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Friendship Essay for Children and …
a short formal essay Nicholas Handler, is a junior at Yale University majoring in friends for kids, history. Film As Coursework! Handler is essay friends for kids active in social justice organizations and hopes to become a human rights lawyer. I never expected to gain any new insight into the nature of my generation, or the changing landscape of American colleges, in Lit Theory. Lit Theory is supposed to be the class where you sit at the back of the room with every other jaded sophomore wearing skinny jeans, thick-framed glasses, an ironic tee-shirt and over-sized retro headphones, just waiting for lecture to be over so you can light up a Turkish Gold and walk to lunch while listening to Wilco. That#8217;s pretty much the way I spent the course, too: through structuralism, formalism, gender theory, and post-colonialism, I was far too busy shuffling through my iPod to see what the patriarchal world order of capitalist oppression had to do with Ethan Frome. But when we began to study postmodernism, something struck a chord with me and made me sit up and look anew at the seemingly blase college-aged literati of powerpoint paper, which I was so self-consciously one. Letter: Fortunately, College Has Changed. This is in regard to your college essay contest that took place last year. The essay entitled Fortunately, College Has Changed by Matthew Bender from the University of essay friends for kids, Arkansas has several factual errors and insinuations. Studies! Then entire first and second paragraphs are neither chronologically or factually correct.
How do I know that there are errors? Because I am Mervin Jebaraj, the person referred to in the for kids, opening paragraph. 1. A committee of students wrote the actual text of a proposed bill not a note. The idea began in November of 2007 and not in the spring. 2. There was no staying up all night, and there was no on campus bbq.
The committee obtained a meeting with Sen. Madison after a lot of work and didn#8217;t just pass a note to her. The committee also spent months working with her and other legislators. to see the resolution passed. We don#8217;t appreciate the book report, trivialising narrative of our work. Friends For Kids! 3. The resolution never asked for the creation of socially aware investments, the options already existed.
4. Paper! The conference I went to was well after the for kids, divestment process and was to share ideas about divestment with others as opposed to book report, receiving inspiration for divestment. 5. There is an implication that I was skinny dipping and smoking marijuana in on my, Belize. Resume! Neither is true. I hold the New York times in the highest regard and hope that you will take this seriously. In the on my friends, future, I hope you check the. Resume! veracity of statements made before you publish them. Mervin Jebaraj, Research Assistant, Center for Business and Economic Research. Liz Addison , 38, is a biology major whose goal is to become a large animal veterinarian. She has trained a winning racehorse and is interested in American presidential history.
Oh, the hand wringing. #8220;College as America used to understand it is coming to essay, an end,#8221; bemoans Rick Perlstein and his beatnik friend of fallen face. Those days, man, when a pretentious reading list was all it took to lift a child from suburbia. When jazz riffs hung in the dorm lounge air with the personal experience, smoke of a thousand bongs, and college really mattered. On My! Really mattered? Rick Perlstein thinks so.
It mattered so much to him that he never got over his four years at journals publish essays the University of Privilege. So he moved back to friends for kids, live in its shadow, like a retired ballerina taking a seat in publish lyric, the stalls. But when the curtain went up he saw students working and studying and working some more. Adults before their time. On My Friends! Today, at the University of Privilege, the student applies with a Curriculum Vitae not a book list. Shudder. Frankie Thomas , is a junior majoring in cinema-television critical studies, with a minor in gender studies.
Her immediate plans include dropping out at the end of the year to write and/or travel. She is a film maker and a blogger, with interests ranging from the social history of the essays jamaica, Victorian era to birdwatching to the novels of Dawn Powell. I had the kind of college experience most people only dream about. On My Friends For Kids! Charged by the atmosphere of intellectual exploration, inspired by professors who pushed me farther than I#8217;d ever imagined I could go, I made fascinating new friends at Skidmore; together we discovered Nabokov and Kafka, Citizen Kane and film Dr. Strangelove, and our own literary voices.
It was a three-week summer program. I was fifteen. Now I#8217;m twenty, halfway toward graduating from University of Southern California, and if I had a thousand dollars for every college student I know who Struggles With Depression#8230;well, I still wouldn#8217;t have enough money to pay my full tuition. But it would keep me going for a semester or two, assuming I didn#8217;t lose my own struggle and drop listlessly out. Essay On My For Kids! As our SATs would have put it, #8220;depression#8221; is to #8220;college campus#8221; as #8220;consumption#8221; is to paper, #8220;Victorian orphanage,#8221; and ours is a generation of wheezing waifs.
Max Lance , 23, is a freshman at USC#8217;s School of Cinematic Arts, majoring in writing for film and television. He hopes to make his mark either with a #8220;life-changing TV show#8221; or by #8220;marrying someone rich.#8221; When I dropped out of college three years ago I would have completely agreed that college isn#8217;t the cultural experience that it was hyped up to be. As I return this September, I#8217;ve realized that it#8217;s a good thing it isn#8217;t. I completely agree that college as America used to know it has come to an end, but I believe that schools have changed for the better. The problem I had when I quit school the first time around was that I never adjusted to how schools have changed. I dropped out because of my mislaid expectations; the same ones that Rick Perlstein is nostalgic for.
I#8217;m going back to school because I#8217;ve realized what the college experience is like today and I#8217;m now more than prepared to abuse it. Like nearly everyone in my graduating class, I attended higher education because that#8217;s what we did next. College seemed more like 13th grade rather than a place where I would be opened up to radical people and ways of thinking. I spent my freshman and sophomore years doing what I needed to do to get good grades because that#8217;s all I had done since kindergarten. And even though I worked hard to earn a 3.7 GPA, I dropped out of New York University because of a complete lack of passion for what I was studying (journalism, via process of elimination). Travis Weinger , 21, is a senior majoring in history, with a concentration in war, revolution and social change.
His minor is political science. He is a founder of the Triton, a newspaper at UCSD, and on my for kids of the Symposium, an on-campus discussion group. Rick Perlstein#8217;s article, boiled down, is simply an extended version of the bitching that every generation hears from the chambermaid resume, one that preceded it: #8220;Back when I went to on my friends, school, we walked uphill in the snow both ways#8230;#8221; In sum, college mattered back when Mr. Perlstein went to as coursework, it because that was when he went to it. Since college has changed from when he remembered it, he wants us to for kids, believe that it has somehow degenerated into irrelevance. The vast majority of Perlstein#8217;s complaints fit under the above rubric. Our college experience is not as liberating as his was (no longer can we simply phone public intellectuals and journals that lyric essays bully them into visiting our dorms). Our activists are not as radical as his were (we don#8217;t take over enough buildings). Our connection to the Sixties isn#8217;t as strong as his was (our band members aren#8217;t former revolutionaries).
We are not as alienated from society as he was (we engage our world, not whine about it). Perlstein#8217;s claim that his experience was in some way both richer and essay for kids harder than the next generation#8217;s is an old one, and is continuously echoed by that every generation. Like most complaints of this type, it is largely groundless and mildly insulting. Essay On My Friends! To respond to it bit by bit would validate his nostalgic whining to a degree it does not deserve. The Cultural Contradictions of American Universities. For the past twenty to thirty years, we have seen the great degradation of post-secondary education. Conventional wisdom suggests that the problem lies simultaneously within the hands of the politicians and the students. This narrative does not account for the history of college. Throughout the modern age, the film studies as coursework, role college played in the national debate was minimal. To this date, there has only been one president with a Ph.D., and both The New Deal and Truman#8217;s Fair Deal did relatively little for college and education in essay friends for kids, general (with the exception of the G.I. Bill).
And even today, most candidates on both sides of the isle have the same prescription for college: the problem is chambermaid resume lack of funding, therefore, the solution is to increase funding. It usually ends at that. Essay Friends For Kids! In order to find the true crisis of college, we must first look at its true purpose. A few months ago, Charles Murray wrote a controversial series of columns in the Wall Street Journal arguing, not that college had been written out of the national debate, but that its role is too great. Essentially, too many people are going to college who did not need college, but instead needed vocational training. There are serious problems with his logic to be sure, not the least of essays jamaica, which is his obvious IQ-ism. While it is true that college is in need of some serious reforming, focusing solely on for kids IQ will not solve them, for IQ is not the only purpose of report, college.
For example, there are, what a professor of mine called, #8220;latent overtones.#8221; That is, those unexpected, and unintended consequences of college learning. For example, one might discover a great philosopher that he#8217;s never heard of, or another collegiate finds that they enjoy a field of study which they did not expect. But this is, of course, part of the intellectual journey of students. College exists not, as conventional wisdom suggests, to friends, change the culture. Film! It exists to create a new breed of essay friends for kids, intellectuals. All politics aside, students should exit college not knowing simply what to think, but how to think. This is where Mr. Critical Essays Jamaica Kincaid! Murray and I agree.
He hits the nail on the head when he describes the purpose of on my friends for kids, college, that college is film as coursework created to train the elites to do their jobs. However, this purpose has been lost in a quagmire of watered-down curricula and fluff courses. And this brings us to on my friends for kids, the real problem of college: the for research paper, searing anti-intellectualism of the youth. Essay On My Friends! Education is the single most important factor in the growth of our country. Specifically, higher education paves a future and as coursework provides opportunity for students that attend college and gives them a shot at on my friends a career.
50 years ago, college was strictly for the elite, high class Americans. Now, it seems that every common household has at least one family member attend college. But with the increasing drop out rate today, students seem less interested in learning at college and their priorities change from their original goal of graduating. Critical! The importance of education today is a growing factor because the future of this country depends on on my friends for kids the students in college today. College is misunderstood by many incoming freshman. All of the personal experience, television advertisements and billboards encouraging students to essay friends for kids, attend college are used as bait to reel in student#8217;s tuition. Parents encourage their kids to attend college after graduating high school because they want to book report, see their kids have a shot at on my friends success.
However, college is essay experience not cut out for everyone. More freshman than ever are dropping out after their first year because college can be overwhelming through everything that takes place within campus boundaries. On My! The pressures of college whether it#8217;s to impress parents or maintain a high GPA grasps hold of many students while they are in college, freezing them from work and essay personal attending class regularly. Back in the 50#8217;s and essay friends 60#8217;s when college was becoming so popular, people attended college solely to improve their education and learn through the college experience, in hopes of obtaining a career after graduation. Now, people attend college because their friends or girlfriend go there. Many people attend college just to party as much as possible.
College can be misleading for teenagers fresh out of high school, and people who feel that continuing their education isn#8217;t the most important factor in attending college should not apply. College matters because without a thoroughly educated society, America would fall to its knees and regress into deep depression. Jobs would flounder because the essays jamaica kincaid, people applying for them wouldn#8217;t get accepted without college degrees. Pat Brown expanded university development in California in 1966 to encourage people of every social class to attend college and gain a higher education. The reason for his rapid expansion was because the essay for kids, number of college students doubled from 1957 to 1967, and Brown decided in order to improve society and keep America running, more universities should be built to attract new students.
However, in 1997, only 54 percent of students that attended college as freshmen graduated with a degree six years later, 30 percent not even finishing their freshman year. Once students enroll in college, dropping out the yearling book report is the worst decision they can make. The opportunity cost of dropping can be detrimental to on my friends, a student#8217;s financial standing. Journals Publish Lyric Essays! Dropping out also means dropping tuition, and students are often left with debt to pay off depending on which year they dropped out. Entering in on my friends for kids, a low paying job, drop outs must slowly pay back student loans, which is the yearling book why college is so important to stick to and graduate once enrolled.
The likelihood of students being able to pay off student loans quickly after graduating is much greater than the likelihood of a drop out paying off loans. Essay Friends! Drop outs sometimes will only make enough money per paycheck to pay off previous college debts, not leaving any left over cash for leisure activities. Once choosing the decision to report, attend college, remaining in friends, college is the book, most important decision a student can make, in on my for kids, order to film studies, avoid living a below average lifestyle. Young adults are fed by change. On My! No matter how resistant or welcoming I am to as coursework, change, when all is said and done change sustains me. Two years as an essay on my for kids undergraduate student at Fordham University have been made slightly easier by knowing this about myself, because college means change. Even with the still shrinking cyber community and the #8216;real world#8217; opportunities offered to many young people today, nothing can replace the powerpoint, rush of essay on my for kids, change attached to the college experience.
College students are encouraged to make noise. When interviewed by Rick Perlstein for an article entitled #8216;What#8217;s the Matter With College#8221; students were very vocal. Hamilton Morris, a New York bred college student, described a college experience where many students hate school #8220;with a passion#8221; and #8220;don#8217;t leave#8221;. Perlstein writes that Morris#8217;s feelings are proof of a #8220;culture of enervation#8221; which overwhelms many campuses today. Instead of seeing what Perlstein describes, students without hope or the will to pursue their studies, I see Morris as describing a culture of restlessness. Chambermaid Resume! Students who claim to hate college but still do not leave are experiencing a kind of essay on my friends, restlessness which comes with the package. Students experience change so quicklychanges of passions, opinions and interests. They are bound to become restless, especially when the off-campus world is within arm#8217;s length.
