ingredients to be used in consumer food products. The extraction of oil from powerpoint paper, soybeans and other oilseeds requires a mechanical operation before efficient separation of the oil can be accomplished. In most cases, these operations are a component of immortality series of steps needed to ensure the most efficient use of the homework planet raw material, often including the manufacturing of an array of by-products for consumers to utilize. Immortality. Another typical mechanical operation is dry mixing, involving the blending of various ingredients to ensure homogeneous and critics thesis uniform distribution of the various ingredients before a final stage of manufacturing. • Heating . The use of immortality thermal energy to increase the temperature of a raw food or ingredient is the most recognized and widely used approach to preservation of food. Essay. By increasing the temperature to appropriate levels and holding for an appropriate time that is dependent on both the nature of the food and the objective of the process, pathogenic or spoilage microorganisms are significantly decreased in number or eliminated. Thermal processes applied to essay, foods in food manufacturing are based on the same principles as those governing traditional cooking of foods during preparation. The impact of heatingthermal processingon components of the food is the same as that during cooking and often results in defence essay, the enhancement of essay flavors and how to texture, as well as some modest losses of heat-sensitive nutrients. Immortality Essay. Many shelf-stable foods are available to consumers as a result of thermal processing.
Less-intense thermal processes, such as pasteurization, also ensure that dairy products and fruit juices are safe. Heating food to extend its shelf life probably dates back to antiquity, when people observed that food that had been cooked kept longer without spoiling. Role In Women Empowerment. However, it was not until Appert and others investigated heating foods in containers that it was discovered that immediate recontamination of heated food from the environment did not occur. Since those meager beginnings, advances in mathematics, chemistry, biology, and engineering, coupled with their application to food science and technology, have resulted in development of equipment and procedures to optimize the application of heat to foods for the purpose of immortality essay extending their shelf life and socrates enhancing their edibility (texture, flavor, and immortality visual appearance). There are basically 3 types of heat processes that are applied to food, other than cooking: blanching, pasteurization, and canning. The latter 2 are tightly regulated by federaland in some cases, stateagencies to ensure proper application of the of the sapir-whorf thesis technology and prevention of food-borne illness.
Blanching is a mild heat treatment (usually accomplished at temperatures below 212F for less than 2 to 3 min) applied to immortality, foods that are to be subsequently canned, frozen, or dried. The purpose is to eliminate or reduce activity of enzymes in the foods that catalyze changes in flavor, texture, or color. Homework Planet. Other benefits include removal of air from the immortality essay food tissue to reduce oxidation, softening of the plant tissue to facilitate packing into of education empowerment essay, packages, and inactivation of antinutritional properties (such as trypsin inhibitor in soybeans, a naturally occurring chemical that reduces dietary protein breakdown in the human gastrointestinal tract). The process is immortality essay usually carried out in hot water or steam, although there are processes based on hot air or microwave heating. Since the process is relatively mild, there is relatively little effect on nutrients, although when hot water is used as the heating medium some nutrients, especially water-soluble nutrients, are leached into the water. “ Pasteurization ” is named after Pasteur, who demonstrated that wine spoiled because of the presence of microorganisms and that a mild heat treatment could be used to inactivate the microorganisms and thereby extend the shelf life. Pasteurization is most well known for its application to critics of the thesis, milk, which is immortality strictly regulated through the homework planet U.S. Public Health Service/FDA's Pasteurized Milk Ordinance. Pasteurization is most generally applied to essay, liquids, although it is also applied to homework planet, semisolid and solid foods. As applied to immortality, liquids, the temperature is elevated to 140 to 212F for a short period of time (usually less than 1 min) to inactivate microorganisms that can cause illness (pathogens).
As originally applied, the liquid was heated after it was put into the container; but by applying advances in food engineering, such as the understanding of homework planet flow dynamics and heat transfer to flowing liquids, continuous processes were developed using heat exchangers, machines used to transfer heat from a hot fluid to a colder one. Modern processes are almost exclusively continuous processes, with the pasteurized liquid being deposited into sterile packages. Immortality. Most pasteurized foods are subsequently kept in refrigerated storage to how to write, extend the shelf life because not all spoilage organisms present have been inactivated. “ Canning ” is primarily used to inactivate microorganisms that cause food-borne disease such as botulism, but it also inactivates microorganisms that cause food spoilage. This thermal process is commonly accomplished by holding the immortality product at temperatures well above 230F for several minutes. Canned food is thesis not absolutely sterile (devoid of all viable microorganisms) but rather is commercially sterile (devoid of all viable microorganisms that could grow under normal storage conditions). There are 2 major methods: heating the food after it has been sealed in a container (referred to as canning ) and sterilizing the food, then depositing it in immortality, a sterile container within a sterile environment and sealing the container (referred to homework planet, as aseptic processing ). Immortality Essay. These processes can also be optimized for retention of nutrients and quality factors such as taste, flavor, and how to write density color. The success of this method of preserving foods in eliminating food-related deficiency diseases cannot be understated, with canned fruits and immortality essay vegetables being a source of vitamin C independent of seasons, for example. • Refrigeration and Freezing. The use of low temperatures to extend the shelf life of food and beverage products has a long history. The use of ice to reduce the temperature of foods and prevent spoilage has been recognized for centuries.
Refrigerators are now found in almost every home in industrialized countries. Although the powerpoint for research paper reduction of temperature does not eliminate microbial populations, it reduces the rate of microbial growth enough to prevent product spoilage and extend the essay shelf life of most food products. Most fruits and vegetables are refrigerated to extend their freshness. In addition, refrigeration also reduces the reaction rates of enzymes that cause deterioration of most quality attributes of a food or beverage, making high-quality products available to the consumer for extended periods of time (Heldman and Hartel 1997). Some foods and beverages receive a mild heat treatment to inactivate enzymes and eliminate microorganisms that can cause disease but still require refrigeration to control the growth of surviving microorganisms that can cause spoilage. Pasteurized milk is probably the best example, but many other foods and write beverages are also pasteurized and immortality then refrigerated.
In general, holding a food or beverage at powerpoint, refrigeration or freezing temperature has no negative impact on the quality attributes of the immortality food but extends consumable product life. “ Freezing ” is a more intense use of refrigeration to reduce the temperature of powerpoint for research a product to levels below the freezing temperature of water in the product. Lower temperatures cause the immortality liquid water to change phase to ice. At these reduced temperatures (−0.4 to −14F), the deterioration rates for product quality attributes are reduced to below those at refrigeration temperature, and microbial growth is reduced to negligible levels. It is not unusual for frozen fruits, vegetables, and some meat products to maintain high quality for for research paper as much as 1 y while frozen. Many favorite desserts, such as ice cream, have been created by the freezing process.
Most nutrients are not affected by immortality, freezing; however, it is difficult to freeze a food product without impact on the some of its more evident quality attributes. The formation of ice crystals within the structure of a plant or animal food results in a series of reactions with potential impact on texture and flavor. Thus, careful control of the time to freeze the of education empowerment essay product and the temperature of the immortality essay frozen product during distribution and storage is important to minimize such reactions and ensure the best possible quality attributes over time (Erickson and Hung 1997). The size of ice crystals created during the freezing process can be controlled, but this is not possible with all products or freezing facilities. For example, small pieces of fruits or vegetables can be frozen very rapidly, and the product structure is preserved with uniform distribution of small ice crystals. In contrast, a large portion of beef or any product in a large package will require a longer time to freeze and will result in a less-uniform distribution of larger ice crystals. The extent of the impact on product quality depends on an array of role of education in women essay factors occurring after freezing, including control of temperature during storage and distribution and final preparation of the food. For many foods, the quality attributes of refrigerated and frozen foods compare favorably to those of the fresh counterparts (Mallet 1993). • Dehydration. Drying is essay intended to how to write, halt or slow the growth of microorganisms and rate of chemical reactions.
The removal of water provides food processors excellent opportunities to reduce volume and weight, extend shelf life, and convert liquids to powdery products, such as instant coffee or a vegetable soup base mix. This process is one of the immortality oldest techniques used to preserve foods, one of the most utilized, and the most energy intensive (von Loesecke 1943; Saravacos 1965; King 1968; Thijssen 1979). Water removal is usually performed via evaporation, vaporization, or sublimation (drying while frozen) by homework planet, means of a simultaneous heat, mass, and momentum transfer mechanism (Whitaker 1977). This transfer occurs within the food itself and between the food and the drying medium, resulting in the reduction of moisture, a key variable in all drying operations. In addition to water removal, chemical reactions occur, such as Maillard browning (nonenzymatic browning) of amino acids/reducing sugars such as glucose, caramelization of sugar, denaturation/degradation of cross-linking proteins, and pyrolysis (decomposition or transformation of a compound caused by heat) of the various organic constituents. In addition, loss of volatile compounds, gelatinization of starches, and immortality modification of food material structure change the socrates essay characteristics of the original product significantly (Viollaz and Alzamora 2005). Many types of dryers, dehydration methods, and associated equipment are applied to a very wide range of foods.
Sun drying on trays, mats, or platforms is the traditional method and is still used today. Modern equipment includes cabinet, bed, conveyor, fluidized bed, drum, vacuum, and spray dryers. Freeze drying (lyophilization), osmotic dehydration, microwave, and immortality essay innovative light-driven refractance-window dryers are also in use. With continuous technological advances in write density, different fields, drying is constantly evolving to immortality, offer better quality and novel products. Mathematical modeling and process simulation have significantly contributed to the understanding of the intricacies of this very complex process and the design of new dryers and drying systems. Thesis. One trend is to combine 2 or more dehydration techniquesor a dehydration method with other processing approachesfor treatments that optimize cost, food quality, and safety. Examples of these combinations include microwavevacuum drying, ultrasound-assisted air drying, and encapsulation and flavor impregnation to add value. • Acidification. Raw foods and essay beverages vary significantly in levels of acid they contain. Foods with lower levels of acid are more susceptible to microbial growth and are thus more perishable. What Character Essay. The intentional adjustment in essay, the level of acid in a food has been a preservation method for centuries, in making pickles, for example.
This approach to preservation is based on of the the inability of immortality many spoilage microorganisms and pathogens to grow at high levels of acid. Homework Planet. Increasing the acidity prevents growth of many microorganisms and extends the shelf life of the product, while maintaining many of its attributes. This preservation method can be accomplished by addition of acid to adjust the overall acidity level of the product, or biologically through fermentation. Immortality. Since acid alone may not be sufficient to fully protect the product, adjustments in acidity are frequently used in combination with other techniques such as heat, additives, or refrigeration to accomplish preservation and defence socrates essay safety. • Fermentation. The use of immortality microorganisms to change a perishable food into a less-perishable product is another very old way of preservation that has been used around the world by societies without access to refrigeration to extend the edible life of powerpoint for research paper a fresh food.
Many of these products, such as blue cheese, salami, sauerkraut, and yogurt, have become so popular that societies with ready access to refrigeration continue to enjoy fermented foods but still frequently use refrigeration to maintain safety and extend shelf life of these modern versions. Although some microorganisms lead to food spoilage and others cause food poisoning, specific microorganisms that can induce desirable changes in foods are used to overpower those that can lead to unappealing or unsafe foods. Fermentation microorganisms primarily work to change the chemical makeup of a product, making it less likely that undesirable microorganisms will reproduce and compromise product safety or quality. Beneficial microorganisms synthesize natural preservatives, such as lactic acid and other acids (increasing the acidity of the food), carbon dioxide (lowering the oxygen content), and ethanol (discouraging growth of undesirable microorganisms). Yeasts produce carbon dioxide to expand the essay structure, such as dough for bread baking.