I often smile to powerpoint paper, think the world is at my fingertips when I am surfing the internet, but the truth is my fingers are touching my keyboard, and I am planted in my kitchen chair drinking Diet Coke. College offers me the opportunity to shake hands with the on my for kids, leaders of business, art, science and medicinesomething the internet can not give me. College professors do not want students to paper, be excited about school and theory alonethey want them to take their passion into the world beyond the campus. Essay Friends! I am not writing this commentary for my school newspaper. Studies As Coursework! I am writing it for essay on my friends New York Times Magazine, a publication Journalism majors like me aspire to work for. College urges me to jamaica kincaid, aspire, to voice my opinions, and yes, to on my friends, change.
The problem with colleges in the 21st century is convoluted with many deciding factors, resulting in film studies as coursework, a more complex position for current college students to experience, unlike any previous generation of college students. Essay Friends For Kids! In my opinion, being a college graduate student and one who has been involved in my school, I can honestly say that the chambermaid, biggest problem with our generation is the sense of nihilism, which is plaguing the our very core of our being. It is important to essay on my friends for kids, realize that this comes not only from college campuses, but the society in general; people just don#8217;t care. If they do care and that want to essay for kids, be involved, societal pressures, mostly economic, is what keeps them from being invoked with the spirit of the book report, previous generations. There seems to be no sense of urgency when it comes to our generation. Nihilism will do that to everyone. I also find it interesting that the people who do want to be involved do not necessarily know what to get involved with. In the 60s, it seemed to be clear cut what the problem was; racism, sexism, or the war in Vietnam. A contrast between the 60s generation and us now is that people do not what the for kids, problems really are.
The mentality when speaking to college students; they seem to focus more on trying to get that 80K a year job then the socio-political issues affecting us. It is evident that we value the dollar more so than we value the human struggle. So apathy also plays a role. It is critical essays important to realize that we must do something, otherwise everyone suffers. Sending your child to college is not an on my friends for kids option in American society, and it#8217;s hardly a privilege at that. In today#8217;s fierce and critical essays fast paced world it is a necessity For most parents, thought goes into how they will even fund such a venture within the first few months of the child#8217;s conception. College funds and essay on my friends savings bonds, money from journals, relatives and graduation parties, this all gets stored until an entire portion of essay on my for kids, that funding goes towards expensive college visits. Paper! Not only does the child want to go to college, that child has picked out 10 in which there is an orientation at each for prospective parents. They want to see where their money is going, as well as where their child will sleep, learn, and become the successful adult they were meant to be. What is wrong with college?
As a successful student at a prominent Chicago school, I, for one, have plenty of opinions on essay the matter. Let#8217;s look at powerpoint #8220;our war#8221; by first taking a retrospective glance at Vietnam. Essay For Kids! My father, a student at the time of critical essays jamaica kincaid, Vietnam, was a conservative at essay on my for kids a very conservative Indiana school. Chambermaid! He still wore his GDI shirt most days of the friends for kids, week and talked highly of the essay, camaraderie between fellow students. There were protests that were actually allowed on essay on my his campus. When the students died in the Kent incident he remembers rallies against paper the war in their honor. He also remembers reading the names of the dead soldiers with the rest of his class, keeping in somber memory the fight his country was in. Bands of friends for kids, students were scared, there was a draft in effect. The Yearling Report! Everyone had war on the mind and as those 18 year olds took on essay on my friends for kids their first years of essays kincaid, college, they had a lot more to worry about than where the weekend#8217;s keg party was taking place. They were learning, growing, and forming opinions on the world they were entering by knowing their current events and being passionate about on my for kids them. Of course, without the internet, their local papers brought them more world events and less Lindsay Lohan.
Being passionate about the world takes a certain naivety that forms when someone does not already have the chambermaid, opinions of others so easily accessible. The internet has taken so much of this away from essay, current students. In my experience, you only personal, have to make a choice on which websites to read. Essay On My Friends! Looking at our war today, many students walk away from it, choosing not even to recognize that it affects their daily world. There are many more cliques, many more places to falter, and many more reasons not to care. Hold a pen in front of you and look at it; notice its size and color in particular. Now, slowly move it away until you have your arm fully extended. Notice anything different? Probably not, and that is persuasive how it should be. If we remember back to middle school science class, color is partially dependent upon the angle that light hits an object.
But we just moved an object, causing the angle to change from our perspective, and essay on my did not notice any change in color. The pen also moved further away without any apparent change in size. I forgot the journals that publish lyric, intricate details that explain why this happens, something to do with a portion of the brain that keeps our perceptions fluid . What I do remember, and will never forget, is how cool this all seemed and how much more there is to the world when you get past the surface. College is a pretty different place today than it was for my parents thirty years ago. Then again, so were the two worlds in on my friends for kids, which we were raised. Most kids in my generation were not raised in the Sandlot. Jamaica! We did not hang out at the malt shop after school. And we definitely did not attend any sock hops (or if we did, best believe we did not call them that). Instead, we started out playing on jungle gyms with woodchips and protective rubber flooring underneath. Eventually, we found ourselves being chauffeured to organized baseball practice, in a minivan. By high school, the on my friends, importance of getting into a good college had been seared into the yearling report, us and serious attention had to be allocated toward after-school activities and other kinds of enriching events to make sure that we were #8220;well- rounded#8221;.
Here#8217;s a fun game that anyone my age can play: ask your parents what they got on their SATs. Essay For Kids! If they can, you win! Basically, it is like hitting the lottery, since your parents have to be like one out of a million. High school students in the 60#8217;s did not pay $1,000 for an SAT class and definitely did not go to any Independent College Consultants. As Mr.
Perlstein stated, college was seen as a place sort of apart from the rest of the world. Film Studies As Coursework! Kids went there and were met with new people, ideas, and friends situations. Back then, as I understand it, college was not seen as a stepping stone or a rung on the ladder. Journals That Publish Lyric Essays! You did not go with the mindset that it was simply a means to end, a place to simply collect good grades and then experience the #8216;director#8217;s cut redux edition#8217; of college admissions in the form of on my friends for kids, graduate school, an journals publish lyric essays internship or a job. Why College Matters: A Response to #8220;What#8217;s the Matter With College#8221; I suppose I should begin by saying that I don#8217;t go to a real college. I mean, I don#8217;t feel like I go to a real college. I don#8217;t take real classes. Essay! I don#8217;t live on a real campus. Jamaica! I#8217;m a music major and attend the Peabody Institute in Baltimore, Maryland. Peabody is an essay on my established music conservatory, one of the for research paper, schools of Johns Hopkins University (despite what I say about it not being a #8220;real#8221; school).
In his essay, Perlstein is making it seem that today#8217;s college undergraduates and the ideals we pursue are somehow deficient. That we#8217;re missing out. He#8217;s especially concerned that we#8217;re nothing like the friends, students of the 60s and 70s. He#8217;s right about jamaica kincaid that, but that is nothing to be ashamed of. We#8217;re students who want (or carry) the iPhone. We are environmental activists. We#8217;re more technologically savvy than Perlstein#8217;s generation. We get our information and communicate in a totally different way. We#8217;re amazing jugglers.
We#8217;re a new breed. It is interesting to read that the defining issue for the 1966 California gubernatorial race was college. For my sake, and I#8217;m sure for the sake of a lot of my peers, I wish it were still that way. For Kids! College sounded romantic and fun. My friends argue that things have changed in the past 40 years, and that there are bigger fish to fry.
The war, for film as coursework example. Making a living once college ends. When they start complaining, however, about classes and stress, I ask them, #8220;aren#8217;t there bigger fish to fry?#8221; at which they sigh outwardly, roll their eyes, and for kids throw their hands up in studies as coursework, the air. I understand where their frustration lies. We still feel young in the scheme of things, and not ready to on my, plan out our lives after college. It feels like we#8217;ve been doing nothing but planning since freshman year of high school. Who has time to critical, worry anyway?
Right now, I am worrying if I have enough money to pay the rent this month. Essay Friends For Kids! Many of my classmates worry how to pay for the next semester. Film Studies As Coursework! To be honest, when it came to college, most of us never really had a choice. Where I grew up, in essay friends, Greenwich, Connecticut, there was never the option of #8220;college vs. no college.#8221; The choice was #8220;Ivy League vs. Critical Essays! state school,#8221; or something along those lines. The whole getting-ready-for-college experience was important. As you thumb these pages, reader, loyal subscriber, conscious citizen with an appetite for inquiry and thoughtfulness, or may I say fellow American, you tell yourself that you want to sample a young student#8217;s intellect. Certainly I do believe that my own college experience has been important, even critical, to my life and to my thoughts here and now, but young and essay friends for kids impressionable does not necessarily partner with a tame, meaningful sense of hindsight#8230; My college experience has fostered some growth.
But for the nation? Lend me some relevance. Am I to critical essays kincaid, accurately describe my confusion with you over coffee to tell you how this all breaks downI fit in the puzzle and I#8217;m one of the corners, right? Politics. We don#8217;t have movements, and we don#8217;t have causes. A choice between higher education and higher purpose has been made; show me one text message, fellow student, that you have wanted the whole country to essay friends, read.
Children live at school. Film As Coursework! Especially if they don#8217;t have much of a home life to live in friends for kids, the afternoon or evening, kids live and learn at school. College isn#8217;t so different, only first graders aren#8217;t expected to shape up all by themselves when they appear to be wasting time. Oh, college students aren#8217;t either? Pity. I guess higher education isn#8217;t all that important. Maybe the problems of higher education are just fronds atop a mirage of public schooling. Talk to Herbert Kohl, Jonathan Kozol, John Taylor Gatto, men who are trying to wake this country up, and they#8217;ll show you what#8217;s happening to my younger brothers and sisters.
Content in the shade, college students loaf, while in more dangerous environs, under the pretext that they are to learn, children sit down in their desks each morning in the arms of critical essays jamaica kincaid, a crumbling system. In college, we choose to sleep in, not to participate, excel, regress, etc. If higher education is important to the nation, why don#8217;t more people act like it? Better yet, if education is so important to the nation#8217;s future, why is it neglected? Important as it is, I feel proud to remember the on my friends for kids, words of Thomas Jefferson, who often can remind us of politicians#8217; and citizens#8217; true responsibilities: #8220;It is highly interesting to our country, and it is the duty of essays kincaid, its functionaries, to essay on my, provide that every citizen in essay personal, it should receive an education proportioned to the condition and pursuits of his life.#8221; He speaks to the politician, tells him to essay for kids, take a good look at his fellow Americans. What sort of education will he provide to match the condition, the quality of life? If the quality be poor, will he stick to poor schooling until lifestyles rise to the occasion? Try downtown Anywhere, where elementary schools have been forced to remove social studies and arts in critical kincaid, favor of apparently year-round test preparation, for standards in English and mathematics. The #8220;need to know#8221; world and on my friends for kids the world of standardization are one in the same, and persuasive columns of darkened bubbles are in no short supply, though there#8217;s still a need to on my, live.
The Problem with College: Why We No Longer See Ourselves As #8220;Part of#8221; a Community. One anomaly of American society is the yearling that our universities play only a marginal role in on my, our culture. In other nations, like France where intellectual life is not centered on their institutions of education, this may come as no surprise, but the virtues of lyric, American universities are indisputable. Academics wonder why they are allowed to be the nation#8217;s intellectual leaders, but not its leaders, or even advisors, in the political or ethical arenas. Some are resentful of the essay for kids, mainstream society, thinking it apostate, as though they were priests of some outworn creed, but this alienation, which has developed in report, tandem with the evolution of academia, did not come because the society rejected the university as a social or moral authority, but rather because the university ran out of the energy it took to function in this role. This occurred, at least partially, because those of friends for kids, us in college found that the values we shared were not strong enough to unite us. From the time of Plato, the purpose of the university has not been to represent the society or culture in which it exists but to pursue truth. Most academics, who may disagree on what truth is in essence, would agree that it is a noble and kincaid worthy objective.
And, since truth is their goal, many of them think themselves justified in being alienated from mainstream society. This does not mean their views are homogenous; I can testify that, at the University of Idaho (to name one example), the politics of professors in the College of Business are not shared by the English instructors; but what the two departments have in common is their distance from America#8217;s political center. This is largely because specialists in any field, whether that field is friends philosophy or political science, tend to feel invalidated if anyone could reach the same conclusions that they do. It is a telling fact that, at least until recent years, there was a higher percentage of self-described Marxist literary critics than blue-color workers. Nonetheless, this desire for academic innovation benefits the university in that it makes professors#8217; research original; it is for this reason that, whenever universities are rated according to powerpoint for research paper, prestige, the United States constantly is found to on my for kids, have the greatest number of prestigious institutions.
Even so, there is another facet to a professor#8217;s job, teaching. This requirement creates a dilemma for essays many professors: their strenuous educations and meticulous research has caused many of them to become opinionated, but, at essay on my friends the same time, they need to keep their students pacified while educating them in accordance with principles which the students may not share. Thus, they (and the students) learn that it is easier to journals that publish essays, ignore worldview-related issues. In searching for the least common ethical denominator among the group, the for kids, instructors and film studies as coursework the instructed clandestinely agree that the values which they hold as specific to their Weltanschauungs do not apply to everyone, and, if they do, the value of placidity applies even more. As Allan Bloom wrote in 1987, #8220;[A]lmost every student entering the university . . . says he believes . Friends For Kids! . . that truth is essays jamaica kincaid relative#8221; (1). While this outlook may work in essay on my friends, as far as it prevents conflicts, it is an ineffective communal bond. Journals That Essays! This is because the values of the classroom are provisional andmost students cannot help but feelartificial. They haven#8217;t the essay friends for kids, power to kincaid, unite the students and essay for kids faculty in a community, which requires common interests and mores.
In July, The Magazine published What's the Matter With College, an essay by the historian Rick Perlstein, online and critical invited college students across the United States to respond. Some 600 undergraduates did -- many agreeing with Perlstein's assertion that college as America used to understand it is coming to an end, many dismissing his argument as so much nostalgic pap, still others taking the occasion to critique higher education from an insider's perch. To continue the essay on my friends, conversation, we're featuring the winning student essay and four runners-up, and chambermaid resume posting another 450 of the entries in essay on my friends for kids, a searchable format. (The other entries were withdrawn by their authors or did not follow the contest's rules.)
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Mba Thesis Sample Essays and Research Papers. A Sample Thesis With a Subtitle by Michael McNeil Forbes B.Sc., The University of British Columbia, 1999 M.Sc., The . University of British Columbia, 2001 SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE AT THE MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY c Michael McNeil Forbes, 2000. Essay On My Friends For Kids? All rights reserved. The author hereby grants to MIT permission to reproduce and to distribute publicly paper and electronic . 1065 Words | 5 Pages. How To Write a Thesis Statement What is a Thesis Statement?
Almost all of us—even if we don’t do it consciously—look early . in an essay for a one- or two-sentence condensation of the the yearling book argument or analysis that is to follow. We refer to that condensation as a thesis statement. Why Should Your Essay Contain a Thesis Statement? to test your ideas by distilling them into a sentence or two to better organize and develop your argument to provide your reader with a “guide” to on my for kids, your argument . Elementary school , English-language films , Family 1522 Words | 7 Pages. PRE-EMPLOYMENT EXPECTATIONS OF HOTEL EMPLOYEES IN LUCENA CITY A Thesis Presented To The Department of Hotel and the yearling book, Restaurant Management . Essay? --------------------------------------- In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of persuasive personal experience, Bachelor of Science in Hotel and Restaurant Management CERTIFICATE OF APPROVAL The thesis attached hereto entitled, “PRE-EMPLOYMENT EXPECTATIONS OF HOTEL EMPLOYEES IN LUCENA CITY” prepared and essay friends for kids, submitted by ______________________________________ in. Academic degree , Bachelor's degree , Better 470 Words | 3 Pages. MBA THESES SUBJECTS MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION CORPORATE STRATEGY AND ECONOMIC POLICY PARAMARIBO, SURINAME (FHR), INTAKE 1 Name Mr. Chambermaid? . A.K. Achaibersing SRFHR0103001 Mrs.
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material. Lyric? 6. Future Researchers. Tourism and Culinary related courses are now on essay on my its peak; the result of this study can give other students further . Chambermaid Resume? information that they can be used in friends for kids the future. Film Studies? | 6. 0 Scope and Limitation (with population and sample ) The study will focus on Gastronomic Tourism, a subset of Cultural Tourism, wherein the researcher will enumerate all programs being imposed by essay on my friends the Department of lyric, Tourism and Intramuros Administration in order to restore the essay on my for kids heritage site. Cultural tourism , Intramuros , Manila 1311 Words | 4 Pages. TITLE Electronic Bulletin Board and Queuing Patient’s Number Display in Kaunlaran Village Health Center, Navotas City PROPONENTS: • Balmes, Joanna . Publish Essays? Mariz S. • Del Rosario, Jhoana Marie B. Friends For Kids? • Denus, Paul Aaron A. • Mateo, Juan Gabriel M. Persuasive Experience? Thesis Adviser: Engr. Essay? Antonio Velasco Approved: For Revision: Comments: ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ . Barcode , Biometrics , College 598 Words | 4 Pages. Statement of Purpose Samples for MBA Admission. Strategy More: Features Harvard Business School MBA Applications 5 Essays That Got People Into Harvard Business School — And Why They Worked . Max Nisen and persuasive personal, Aimee Groth Nov. 20, 2012, 3:30 PM 226,050 3 inShare Kreuzinger/Dimon- Do not use Jason Krezuinger Jason Kreuziger poses with JPMorgan CEO Jamie Dimon With an friends for kids, acceptance rate of only 11 percent, even people with the essay personal most impeccable credentials and test scores routinely get turned down from Harvard Business School. What. Business , Business school , Finance 736 Words | 3 Pages.
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Creative writing , English-language films , Essay 1203 Words | 3 Pages. requirements of the film as coursework Bachelor of Science in Information Technology Major in Digital Arts Has been examined and is recommended For acceptance and essay friends, . approval _________________________ Mrs. Joanna Tadiosa-Javier Thesis Adviser July 2013 APPROVAL SHEET This Thesis entitled Come, Visit and Explore Graceland Estates and Country Club (An Audio Video Production) Developed by: Nyleah Legaspi Ricky Balasabas Dennis Narvaez Ma. Kristine Elvie Gien Villanueva . CALABARZON , Cities of the Philippines , Pagbilao, Quezon 1013 Words | 5 Pages. English Sample Thesis : Such universal values explored in Frankenstein and Blade Runner do not change over chambermaid resume, time, it is merely our . perceptions The dangers of knowledge and science in the hands of flawed and for kids, short-sighted humans Frankenstein * 19th Century = Age of enlightenment, Romanticism, * Shelley points out the dangers of man’s obsession with immortality and how it blinds Frankenstein of his morals * Throughout Frankenstein, the reader is left with the powerpoint for research paper feeling that Victor's obsessive. Blade Runner , Frankenstein , Human 1604 Words | 5 Pages. My thesis proposal - Document Transcript 1. Taguig City Universityl of friends, Computer ScienceDepartment of Computer and jamaica, Information Science . Routing Slip Student: Truong Quoc Hung Degree: Master of essay on my friends for kids, Science Program: Applied Mathematics and Computer Science Thesis : IU Advise-A web based advising tool for academic advisors and students Dated: March 2, 2009 Hossein Hakimzadeh, Ph.D. Liguo Yu, Ph.D. Michael R Scheessele, Ph.D. Journals That Lyric? Yu Song, Ph.D.
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________________________________ ________________________________ Ms. Journals Lyric Essays? Cindy Mabilog . Allyn Mae B. Espinosa Thesis Adviser/ Principal Seven Pillars Catholic School ------------------------------------------------- Pseudonym: __________________________________________________________________________ . Clothing , Gay , Gay community 793 Words | 4 Pages. SERVICE OF COFFEE BEAN AND TEA LEAF IN TRINOMA MALL, QUEZON CITY An Undergraduate Thesis Presented to The College of essay on my friends, Tourism and . Hospitality Management Asian College of Science and Technology In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Bachelor of Science in Hospitality Management Von Ryan N. Visco March 2012 CERTIFICATE OF ACCEPTANCE This is to for research paper, certify that this undergraduate thesis entitled “Analysis of customer service of Coffee Bean and Tea Leaf” and on my for kids, submitted. Bachelor's degree , Caffeine , Coffee 602 Words | 4 Pages. SAMPLE TITLE PAGE – MASTERS THESIS All items centered – TITLE IN ALL CAPS – Use official degree names only Date is month and year . of degree conferral FACTORS AFFECTING DEGREE PROGRESS OF GRADUATE STUDENTS AT A LARGE URBAN UNIVERSITY AND IMPLICATIONS FOR STUDENT SERVICES OPERATIONS AND UNIVERSITY POLICY by Kathleen J. Koch A Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the film studies as coursework Requirements for essay for kids, the Degree of Master of that publish lyric essays, Arts in Sociology at The University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee May 2008 SAMPLE APPROVAL. Bachelor's degree , College , Copyright 271 Words | 2 Pages. based applications which are deployed and can be visited all over the world without the limitation of essay on my, time and critical, geographical boundaries.
Web site usability, . security and reliability consider some of the core aspects in designing of web sites. Friends? In this thesis , we explore possible tensions and tradeoffs between usability and security issues in web site design. We discuss web site usability issues in terms of technical and social aspects. We discuss web site security in powerpoint terms of friends, usability and offer some. Graphic design , Hypertext Transfer Protocol , Internet 745 Words | 3 Pages. A Sample Thesis With a Subtitle by Michael Mc Neil Forbes B.Sc., The University of British Columbia, 1999 M.Sc., The University . of British Columbia, 2001 SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE AT THE MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY c Michael Mc Neil Forbes, 2000.
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Centro Escolar University , Future , Kaizen 1649 Words | 7 Pages. 2011 – 2012 A Research Presented to Living Stone International School In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements in English IV [pic] . Balinsoy, Maraly L. Lee, Jeong Eun High School IV March 2012 APPROVAL SHEET This thesis entitled “Profile and for research, Level of Internet Usage Vis-A-Vis the Academic Performance of essay on my, Junior High School Students of LSIS A. Y. 2011 – 2012” prepared and submitted by that publish the researchers in partial fulfillment of the requirements in English IV, has been. College , High school , Middle school 436 Words | 3 Pages. School of on my, Management Bleking Institute of Technology INVESTIGATING SHAREHOLDERS’ ECONOMIC CREATION IN THE BANKING INDUSTRY: - VALUE The case of . the HSBC and critical essays kincaid, Barclays plc, UK MBA Thesis by: Isaac Tettey ID: 760831-P499 Isaac Takyi Baffoe ID: 770627-P173 Supervisor: Professor Ian Robson THESIS FOR THE MASTER’S DEGREE IN BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION JUNE 2008 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This paper analyses shareholders’ economic value creation using two major banks; HSBC and Barclays plc of. Bank , Economics , Financial services 20227 Words | 65 Pages. 25 July 2013 Manila Electric Company (MERALCO) Lopez Bldg., Meralco Center, Ortigas Avenue, Pasig City To Whom It May Concern: Good day!
We are senior . students from the University of essay on my friends, Santo Tomas and persuasive essay personal, we are currently working on friends for kids our Thesis paper as our major and final requirement. Our paper aims to persuasive essay, study the new program designed by the Energy Regulatory Commission which is the essay Prepaid Retail Electric Service. The focus of our study is the viability and effectiveness of this program in the Philippine. GSIS-Meralco bribery case , Manila , Meralco 480 Words | 3 Pages. 1 AN EXPECTANCY VIOLATIONS THEORY STUDY OF EMPLOYEE SATISFACTION ______________________________________________ A Thesis Presented to the . Faculty in Communication and Leadership Studies School of Professional Studies Gonzaga University ________________________________________________ Under the Supervision of Dr. John Caputo Under the Mentorship of Dr.
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Merchandiser Quality Checker Coordinat or Wholesale Department Manager Wholesales 9 Officer Sales Coordinator Wholesales Product . Development Department Gents Manager Development (Gents) Designer (Gents) Developer Shoe Sample (Gents) Officer Shoe Development (Gents) Quality Checker (Gents) Ladies Manager Development (Ladies) D.M Development Merchandis er Senior Designer 10 Designer Quality Checker Junior Designer Retail Shops Department . Accounting software , Accounts receivable , Chief executive officer 15244 Words | 108 Pages. sought to present related literatures and essay on my, studies that are relevant to the study. It includes foreign and paper, local literature, and foreign and local studies . from journals, websites and on my for kids, books, online newspaper and online articles, similar studies such as thesis , and resume, dissertations that have been previously conducted by essay friends other researchers, some studies that were analyzed by the researchers. Report? These following literatures and essay on my friends for kids, studies will surely be very helpful for the researchers for the analysis of the persuasive essay personal experience study. Concept , Education , Flowchart 467 Words | 4 Pages. Pototan, District 4 – Dingle, and District 5 – Barotac Viejo. To gather data, the on my researcher used a validated researcher–made survey questionnaire.
The . descriptive method of research was employed. Means, standard deviation, t-test for powerpoint for research, independent samples and the one-way ANOVA were employed in the analysis of the essay on my for kids obtained data. Paper? Inferential statistics were all set at on my for kids 0.05 level of persuasive essay, significance. Chapter 2 Review of Related Literature The chapter. Consumers' cooperative , Cooperative , Cooperatives 10874 Words | 41 Pages. Thesis statement : FOOTBALL - Thesis Statement – Dylan 3G I selected this topic because the football field is the essay best place . to let out your anger. Plus, when you tackle somebody, you don't get in any trouble.
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Fortune Village 6, Parada, Valenzuela. Recruitment , Valenzuela City , Web application 800 Words | 4 Pages. Study The first year engineering students enrolled in chambermaid resume Don Bosco Technical College Mandaluyong City school year 2011-2012 will be the respondents of the . Friends? study. To make sure the essays jamaica kincaid accountability of the data, 10% of the total population will be taken as a sample . And too guarantee equivalent distribution, 5% came from victims and 5% from the aggressors. Research Instrument / Data Collection Instrument The survey will be the on my for kids main instrument to be used in the study to determine the entry level of the students.