They are also responsible for the production of role ethanol to produce beer, wine, and other alcoholic beverages. Fermented dairy products include yogurt and immortality a host of homework planet ripened cheeses. Fermented cucumbers are called pickles in Western countries, but pickling is another word for fermenting and is used to produce pickled eggs, pig's feet, and even snakes in certain countries. Many countries and cultures have their own favorite types of essay fermented products, such as injera from Ethiopia, kimchi (fermented cabbage) from Korea, salami and of education in women empowerment other fermented sausages from Italy and Germany, and sauerkraut from northern Europe. Harvested cacao beans are fermented before cleaning and roasting, making all chocolate products the essay result of at a good essay, least one fermentation step. • Water Activity. A very important and useful tool in the control of food quality attributes and food safety is water activity (a W ). Defined as an equilibrium property (free energy) of water at a given temperature and moisture content, the concept of a W was first suggested in the 1950s when it became obvious that water content could not adequately account for microbial growth limitations. During the immortality essay 1960s, researchers demonstrated that a W is also important in controlling the write rates of immortality chemical deterioration in how to, foods, and immortality essay then in the 1980s it was also found to relate to how to, the texture of crisp dry foods and immortality caking of powders such as instant coffee. a W is homework planet not the same as water content, or the quantitative amount of water in a sample, nor is it a measure of free compared with bound water in immortality, a food, an how to write early misconception that is now abandoned. Through the research of immortality essay hundreds of food scientists, a number of a W paradigms have been established and used by food manufacturers to create safe, tasty, and nutritious dry and semimoist foods such as crispy snacks and breakfast cereals, semimoist cookies, and socrates essay creamy confections. For example, it is known that at a W values between about 0.3 and 0.65, changes in product texture occur (for example, loss of crispness and onset of stickiness, caking, or hardening), and that at a W values around 0.85 and immortality essay greater, significant growth of microorganisms, including illness-causing bacteria, occurs.
In fact, the concept of a W is used in regulation of food processing to ensure food safety. The Code of Federal Regulations (21 CFR 110.80 [b]) requires that “Foods such as but not limited to dry mixes, nuts, intermediate moisture foods, and dehydrated foods that rely on the control of a W for preventing the growth of microorganisms shall be processed to and maintained at a safe moisture level. Compliance may be accomplished by any effective means including (i) monitoring the what a good character essay a W of ingredients and finished product, (ii) controlling the soluble solids-water ratio, (iii) protecting finished foods from immortality essay, moisture pickup so that the a W does not increase to an unsafe level .” In addition, a W is the key to control of enzyme activity, lipid oxidation, and many other reactions that have an impact on food quality, such as degradation of vitamins and changes in color, flavor, and aroma (Labuza and others 1970). Figure 2 depicts the water content and a W of a few common foods. Moisture sorption isotherm relating water activity to moisture content at a specific temperature. Specific knowledge of the relationship of a W to moisture content, such as that shown in Figure 2, is useful to food manufacturers for choosing specific ingredients, such as in write density, making a high- or intermediate-moisture food that will maintain a safe a W level (generally below 0.85). Essay. This information is also important in predicting and controlling textural changes and ingredient stability. Foods such as dry mixes, nuts, and dehydrated foods rely on control of a W for homework planet preventing the growth of immortality microorganisms.
This can be accomplished by adding food-grade acids such as citric or lactic, by adding a microbial growth inhibitor such as sodium benzoate or potassium sorbate, or by also including a smoking step, as has been done with hams and fish. The systematic control of homework planet a W through product formulation ensures the maximum quality and immortality essay shelf life for powerpoint dry and intermediate-moisture foods (Labuza and others 1970), such as beef jerky, gummies, dried raisins and cranberries, or chewy granola bars. Immortality. Many of these foods are traditional foods, but are available with improved quality attributes and convenience. Our ancestors used this method of role essay preservation centuries ago by simply adding salt or sugar to meat or plant foods. Immortality Essay. The best examples are cured hams, semidry smoked salted fish, and sugared fruit slices. • Smoking. The application of what essay smoke to food products, primarily meats, is a very traditional process that was probably discovered by accident. It has been speculated that when ancient cave dwellers learned to cook food over open fires, it quickly became obvious to them that the immortality essay smoke from the fire helped reduce the spoilage of perishable food products such as meat and essay also imparted a very distinctive, desirable flavor. Immortality. Over time, the smoke process was expanded to role empowerment, include not only meat, fish, and immortality essay poultry but also, more recently, sausage products, ham, bacon, cheeses, and many other foods for which a unique smoked flavor and powerpoint increased shelf life are desired. Classic survival foods, such as meat jerky, are produced by a combination of smoking and dehydration and have now evolved into a wide variety of immortality savory snack foods.
The smoke application process has evolved dramatically from open campfires to a highly controlled, scientific process, but the benefits have remained the critics same. Smoke achieves 4 different functions when applied to food, all of which contribute to safer, more palatable products: Food safety. Smoke kills some of the bacteria that are present on the product surface and immortality prevents or slows the growth of others. While this has been one of the most important roles of smoke for food preservation in how to, the past, this effect is less critical today because several other antimicrobial processes are available. Immortality. Nevertheless, smoke is still an important contributor to bacterial control in smoked foods. Powerpoint. The antibacterial effect of smoke is due to several components of wood smoke, specifically acids and alcohol, which are formed during combustion of wood and deposited on the product surface.
Furthermore, most smoke processes are done with application of heat at essay, the same time, and the combination of smoke with mild heating increases the control of both spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. Smoke application usually results in some surface drying of the product as well, and this helps to prevent bacterial growth during subsequent storage. Qualityflavor and aroma. Powerpoint. Smoke imparts a very pleasant and desirable aroma and flavor to smoked foods, a role that has become more important today as consumers seek a greater variety of flavors and eating experiences. Wood smoke can be derived from essay, a variety of wood sources, including hickory, apple, mesquite, and paper others, to add to the variety of flavors that can be achieved. Qualityvisual appeal. Smoke provides a highly attractive surface color, especially for smoked meats. The deep, rich mahogany color of a smoked ham is easily recognized by consumers and communicates assurance that the associated aroma and flavor expected of a smoked ham will be delivered.
Preservation. Smoke functions as an antioxidant or flavor protector. Several of the compounds in wood smoke, most notably complex phenols, will dramatically slow the flavor deterioration that typically occurs with development of rancidity following cooking. Despite the advantages, 3 criticisms have occasionally been leveled at the use of smoke for food preservation. First is that atmospheric emissions result from combustion of wood to generate smoke. Immortality Essay. Second is that it degrades some food nutrients; this has been demonstrated to be of very minor importancesmoke has been shown to critics sapir-whorf, not significantly alter the nutrient value of food under normal circumstances. Third is that combustion of wood can generate undesirable compounds (polycyclic hydrocarbons) shown to be toxic and/or carcinogenic. Of note is that this process results in smoke deposition almost exclusively on the surface of the product, with relatively little penetration below the surfacesmoke deposition is limited to the outer ¼ to ½ inch of the product. However, smoke application can also be achieved with “liquid smoke,” a concentrated extract of natural wood smoke. Liquid smoke contains all of the important functional components of essay natural smoke and results in the same effects on color, flavor, and bacterial control, but it is much more consistent in composition than natural smoke and homework planet therefore more reproducible in effect.
Other significant advantages to immortality essay, liquid smoke are that no atmospheric emissions are generated during smoke application, the undesirable toxic/carcinogenic components of natural smoke are not included in the extract, and the liquid smoke can be mixed into a product during manufacturing for powerpoint paper a more uniform smoked flavor. Immortality. Meat products with liquid smoke added can usually be identified by a term such as “smoke flavoring” in the ingredients list on the product label. Liquid smoke can also be applied by drenching or dipping, spraying or atomization, or use of smoke-impregnated sausage casings. These application methods result in surface deposition of smoke components with product effects that are very similar to those produced by role in women empowerment essay, the surface application of natural smoke. • Irradiation.
For more than 40 y, ionizing radiation has been used commercially to destroy bacterial and immortality essay insect contamination of food. Common sources of homework planet ionizing radiation today are electron beams, X-rays, and, more often, gamma rays (with the immortality radioactive isotope cobalt-60, the same source used for radiation therapy in hospitals). Elaborate physical safeguards assure worker safety. Irradiation is particularly effective in write density, reducing microbial contamination of hamburger meat and poultry, which can be contaminated by pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella , and Campylobacter and result in food-borne illness. Essay. Irradiation also may be applied to eliminate insects in a wide variety of what makes a good character essay foods, for example, flour, spices, fruits, vegetables, and grains (IFT 2004), to prevent seeds from immortality, sprouting, and to control pathogens in fresh shell eggs, seeds for sprouting, fresh or frozen molluscan shellfish (for example, oysters, clams, mussels, and scallops), and fresh iceberg lettuce and fresh spinach (Morehouse and Komolprasert 2004, FDA 2008). Low doses permit fruit to be harvested when ripe or nearly so, thus increasing nutritional and homework planet flavor quality, while still extending shelf life well beyond that of nonirradiated produce. Irradiation works by immortality essay, damaging the DNA of of education in women empowerment living organisms; the targets are typically bacteria and essay insects, but the DNA of the plant or animal food is of course also affected. This poses no human risk, since normal digestion completely breaks down and metabolizes the DNA, whether that damage is minimal, as with irradiation, or extensive, as with cooking. Low doses of irradiation can achieve sprout inhibition and insect de-infestation; medium doses are required for reduction of defence socrates spoilage and essay pathogenic bacteria; and critics sapir-whorf thesis high doses are required for sterilization. Irradiated foods must be labeled as such (21 CFR 179.26[c]). Irradiation is also used at high doses and in far higher volume to sterilize joint implants, bandages, sutures, drugs, cosmetics, and wine and immortality essay bottle corks (Crawford and powerpoint paper Ruff 1996; UW Food Irradiation Education Group 2010).
The effects of irradiation on nutritional quality vary depending on nutrient, food, and irradiation conditions (for example, dosage, temperature, and atmospheric conditions). Nutrient losses are similar to those occurring with heat and other processes (IFT 2004). Immortality Essay. Thiamin (vitamin B1) is sensitive to powerpoint paper, irradiation, but loss can be minimized with packaging techniques (Thayer 1990; Fox and others 1995, 1997). Irradiation does not in any way replace existing procedures for safe handling of food. Instead, it is a tool to achieve what normal safe handling cannot (CDC 2010). Irradiation cannot make food safe that is already spoiled (UW Food Irradiation Education Group 2010). Because of the usefulness of irradiation in dealing with microbial risks, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and other public health authorities have endorsed its use (CDC 2010).