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Molecular Biology and for kids, Biochemistry - Theses, Dissertations, and other Required Graduate Degree Essays. Advances in whole genome sequencing (WGS) technologies have created an era in chambermaid which WGS can routinely be integrated into essay on my friends for kids disease outbreak investigations for the rapid detection and characterization of the causative agents. Although most genomic investigations of outbreaks to the yearling report date focus on using single nucleotide variations to help track the spread of disease, this dissertation focuses on efforts to improve the characterization of large clusters of horizontally-acquired genes, named genomic islands (GIs), that may cause large phenotypic changes. Such mobile elements contribute a fundamental role in the rapid adaptation of microbial life to various changes in friends for kids the environment and are known to encode genes involved virulence, antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and alternative metabolism. I present the integration of rich gene annotations of virulence factors (VFs), AMR genes, and chambermaid, pathogen-associated genes into IslandViewer, a web server for the prediction of GIs in addition to the re-design of the web server to now include an interactive genome visualization library named GenomeD3Plot. I also present the application of IslandViewer for essay on my for kids GI analysis on real outbreak data from critical essays, multiple Listeria monocytogenes food-borne outbreaks from across Canada to show that isolates from geographically and temporally distinct outbreaks have unique sets of GIs. In addition, I present an essay on my, analysis coupling the rich AMR gene annotations with GI predictions over a large collection of diverse microbial genera that revealed AMR genes as a whole are not over-represented within GIs, in contrast to VFs as have been previously studied. However, upon breaking down the persuasive essay experience, dataset, certain classes of resistance were found to be associated with such mobile regions. Lastly, I present a WGS study of L. monocytogenes to on my for kids elucidate the contribution of genetic changes to the ability of this pathogen to tolerate and grow in resume harsh environments, especially cold temperatures, that are important for its role in causing disease. Overall, this work contributes to essay on my for kids improved characterization of GIs as well as a better understanding of trends in the role of GIs and mobile regions in the context of AMR and infectious disease.
Development from a single cell into a multicellular entity is controlled by the intricate regulation of different cell signalling molecules. Wnt/Wingless (Wg) is one such evolutionarily conserved molecule that plays a critical role in critical essays kincaid cell fate specification, tissue patterning and organ development. Aberrant signalling leads to many developmental defects and cancer. Essay On My Friends For Kids. The Wg pathway is essays jamaica, regulated by essay on my friends, reversible phosphorylation both in its silent and active states. Although several studies have shown the role of various kinases and phosphatases in regulating distinct steps of the Wg pathway, the entire cascade of events that regulate the pathway still remains elusive. To identify novel regulators of the Wg pathway, we performed an in resume vivo RNAi screen in the wing disc of Drosophila. This screen identified several new kinase and essay on my, phosphatase modulators of the Wg pathway. Further characterization uncovered two proteins, the powerpoint for research, endosomal protein Myopic (Mop) and the serine threonine phosphatase Protein Phosphatase 4 (PP4), which are essential for essay friends for kids Wg pathway activity.
Knockdown of paper, mop caused Wg protein accumulation in both the Wg secreting and receiving cells. On My Friends. Loss of Mop caused reduced Wg secretion due to the accumulation of Wg and journals that essays, Wntless in endosomes of secreting cells. Essay On My. The defective secretion and aberrant accumulation of Wg was rescued by overexpression of the endosomal protein Hrs. The vertebrate homolog of Mop, HDPTP has similar roles in regulating Wnt trafficking in mammalian cells. In Wg receiving cells, mop knockdown causes accumulation of the Frizzled receptor in early endosomes. Journals That Publish. Loss of on my friends for kids, hrs phenocopies this effect on book, Fz.
Histochemical and genetic analyses suggested that Mop protects Hrs from lysosomal degradation by both promoting its deubiquitination by Ubpy and friends, inhibiting the powerpoint for research, ubiquitin ligase Cbl. Thus, Mop stabilises Hrs in the endosomes, which promotes trafficking of Wg pathway components both in the signal sending and essay on my friends for kids, receiving cells. My work provides useful insight on how Mop-Hrs-Ubpy regulates the endosomal trafficking and signalling output of the Wg pathway. Persuasive. The serine threonine phosphatase PP4 also plays an important role in the Wg pathway. PP4 influences Notch pathway-driven wg transcription. Knockdown of PP4 affects expression of Notch pathway components and essay, impairs growth of studies as coursework, Drosophila appendages. Essay On My. These defects were rescued by the overexpression of nuclear Notch. Together, these studies provide the first evidence implicating a role for Mop and PP4 in trafficking and transcription of Wg. Type I signal peptidase, SPase I, is an essential bacterial enzyme participating in the process of protein secretion. The Yearling Book Report. SPase I catalyzes the conversion of pre-proteins to mature proteins by cleaving off the amino-terminal signal peptides from the pre-proteins during protein secretion. Essay For Kids. The removal of these remnant signal peptides, required for the continuation of the secretion process, is essays jamaica, not a well understood process in bacteria.
In Escherichia coli, signal peptide peptidase A, SppA, together with other enzymes, is responsible for on my for kids the removal of these remnant signal peptides. This thesis work focuses on characterizing and comparing Staphylococcus aureus SPase I, SpsB, with other bacterial SPase I as well as characterizing a previously unexamined SppA related enzyme, E. Powerpoint Paper. coli signal peptide peptidase A2, SppA2. A fluorescent lipidated peptide substrate with a Gram-positive signal peptide sequence was used to characterize the Michaelis-Menten kinetic constants for S. Essay On My. aureus SpsB along with SPase I from Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and E. coli. E. Chambermaid. coli SPase I has a significantly lower catalytic efficiency towards the substrate. A previously characterized E. coli pre-protein was mutated to match the sequence of the Gram-positive peptide sequence, leading to a significantly reduced maturation rate by E. coli SPase I, both in vitro and in vivo. Essay On My Friends For Kids. These results have led to the discovery of paper, a previously uncharacterized residue in essay on my friends for kids the SPase I substrate binding groove, proline 88 in E. coli, which may contribute to the difference in catalytic efficiency observed between Gram-positive and Gram-negative SPase I enzymes.
Limited proteolysis has revealed that E. coli SppA2 has an N-terminal protease sensitive region, residues 39 to 91, and a C-terminal trypsin resistant ,trSppA2, domain, residues 92 to 349. Critical Jamaica Kincaid. Light scattering results indicate that trSppA2 forms octamers in solution with a proposed dome-shape structure similar to friends for kids that of E. Essay. coli and B. subtilis SppA. Activity and mutagenesis studies demonstrate that trSppA2 can digest both small peptides and folded proteins, with a preference for on my friends for kids hydrophobic substrates, while the S178A and K230A mutants are inactive suggesting that SppA2 is a serine / lysine dyad enzyme. Lastly, the protease sensitive region is required for proper protein folding and may regulate substrate traffic into and out of the inner cavity of the SppA2 octamer. Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) signal peptidase I (SPase I) is a membrane-bound endopeptidase that cleaves off the amino-terminal signal peptide from pre-proteins before or after their translocation across the cytoplasmic membrane.
B. subtilis has five chromosomal SPases I; SipS, SipT, SipU, SipV, SipW, and two plasmid encoded paralogous SipP. SipS is one of major SPases I in the species which is essential for cell viability. It is also one of the closest of the B. subtilis SPase I enzymes in sequence to the well characterized Gram-negative E. Journals That Lyric Essays. coli SPase I. As a result, SipS was chosen for this research study. B. subtilis SipS uses Ser/Lys catalytic dyad for catalytic activity, utilizing Ser43 and Lys83 in essay friends for kids the enzyme. The constructs - SipS Full-Length (FL), SipS ?2-35 Wild-Type (WT), SipS ?2-35 S43A and SipS ?2-35 K83A – were expressed, purified, and screened for crystallization conditions. Catalytically active SipS ?2-35 WT formed needle shaped crystal clusters whereas SipS ?2-35 K83A produced initial hits in crystallization conditions containing lithium sulfate.
Preliminary data for the catalytic activity of B. subtilis SipS ?2-35 WT shows that hexaaminecobalt (III) chloride inhibits the enzyme. Defective cilia, hair-like organelles that protrude from the cell membrane, cause diverse human diseases. The Quarmby lab previously used the publish lyric essays, unicellular alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, to essay friends for kids uncover three genes involved in the ciliary stress response known as deflagellation. Powerpoint Paper. They showed that defects in a related gene in friends for kids humans underlie a severe form of juvenile onset polycystic kidney disease. We postulated that rare or subtle variants in film studies additional disease genes could be uncovered by using a more sensitive genetic screen. Armed with advances in whole genome sequencing and an enhanced enrichment protocol, we recovered multiple alleles of essay on my friends, previously isolated genes and several alleles of three novel deflagellation genes. We identify the chambermaid resume, previously elusive ADF1 as TRP15, a putative cation channel activated by on my friends for kids, intracellular acidification. We also identify the critical jamaica, novel deflagellation genes ADF2 as a putative Ins(1,3,4)P3 5/6 Kinase, ADF5 as FAP16 and ADF4 as a glycosyltransferase exhibiting a novel starvation-specific deflagellation defect. Bacterial signal peptidase I (SPase I) plays a key role in the translocation of proteins across the essay on my for kids, cytoplasmic membrane. SPase I cleaves the signal peptide from the pre-protein.
The unique Ser/Lys dyad mechanism, utilized by powerpoint paper, SPase I, is conserved in this family of enzymes in both Gram-positive and essay on my friends for kids, Gram-negative species. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) SPase I is an attractive target for the design of antimicrobial compounds since it is essential for the bacterium’s viability and is involved in the translocation of important pathogenic proteins to their final destinations. Based on sequence alignments of persuasive essay experience, bacterial SPase I, it is hypothesized that Lys174 and Ser96 are catalytically active residues and act as a general base and nucleophile in the Ser/Lys dyad, respectively. We have investigated the overexpression, purification and crystallization of three full length constructs including WT Mtb SPase I, Mtb SPase I K174A and Mtb SPase I S96A. On My Friends. After obtaining initial protein crystals of Mtb SPase I, different optimizing methods were applied to improve the crystal quality. The optimized crystal diffracted to 3.5 A resolution. Critical Essays Jamaica. We present here analysis of the Mtb SPase I K174A crystals and initial data analysis.
In humans, the deadly neurodegenerative Niemann Pick Type-C disease (NPC) is caused by loss of function mutations in the NPC1 gene, which chiefly affect Purkinje neurons of the brain. While the underlying cause of NPC is believed to be lysosomal cholesterol accumulation, recent studies suggest that other lipid, protein and calcium defects contribute to the cellular defects in NPC. Friends. In contrast, deletion of the yeast NPC1 homologue, NCR1, does not cause any obvious growth or sterol trafficking defects. However, ncr1? cells are resistant to edelfosine, a phosphatidylcholine (PC) analogue drug that disrupts PC synthesis and distribution. Examination of PC trafficking in edelfosine treated ncr1? cells suggested that NCR1 deletion suppressed edelfosine-induced vacuolar PC trafficking defects. Ybt1p, the vacuolar membrane PC importer was found to be important for vacuolar PC uptake in chambermaid resume edelfosine treated ncr1? cells. Because Ybt1p affects vacuolar calcium levels and human NPC neurons show calcium defects, ncr1? cells were tested for calcium phenotypes, where we found that these mutants were sensitive to on my friends high calcium concentrations. Both the ncr1?-associated edelfosine and calcium defects were exacerbated in cells expressing multicopy LEU2, which encodes an enzyme required for leucine biosynthesis.
Because leucine activates the vacuolar Target Of Rapamycin Complex 1 (TORC1), we investigated a potential link between Ncr1p and TORC1. Like ncr1? cells, several TORC1-associated mutants were edelfosine resistant and journals that lyric, a mutation causing constitutive TORC1 activation exacerbated ncr1? edelfosine resistance. Essay On My Friends. This work uncovered novel PC- and calcium-related defects in ncr1? yeast cells, which might provide insights into conserved functions of Ncr1p/NPC1 that relate to defects in NPC-affected Purkinje neurons. This phenotypic analysis also implicates TORC1 in some aspect of Ncr1p function in powerpoint for research yeast. Eukaryotic genomes are extensively transcribed giving rise to thousands of non-coding RNAs, the biogenesis of essay for kids, which is highly conserved. While their functionality is debatable, evidence suggests that there are many RNAs, such as microRNAs and short interfering RNAs, involved in the regulation of gene expression. The processing of studies, these RNAs together with their temporal and spatial expression patterns is, therefore, of central importance and requires the development of essay friends for kids, RNA imaging tools, which invariably rely on fluorescent microscopy.
In this thesis I examine the the yearling book report, expression of small RNAs (sRNAs) in the land plants and develop an RNA-based system for tracking and purification of cellular RNA complexes.To study the conservation of essay on my, sRNAs and their biogenesis machinery across a broad spectrum of essays jamaica kincaid, plants I conducted a survey of sRNA expression in 24 vascular plants. I found that conifers fail to produce a 24-nt class, which mediates heterochromatin formation in angiosperms, and instead produce a very diverse 21-nt size class, possibly generated by a novel Dicer-like (DCL) family that I discovered by searching conifer ESTs. I found no evidence of DCL3 – an essay on my friends for kids, enzyme responsible for the 24-nt size class production in angiosperms, indicating that conifers may utilize a diverse 21-nt class to help organize their unusually large genomes. Sequencing of sRNAs from a conifer P. contorta revealed many conserved miRNA families and other sRNAs, indicating that the sRNA-generating machinery was already present in the earliest spermatophytes. Since RNA lacks strong intrinsic fluorescence, it has proven challenging to track RNA molecules in real time. Essays Kincaid. To address this problem I developed a new imaging method that relies on a high affinity RNA aptamer fluorophore system called RNA Mango. Essay On My For Kids. This aptamer binds to a series of Thiazole Orange derivatives with nanomolar affinities, while increasing their fluorescence up to 1100-fold.
Imaging of RNA Mango by persuasive personal, single-molecule fluorescence microscopy, together with visualization of RNA Mango-dye complex in C. elegans gonads demonstrates the potential for live-cell RNA imaging with this system. Furthermore, incorporation of RNA Mango into bacterial 6S RNA along with biotinylation of the fluorophore demonstrates that the aptamer can also be used for purifying biologically important RNAs. Neurons are morphologically unique cells that rely on axonal transport for their function and viability. Friends. Amyloid-? oligomers (A?Os), a neurotoxin in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), disrupt axonal transport via dysregulation of signaling cascades. I assessed the role for glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK3?), a kinase implicated in AD, in the direct regulation of the personal experience, kinesin KIF1A. Inhibition of essay on my, GSK3? prevented transport defects in A?O-treated primary neurons, and co-immunoprecipitation studies confirmed an interaction between KIF1A and GSK3?. Studies As Coursework. Mass spectrometry on KIF1A isolated from AD transgenic mouse brain (Tg2576) showed that within a regulatory domain, Ser 402 is phosphorylated and conforms to a GSK3? recognition site. The transport of on my friends for kids, a phospho-resistant (S402A) form of KIF1A was unaffected in A?O-treated neurons whereas KIF1A (S402E) transport is severely reduced. These data suggest that A?Os impair transport via GSK3? acting directly on KIF1A. Ultimately, this work may identify novel mechanisms of KIF1A regulation in film studies as coursework AD.
Neurons rely on microtubule-based, fast axonal transport of proteins and friends for kids, organelles for development, communication and survival. FAT impairment precedes overt cellular toxicity in multiple neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Intracellular Ca2+ dysregulation is also widely implicated in early AD pathogenesis; however, its role in transport impairment is unknown. Our lab was first to demonstrate that soluble amyloid-? oligomers (A?Os), proximal neurotoxins in AD, impair vesicular transport of axonal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Contrary to a central paradigm, I show that BDNF transport is persuasive essay personal experience, blocked independent of the microtubule-associated protein, tau, microtubule destabilization, and acute cell death. Significantly, BDNF transport is essay for kids, impaired by non-excitotoxic activation of calcineurin (CaN), a Ca2+-dependent phosphatase.
Based on these findings, I investigated Ca2+-dependent mechanisms that underlie the journals that, spatiotemporal progression of A?O-induced transport defects and dysregulate KIF1A, the primary kinesin motor required for BDNF transport. Because CaN and its effectors, protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) and glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK3?), are present in both dendrites and axons, I investigated if postsynaptic A?O binding impairs dendritic transport prior to FAT disruption. A?Os induce dendritic and essay, axonal BDNF transport defects simultaneously; however, maximal dendritic transport defects are observed prior to maximal impairment of FAT. I correlated the spatiotemporal progression of persuasive essay, transport defects with Ca2+ elevation and CaN activation in dendrites and subsequently in axons. Postsynaptic CaN activation converges on axonal Ca2+ dysregulation to impair FAT. Specifically, A?Os colocalize with axonal VGCCs, and blocking VGCCs prevents FAT defects.
Finally, BDNF transport defects are prevented by dantrolene, a compound that reduces Ca2+-induced- Ca2+ release through ryanodine receptors in axonal and dendritic ER membranes. Essay Friends For Kids. Together, these mechanisms activate CaN-PP1-GSK3? signaling and lead to inhibitory phosphorylation of KIF1A at a highly conserved consensus site within its dimerization domain. Collectively, this thesis establishes novel roles for Ca2+ dysregulation in BDNF transport disruption and tau-independent toxicity during early AD pathogenesis.
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adolf loos essay Born in 1870, in the midst of the on my friends, Austro-Hungarian Empire, Adolf Loos resembled a Victorian gentleman. His ideas however, were far from traditional. He travelled to Chicago – where he likely came into contact with Frank Lloyd Wright and Skyros – and was impressed by the yearling book the simple cubic-architecture of the friends, Greek islands. From the beginning of his break with Secessionism, both locations became significant inspirations for his aesthetic. ‘Smooth and precious surfaces’ – these four words are the the yearling book, essence of essay on my for kids Adolf Loos and his approach not just to architecture, but to everything (even gingerbread). In his lecture of 1910 entitled Ornament and Crime , Adolf Loos made his opinion clear: he would rather eat plain gingerbread than ‘one shaped like a heart, or a baby, or a Cavalryman’. However there is more to Ornament and Crime than Loos’ taste in biscuits. Adolf Loos expressed his intention to break from the Vienna Secession and their ideas of decadent decoration in pursuit of the simple, the for research, plain, his vision of ‘smooth and precious surfaces’. On My For Kids. Loos broke away from his contemporaries, such as Gustav Klimt and Otto Wagner – designer of the floral confection of Majolica House (1898) – to pursue his own unadulterated, pure form of design. Haus Steiner (1910) is an early, yet conclusive demonstration of his Spartan aesthetic. Here Loos begins to eradicate any hints of ornamentation. Although he maintains a frontal symmetry and a contrasting roof colour, he begins to journals that lyric essays, dissolve ideas of regularity and pattern on the side walls of the building.
Windows rhythmically pierce the stucco walls in differing shapes and sizes, each one placed exactly where it is friends, needed. At this time Loos very much embodied a Rationalist Architect. His architecture was stripped of decoration to film studies as coursework, leave the purity of essay for kids functionality. However Loos was perhaps more avant-garde than his contemporary Rationalists – a sense of order was of lesser importance to Loos than creating a fluid spatial construction. At the heart of the Rationalist idea was the concept that ornamentation would degrade with time. They believed that decoration was irreparably linked to taste and with the changing of taste the paper, building lost its inherent aesthetic value. This was borne from the idea of two forms of beauty: a lesser emotional beauty, subject to changing fashions, and a higher beauty that through purity becomes both timeless and universal. In his title, Ornament and Crime , Loos conjures images of the murdering ornament, cutting short the life of otherwise enduring objects, rendering them obsolete and unwanted – it is friends, exactly this, that he was striving to chambermaid, avoid in his architecture. On My. Haus Scheu (1912) takes the form of a great ziggurat (stepped, terrace construction) and is notable for resume its overt use of the flat roof, which at the time was still very much unheard of. The severe aesthetic of Haus Scheu lead to numerous complaints following its construction. Essay Friends. In fact, Loos was ordered to grow ivy around the building to dampen its reverberating impact.
Despite the constricting ivy, Haus Scheu exemplifies personal liberty. The terraced roofs can be accessed from book report, every bedroom, reflecting avant-garde values of the liberated body outdoors. Loos was a contemporary of artists such as Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, another anti-secessionist. Kirchner’s Bathers at Moritzburg demonstrates the importance of freedom to avant-garde artists and architects at on my friends this time. Extending the love of the outdoors in Haus Rufer (1922), Loos brings the resume, landscape inside. In this build, a single floor is comprised of varying surface levels. On the second floor, the living and on my, dining areas are provided with separate levels connected by a small series of chambermaid steps. However, the difference in floor height does not totally interrupt the friends, flow of the building. Journals That Essays. The living and dining areas are open plan, creating a free space, whereas the study is a separate, private room, disconnected from the other areas. The terrace on this level is an outdoor space carved from the indoors, with the floor above overhanging the space.
In this way he brings the outdoors inside, blurring the lines of not only floor plans, but of walls as well. Villa Muller (1930) is a culmination of Loos’ style. He unites the irregular pierced windows of Haus Steiner , the terraces of Haus Scheu and the multi-level floors of Haus Rufer . Yet Villa Muller is not a compilation of borrowed elements, Loos injects the austere build with colour. The vibrant yellow window frames belie a riotous interior of colour. You enter through glossy emerald green walls with fire-truck red radiators, but the rooms are eclectic. Some rooms take on a country-house vibe with chesterfield sofas and Persian carpets, others are sleek and Scandinavian with naked wood the colour of ochre whilst the summer dining room appears almost oriental. This juxtaposition of styles and eras enhances each space, creating an intense contrast where every room is essay on my friends, a surprise in itself. Adolf Loos was a true radical with a love of persuasive simplicity and a yearning for freedom.
After breaking with tradition, he redefined the timelessness of architecture, paving the way for architects such as Le Corbusier with their sleek, refined Modernism of the 20th century. Ferociously, he rejected ornament in favour of essay on my purity of form, declaring ‘to me, it tastes better this way…behold, the time is at hand, fulfilment awaits us. Soon the streets of the cities will glow like white walls! Like Zion, the Holy City, the book, capital of on my for kids heaven. Paper. It is then that fulfilment will have come.’
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famous biographers Biographies of scientists and explorers. honored in the names of plants. shown on essay friends for kids, this web site. Last names beginning with A-F on this page. G-M N-Z. K nowing about the people who collected, studied, described, named, and cataloged the plants of an essays, area gives us a better understanding of the history of that area, the relationships among scientists and explorers at that time, the progress of science, and the rigors endured in the quest for knowledge and beauty. The botanists who roamed the American West in the 19th century are an especially interesting group because they collected and essay friends for kids cataloged at a time of worldwide enthusiasm for exploration and scientific advancement. And they were exploring virgin lands where almost every tree and flower was excitingly new. Enthusiasm and joy in discovery floods out of their reports, journals, newspaper articles, and books.
It was a very heady time for all explorers. The biographies below also indicate that the publish lyric essays botanists were not just Botanists; they were intrepid hikers, climbers, campers, geologists, paleontologists, surveyors, and writers. Many of the botanists were college educated, and, interestingly, many of essay on my friends, them had medical degrees. Their schooling in the use of plants for medicinal purposes and in the scientific method served them well in their search for new plants and new knowledge. There was, of course, a financial aspect to collecting plants. Expeditions had to kincaid be paid for and explorers' city homes had mortgages. Essay For Kids? Thus it was common to solicit the assistance of philanthropists, intellectual societies, universities, and gardens to finance trips. For Research Paper? It was also common to collect multiple specimens in the field, returning some of essay on my friends for kids, these to essays kincaid those who had financed the trip and selling other sets to essay on my private collectors, herbaria, and universities. If we look only at a neatly typed catalog of plants collected on an expedition, it is easy to be unaware of the arduous work that went into collecting those plants.
The explorer/botanists were often out for weeks, months, or years at essay personal experience, a time, often in unexplored lands, frequently under the threat of starvation, dehydration, and attacks from natives and ruffians. On My For Kids? They lived with sunburn, mosquitoes, ticks, chiggers, cactus thorns, and lightning. Eleven men froze to book death on a Fremont expedition, Douglas was trampled to death, Gunnison and his crew were murdered. These are not unusual cases. On My For Kids? Collectors worldwide suffered: both Captain Cook and Captain Bligh had botanical collecting as a primary purpose of their seafaring voyages; Cook was murdered and jamaica kincaid Bligh became (unfairly) a Hollywood villain. Lives were lost and essay friends collections, too, were lost: it was maddeningly common for specimens of plants, rocks, and fossils, and surveying data to be lost when rains and floods soaked them or pack animals carrying them toppled off mountain ledges, or rats on ships ate them. Much of the powerpoint Lewis and Clark botanical collection and some journals were lost in the Expedition's river travels. Fourteen of essay friends for kids, Fremont's pack animals (carrying all his botanical specimens) fell to their death in a winter crossing of the Sierras. Fendler lost his equipment in essays kincaid, a flood and was so discouraged he never collected in the West again. But mounds of friends, collected plants (and birds, rocks, skulls, weather information, and maps) did make it East (and to Europe, especially, England) where the preeminent scientists of the time analyzed, classified, and named.
For much of the 19th century (when thousands upon thousands of plant discoveries in the West were made) the botanical taxonomic authorities were John Torrey and Asa Gray in the United States and William and Joseph Hooker (father and son) in England. These men assigned names that described plant characteristics, geographical locations, and plant relationships, or (relevant to our discussion here) honored people who were important botanists, naturalists, and kincaid explorers in essay, the West, the as coursework United States, or in other parts of the world. Over twenty percent of the essay on my for kids plants shown in this web site have a person's name as part or all of their scientific name. (Because a plant bears someone's name it does not mean, though, that person discovered the plant -- or even saw it.) (See also scientific name .) The people honored in plant names have also been honored in other ways. Several fourteen thousand foot peaks in Colorado are named for eminent botanists: Gray's Peak (at 14,274 the 9th highest peak in Colorado) and film Torrey's Peak (at 14,267 the 11th highest peak in Colorado); the Stansbury Mountains of Utah honor Howard Stansbury; birds carry their names (Lewis' Woodpecker, Clark's Nutcracker, Nuttall's Woodpecker, Townsend's Solitaire); and towns, rivers, lakes, and canyons honor them: Fremont, Gunnison, Lewis, Powell. Threads linking many of the naturalists discussed below weave through the biographies. For Kids? Many were on expeditions together, were student/teacher, shared botanical and other scientific collections with each other, were brought together by mutual friends, or competed.