The same conclusions on safety and effectiveness have been reached by international agencies (WHO 1997; Morehouse and Komolprasert 2004). Codex Alimentarius, the international food standard-setting agency, has published a General Standard for Irradiated Foods (CAC 2003a) and a Recommended International Code of Practice (CAC 2003b). Although regulations of immortality irradiation of food vary from country to country, regulations in write density, several countries have been or are being harmonized through compliance with the Codex General Standard (Morehouse and immortality essay Komolprasert 2004). In the for research United States, food irradiation is immortality regulated as a food additive, because in the Food Additives Amendment of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1958 Congress defined radiation sources as food additives. The safety of irradiated food, which has been tested extensively, has been clearly demonstrated (Diehl 1995; Crawford and Ruff 1996; WHO 1997; Morehouse and how to write density Komolprasert 2004; CDC 2010). Foods made sterile by irradiation to inactivate bacterial spores (at the essay highest doses) have been fed for years to defence essay, patients with reduced immunity and to astronauts (CDC 2010; UW Food Irradiation Education Group 2010). Consumer concern over the safety of irradiated food was initially high, in part because of the misconceptions that come with the introduction of essay any new technology. Arguments against irradiation are similar to those voiced against pasteurization of milk, when it was introduced 100 y ago (UW Food Irradiation Education Group 2010). Makes. Concern still exists but has gradually declined as information on essay irradiation and its advantages have become more widely known (Conley 1992; Bruhn 1995; Morehouse and Komolprasert 2004; IFIC 2009). The world volume of irradiated food is estimated to exceed 400000 tons annually, with the defence essay largest increase occurring in immortality essay, Asia (Kume and others 2009).
The food industry has been slow to adopt food irradiation in the more developed nations because of the large capital investment required; there is character essay little incentive to immortality, invest in irradiation equipment because of funds already allocated for of the thesis refrigeration, canning, and other major processes. Immortality Essay. The situation is very different in developing areas, where existing processes are much less extensive and postharvest losses and density the risks of food-borne illness are far greater. Some argue that this is where the need for irradiation is greatest and the ability to essay, afford it is the what essay lowest. In the United States, irradiation could reduce E. coli in ground beef and Salmonella in poultry should products be contaminated, and could provide a needed pathogen kill step for fresh greens eaten raw. • Extrusion. Immortality. This process pushes a material through a specially engineered opening to give a desired shape and what a good character essay texture through increases in temperature, pressure, and essay shear forces. The pushing force is applied by using either a piston or a screw. In food applications, screw extrusion is predominant. Examples of traditional extruded foods are pasta, noodles, vermicelli, and breakfast cereals. Other extruded foods include flat bread and snack foods such as corn curls, chips, crackers, chewing gum, chocolate, and soft/chewy candy.
Extrusion is also used to create flavors and encapsulate them for heat stability in processing. Thus, this process gives a desired shape, texture, functionality, and flavor. Depending on the product, an extruder can simply be a screw press or it can be a continuous cooker. In the case of a screw press, the product is defence socrates essay usually further processed extensively, such as by frying, baking, flaking, coating, or drying, as in the extrusion process to produce cornflakes. A continuous cooker extruder can make products that are almost ready-to-eat (for example, puffed rice), requiring very little further processing. Inside an extruder, several processes may occur, including fluid flow, heat transfer, mixing, shearing, particle size reduction, and melting. In pasta manufacturing, for example, the main objective of the extrusion process is to essay, partially gelatinize starch, compact the dough, and powerpoint for research paper give it the desired shape. In the case of chocolate manufacturing, however, the extruder is used as a reactor to essay, generate key flavor attributes.
And, in the case of flat bread, an extruder is used to develop the desired expanded and porous structure. Food extrusion is generally considered a high-temperature, short-time (HTST) process. The food components are exposed to temperatures above 284F for a very short time, generally a few seconds. This gives a distinct advantage over conventional pressure cooking, in which the exposure could be several minutes at temperatures near 212 to makes, 248F. Any cooking process causes loss of heat-sensitive nutrients, flavors, and colors. A combination of higher temperature and immortality shorter time is desirable because it retains nutrients better than a combination of lower temperature and longer time. It has been found that vitamins A, C, E, B1, and of the sapir-whorf thesis folic acid are very sensitive to immortality, extrusion, whereas the B-complex vitamins B2, B6, B12, niacin, calcium pantothenate, and biotin are stable during extrusion. Extrusion offers a good method for reducing antinutritional factors in legumes. For example, in peas, extrusion has been found to how to, be more effective than germination for reducing tannins, polyphenols, and trypsin inhibitors. Extruders have been used as bioreactors for pretreatment of cereal grains for essay subsequent ethanol fermentation, enzymatic conversion of starch to glucose and maltose, and sterilization of powerpoint paper ground spices such as black pepper, white pepper, and paprika. Extrusion has been shown to reduce the deleterious microorganisms in spices to well below maximum allowable levels.
Extrusion is an environmentally friendly process that uses heat and power efficiently and does not produce effluents. In addition, the same equipment can be used to make a variety of products. Extruded products are safe to consume, with no known harmful effects. • Modified/Controlled Atmosphere. The shelf life of many fresh foods has been extended by controlling the composition of the gas environment in direct contact with the product. For products with shelf life limited by chemical or enzymatic reactions involving oxygen, reducing or eliminating the oxygen content of the immortality environment provides significant extension of the product shelf life (Floros 1990). The shelf life of fresh fruits and defence essay vegetables is extended by controlling both the immortality essay oxygen and carbon dioxide composition of the atmosphere surrounding the products, which are still actively undergoing respiration and continue to convert oxygen to carbon dioxide. Large-scale controlled-atmosphere storage of fruits and vegetables has become a standard approach to maintaining the empowerment essay highest product quality between the time of harvest and delivery to the consumer.
More recently, controlled-atmosphere packaging has also become very common. This approach has evolved with the development of shipping containers and packaging films that allow for selective transmission or removal of different respiratory gases or the natural fruit-ripening gas ethylene (Floros and Matsos 2005). The modification of product atmosphere must be approached with caution, because of the immortality essay response of certain microbial populations. The most serious concerns are with anaerobic pathogens, such as Clostridium botulinum , that have the potential to grow and produce toxins in an oxygen-free environment. Several packaging systems have been developed based on of education in women essay these concepts, but are limited in application.
• Additives. Food additives are adjuncts to food processing. Immortality. They extend the range and flexibility of the relatively few food processes available, and socrates they improve the essay economics of the processes. Defence. For example, without stabilizers, ice cream would quickly become “grainy,” as small ice crystals grow into large ones. Without fumigants, flour and other grain products and spices would be wormy, as they once were years ago. Without fortification of milk and flour and the addition of iodine (in the essay form of iodate) to salt, rickets and goiter would still occur. Without artificial colors, many foods, such as gelatin, would be unattractive because natural colors lack the in women stability and coloring power of the synthetics. Without nonnutritive sweeteners, a great many sweetened beverages, desserts, and confections would have unacceptable calorie contents or contain levels of immortality sugar that cannot be consumed by certain individuals, such as people with diabetes and many others.
Anticaking agents, enzymes, preservatives, emulsifiers (which allow immiscible liquids such as oil and water to how to, form a stable mixture), humectants (which affect moisture retention through their affinity to water and essay stabilizing action on water content), and in women empowerment many other additives add significantly to the safety, nutritive value, attractiveness, convenience, and economy of our modern food supply. The practical definition of a food additivenot the far longer, involved legal definitionis “Any substance added to essay, food in role of education in women empowerment, small amounts to achieve a particular technical effect.” The Code of Federal Regulations (21.170) recognizes 32 categories of additives allowed for their technical or functional effects. Among them are acidifiers, antioxidants, emulsifiers, leavening agents, micronutrients, and immortality essay nonnutritive sweeteners. There is no formal distinction between “food ingredient” and of the “food additive.” Common usage would suggest that an ingredient used at less than perhaps 1% of essay a food would be an “additive.” In a hard candy, for example, sugar is the food itself; color and flavor are the additives. In a lightly sweetened beverage, however, sugar could be an “additive.” There are more than 2200 additives in use, the majority of which are flavoring ingredients. Figure 3 displays the distribution of additives in use during the recent decade, ranked by per capita annual consumption in what makes a good character essay, the United States food supply. The figure identifies only a few examples in essay, the different ingredient categories.
The graph shows use , the critics of the thesis amount that disappears into the food supply. Actual consumption is significantly lower because of plate waste and, in the case of essay volatile additives such as flavors, volatilization. Thus, the amounts in a similar graph of actual consumption would be lower than those shown here. The median additive, with half of the total used in character, larger amount and essay half in lesser amount, is slightly more than 1 mg/person/y. Density. The per capita consumption of a heavily used substance, such as a nutritive sweetener, frequently exceeds the per capita consumption of an ingredient in a much less used category. For example, a flavoring ingredient that because of its potency is used at very low levels will have a per capita consumption much lower than almost all other ingredients added to food. Substances intentionally added to food in decreasing order of per capita annual use.
• Packaging. Many different types of food packages are used for several different reasons. Food is packaged primarily to contain the product, protect the product from contamination, enable convenience, and provide information (Paine 1991; Robertson 1993; Yam and others 2005; IFT 2008). Most food products are delivered to the consumer in some type of essay package. Foods that have received some type of preservation process are placed in a package to what makes, ensure that the product attributes enhanced by the process are maintained. Even fresh produce is packaged after receiving a washing and cleaning process. Packaging offers a critical component of food safety by preventing contamination from pathogens. Essay. In addition, packaging extends the shelf life of the product by providing a physical barrier to or protection from atmospheric oxygen and moisture, light, and other agents that would accelerate deterioration of the product. Paper. Finally, packaging is the vehicle by which legally required information is immortality presented to the consumer in critics of the, the form of the label bearing information about the immortality essay product identity, quantity, ingredients, nutrient content, expiration date, and commercial source. Packaging has advanced from glass bottles, paperboard cartons, tin-plated soldered side-seam steel cans, and aluminum foil to 2-piece aluminum cans with “pop tops;” plastic, flexible, rigid, semirigid, and multilayer containers; microwave safe packages; and powerpoint paper active and intelligent packaging (Floros and others 1997, 1998; Suppakul and others 2003; Ozdemir and immortality essay Floros 2004; Yam and others 2005; Han and Floros 2007; IFT 2008). Innovations were driven by how to density, a number of forces, including convenience, consumer desire for minimally processed foods, changes in immortality, retail and distribution practices; foodservice needs; trend toward more sustainable packaging; and demands for global and fast transport of food (Suppakul and others 2003; IFT 2008).
Aseptic packaging is a major area of food packaging that has significantly increased the safety, quality, availability, and convenience of certain foods around the world, while reducing the amount of energy needed to preserve and store such foods. Density. The major difference between aseptic packaging and traditional methods of immortality food packaging is empowerment essay that in aseptic packaging the product and the packaging material are continuously sterilized separately. Then, under aseptic conditions that prevent recontamination of the product, the sterile package is filled with the cooled sterile product and hermetically sealed to produce a shelf-stable final product with extended shelf life and no need for refrigerated storage. This technique has allowed for substantial improvements in the quality of the final product, mainly due to the much milder heat treatment that the product undergoes compared to the traditional thermal process (Floros 1993). Large-scale aseptic bulk processing and packaging, combined with aseptic storage and transportation, contributes significantly to reduction of postharvest fruit and immortality essay vegetable losses and greater availability of these food products around the world. Many advances in the packaging of food took place in the past 20 to defence socrates, 30 y, producing a wide variety of immortality essay new materials and processing technologies. The steady accumulation of research developments indicates that food packaging will continue to evolve and respond to the changing needs of the food system and the increased demands of homework planet consumers. To meet consumers’ growing demands for fresh-like and highly nutritious foods with guaranteed safety, several alternative preservation technologies have been developed during the past 15 to immortality essay, 25 y for application to food products. Sapir-whorf Thesis. These technologies include both (1) novel thermal processes such as microwave and immortality essay ohmic heating, which are much faster than the currently widespread canning method to produce shelf-stable foods and (2) other physical methods that do not use heat as a primary mode of inactivating microorganisms in foods, such as ultra-high pressure (UHP), pulsed electric fields, ultrasonic waves, high-intensity pulsed light, and others. Each of these alternative technologies has unique characteristics and potential for expanded applications in different categories of role in women essay food products.
The goal of all the new processes is to reduce the immortality overall time and temperature exposures of the foods so that they are safe and more like fresh or freshly cooked items. The nonthermal methods are primarily being used to for research, replace traditional thermal pasteurization of foods. • Microwave Heating. This method of heating prepared foods and beverages and immortality cooking raw foods is well known and accepted by consumers, but applications for food preservation are still evolving. Some microwave-processed foods are marketed in Europe and Japan. In the past year, FDA accepted applications under the low-acid canned food regulations for microwave sterilization, both in a continuous mode for a sweet potato puree that is aseptically packaged in sterile flexible pouches, and for a semicontinuous process for prepackaged food in limited batches. • Ohmic Heating. This process, also called electrical resistance heating, Joule heating, or electroheating, involves passing electricity through the makes character essay food via contact with charged electrodes. The electrical energy results in rapid, uniform heating, in contrast to the slow conduction and convection heating of conventional thermal processing, thereby allowing for greater quality than canned counterparts.
It is particularly useful for heat-sensitive proteinaceous foods (Ramaswamy and others 2005). Ohmic heating has been applied in limited situations to essay, such foods as cut and whole fruit and how to write density liquid eggs, but applications may expand to essay, soups and a good character similar items in the future. • High-Pressure Processing. This process, also known as high-hydrostatic-pressure processing and UHP processing, seems to have a promising future for food preservation, since reductions in microbial populations can be accomplished without significant elevation of product temperature. The use of pressures approaching 100000 pounds per square inch for holding times of a few minutes produces a processed food with the taste, color, and immortality essay texture similar to critics of the sapir-whorf thesis, fresh. Following the successful introduction of a pressure-treated guacamole product in 1997, a growing number of ready-to-eat meats and other refrigerated items, including raw oysters, have been treated by high pressure to meet food safety standards for such products and have increased their high-quality shelf life. When elevated temperatures are used in combination with UHP, the microbial spores in the food can be inactivated. In 2009, a pressure-assisted thermal sterilization process developed by a consortium of Army and industrial researchers at the Natl. Center for Food Safety and immortality Technology was accepted under the low-acid canned food regulations by FDA (NCFST 2009). This process is more rapid and less damaging to several food quality attributes than traditional thermal sterilization because application of pressure rapidly and uniformly heats packaged food in the pressure vessel to the desired end temperature, and then, when pressure is homework planet released after a few minutes the product returns to the original temperature.
• Pulsed Electric Fields. Use of very high voltage (20 kV) and essay very short, microsecond, electric pulses has potential as a nonthermal method for for research paper pasteurization of fruit juices and other fluid or pumpable products. The process is being optimized, but more information needs to be evaluated on the impact of the process on food components, first to assure microbiological safety and then to essay, determine the essay impact on sensory quality as well as content of key nutrients (Sanchez-Moreno and others 2009). Recent research has shown not only that some of these alternative novel processes allow production of very high quality items, but also that those items may have a higher nutritive value than similar items produced by traditional thermal processes because the novel processes result in less chemical damage of key micronutrients. To achieve acceptance first by the regulatory authorities and then by consumers will require an overall evaluation of immortality essay each of these novel processes. Approximately 30 to powerpoint for research paper, 40% of raw food materials and immortality ingredients are lost between the defence essay points of production and consumption. The magnitude of these losses, and the contributing factors, are different in developing countries compared to industrialized countries (Godfray and others 2010). For example, food losses in the developing world are primarily due to the lack of an infrastructure, as well as lack of essay knowledge of or investment in the means to protect from losses arising from damage and of the sapir-whorf thesis spoilage attributable to rodents, insects, molds, and essay other microorganisms. Significant losses occur during production, harvesting, and on-farm storage. In contrast, in industrialized countries, food losses are more significant in retail and foodservice establishments and in the home. The losses in developed countries are attributable to several factors, including the relatively low costs of food and the lack of incentives to avoid wastes (Godfray and others 2010).
Commercial food manufacturing operations are more efficient in the conversion of raw materials into consumer products than home processing and preparation. Moreover, there are significant economic incentives for food manufacturing operations to minimize waste streams, resulting in the use of homework planet new or modified processing methods, in-plant treatment, and reuse (Hang 2004). Many food processing waste streams are used for animal feed (Hudson 1971), and processes have been developed for immortality converting waste materials into biofuels, food ingredients, and other edible, valuable bioproducts (Hang 2004). These waste-management practices are being refined as part of the trends in life-cycle assessment of the environmental impact of the write entire food chain (Ohlsson 2004). Through such assessments, the food industry is identifying the steps in the food chain that have the immortality essay greatest environmental impact. The assessments become the basis for selection of alternative raw materials, packaging materials, and other inputs, and an overall improvement in critics of the sapir-whorf, waste-management strategies (Ohlsson 2004). Life-cycle assessments provide a much more accurate understanding of energy consumption and waste production than popular concepts such as food miles (Mattsson and Sonesson 2003). Immortality Essay. An example of life-cycle assessments is the what a good comparison of immortality essay high value added products, such as pork, with a highly productive crop, such as potatoes. The analysis indicates that for write the high value added product, the immortality essay largest energy consumption and production of emissions and other wastes is in the agricultural sector (that is, on the farm). In contrast, the major part of energy use for a highly productive crop is by the consumer (in the home) (Ohlsson 2004).
Thus, to reduce energy contributions to global warming and generation of pollutants, it would be appropriate to what makes character essay, target reductions where they would have the greatest effect (for example, on the farm for immortality essay items such as pork and in the home for items such as potatoes) rather than simply focusing on food miles or food processing. In summary, the processing of a food or beverage includes an of education essay array of technologies and processes to transform raw food materials and immortality essay ingredients into consumer food products. The primary purpose of these processes is for preservation (for example, transforming perishable fruits and vegetables with the highest quality outcome possible into products available throughout the year around the world) and to ensure food safety. The processing of a food does create some changes in the quality attributes of the product. In some cases, these changes are intentional and powerpoint provide improvements in the nutritive quality, texture, appearance, and flavor of the product. In other cases, the changes may simply make the immortality product different, without improving or changing its quality. Processed foods and beverages can have positive nutrient benefits beyond those of the raw or home-prepared product. Nutrient retention is highly variable, depending on commodity, cultivar, timing of harvesting, storage conditions, nutrient type (for example, sensitivity to heat or oxygen, and water solubility), and how to processing method. Depending on these variables, processed foods may have more nutritional value (due to greater bioavailability of beta-carotene or lycopene, for example) than the fresh product (Rickman and others 2007a, 2007b). In addition, some processed products (for example, canned and frozen fruits and vegetables) are often a better value for the consumer than the “fresh” or raw product. Food expenditures, as a percentage of household expenditures, in the United States are the essay lowest in the world: 5.6% compared to 9.1% in Canada, 11.4% in Germany, 24.1% in Mexico, and density 44.1% in Indonesia (ERS 2008).
Cost is an extremely important variable to most consumers in making food and other purchases, particularly to those with low incomes. Many of the most economical foodsprocessed meats, snack foods, caloric soft drinkshave high-calorie contents. People purchase them because they like the taste and consistency, and because they are good value. They have a legitimate role in our food supply, but that role should not be excessively large. The future of the agriculture and food system will be largely determined by the trajectory of 3 major trends: the population and its associated demographics; availability and type of energy resources; and climate as it influences available land, water, and essay air quality. Population is the most important by how to, far, since it drives the others (given the impact on demand for arable land, for example) through its multiplier, the standard of immortality living (consumption rate). However, the technologies deployed will also be a matter of scientific understanding, public policy, consumer attitudes, and fiscal resources. Historical perspectives and future development. Assuming that the goal is a sustainable future, Warren Belasco (2006) considered in his book Meals to Come: A History of the Future of Food the perspectives of role empowerment essay 3 people living in the 1790s: Thomas Malthus, who was concerned about population growth; the immortality enlightenment philosopher Jean-Antoine-Nicolas de Condorcet; and William Godwin, who believed that inequitable distribution was the problem. From these historical perspectives, Belasco proposed 3 possible cornucopian futures: (1) the classical, based on expansion into new areas (for example, expand food production and for research paper processing); (2) the modern, the essay belief in scientific and technological solutions; and (3) the recombinant, a blend of the radical modern with the familiar classical (for example, share resources more efficiently). Wrangham (2009) called for critics thesis increased research into food physics, or what has recently been termed “food materials science,” especially the relationships between food structure and nutritional value.
While Michael Pollan (2008), in his book In Defense of Food: An Eater's Manifesto , laments modern “nutritionism,” he points to immortality essay, the need for more science as well. Foreshadowing today's “molecular gastronomy” (study of the physical and chemical processes occurring during cooking), Gerald Wendt, science director of the 1939 World's Fair, wrote that foods “will abandon all pretense of imitating nature” (Belasco 2006). In reality, this has always been the case; for example, bread, cheese, and essay tofu are all foods that are created from the raw substances of nature but have no natural analogs. Food culture evolves, albeit slowly. In his classic dystopic 1973 novel Make Room, Make Room , on which the movie Soylent Green was based, Harry Harrison envisioned a meager and unappetizing diet of soybean and lentil steaks, tilapia, soymilk, seaweed, and energy drinks (Harrison 1973). Today, however, some people seek out these products (quite a change in essay, 2 generations). Harrison mentioned chlorella (algae) oil as the lowest of food ingredients, but chlorella is now taken by some as a supplement or added to foods or animal feeds to boost omega-3 intake. Surimi is an example of makes a good technology applied to immortality, increase both stability and distribution of a raw commodity (fish) but that also increases the value of the product, as in surimi-based imitation crab. In the future, many other new products from fish may be seen, just as has been the case with numerous meat sausages.
Not only can the conversion of macronutrients (for example, proteins and carbohydrate polysaccharides) to calories be modulated by powerpoint for research paper, processing (such as the immortality effect of high-pressure processing on protein conformation and hence conversion to calories), but also micronutrients bound up in the cellular structure of foods can be made more bioavailable by homework planet, appropriate novel processing methods, such as high-pressure processing and pulsed electric fields (Sanchez-Moreno and immortality others 2009). Even if heating may result in a lower total quantity of vitamins and other micronutrients in the food than in socrates essay, their raw counterparts, making them appear less nutritious, the bioavailability of some of these micronutrients may actually be greater, making some processed foods more healthful. Essay. Novel emerging processes not totally relying on heat seem to offer the powerpoint for research potential to increase bioavailability of classic micronutrients and to spare many of the labile phytochemicals (plant metabolites, some of which are known to have human health benefits) that are a major advantage of essay fresh fruits and vegetables. Solving the essay diet-and-disease challenge. The solutions to the diet-and-disease problem are complex and require a multipronged strategy from essay, both the public and private sectors.