Two threads that I particularly enjoyed following were the essays kincaid relationships with Charles Darwin and membership in the National Academy of on my friends for kids, Sciences. It is chambermaid fascinating to read about the reaction of major 19th century botanists to the publication in 1859 of for kids, Darwin's The Origin of Species . Many botanists came through splendidly as open-minded scientists who, when faced with a theory that contradicted some of their most cherished and fundamental beliefs, recanted. They studied The Origin of for research, Species and were awed at essay for kids, the weight of Darwin's evidence and his twenty years of the yearling book report, work challenging, analyzing, and ordering this evidence before he published. On My Friends For Kids? Asa Gray and Joseph Hooker , the two greatest botanists of the 19th century, studied The Origin of Species and immediately saw the power of Darwin's evidence and the truth of his conclusions. See the entries for Gray and Hooker for for research, details. Another thread to follow through the following biographies is about the essay friends formation of the National Academy of journals publish, Sciences by an act of Congress signed into law by President Lincoln in on my friends for kids, 1863. Report? Four botanists, George Engelmann, Asa Gray, John Newberry, and John Torrey, all of friends for kids, whom have biographies in this web site, were chosen by Congress to be among the film fifty charter members of the Academy. The National Academy of essay on my friends, Sciences was soon called on essay personal, by Congress to settle a complex and contentious question about the administrative guidance for the exploration of the on my for kids West.
The numerous survey parties which detailed the topography, climate, botany, and critical jamaica kincaid resources of the West were primarily conducted by the United States Corps of Topographical Engineers (see www.topogs.org/Links.htm ). By the 1860's there were those who believed the task could be better undertaken by more scientifically trained leaders under different federal leadership. Essay Friends For Kids? The issue was turned over to the National Academy of book, Sciences for study and a recommendation to on my Congress. The Academy's report urged that the various surveys sponsored by the military under the leadership of Stansbury, Gunnison, Fremont, Hayden, and others be ended and that a new agency, The United States Geological Survey, within the Department of the Interior, be created. With great debate and compromise, this momentous recommendation was adopted by film as coursework, Congress in 1879. The members of the National Academy of Sciences are dedicated to the furtherance of essay friends for kids, science and technology and to their use for the general welfare . There are presently about 2,100 Academy members including 200 who have received a Nobel Prize. That Publish Lyric? See The National Academy web site . Following each person's biography are links to plants named for that person. Numerous web sources and many books, especially those listed immediately below and those mentioned in the biographies, provided much of the biographical information. Joseph Ewan's Rocky Mountain Naturalists . Joseph and Nesta Ewan's Biographical Dictionary of Rocky Mountain Naturalists . William Goetzmann's Exploration and Empire: The Explorer and the Scientist in essay for kids, the Winning of the American West. William A. Weber's Colorado Flora . Thanks to resume the staff at the Cortez, Colorado Library for their assistance in obtaining books for me.
Allioni, Carlo , 1725-1804: Italian physician, professor, and botanist. Allioni was famous for his work on malaria but became even more well known for his botanical work. Allioni was a strong supporter of the Linnaean taxonomic system. In 1785 Allioni published his 3 volume work, Flora Pedemontana , which describes over 2,800 species of plants. Allionia incarnata. 1763: Physician, Mayor of Williamsburg, Virginia from 1750 to 1751, and an associate of the famous botanist John Clayton. The genus is most often said to have been named for an 18th century Virginia physician and traveler, Charles Amson, but research in 2004 by James Pringle shows that Charles probably never existed. Pringle traces the history of the first collected species of this genus, the variety of names given to the plant, and for kids the confusion about the source of the that lyric genus name, which Pringle clearly establishes as John Amson, though we know very little about John. See SIDA. Amsonia tomentosa. Assisi, Saint Francis , 1181/11821226: Catholic friar and preacher who founded the Franciscan Order and assisted in founding other Orders.
He remains one of the most venerated Christian religious figures. St. Francis led a worldly and often wild life until he was twenty-two when a vision prompted him to renounce his considerable worldly possessions and live in poverty with the poor. St. Francis is on my friends for kids known to persuasive essay personal many as a symbol of kindness to animals, especially birds. In the early 1600s (considerably before the city of San Francisco was named), Franciscan Friars established a missionary at the base of the mountains at present day Flagstaff, Arizona.
The Friars gave the name San Francisco to the peaks to essay on my friends for kids honor their Patron Saint, San Francis of Assisi. The Peaks are, of course, known by experience, many other names to Native Americans. Mertensia franciscana. Bahi, Juan Francisco , 1775-1841: Professor of Botany at the University of Barcelona in the 19th century. Essay On My? In 1816 the jamaica kincaid genus Bahia was named for him in essay for kids, Genera et Species Plantarum by Mariano La Gasca, Director of the Real Jardin Botanico de Madrid. Amauriopsis dissecta. Bailey, Vernon Orlando , 1864-1942: Chief Field Naturalist with the Bureau of Biological Survey, United States Department of for research paper, Agriculture from 1890 to 1933. According to the Smithsonian, Bailey's chief biological interest was the study of the life history and distribution of friends, mammals. During his career with the Biological Survey, he made field investigations throughout the United States, Canada, and Mexico, including intensive biological surveys of Texas, New Mexico, North Dakota, and Oregon. His bibliography numbered 244 titles and jamaica included scientific monographs, as well as publications for the general reader. Among his many publications were Life Zones and Crop Zones of New Mexico and Mammals of essay friends for kids, New Mexico.
Yucca baileyi. Baker, Charles Fuller , 1872-1927: Botanist, entomologist, Professor of that, Agronomy and Agriculture, Assistant Entomologist with the Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station in Fort Collins. Lived in and collected in Colorado until end of 1800s and then moved to California, returning to Colorado for several collecting expeditions. In 1901 Edward Greene published three volumes of Baker's plant collections in Plantae Bakerianae . Baker's 100,000 specimen sheets were left to Pomona College. Oreoxis bakeri Phacelia bakeri. Barbey, William , 1842-1914: Swiss philanthropist, botanist, and student of Epilobium . Delphinium barbeyi. Barton, Benjamin Smith , 1766-1815: Physician, Professor of Botany at essay, the University of Pennsylvania, author of Essays Towards a Materia Medica of the United States (1798-1804) (the first book on American medicinal plants) and powerpoint paper The Elements of Botany (1803) (the first American botany textbook).
Benefactor of many botanists including Frederick Pursh and Thomas Nuttall . Jefferson held Barton in such high regard that he asked him to teach the latest botanical collecting techniques and taxonomy to Meriwether Lewis prior to essay friends the Lewis and Clark Expedition. See the entries for persuasive essay personal experience, Pursh, Nuttall, Lewis, and essay on my for kids McMahon for more details about Barton and these important times for book, the beginning of American botany. Essay Friends? See also David Townsend . Bertero, Carlo , 1789-1831: Italian physician and highly accomplished and respected botanist who collected plants for many years in the West Indies and Columbia (1817-1821) and Chile (1827-1831). Berteroi disappeared with all others on his ship returning from three months of collecting in publish, Tahiti. Osmorhiza berteroi. Bessey, Charles Edwin , 1845-1915: Student of Asa Gray, Professor of Botany at Iowa State in Ames, Iowa, until 1884 and then acclaimed botanist at the University of essay for kids, Nebraska until his death. Bessy began teaching horticulture, botany, and zoology at Iowa State in resume, 1870, the year after the essay on my college opened.
His and his students' botanical collections became the Iowa State Herbarium, which he remained Curator of until 1884. (The herbarium is now known as the Ada Hayden Herbarium, after Ada Hayden, who became, in 1918, the first woman PhD from Iowa State. She became Professor of paper, Botany at Iowa State in 1920 and remained at Iowa until her death in 1950 by which time she had increased the herbarium size to over 250,000 specimens). Essay On My Friends? Under Bessey the herbarium had grown to persuasive personal experience 15,000 species by 1884 when he, now Vice-President of the College, left Iowa State because of a dispute with the state legislature. Bessey eventually became Chancellor of the University of Nebraska and on my a great collector of Nebraska and Colorado plants. He was the first American to make major contributions to plant classification based on chambermaid resume, a phylogenetic system, the attempt to establish the essay for kids most primitive to most evolved plants. Bessey was known for his contributions to botanical education: he made laboratory work a standard part of his botany courses and wrote several botanical texts that were widely used for decades. Bessey initiated the Nebraska National Forest, the first completely hand-planted forest in the world. Bigelow, John Milton , 1804-1878: Physician, botanist, and book member of several Western expeditions in the New Mexico area.
Participated in the Mexican Boundary Survey, 1850-1852, which produced over 2,500 botanical specimens. Bigelow was also a member of the Whipple 1853 explorations for for kids, a southern rail route and collected numerous new species which Torrey and Gray described. Became Professor of Botany at Detroit Medical College in 1860. Senecio bigelovii , Dieteria bigelovii , Artemisia bigelovii. Brandegee, Townshend Stith , 1843-1925 and. Brandegee, Mary Katherine (Layne, Curran) , 1844-1920: Townshend was a botanist, Civil Engineer, and surveyor. Asa Gray recommended him to Hayden for essay personal, the 1875 Survey and from this Brandegee published The Flora of Southwestern Colorado in the 1876 Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories , Bulletin V. 2, #3. He was a highly respected botanist, as was his wife, Mary Katherine Townshend. She was a physician and botanist who published a flora of Yosemite and became, in 1883, the first woman Curator of the friends California Academy of critical essays, Sciences Herbarium ( Alice Eastwood succeeded her).
The Brandegees spent their 1889 honeymoon hiking from San Diego to essay friends for kids San Francisco collecting plants. The Brandegees are honored in the names of about 120 plants in the U.S.; those dated before 1889 were named for Townshend and those after were probably named for both Townshend and Mary. Mary is also honored in the names of several dozen plants which refer either to her maiden name of Layne or her first marriage name of Curran. Publish Lyric? The Brandegees left their library and personal plant collection of over 75,000 plants to the University of California. Trifolium brandegeei is a lovely, hot pink Pea that Townshend Brandegee was the friends for kids first to chambermaid resume collect; it is the only plant in this web site named for him. In The Flora of Southwestern Colorado Brandegee said of on my friends for kids, his new discovery, [It is] a very showy species, common in the Sierra La Plata. It is that lyric essays still very showy and still common in friends, the La Platas. Bree, William Thomas , 1787-1863: Botanist and Rector of studies as coursework, Allesley. Mentioned by Charles Darwin in his correspondence. Breea arvensis (now Cirsium arvense ) Brewer, William , 1828-1910: Principal Assistant, in charge of Botanical Department on the Whitney Geological Survey of California ( 1860-1864) , Chair of Agriculture in the Sheffield Scientific School at on my friends for kids, Yale, 1865-1903 . Publish Lyric Essays? Wrote Up and Down California in essay friends for kids, 1860-1864; The Journal of chambermaid, William H. Brewer (available online at the Library of Congress American Memory).
Co-author with Sereno Watson and Asa Gray of the first flora of California, the 1876 report of the botanical work of the 1860-1864 Whitney Survey and the King Survey of essay friends for kids, 1867-1869. Click to resume read his biography of Sereno Watson. Member and President of the National Academy of Sciences. Navarretia breweri. Brickell, John , 1749-1809: Savannah Georgia physician and botanist who came to the U.S. in 1770 from essay, Ireland. Report? Stephen Elliott (1771-1830) named the on my friends genus Brickellia for John Brickell. In Elliott's Sketch of the Botany of South Carolina and the yearling Florida , Elliott (a Georgia amateur botanist and later Professor of Botany, legislator, banker, and writer) says of the Brickellia plant, I have named it in commemoration of Dr. John Brickell, of Savannah, who at one period of his life paid much attention to the botany of this country, and made known to Dr. Muhlenberg, Fraser, and others, many of the undescribed plants. (Thanks to David Hollombe of California for supplying me with some of this information .) This John Brickell was not related to the John Brickell, author in 1737 of The Natural History of North-Carolina , a work known to have been greatly plagiarized from a number of people, including the Reverend John Clayton, no relation to the John Clayton of Claytonia lanceolata . Unfortunately, the modern, very nice, and widely circulated book Shrubs and Trees of the Southwest Uplands , published by the Southwest Parks and Monuments Association, indicates that John Brickell (1749-1809) wrote the plagiarized book and incorrectly gives the date of publication as 1787.
Click to for kids see that the publication date was 1737, twelve years before our John Brickell was born. Carruth, James Harrison , 1807-1896: Yale graduate, taught, preached, moved in 1856 to Kansas from book, Massachusetts. Essay For Kids? Became increasingly interested in the flora of Kansas and cataloged 1,270 plants of that state. Taught botany, presented papers before the Kansas Academy of persuasive experience, Science. In a series of essay friends for kids, 1880 brief biographies of the Yale class of 1832, it was said of Carruth that Except a throbbing in the head, immediately consequent upon too close application to botanical studies in 1876, he is well, and can handle a flail, or a hoe, as well as he could fifty years ago, and can easily walk twenty miles in a day. Artemisia carruthii.
Case, Eliphalet Lewis , 1843-1925: School teacher, civil war veteran, plant collector. In 1902 he was elected Treasurer of Sierra County, California. Corydalis caseana variety brandegeei. Castillejo, Domingo , 1744-1793: Spanish botanist and critical jamaica kincaid Professor of Botany in Cadiz, Spain. The genus Castilleja (Paintbrush), was named for Domingo Castillejo in 1782 (in Linnaeus son's Supplementum Plantarum ) by Jose Celestino Mutis.
Mutis was born in Cadiz, became a physician with great botanical interests, went to Columbia in 1760 where he planned (but never finished) a botany of essay friends, Columbia. Mutis sent plants to jamaica kincaid the father and essay friends for kids son Linnaeus and must have known through them or other botanical sources of his countryman, Domingo Castillejo. There are, according to Intermountain Flora , about 200 species of Castilleja, most growing in western North America, several in eastern North America and Asia, and about fifteen in Central and South America. It must have been at least one of the film as coursework latter that Mutis discovered and named for Domingo Castillejo. Castilleja chromosa Castilleja haydenii Castilleja integra Castilleja linariifolia Castilleja liniata Castilleja miniata Castilleja occidentalis Castilleja rhexiifolia Castilleja septentrionalis. Chamisso, Louis Charles de (Ludolf Karl von) , 1781-1838: German poet and naturalist.
Naturalist on Kotzebue's 1815 voyage. He is essay for kids noted for having conducted the first complete western North America botanical profile, which included the San Francisco Bay area. See Romanzoff and Eschscholtz. Clark, William , 1770-1838: Co-leader of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. After the Expedition, Brigadier General of the Militia for the Louisiana Territory and Superintendent of Indian Affairs at St. Louis. Supervised publication of Nicholas Biddle's 1814 compilation of Lewis and Clark's journals of the Expedition: History of the Expedition under the Commands of Captains Lewis and Clark . See Meriwether Lewis . There are many books and many on-line sources about Lewis and Clark; an for research, excellent on-line starting point is Discovering Lewis and Clark . Some of the biographical information about Lewis, Pursh, Barton, and Douglas on my web site comes from on my for kids, James Reveal's Natural History section on the Discovering Lewis and Clark web site. The original specimens collected by Lewis and Clark are now housed in the Herbarium at the Academy of Natural Sciences of powerpoint, Philadelphia. For the most extensive collection of on-line Lewis and for kids Clark documents see the American Journal. Clayton , John , (1694-1773): Emigrated to Virginia from England in 1715.
Clerk to that publish essays the County Court of Gloucester County, Virginia from 1720 until his death. Clayton and the great naturalist John Bartram became friends as did Clayton and Mark Catesby, artist and naturalist. Clayton probably joined Catesby on collecting expeditions and when Catesby returned to England, Clayton continued collecting and sent Catesby many specimens. Catesby shared these specimens with J. F. Gronovius who used them (without crediting Clayton) as the basis of his Flora Virginica , 1739-1743. For Kids? Gronovius shared the specimens with Linnaeus. ( Sir Joseph Banks (of Captain Cook and Captain Bligh fame) bought the Gronovius-Clayton specimens in 1793.) James Reveal tells us of Mark Catesby, His travels in the Virginia colony were limited but fruitful as it was here that he began to gather specimens of the local flora and fauna, sketching each in essay experience, varying degrees of exactness.
While there Catesby became acquainted with a young clerk named John Clayton who would play a future role in Catesby’s life and was destined to become a foremost source of Virginia plants prior to 1753 for Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus. (From Reveal's A NOMENCLATURAL SUMMARY OF THE PLANT AND ANIMAL NAMES BASED ON IMAGES IN MARK CATESBY’S NATURAL HISTORY (17291747). The herbarium of the essay Natural History Museum of chambermaid resume, London is friends for kids named for John Clayton. Linnaeus named the Claytonia genus for John Clayton. Claytonia lanceolata , Claytonia megarhiza. Clements, Edith Gertrude , 1874-1971: Botanist, ecologist, botanical artist. Edith Clements was the first woman to receive a PhD from the University of critical jamaica, Nebraska. She met Frederic Clements at the University, married, and essay on my friends the two conceived of, initiated, and worked in book report, the Alpine Laboratory on Pikes Peak. 1913 authored Rocky Mountain Flowers and in 1920 Flowers of Mountain and Plain , both of which have many beautiful color plates that are still vivid and lovely today.
In 1903 Clementsia rhodantha (now Rhodiola rhodantha ) was named in honor of both Edith and Frederic. Clements, Frederic Edward , 1874-1945: Student of Charles Bessey at the University of Nebraska. Professor of Botany at the University of Nebraska and then Minnesota. Originated the plant succession concept. Early in the 20th century established the Carnegie Institution's Alpine Laboratory on Pikes Peak where, during eight summers, he, his wife, and many students and co-workers studied the complex interrelationships of all influences (insects, moisture, sunlight, wind, etc.) on alpine plants. The Clements spent their winters during these years studying the same interrelationships in the desert at the Carnegie Desert Botanical Laboratory near Tucson. In 1914 Clements published Rocky Mountain Flora . Clements wrote seminal ecological works such as Plant Succession: An Analysis of the essay friends Development of book, Vegetation (1916) and Bio-Ecology (1939). In the latter, co-authored with Victor Shelford, Clements argued the for kids importance of studying the journals publish lyric essays biome, all the for kids plants and animals in a given region. Chambermaid Resume? In 1903 Clementsia rhodantha (now Rhodiola rhodantha ) was named in essay on my friends, honor of both Frederic and Edith. Clover, Elzada , 1897-1980: Curator of the University of Michigan Botanical Gardens and Professor in the Department of Botany.
Specialized in succulents. In 1938 she and her graduate student, Lois Jotter, botanized down 660 miles of the Colorado River, becoming the first women to float the Colorado River. Sclerocactus cloveriae (now Sclerocactus parviflorus subspecies parviflorus ) Collins, Zaccheus , 1764-1831: Philadelphia merchant and eminent botanist . For over 25 years, he was a correspondent with Baldwin, Bigelow, Ives, Nuttall, Torrey, and as coursework other esteemed botanists of the time. Collins was a member of the Philadelphia Academy of Sciences and served as its Vice-President. Collinsia parviflora. Constance, Lincoln , 1909-2001: Director of the Herbarium at essay on my, the University of California, Berkeley; President of the California Academy of Sciences; Dean, Vice Chancellor, and Professor Emeritus at Berkeley; and Apiaceae specialist.
Received his Ph.D. from chambermaid resume, Berkeley where he studied under Jepson. Remained at Berkeley from on my friends, 1937-1976. Was a trustee of the film Jepson Herbarium, founded in 1950 for the study and collection of California flora and helped edit The Jepson Manual, Higher Plants of essay friends, California. Constance is considered one of the top plant systematists of the 20th century. In 1986, he received the Asa Gray Award of the American Society of Plant Taxonomists for outstanding contributions to systematic botany. He was a fellow of the American Academy of the yearling report, Arts and Sciences, the California Academy of Sciences, and a member of the Linnaean Society of London and the Swedish Royal Academy of for kids, Sciences. He served as president of the American Society of Plant Taxonomists, the California Botanical Society, and that publish lyric essays the Botanical Society of essay friends for kids, America. Cymopterus constancei.
Cooper, James, 1830-1902: Physician, naturalist. Book? Geologist with the geological Survey of California. Naturalist with the Pacific Railroad Survey of essay on my friends, 1853. Wrote first book on essay, birds of essay on my, California. (Cooper's Hawk is essays named for his father.) Collected plants in the Mojave Desert. Cottam, Walter , 1894-1988: Professor of Botany at Brigham Young University and then at the University of Utah from 1931-1962. Founded the Brigham Young University and University of Utah herbaria. Cottam founded the State Arboretum of Utah and Red Butte Garden and friends for kids he was one of the founders of the The Nature Conservancy.
Cottam was one of the early ecologists and, from the critical jamaica kincaid 1940s on, he published papers and spoke often about land degradation caused by cattle and sheep; he warned that these animals would lead to the desertification of on my friends for kids, Utah. Cottam was well known for his work on hybrid Oaks. Astragalus cottamii ( now Astragalus monumentalis variety cottamii ) Coulter, John Merle , 1851-1928: Born of missionary parents in persuasive essay experience, Ningpo, China. Came to Indiana when two years old. Essay Friends For Kids? Received his PhD in 1883 from Indiana University. From 1871-1879 was Professor of Natural Sciences at Hanover College.
During the field seasons of 1872-1875 Coulter served as the Assistant Geologist and Botanist to the United States Geological Survey in the Rocky Mountains (the Hayden Survey ). In his lifetime he became a revered Professor, a prolific researcher and writer, President of Indiana University, President of Lake Forest College, and Professor of Botany and powerpoint Head of the Botany Department (1896-1926) at the University of Chicago. In 1874 Coulter and Thomas Porter published the first Colorado flora, Synopsis of the Flora of Colorado (click the title to read the Synopsis ). See Porter for details. Click to read Coulter's Botany of Western Texas . Click to read Coulter's A Textbook of Botany for Colleges and Universities . Coulter was the found er of the Botanical Gazette and for kids its editor for half a century. He was a member of the American Association of University Professors; the Indiana, Illinois, and Chicago Academies of Science; the Botanical Society of America; and the American Association for the Advancement of Science (where he served as President). He was elected to the National Academy of the yearling book, Sciences in 1909. Coulter's renown was such that around 1923 he was. engaged as a consultant to [China's] Suzhou [University's] science program.
Coulter advised more serious attention to taxonomy and studies of the essay local flora, as such data [are] basic to the botanical sciences in any country. Coulter's advice provided strong guidance to N. Gist Gee, China's Suzhou University Biology Department's founder and studies administrator who significantly affected the on my direction of science education throughout China in the 1920s and 1930s . (This little known aspect of Coulter's accomplishments is discussed in Biology and Revolution in Twentieth-Century China (p. 68) by Laurence Schneider, my brother.) For more details about Coulter's life, publications, and accomplishments, see the Biographical Memoir of John Merle Coulter by the eminent botanist, William Trelease. In this Memoir you will find 22 pages listing Coulter's extensive and varied publications in botany. Click for correspondence between Coulter and George Engelmann. The John Merle Coulter Nature Preserve is the yearling book a 92-acre Indiana State Nature Preserve located in the City of Portage. Crandall, Charles , 1851-1929: Horticulturalist, Professor of Botany and Horticulture and herbarium curator at Colorado Agricultural College (now known as Colorado State University), Professor of Horticulture at the University of Illinois; plant collector. Famous for initiating breeding studies of crosses of various apples to find apples resistant to fireblight, scab, and on my powdery mildew. Crandall's crosses of Rome and Malus floribunda 821 apples formed the persuasive essay personal experience basis of 20th century apple breeding.
Penstemon crandallii. Cronquist, Arthur , 1919-1992: Taxonomist, Asteraceae expert, and one of essay on my, greatest botanists of the 20th century. Worked most of his career at the New York Botanical Garden. Published numerous articles and film as coursework books, many establishing new botanical concepts. His taxonomic overview was The Evolution and friends Classification of Flowering Plants in that, 1968. In 1981 he published, An Integrated System of Classification of Flowering Plants , a work setting forth a revised system of plant classification which eventually was adopted by major botanical projects including the Jepson Manual (1993) and the Flora of North America . In 1991 he and Henry Gleason published the Manual of the Vascular Plants . Cronquist did fieldwork throughout North America, but concentrated on the intermountain region and his field work there led eventually to the publication of the first volumes of on my friends, Intermountain Flora , the most important work on this area and the most important work for this web site. The eighth and final volume was published in 2012.
According to the New York Botanical Garden archives: In the later 1950's Cronquist began a correspondence and collaboration with the powerpoint for research Armenian botanist, Armen Takhtajan, of the Komarov Institute in essay, Leningrad, U.S.S.R. His work with Takhtajan and associate biologists at the Komarov proved a critical stimulus in the development of his synthetic projects in general botanic systems. During his association and friendship with Takhtajan, Cronquist studied and became proficient in Russian, visited the (then) Soviet Union on several occasions, and promoted scientific exchanges between the two countries. Photo of Arthur Cronquist from the chambermaid resume Hunt Institute. for Botanical Documentation. The New York Botanical Garden archives state: As Director of Botany (1971-74) and Senior Scientist (1974-92), Cronquist carried important administrative duties at the Garden and at its satellite facility, the on my friends for kids Cary Arboretum. Critical Kincaid? During this time he also held faculty appointments at Columbia University and the City University of New York, where he served on the Executive Committee on Biology. His many professional affiliations included the American Society of Plant Taxonomists (president, 1962); the Botanical Society of America (president, 1973); the on my International Association of Plant Taxonomy (council member); and film studies as coursework the Torrey Botanical Club (president, 1976).
Professional awards and honors included the Leidy Medal of the for kids Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia (1970); honorary vice-president of the XII International Botanical Congress, Leningrad (1975); the Asa Gray Award (American Society of Plant Taxonomists (1985); and the Medal for Botany, Linnean Society of powerpoint for research, London (1986). Arthur Cronquist was known for his towering physical stature, tall tales, and congeniality as well as for his commanding position as a botanist and educator. His advancement of taxonomy, plant systematics, and floristics was of lasting significance to the science of botany. Essay On My For Kids? He died on March 22, 1992 while studying plant specimens in the herbarium of Brigham Young University in film studies, Utah. Cutler, Hugh Carson , 1912-1998: Anthropologist, botanist.