The report of the 2010 DGAC recognized that ensuring that all Americans consume a health-promoting dietary pattern and achieve and maintain energy balance requires far more than individual behavior change (DGAC 2010). Role Essay. The DGAC's report contained 4 primary recommendations: • Reduce the incidence and prevalence of immortality essay overweight and obesity of the U.S. population by in women empowerment, reducing overall calorie intake and increasing physical activity; • shift food intake patterns to a more plant-based diet and increase the essay intake of defence essay seafood and fat-free and low-fat milk and milk products and essay consume only moderate amounts of lean meats, poultry, and eggs; • significantly reduce intake of foods containing added sugars and solid fats, reduce sodium intake, and lower intake of refined grains; and • meet the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. The report expressed an urgent call to action and recommended that a strategic plan be developed that focuses on powerpoint paper the behaviors and actions needed to successfully implement these 4 key recommendations. A healthful diet is determined in totality, not just by a choice to include or exclude one single food or beverage. Essay. Decision-making and priority setting should be made in this context. Policy makers must carefully consider promoting an environment where better and more nutritious foods are readily available, while respecting consumer choice. Recently, local governments have created bans on certain food ingredients such as trans fats. While we have a history of understanding the impact of food fortification, the impact of this type of regulation is not yet clear and sapir-whorf thesis remains to be demonstrated.
Consider salt as an example. The typical American consumes almost 150% of the recommended daily value for sodiumalmost a tablespoon a day. A recent report by the Inst. of Medicine (IOM 2010) declares that voluntary salt reduction has not worked. The IOM recommendations include modification by immortality, FDA of the Generally Recognized as Safe status of ingredients containing sodium and national standards to lower consumption, stepwise reduction in salt content of processed foods and menu items in restaurants to homework planet, allow American consumers to adapt their tastes to foods with lower levels of sodium, enhanced monitoring and surveillance of compliance with the recommended new FDA standards, increased funding for research that links salt consumption to consumer preferences at different stages in human life, and development of programs that increase consumer awareness of elevated salt consumption. The most widely understood functional property of salt in foods is immortality essay enhancement of flavor. Consumers can adapt their tastes to for research, lower levels of salt in their diet over time (Dahl 2005), but an abrupt change may lead to immortality, widespread resistance (IOM 2010). Mandated reduction in salt content of formulated foods and how to write restaurant recipes would need to immortality, be carefully coordinated, as salt concentration provides significant economic advantage to those who do not comply. Surveillance of restaurants that are not bound by strict recipes but have chef autonomy will be difficult to monitor.
Also, the freedom of consumers to add their own salt via readily available shakers makes it difficult to determine actual levels of consumption (Dahl 2005). Salt functions as a preservative by lowering a W to inhibit or halt microbial growth. For Research. The safety of some formulated products would not be affected by salt reduction, but the safety of many others could be compromised (Taormina 2010). Salt-cured products such as country hams that contain as much as 1700 mg of sodium (70% of the daily value) in immortality essay, just a 3-ounce serving (Voltz and homework planet Harvell 1999) would probably disappear from supermarket shelves and restaurant menus. Essay. Other products that could be at risk with significant reduction in sodium content include deli meats, hard and soft cheeses, baked pastries, and homework planet salad dressings. Salt is also used to control fermentations for products such as olives and pickles, which could be compromised with insufficient levels of salt (Taormina 2010). Overconsumption of total calories coupled with very low physical activity and too much sedentary time is the immortality driving force behind the obesity epidemic, rather than the macronutrient distribution of a person's diet (DGAC 2010). Consumers must make more healthful choices of diet and exercise.
Excessively sedentary lifestyles must be modified with more physical activity. Clear, accurate informationnot misinformationabout the foods themselves must be provided, and far more extensive education is needed about how to use that information in making healthful, economical food choices. More emphasis is needed on the potential adverse consequences of poor eating habits, and the benefits of more healthful ones. Choosing foods wisely is a survival skill, one that has received far too little attention. What Makes Character. More consumers are born every year, and those efforts must begin early in life and immortality continue through the years.
Many resources are still being devoted to makes a good character, increasing the availability of indulgent foods that do not contribute to meeting the immortality essay nutrient needs of consumers. The food industry must use innovation pipelines and resources to role in women, produce foods and immortality beverages that are more nutrient-rich rather than energy dense to homework planet, assist the immortality essay consumer in the quest for a healthful diet. This approach is in women empowerment equally as important for responsibly using resources and reducing waste as is the use of technologies described above. This applies both to consumers who are food secure as well as to those who are food insecure. There are some models of the food industry working in partnership to immortality essay, address these complex problems (Yach and of education in women others 2010). Responsible marketing is also part of the solution to a healthful diet. Reduced-energy foods and beverages may help to moderate energy, sugar, or fat intake, but only if substituted for energy-rich versions. Simply including them in immortality essay, the diet may fail to reduce energy balance. For example, recommending tea or coffee consumption (Popkin and others 2006) does not reduce energy intake for how to those who add sugar or cream and may replace nutrient-rich options such as milk. The foodservice industry must provide healthful offerings with available nutritional information and appropriate portions.
Foodservice establishments have moved steadily toward larger portion sizes, as a result of consumer purchasing patterns. Food researchers must set responsible goals for immortality application of technologies that fill the knowledge gaps, to guide the food industry in developing better products and the policy makers in developing more effective public health messages. There is how to write density still much to be learned about the relationship of diet composition and energy balance, the effect of reduced-energy versions of foods and beverages on signaling systems, and immortality essay the connection between reduced-energy products with enhanced palatability and energy intake. Essay. An important area of needed research is behavior modification for consumers to achieve a more healthful diet promoted by essay, public health messages. It would be neither practical nor possible to return to an idyllic pastoral food system. Procuring food is hard work, and though many in the industrialized countries enjoy the rewards of a home garden, few would be willing to return to subsistence farming and home food preparation full time. In the short term, the local food movement will likely expand as a result of consumer demand, as seen in the urban farms springing up in places such as Detroit, Michigan. But the local food movement has its limits, since many consumers will continue to demand out-of-season and character essay exotic foods that cannot be grown locally, and climate conditions prevent the efficient growth of food year round in all regions. Immortality. Furthermore, when water availability and the threat of desertification are considered, it can actually be more sustainable to ship grain longer distances, for example, from the United States to Kenya, than to grow it locally (Roberts 2008). With the world population expected to reach 9 billion by 2050, it is necessary to find a means to sustainably produce about 50% more food than is currently produced.
In particular, it will be necessary to provide substantially more protein, yet with substantially lower external costs (resulting impacts) (Roberts 2008). Also, application of simple and appropriate processing technologies (for example, drying) and packaging and write shipping methods close to immortality essay, food production sites to counter the large percentage of defence socrates waste (up to 50% by some estimates) in less-developed areas must be fostered. Some people have envisioned urban farming in immortality, vertical greenhouses or in currently blighted urban landscapes, but this seems a rather large investment of materials and energy with perhaps the only benefit being limited local production. Similarly, while single-cell protein from algae may make sense nutritionally, it faces many hurdles, both economic and cultural. Precision farming may build on current thrusts in both organic and sustainable green agriculture to benefit both those in the developed world and those in the developing countries, where basic sustenance is a growing concern. Ronald and Adamchak (2010) stated in Tomorrow's Table that “the judicious incorporation of 2 important strands of agriculturegenetic engineering and organic farmingis key to helping feed the thesis growing population in an ecologically balanced manner.” Mixed crop and livestock production systems, used to produce about immortality essay, half of the world's food supply, offer important synergies, such as using livestock draft power to cultivate land and manure to fertilize soil, crop residues to feed livestock, and income from livestock products to buffer against low crop yields (Herrero and others 2010). It has been suggested that the small-holder farmers in these systems should be the first target for policies to sustainably intensify production by carefully managed inputs of fertilizer, water, and feed to minimize waste and environmental impact, supported by improved access to homework planet, markets, new varieties, and technologies (Herrero and others 2010). As those in industrialized countries become more aware of the essay beneficial phytochemical nutrients found in many crops in developing countries, such as fruits from the tropics or quinoa from South America, export markets for those foods may emerge to stabilize local economies if appropriate food processing and transport infrastructures can be upgraded. Hurdle technology, using combinations of minimal technologies, has been used in developed countries for sapir-whorf thesis manufacturing ready-to-eat products, and may hold considerable potential for preserving certain traditional items in developing cultures. Leistner and Gould (2002) reported that much progress had been made in Latin America and immortality India, and that interest in this technology has been seen in China, Taiwan, and Africa. There is hope for the future by embracing a “recombinant” strategy, as Belasco (2006) proposed, blending the best of the classical food sources with modern technologies.
Aquaculture, when combined with hydroponics to defence socrates essay, form aquaponics, and innovations in meat production efficiency hold great promise for immortality essay the efficient production of socrates essay high-quality protein. Federoff and others (2010) suggested that aquaculture, integrated with agriculture, is immortality essay part of the powerpoint paper answer to meeting the immortality essay demands for food, feed, fiber, and fuel, given the for research paper implications of population growth, arable land and freshwater limits, and climate change. In addition, the judicious application of recombinant DNA biotechnology (rDNA, discussed in a subsequent section) offers the ability to essay, more rapidly transform some of the less highly bred plants, such as quinoa. Looking at teosinte now as corn or maize's ancient ancestor, would the essay productivity of hybrid maize be predicted? rDNA biotechnology could be harnessed to immortality, improve the homework planet protein quality of cereal grains and could also be employed to improve crops such as sorghum and immortality millet to of education in women empowerment, reduce antinutrients and build in drought tolerance. This would involve a shift in application of the biotechnology to more directly benefit consumers instead of growers and manufacturers. A new Green Revolution may include an essay accelerated mutation breeding program (use of chemical or radiation mutagens to introduce genetic change) to build in traits to better preserve quality and nutrient content of key food commodities.
The 21st century has seen increased growth in knowledge of the critics of the sapir-whorf thesis human genome, the genomes of microorganisms, and the human microbiome (communities of microbial cells within the immortality essay human body) (Human Microbiome Project 2010). Defence Socrates. In the future, as we learn many more of the complex interactions of the thousands of compounds in essay, common foods with the human genome and intestinal microflora, the old adage “You are what you eat” may well evolve into an optimal nutrition strategy to serve the role of education in women empowerment essay growing human population. Essay. It is difficult to make predictions in such a rapidly changing scientific and technological atmosphere, but it is certain that the what makes a good “designer foods” concept (following the concept of personalized nutrition, which is enabled by knowledge of one's genome and biome) will take on new meaning in coming years, given the accelerating pace of both the science base and technical innovation. An ad hoc committee of the Natl. Research Council was charged with examining the current state of immortality essay biological research in the United States and recommending how best to capitalize on recent scientific and technological advances to find solutions to 4 major societal needs, including sustainable food production. The committee's main recommendation was for a coordinated, interagency initiative to encourage the emergence of a “New Biology” approach to challenging problems, described in of education, the book New Biology for essay the 21st Century (NRC 2009). The essence of the New Biology is integration, described as a new level of inquiry that reintegrates the subdisciplines of biology and critics of the sapir-whorf thesis integrates physicists, chemists, computer scientists, engineers, and mathematicians, purposefully organized around problem solving. With respect to the food challenge, the New Biology requires parallel application of several technologies; computational modeling of plant growth and development at the molecular and cellular levels; cell-type specific-gene expression, proteomic, and metabolomic data; high-throughput visual and chemical phenotyping; methods to characterize the dynamics and functions of microbial communities; and ready access to essay, next-generation sequencing methods. Makes Character. With an integrated approach to these needs, predictive models of plant growth at immortality essay, the cellular and molecular level detail would allow scientific plant breeding of critics sapir-whorf a new type, in which genetic changes could be targeted in a manner that would predictably result in food plants that adapt and grow sustainably in changing environments (NRC 2009). Emerging areas affecting health and wellness. There are several research areas that have the immortality potential to greatly affect the quality of food and human health and wellness.
• Personalized Nutrition. Humans have emerged from evolution with a remarkable flexibility in the range of role in women empowerment phenotypes that they can adopt. Human adults vary in height, weight, strength, speed, endurance, flexibility, cognition, and other traits. Furthermore, humans apply these phenotypes to a remarkable range of lifestyles, varying in everything from daily activities such as endurance exercise to recreational pursuits ranging from music, art, and athletics to preference for foods. This basic biological truth means that as science gains more information on the interaction among genetics, environment, and phenotype, people will want to immortality, use the controllable variables of their environmentdiet and exercise, for exampleto guide their own personal phenotype. One consequence of critics of the sapir-whorf thesis human diversity relates to the observable variations in disease susceptibility. Disease resistance is one aspect of phenotype that everyone would like to improve.
The first priority of immortality essay life science research, of course, is to understand the basis of varying predisposition to, cures of, and recovery from disease (Collins and others 2003). The future will see humans take charge of the variables of environment to guide their own health to lower their disease risks and speed recovery. Personalizing diet will be essential to their success. The research investments of the 20th century have chronicled the basic biological processes, detailed the basic genetic sequence of powerpoint for research paper organisms, and linked the immortality essay complex interweaving pathways of biochemistry to variations in anatomy, metabolism, physiology, immunology, so on. Scientists are already cataloguing these same processes but are now into assigning the details of individuals. The field of nutrigenomics (interaction of dietary components such as essential nutrients with genes) is seeking to assign the variations in dietary responses of humans to specific genetic sequences (Muller and Kersten 2003). In parallel, the field of metabolomics is building the tools to both diagnose individual variations in metabolism and identify the write density solutions to improve it (German and others 2004, 2005). As science and technologies are racing to reduce disease, the relationships between basic biology and human performance are also emerging (Handschin and Spiegelman 2008). Essay. As science understands the basis of human disease and prevention, technologies will compete to of education empowerment, bring solutions to practice. All aspects of interventiondrugs, diet, and lifestylewill be recruited to lower disease risk.
These solutions will have to essay, solve the 2 key dimensions of defence essay preventionindividualization and integration. Diets must be individualized, since all people are not predisposed to the same health problems. In addition, diets must be integrated, since no single ingredient, bioactive or therapeutic, can solve all issues at once. The concept of multiple ingredients solving multiple targets combined into products is a logical direction for food. Immortality. Foods can already be used in a personalized wayto lower cholesterol, improve blood pressure, alter intestinal microflora, and guide immunity.
The food industry and all of its support and regulatory systems will have to come to grips with this new reality. One of the defence socrates essay fundamental problems of the current functional-food and health-claim system is the immortality wildly optimistic pursuit of food ingredients that are equally effective and what a good character essay safe for all consumers. Personalizing will change the value system of immortality essay health-promoting foods and its regulatory oversight as the benefits are targeted directly to those who respond. Parsing individual response (based on the individual's genotype) is at least as complex a challenge as the task of socrates essay increasing or decreasing the amount of a specific protein, fatty acid, or other component of the plant itself (Brigelius-Flohe and Joost 2006). Functional-food components are of increasing interest in reducing risk of a number of the immortality leading causes of death: cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and hypertension. Many food components, such as plant-derived estrogens (phytoestrogens), are known to influence the expression of both structural genes and transcription factors (a sequence-specific DNA binding factor that controls the transfer of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA) in defence socrates, humans (Kaput and others 2007). Immortality Essay. Genistein, coumestrol, and zearalenone, for socrates essay example, bind to the estrogen receptor and may switch on a similar set of immortality genes, such as 17β-estradiol, the physiologic estrogen.
As personalization of health becomes increasingly important, many aspects of the agricultural enterprise will adapt to capture markets. Of The Sapir-whorf Thesis. For example, the growing catalog of plant and animal genomes will broaden the commodities routinely cultivated to fuel the food supply. The food industry will move away from uniform branded products to branded platforms on which products are customizable. Marketing and distribution chains will also become more intimate as consumers value the personal information exchange that is critical to their foods and overall diets. The net results will once again be a marked improvement in the human condition, the immortality essay quality of defence essay human lives, andas has always been true when humans are healthy and happythe rate at which we innovate. It is a very attractive future. • Molecular Biology. Molecular biology is currently being revolutionized by essay, whole-genome sequencing of individual microbes, as well as entire microbial communities, a field known as metagenomics (Wooley and others 2010).
These new advances are also being complemented by our increasing understanding of gene expression and metabolism at the level of individual cells and complex microbial communities, such as those that exist within the defence human gastrointestinal tract. Sophisticated gene expression arrays based on whole-genome sequences are now allowing us to see for the first time the complex and dynamic regulation of immortality essay virulence genes (those coding for a pathogen's illness-causing potential) in vivo during the how to density various stages of infection (Toledo-Arana and others 2009). These recent advances will increasingly improve our understanding of how pathogenic microorganisms interact with humans and will lead to novel strategies for detecting and controlling those key pathogens that most affect human health. For example, using special whole-genome “tiling” microarraysconcentrated, orderly arrangements of thousands of gene probes on a glass slide, used to detect all genes present within a microorganism or measure the level of expression of all genes within a microorganismwith overlapping nucleotides, Toledo-Arana and others (2009) were able to demonstrate how expression of various virulence genes dramatically changed as the microorganism switched from being a saprophyte (an organism that lives on dead organic matter) in immortality, the environment to a pathogen in critics of the sapir-whorf thesis, infected hosts. In the immortality past, microbiologists focused on detecting and controlling various genera and species of pathogens in foods and humans. However, with the above recent advances scientists can now identify those specific genetic determinants that actually make a specific strain of a microorganism harmful to powerpoint, humans. This will allow a much more targeted, efficient, and cost-effective approach to detecting and controlling those strains of a species that are most likely to cause disease.
This will allow food processors and essay government agencies to develop much more highly focused intervention strategies that will maximize control of those strains most likely to cause disease. Also, identification of novel genetic determinants responsible for homework planet transmission and virulence will lead to rapid sequence-based approaches for determining the molecular epidemiology of various pathogens (Chen and others 2010). Such rapid sequence-based approaches are becoming increasingly high throughput and cost effective and have numerous other advantages, including much greater specificity, reproducibility, epidemiologic relevance, and portability via the Internet. Such advances will result in essay, a global sequence-based epidemiology network for rapidly tracking and controlling dangerous strains of food-borne pathogens, which increasingly are capable of what makes essay being quickly spread around the immortality essay globe as a result of international trade and air travel. Metagenomics is starting to reveal the diverse, complex, and dynamic microbial communities in the human gastrointestinal tract, many of whose members may be unculturable in the laboratory (Ley and others 2008; Wooley and others 2010). Microbial members of the microbiome in a good, the human gastrointestinal tract actually outnumber their eukaryotic counterparts (organisms whose cells have a nucleus that contains their genetic material) in the human body and may be playing major roles in maintaining and promoting human health (Neish 2009). Recent advances in metagenomics will have a major impact on our understanding of how probioticsmicrobes that have a beneficial health effect and are of increasing importance to both consumers and essay the food industrycontribute to human health. Probiotics will continue to gain in role essay, importance as the population ages and more people become at risk for various pathogenic and essay chronic diseases and increasingly look for in women essay novel probiotics that can prolong health and wellness.
Molecular methods will allow food scientists to immortality essay, identify those genetic determinants that are critical for probiotic effects and introduce those strains into socrates, more different kinds of foods to help consumers achieve their health and immortality wellness goals. Whole-genome and metagenomic approaches will also be used to better understand how probiotic microorganisms interact with both the human microbiota and human cells and organs to achieve various health and wellness benefits. These same techniques will also allow researchers to engineer “designer probiotics” that target specific pathogens and defence socrates essay toxins. Pathogen-derived stress-response genes might be used to create more robust probiotic strains with increased host and processing-associated stress-tolerance profiles. Also, functional metagenomics may be used to identify novel genes with probiotic attributes from diverse and essay vastly unexplored environments, such as the powerpoint for research human gastrointestinal tract (Culligan and others 2009). Whole-genome approaches will also be used to develop novel molecular methods for tracking and controlling specific strains of probiotics throughout the food system. Essay. This will allow food companies to differentiate the unique probiotic products they have developed from others in the marketplace. These approaches will allow food companies to both promote these unique products and also protect their investment, thus increasing profitability. • Microbial Ecology. Homework Planet. With potential impact on food quality and health and wellness, microbial ecology examines the diversity of immortality microorganisms and how microorganisms interact with each other and their environment to generate and maintain such diversity. While microbial ecology is not a new concept, it is defence socrates essay of increasing interest to many food microbiologists, because it explains the presence and essay functioning of microbes in complex and dynamic food environments, both outside and what character inside the gastrointestinal tract.
Another reason microbial ecology is undergoing a renaissance is the development and application of genomics tools. Culture-independent genomics tools are now allowing more accurate estimations of the immortality essay total microbial ecology in foods inside and outside the gastrointestinal tract. However, genomics tools have also exposed how little we know about the vast diversity of density microorganisms that colonize foods and the human gastrointestinal tract. Foods outside the immortality gastrointestinal tract often harbor a complex and dynamic community of homework planet nonpathogenic spoilage flora that affect various quality attributes, such as taste, flavor, texture, appearance, and shelf life. They also often can contain pathogens and probiotic bacteria that can greatly influence the health and wellness of essay humans who consume them. After foods enter the gastrointestinal tract, microbial ecology becomes even more complex and dynamic, as a result of the interaction of the socrates essay numerous biotic and immortality essay abiotic factors located there. Until very recently, microbial diversity in these environments was estimated using culture-dependent approaches. However, the culture-dependent methods cannot accurately describe naturally occurring microbial communities, because they only target those we know how to culture and those that can grow in a specific growth medium.
In the past 20 y, the application of genomics and metagenomics tools has revolutionized microbial ecology studies and drastically expanded our view of the previously underappreciated microbial world, including environments on powerpoint paper and in foods and those within the human gastrointestinal tract (Xu 2006). How can we best use microbial ecological data gained through genomic analysis to better understand and control microorganisms on foods and in the gastrointestinal tract? To answer this question, an interdisciplinary systems approach is needed. This approach will require the integration of the analyses at various levels of ecological organization, from subcellular and cellular levels to those of immortality essay individuals, populations, communities, and ecosystems. Indeed, the American Society for Microbiology has issued a call to create an integrated approach called systems microbiology to coordinate such efforts and to set it as a priority area for future development (ASM 2005). As we understand more about the complex and dynamic microbial ecology of foods, we will be in a better position to how to density, manipulate those biotic and abiotic factors that enhance food quality and/or health and wellness. A number of other new technologies are being developed, with promising and potential benefits. • Biotechnology. In the simplest and broadest sense, biotechnology is a series of technologies applied to living organisms or their subcellular components to develop useful products, processes, or services. Many of the products we eat and wear are, or can be, developed using the tools of biotechnology.
The first generation of products commercialized from biotechnology were crops focusing largely on input agronomic traits, primarily in response to biotic stresspressure from organisms such as viruses, bacteria, and insects that can harm plantsand the essay vast majority of biotechnology crops have been in powerpoint for research paper, the area of pest resistance and herbicide tolerance. Biotechnology-derived papaya, squash, and sweet corn are commercially available in the United States; enzymes produced using recombinant DNA methods are used to make cheese and immortality essay low-lactose milk, keep bread fresh, and defence essay produce fruit juices and wines; and bioengineered E. Immortality. coli is used to what makes character, produce human insulin (Baines 1991; Lemaux 2008; Newell-McGloughlin 2008). Two varieties of immortality ricereferred to as Golden Ricehaving increased levels of beta-carotene, a precursor of how to density vitamin A, have been developed and are in use in the Philippines, India, Bangladesh, China, and Vietnam (Lemaux 2008). Other products made using rDNA methods include food supplements such as vitamin B2 (riboflavin) (Lemaux 2008). Significant advances in food biotechnology applications are occurring in many areas (Newell-McGloughlin 2008). These include increasing vitamin levels in crops, such as vitamin E in soybean, maize, and canola, and increasing bioavailable iron levels in rice, maize, and lettuce. Biotechnology is also being used to reduce food allergens, address food intolerances, and immortality essay reduce naturally occurring toxins in plants. There is tremendous potential in additional opportunities, described below. The Intl. Food Information Council's thirteenth annual survey of consumer perceptions of food biotechnology (IFIC 2008) found that concerns about biotech use are low and how to density that the likelihood to purchase biotechnology-derived foods for special benefits remains high and essay stable.
A more recent survey (IFIC 2010) found that consumers responded most positively to role essay, benefits of biotechnology pertaining to the environment and sustainability. The set of technologies that constitute the biotechnology “toolbox” has introduced a new dimension to essay, agricultural and food production innovation. Agricultural biotechnology offers efficient and cost-effective means to produce a diverse array of novel, value-added products. Density. In addition to the applications already discussed, biotechnology has the potential to increase food production, improve food quality and healthfulness, reduce the dependency of agriculture on chemicals, alleviate biotic and abiotic stress (for example, high salt or temperature extremes), and lower the cost of raw materials, all in an environmentally sustainable manner. While the scope of biotechnology's influence in the food industry is essay broad, the tools of this technology have potential for a major impact in 4 principal areas: crop and animal agriculture, bioprocessing, and diagnostics (Newell-McGloughlin 2008). It is possible to enhance the growing season, yield, disease and makes character pest resistance, and other properties of crops and enhance the nutritional content, texture, color, and flavor of foods. Transgenic techniques can be applied to immortality essay, farmed animals to improve their health, growth, fitness, efficiency of production, and other qualities such as meat and milk. Homework Planet. Microorganisms can also be engineered to improve the quality of our environment. In addition to immortality essay, the opportunities for a variety of new products, including biodegradable products, bioprocessing using engineered microbes, offers new ways to treat and use waste and to use renewable resources for materials and fuel. Instead of how to depending on immortality essay nonrenewable fossil fuels, organisms can be engineered to convert maize and cereal straw, forest products and municipal waste, and other biomass to produce fuel, plastics, and other useful commodities. The coming generations of crop plants developed via biotechnology can be generally grouped into 4 broad areas: continuing improvement of agronomic traits such as yield and tolerance to abiotic stress, in addition to the biotic stress tolerance of the present generation; crop plants as biomass feedstocks for biofuels and “bio-synthetics;” value-added output traits such as improved nutrition and food functionality; and plants as production sources for therapeutics and industrial products (Newell-McGloughlin 2008).
Developing and commercializing plants with these improved traits, however, involves overcoming a variety of technical, regulatory, and perception challenges inherent in perceived and real challenges of complex modifications. Both the role in women essay panoply of traditional plant-breeding tools and modern biotechnology-based techniques will be required to produce plants with the desired quality traits. From a health perspective, plant components of dietary interest can be broadly divided into 4 main categories, which can be further broken down into positive and negative attributions for essay human nutrition: macronutrients (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids/oils) and fiber; micronutrients (vitamins, minerals, phytochemicals); antinutrients; and allergens, intolerances, and toxins (Newell-McGloughlin 2008). In some cultures, either by design or default, plant-based nutrition constitutes almost 100% of the diet. Given this situation, one can deduce that significant nutritional improvement can be achieved via modifications of staple crops (Newell-McGloughlin 2008). A growing body of evidence indicates that food components can influence physiological processes at write, all stages of life. Essay. Approximately 25000 of the 200000 or so metabolites produced by critics sapir-whorf, plants have known value in the human diet (Go and immortality others 2005).
Analysis of of education these metabolites, specifically metabolomic analysis, is a valuable tool in better understanding what has occurred during crop domestication (lost and silenced traits) and in designing new paradigms for immortality more targeted crop improvement that is role of education empowerment essay better tailored to current needs (Hall and others 2008). In addition, with modern techniques, we have the potential to essay, seek out traits of value that were limited in previous breeding strategies. Research to improve the nutritional quality of plants has historically been limited by a lack of basic knowledge of plant metabolism and the challenge of role essay resolving complex interactions of thousands of metabolic pathways. A complementarity of techniques, both traditional and novel, is needed to metabolically engineer plants to produce desired quality traits. Metabolic engineering is generally defined as the redirection of immortality essay one or more reactions (enzymatic and otherwise) to improve the production of existing compounds, produce new compounds, or mediate the degradation of undesirable compounds. This involves the redirection of cellular activities by the modification of the enzymatic, transport, and/or regulatory functions of the plant cell. Significant progress has been made in recent years in the molecular dissection of many plant pathways and in the use of cloned genes to engineer plant metabolism. With evolving “omics” tools (genomics, proteomics, metabolomics), a better understanding of the totality of effects of metabolic engineering on empowerment metabolites, enzyme activities, and immortality essay metabolic fluxes (rates of turnover of molecules through a metabolic pathway) is beginning to homework planet, be developed.
A number of immortality new approaches are being developed to counter some of the complex problems in of the sapir-whorf, metabolic engineering. Through these new technologies, the immortality essay limitation of single-gene transfers has been overcome and the attendant transfer of multiple components of metabolic pathways has been facilitated. For example, it is now possible to design “minichromosomes” that carry cassettes of genes, enhancing the in women empowerment ability to engineer plant processes such as the production of complex biochemicals. Essay. Paul Christou's laboratory at the Univ. of Lleida in Madrid, Spain, used combinations of genes in a modification that introduced multicomplex metabolic pathways coding for density increased beta-carotene, vitamin C, and folate, effectively creating a multivitamin maize cultivar (Naqvi and others 2009). This system has an added advantage from a commercial perspective in that these methods circumvent problems with traditional approaches which not only limit the amount of sequences transferred but also may disrupt native genes or lead to poor expression of the transgene, thus reducing both the numbers of transgenic plants that must be screened and the subsequent breeding and essay other related steps required to select a suitable commercial candidate. Regulatory oversight of engineered products has been designed to detect any unexpected outcomes in rDNA biotechnology-derived crops, and, as demonstrated by Chassy and others (ILSI 2004a, 2004b; ILSI 2008), existing analytical and regulatory systems are adequate to address novel metabolic modifications in nutritionally improved crops. • Nanotechnology. Nanoscale science, engineering, and density technologyreferred to as nanotechnologyinclude the fundamental understanding and technological advances arising from the understanding of new physical, chemical, and biological properties of matter at the length of scale of approximately 1 to 100 nanometers (nm). Nanotechnology has far-reaching implications for science, engineering, and technology in the 21st century, with tremendous potential for societal benefits and the potential to revolutionize agricultural production and food systems (CSREES/USDA 2003; IFT 2006; Magnuson and others 2007; IFT 2010).
Nanotechnology is rooted in the vision of Richard Feynman, 1959 Nobel Laureate in physics, who envisioned the ability to closely observe and control phenomena and behaviors of matter at the nanometer scale with atomic precision. His vision became reality in the mid-1980s when instrumentation advancements (for example, scanning tunneling microscopy and essay atomic force microscopy) enabled seeing nanoscale structure and how to interactions and manipulation of individual atoms with precision. Occurring in the nanometer-length range are many naturally occurring moleculessuch as whey proteins (4 to 6 nm) and lactose (0.5 nm) in milkand man-made biological molecules and supramolecular structures of assemblies of polymers, including proteins and polysaccharides (polymers of essay sugar units, such as starch) (Magnuson and others 2007). Exciting novel structures, phenomena, and processes have also been observed at powerpoint paper, the nanometer scale during the past 2 decades. In the past decade, governments around the world launched initiatives and industries, and private sectors ventured into research and development of nanotechnologies for immortality a wide range of applications, from semiconductors, energy, chemicals, and materials to medicine, the environment, and food and agriculture. In the food sector, nanotechnology applications are in their infancy but are growing rapidly, estimated to reach more than $20 billion by 2010. In agriculture, nanotechnology holds promise for defence socrates responding to the need for more precise management of resources such as water, fertilizers, and other agricultural chemicals; improving crop and immortality livestock production; controlling pests, diseases, and weeds; monitoring plant disease and character environmental stresses; supporting sustainable and precise production; and improving postharvest technology, including waste management. A nanotechnology-enabled smart-field sensor network, for example, would be advantageous in continuously monitoring environmental data to provide critical information for crop management to attain optimal production yield.
Also, superabsorbent materials with slow release rates have been investigated for improved soil water retention and essay temperature regulation around plant roots, to decrease irrigation needs. The potential benefits of nanotechnology applied in the food system are anticipated for thesis food safety and defense, food processing, food packaging, and immortality essay ingredient technologies (IFT 2005, 2007, 2010). Nanoscale capsules for delivery of micronutrients and bioactives via functional foods and ingredients have been actively studied; evidence suggests that their small size will facilitate access to the large area within cellular microvilli of the intestine, thus enhancing absorption. Clemson Univ. scientists have developed a polymer-based nanoparticle that attracts pathogenic bacteria adhering to poultry intestinal walls, thereby aiding their excretion with the bird's feces. Such nanoparticles might also be added to chicken feed to remove pathogens, minimizing the chance of postslaughter cross-contamination. Other potential food safety-related applications include use of nanosized bubbles that selectively attach to pathogen cells and subsequently burst, damaging the cells. Used for pathogen detection, nanotechnology could enable development of practical detection devices and systems that are more rapid, sensitive, specific, robust, economical, and write easily conducted than analytical methods available today. Immortality. Portable, real-time, and/or in-line detection capability is of education in women empowerment being pursued for deployment in food production, postharvest processing, distribution, foodservice, and the home. Other research has investigated nanocomposite polymers that improve food-package barrier properties against oxygen and moisture transmission, protecting oxygen-sensitive foods and reducing packaging costs for manufacturers. Nanocomposite materials have also demonstrated potential for use as antimicrobial packaging components, improved package mechanical strength, and biodegradability. Essay. Several biodegradable nano-biobarcode technologies have been researched that will aid product traceability, maintenance of product authenticity, identification of product attributes of interest to consumers, and monitoring of product changes relevant to quality and homework planet safety.
Responsible research and development of nanoscale food materials for the agricultural and food sectors will involve assessment of the adequacy of immortality existing characterization methods and, where necessary, development of density new methods to immortality essay, address critical questions for a science-based approach to understanding the characteristics of the homework planet novel engineered substances. Characterization of nanoscale food materials will include study of their stabilities in essay, food matrices and homework planet during processing; digestibility and biopersistence; absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion properties; ability to essay, translocate across cell membranes; and potential toxicity at the intended application range/exposure level through oral ingestion. Such characterization will contribute to the establishment of the safety of makes a good character subsequently deployed new products that incorporate novel nanostructured food additives, ingredients, micronutrients, and micronutrient delivery complexes (IFT 2005, 2007). Recognizing that without consumer acceptance new technologies will not succeed in the marketplace, federal funding agencies and universities are engaged in disseminating through a variety of essay channelssuch as public radio and for research interactive displays at science centers and museumsinformation about nanotechnology developments emerging from the laboratory, obtaining public input, and immortality essay studying consumer responses to nanotechnology food applications. An IFIC (2010) survey found that slightly more than one-third of Americans surveyed had read or heard about nanotechnology, and that when given examples of how to write potential benefits and food applications half of those surveyed were favorable about this technology. Much of the advance in nanotechnology will depend on the outcome of essay recently proposed research on its safety, as well as real measuresand communicationof both benefits, such as increased bioavailability of essay micronutrients, and risks to consumers.
Consumer attitudes will determine the acceptance of novel food items and, to some degree, the implementation of immortality essay new processing technologies. The decoding of the human genome has promised an era of personalized nutrition. Its first application is already being seen with genetic tests for celiac disease and gluten sensitivity. The growing population makes niche markets feasiblefor example, the market has responded with gluten-free alternatives. We have barely scratched the surface of what character genomics and are already hearing of the influence of epigeneticschanges in gene activity without alteration of the genetic codeand the potential for epigenetic changes brought about by short-term limitation in immortality, food availability to influence obesity in future generations (Bygren and defence essay others 2001).
Consumer attitudes will be very important to the eventual adoption of technologies, but will depend in part on how the technologies are introduced. Recombinant culture, referring to Belasco's proposal mentioned above, embraces the essay consumer's desire for both novelty and constancy, or novelty without risk (Cardello and Wright 2010). To be accepted, new technologies must often be put into the context of the familiar. Our modern food system is very complex and changes continuously in time and space. Defence Socrates Essay. During the past century, food processing evolved to make food the basis of a healthy civilization, help society overcome hunger and immortality essay disease, and improve the safety, nutrition, convenience, affordability, and thesis availability of foods. Food processing also changed the perception of foods and beverages. Through food science and technology, the knowledge of many disciplines is applied to transform raw food materials and ingredients into immortality, consumable foods available year round. Sapir-whorf Thesis. Advances in agriculture and food science and technology have provided reduction in nutrient deficiency-related diseases; enhanced food safety and consistent quality; decreased home food-preparation time; a large variety of delicious food choices; reduced food waste; lower household food costs than ever before; food and meal convenience options; products specifically formulated to meet the nutritional needs of specific subpopulations; and efficient global food distribution, which can be exploited in times of natural and man-made disasters. Misplaced concerns about the food industry's motives in manufacturing processed foods have led to increasing negative perceptions among the general public in the United States. It is a fact that scientific and technical achievements throughout the food systemfrom agriculture and food manufacturing to preparation in the homeallow most people in the developed world to have ready access to a diverse, abundant supply of food that is safer, tastier, more nutritious, more convenient, and relatively less expensive than would otherwise be the immortality essay case. Many people in for research, the developing world, however, where a substantial portion of food produced is lost, are not able to make choices from such abundance.
Further advances in science and immortality technology are critically needed to successfully meet the daunting challenges ahead in feeding the growing world population, especially in the areas of greatest need. The new tools of biotechnology hold promise for a good essay meeting the needs of our rapidly growing world population more efficiently and cost effectively through improved crop production yields, ability to essay, grow crops in environmentally stressful conditions, and improved nutrient availability and homework planet delivery in immortality, an environmentally sustainable manner. Obesity, unfortunately, is a complex issue of concern in the developed world. Essay. With scientific and immortality essay technological advancements, food manufacturers have been able to provide many more options than were available years ago for consumers who seek to manage their weight. These options include food and how to write beverage products with reduced caloric density and packaging as a component of portion control. Technologies on the horizon also offer additional opportunities to create more weight-management options. Use of immortality technologies to improve the food supply and contribute to defence essay, human health and wellness is immortality a responsible use of resources. It is important to recognize that obesity is a complex issue of behavior.
Further developments in genomics, metabolomics, and nutrigenomics hold tremendous promise for defence development of individualistic solutions to obesity. Through nutrigenomics and metabolomics, personalized nutrition for health and wellness will become better understood and immortality essay a more practical reality for a larger number of people. Defence. Such changes will no doubt lead to changes in regulatory oversight and new approaches to food marketing. Genomics will allow improved food quality and protection from pathogens, through opportunities ranging from probiotic foods to more precise pathogen interventions. Nanotechnology can be expected to have beneficial impacts throughout the food system, from essay, agricultural production, where it may enable more precise management of resources, to critics thesis, personalized nutrition, which holds potential for enhancing delivery and absorption of nutrients and bioactive substances via functional foods. With continued developments in nanotechnology, we can anticipate new mechanisms for immortality detecting and controlling pathogens, in both the agricultural and food-manufacturing sectors. Today and in the future, the food system must be flexible and resilient, consumer driven, and sustainable, and it must secure the environment and natural resources and assure the health and wellness of an increasing number of consumers.
Food science and technology can help us advance the food system, minimize risks, maximize benefits, and for research paper deliver a safe, nutritious, and abundant food supply to all people around the immortality world. Food science and technology professionals must work together with many othersthe food industry, and those in defence, the regulatory and public policy communities. And society must invest in basic and applied research and education and outreach. With science and technology solutions available to address specific issues throughout the food system, our ability to feed a growing population in a sustainable way, while safeguarding both human and planet health, looks not only possible, but also promising. We must, however, remain steadfast and rational about our approach, to help both humanity and nature. IFT greatly appreciates the efforts of the essay contributing authors, editor, members of the task force who contributed to the concept for this document, peer reviewers, and density the organization providing financial support. John D. Floros, a Fellow and essay Past President of IFT, is Professor and homework planet Head, Dept. of Food Science, at Pennsylvania State Univ. Rosetta Newsome is Director of Science and Policy Initiatives at immortality essay, the Inst. of Food Technologists. William Fisher is Vice President of Science and Policy Initiatives at the Institute of Food Technologists.
Gustavo V. Barbosa-Cánovas, a Fellow of IFT, is Professor of Food Engineering at Washington State Univ. Hongda Chen is Natl. Paper. Program Leader at essay, the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture's Natl. Inst. of Food and Agriculture. Of The Sapir-whorf. C. Patrick Dunne, a Fellow of IFT, is Senior Research Scientist at the U.S.
Army Natick Soldier Center. J. Bruce German is Professor, Dept. of Food Science and Technology, at the Univ. of California, Davis. Richard L. Hall is a Fellow and immortality essay Past President of IFT and a Past President of the Intl.Union of defence socrates essay Food Science and Technology. Dennis R. Heldman, a Fellow and Past President of IFT, is Principal of Heldman Associates. Mukund V. Karwe is Professor, Dept. of Food Science, at Rutgers Univ. Stephen J. Knabel is Professor, Dept. of Food Science, at Pennsylvania State Univ. Theodore P. Labuza, a Fellow and Past President of IFT, is Professor of Food Science at immortality essay, the Univ. of Minnesota. Daryl B. Essay. Lund, a Fellow and immortality Past President of IFT, is Emeritus Professor at the Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison.
Martina Newell-McGloughlin is Director, Systemwide Biotechnology Research and Education Program, at the Univ. of California, Davis. James L. Robinson is Professor Emeritus at the Univ. of Illinois. Makes A Good Character. Joseph G. Sebranek, a Fellow of IFT, is Professor, Dept. of Food Science and Human Nutrition, at essay, Iowa State Univ. Robert L. Shewfelt, a Fellow of IFT, is Meigs Professor and Undergraduate Coordinator, Dept. of Food Science and Technology, at the Univ. of role of education in women essay Georgia. William F. Immortality Essay. Tracy is Professor and Chair, Dept. of Agronomy, at what makes a good essay, the Univ. of immortality essay Wisconsin-Madison.
Connie M. Weaver, a Fellow of IFT, is Distinguished Professor and Head, Dept. of Foods and Nutrition, at Purdue Univ. Gregory R. Ziegler is Professor, Dept. of write density Food Science, at Pennsylvania State Univ. Neil H. Mermelstein, a Fellow of IFT, is Editor Emeritus, Food Technology , Institute of Food Technologists. John D. Floros (chair), a Fellow and Past President of IFT, is Professor and Head, Dept. of immortality Food Science, at Pennsylvania State Univ. David M. Berube is Professor, Communication, at North Carolina State Univ. Richard T. Crowder is Professor, Agricultural and powerpoint for research paper Applied Economics, at Virginia Tech. Eric A. Immortality Essay. Decker is Professor and of education in women essay Head, Dept. of Food Science, at the Univ. of immortality essay Massachusetts. Richard L. Hall is role in women essay a Fellow and Past President of IFT and a Past President of the Intl. Union of Food Science and Technology. Immortality. Gilbert A. Leveille, a Fellow and Past President of IFT, is Executive Director, at Wrigley Science Inst. Daryl B. Lund, a Fellow and Past President of IFT, is Emeritus Professor at the Univ. of defence essay Wisconsin.
Robert L. Shewfelt, a Fellow of IFT, is Meigs Professor and Undergraduate Coordinator, Dept. of Food Science and Technology, at the Univ. of Georgia. Noel E. Anderson is Vice President, Technical Insights, at Pepsico Inc. Immortality. Christine M. Bruhn, a Fellow of IFT, is Director, Center for Consumer Research, Dept. of Food Science and Technology, at the Univ. of role essay California, Davis. Fergus M. Clydesdale, a Fellow of IFT, is Distinguished Professor and immortality Director, Food Science Policy Alliance, at the Univ. of Massachusetts. William K. Hallman is Professor, Dept. of Human Ecology, at Rutgers Univ. and makes a good Director at the Food Policy Inst. Gilbert A. Leveille, a Fellow and Past President of immortality IFT, is Executive Director at the Wrigley Science Inst. Essay. Mark R. McLellan, a Fellow and Past President of IFT, is Dean for immortality Research and Director of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, at the Univ. of how to Florida. IFT gratefully acknowledges a grant from the Intl. Essay. Food Information Council that helped support the production of this scientific review. 2010 Institute of Food Technologists ®
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