Received his Ph.D. in botany from Washington University in St. Louis and continued to be associated on and off with that University for the rest of his life. Curator of economic botany at the Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago and with the on my friends for kids Missouri Botanical Garden in publish, St. Louis. Originated the MBG Systematics Symposium in essay on my friends, 1954. Persuasive? Famous for his flotation methods of retrieving spores and pollen, especially from archaeological sites. Was a devoted student of plants of the Southwest U.S.
Early in on my, his career he became interested in economic botany and the useful plants of the New World and film studies as coursework their relatives; studies related to the taxonomy of on my friends, useful plants; research on the wild relatives, variability, and kinds grown by essays jamaica kincaid, living people; and specimens recovered from on my for kids, archaeological sites. (Cutler's words in his 1964, Career Statement. From the Washington University Archives as quoted on-line in a biography by David Browman.) Cutler's collection of film as coursework, more than 12,000 ears of native species of on my friends for kids, maize is now with the Department of Agriculture at film studies as coursework, the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign. Asclepias cutleri Ephedra cutleri. Dale, Samuel , 1659-1739: British botanist, physician, and gardener. He wrote, Pharmacologia, seu manuductio ad materiam medicam in essay on my for kids, 1693.
Dale's herbarium is preserved in the British Museum, and his labeling of the specimens shows great care to chambermaid detail. With Bobart and Sherard, Dale completed the third part of Morison's Historia (Oxford, 1699). Dalea candida variety oligophylla. Daniels, Francis Potter , 1869-1947: PhD from the University of Missouri, Professor of Romance Languages at Wabash and Georgia State Colleges, botanist. Spent one (or several) summers teaching at the University of Colorado and collected extensively and essay friends successfully for the University of Missouri, publishing in 1911 with respected scientist T. D. Cockerell, Flora of Boulder, Colorado, and Vicinity . Was Assistant Curator of the National Herbarium for a short time. Chamerion danielsii (now Chamerion angustifolium subspecies circumvagum ) Deppe, Ferdinand , 1794-1860: Collected in Central America with Christian Julius Schiede for several years in the 1820s and then returned to his native Germany where he owned a plant nursery.
In 1828 in personal, Veracruz, Mexico, Deppe and Schiede collected Juniperus deppeana . Dillenius, Johann , 1684-1747: Noted German physician and mycologist. With the encouragement of the English botanist, William Sherard, he emigrated from Germany to England in 1721. He became the first president of the on my friends Botanical Society of London in the 1720s. In 1732 he published a book with his own drawings and engravings of the jamaica kincaid American plants of Sherard's Eltham Garden. In 1734 Sherard endowed a botanical professorship at Oxford and had Dillenius appointed to that position. Dillenius held this chair until his death. Essay On My Friends? In 1736 Linnaeus met Dillenius at Oxford and the two remained lifelong friends, correspondents, and botanical associates. Linnaeus' 1753 Species Plantarum frequently cites Dillenius' botanical work. Oxalis dillenii. Douglas, David , 1799-1834: Scottish explorer and botanist. Grew up poor, walked 12 mile round trip to school every day, left school at age eleven to be a gardener's assistant.
Rose steadily and quickly in the estimation of all he worked with and in 1820 was hired by the Glasgow Botanic Garden to persuasive essay work under William Hooker. In 1823 Hooker recommended him to the Royal Horticultural Society and they sponsored Douglas for his first trip to North America. Essay On My? During his six months there he met Torrey and Nuttall, examined some of Meriwether Lewis' specimens, and collected extensively in the eastern United States and Canada. The Society report of critical essays, his travels stated that the mission was executed by Mr. Douglas with a success beyond our expectations. Photo of David Douglas from the Hunt Institute. for Botanical Documentation. He was quickly engaged again by the Royal Horticultural Society in conjunction with The Hudson Bay Company and he left for the Northwest coast of North America in 1824.
With John Scouler, Douglas was the first to collect flora and fauna in the Galapagos on their way to the Pacific Northwest. For Kids? Most of the collection was lost but Sir Joseph Hooker cited thirteen Galápagos plants gathered by Scouler and five from Douglas in a paper he published on persuasive personal experience, Darwin in 1847. (ABC Bookworld) From 1825-1827 Douglas traveled thousands of miles by foot, horse, and canoe in the West: from April to December of 1825 he traveled 2,100 miles, in 1826 he traveled 4,000 miles, in 1827 he left the Pacific coast and friends for kids traveled 3,000 miles to Hudson Bay and from there sailed home. (On his way to Hudson Bay, Douglas met Thomas Drummond and the Franklin Expedition in Canada in 1827.) Through these years and thousands of miles, Douglas was an chambermaid resume, intrepid botanizer, searching, climbing, crawling, digging, collecting, studying, pressing, and drying and re-drying after soaking rivers and rains. His miles of travel in 1825-1827 took him -- often only in the company of an Indian guide/interpreter -- up the Columbia, back to the coast, to California, back to British Columbia, up the Columbia River to the Rockies, and back to the coast. He was almost always in areas no Westerner had ever been. He was wrecked in canoes, thrown into essay on my friends a river by his horse, lost collections and went back for more, slogged through deep snows to reach alpine plants, slept many nights with no shelter, faced Indian hostilities a number of times, was next to starvation, but he continued to collect and collect. The months on end of living in wilderness, said Douglas, were looked upon by persuasive personal, me with a sort of dread. Now I am well accustomed to it so much that comfort seems superfluity. (From Lemmon.
See end of the Douglas section.) Douglas brought large collections of plants and seeds home with him from on my for kids, this trip, but he had also shipped many extensive collections home over powerpoint for research paper, the years from the for kids Pacific coast. When he arrived in England his reputation was already established and he was treated as a hero. Critical Essays Jamaica Kincaid? He was elected Fellow of the essay on my friends Linnean, Geological, and Zoological Societies -- quite an honor for a Scottish poor boy gardener. He returned to the Pacific coast in 1829 again under Hudson Bay patronage, spent several years botanizing up the Columbia, southward into California, to Hawaii, back to Fort Vancouver and the yearling report the Columbia area, and on my for kids then again to Hawaii in 1833. He loved Hawaii, climbed its volcanoes scorching his feet and collecting plants. On July 12th 1834 he set off with his terrier to powerpoint paper explore Mauna Loa, one of the two huge volcanoes on the Island of Hawaii. Douglas never returned from this trip; he fell into a pit (an animal trap) and was trampled to death by a steer that had previously fallen in. We don't know how the accident happened but we do know that Douglas' vision had been damaged on his snowy expeditions along the Pacific Coast and in Canada and it is quite possible that he did not see the pit that cost him his life -- or perhaps he saw the pit and slipped in when he curiously looked into it. From his travels, Douglas introduced to Britain over two hundred plants (including many Pines and Firs) that were widely planted as ornamentals and plantation crop trees. See page 220 of the Oregon Historical Journal for a list of plants collected by Douglas.
Douglas described, among many other plants, the Ponderosa Pine, the Sugar Pine with its enormous cones, the Sitka Spruce, and he was the first botanist to describe the coastal Redwoods. Essay On My? His collections formed the bases of several seminal botanical works including Hooker's Flora Boreali-Americana (see William Jackson Hooker and click the Flora title to read). He was the first to collect Purshia tridentata and chambermaid resume Erigeron speciosus . Three plants on this web site are named for Douglas: Chaenactis douglasii , Douglas Fir ( Pseudotsuga menziesii) , Cicuta douglasii . For an enlightening, intriguing, eye-opening, mind-boggling view into essay on my the complexities and vagaries of the report naming of plants, see James Reveal's excellent discussion of Douglas Fir on the Lewis and essay on my Clark web site. For the riveting story of Douglas and other explorers in Britain's world-wide quest for plants from 1768-1836, see Kenneth Lemon's The Golden Age of powerpoint, Plant Hunters . Chapter after chapter is filled with calamity, success, death, heroism, and surprises: Captain Cook was leading expeditions which had as a primary goal -- botanizing. Botany Bay was named by Joseph Banks on a Cook expedition. Captain Bligh's voyage on the Bounty met with catastrophe in large part because of the rigors of botanizing.
From China to Tahiti to on my friends California to Brazil to essay experience Africa and India, the British were around the world collecting plants for on my friends, their gardens and meals. During the reign of King George III (1761-1820) it is estimated that nearly 7,000 new species were brought to England from around the world. Douglas' role in chambermaid resume, these explorations ensconced him as a British national treasure. Drummond, Thomas , 1780-1835: Botanist, naturalist, explorer, Curator of for kids, Belfast Botanical Gardens. William Jackson Hooker recommended him as an expedition naturalist to Rear-Admiral John Franklin for his 1825-1827 expedition to Western Canada and the Arctic.
Drummond walked and botanized hundreds of miles on his own during the expedition; met David Douglas in Canada in July 1827 and shared specimens. Drummond gained widespread respect for the yearling book, his collections of birds and essay on my plants on the Franklin Expedition. Drummond made a second trip to America, 1830-1835: in 1830 he collected specimens from the American Southwest and in persuasive essay experience, Texas alone he collected 750 species of plants and 150 specimens of birds -- the first Texas collections distributed to scientists. Sir William Jackson Hooker described many of Drummond's specimens in his Flora Boreali-Americana . (Click the essay title to read.) Click for more biographical information about Drummond. Also see John Richardson. Boechera drummondii. Eastwood, Alice , 1859-1953: Denver high school teacher, plant collector, author of the the yearling report first flora of a local area of essay, Colorado: A Popular Flora of experience, Denver, Colorado (circa 1893), and renown California botanist. Eastwood graduated from East Denver High School in 1879, and she was such a respected student that she was immediately offered a teaching position in botany at the school. During her ten years as a teacher, she also collected plants and essay taught herself botany using Gray's Manual and Coulter's Manual of Rocky Mountain Botany as guides. Eastwood invested her salary wisely in Denver real estate and by powerpoint for research, 1889 was able to quit teaching and on my for kids devote herself to botany.
Her fame in Denver as a teacher, naturalist, and botanist brought British naturalist Alfred Russell Wallace to her for guiding into the nearby mountains, especially Gray's Peak. Persuasive Experience? In 1891 she met Gustav Nordenskjold in a Denver library and their chance meeting and friendship led her to telling Nordenskjold of the Wetherill's newly discovered southwest Colorado native ruins (to be known as Mesa Verde). Eastwood wrote a letter of introduction to the Wetherills for Nordenskjold and thus began a major chapter in the archaeology of Mesa Verde. Essay On My For Kids? Eastwood had meet the Wetherills and worked with them on her southwest Colorado collecting expeditions starting in personal experience, 1889 (and continuing at least until 1895). She collected plants as the Wetherills dug. As pots, sandals, and clothing were uncovered, Eastwood worked to identify the on my friends for kids plants from which they were made and she was thus one of the first paleoethnobotanists.
In 1891, after reviewing Eastwood’s collection in Denver, Mary Katharine Brandegee, Curator of the Botany Department at the California Academy of Sciences, invited Eastwood to assist in the Academy’s Herbarium. Eastwood's botanical prowess so impressed Brandegee that in 1892 Eastwood was offered a position as joint Curator with Katherine Brandegee and when Brandegee retired in 1894, Eastwood was made Curator and Head of the Department of Botany, positions she retained for 55 years until her retirement in 1949. (See John Thomas Howell). Top photo of Alice Eastwood from the Rancho Santa. Ana Botanic Gardens. Bottom photo from the report Hunt Institute for. In the essay for kids 1940s, the herbarium at the University of Colorado acquired over 1,400 specimens from studies as coursework, Eastwood's early collections and these, according to William Weber, were the real beginning of the on my for kids University of Colorado herbarium. In California, Eastwood collected widely on numerous trips, named over 100 California plants, published over 300 articles, mentored numerous budding botanists, risked her life to save some of the most precious specimens in powerpoint, the Herbarium during the 1906 San Francisco earthquake and fire and then rebuilt the Herbarium collection to over 300,000 species.
Throughout her life Alice Eastwood was a tireless, dedicated botanist who was widely admired and essay friends for kids acclaimed. She received praise of the the yearling highest order from such eminent fellow botanists as Mary and Townshend Brandegee, Marcus Jones, and Willis Jepson. Essay On My For Kids? For decades she was listed in the American Men of Science and was always denoted by a star, i.e., considered to be among the top 25% of professionals in their discipline. She was honored at the age of 92 by being named President of the Seventh International Botanical Conference in journals publish lyric essays, Sweden. (Some of the above information was taken from Who's In a Name, Larry Blakely's excellent web site about California botanists.)
Eaton, Daniel Cady , 1834-1895: Professor of Botany at Yale, fern specialist, and plant collector. Essay Friends For Kids? Grandson of Amos Eaton, famous science educator. Collected with the King Expedition in Utah. Mentor to Sereno Watson. Left his large collection of plants to Yale. Erigeron eatonii , Penstemon eatonii Cirsium eatonii variety hesperium. Encel, Christopher , 1517-1583: German naturalist, who, according to Stephen Jay Gould (Drawing a Gloriously False Inference), introduced the powerpoint for research paper novel practice of drawing [pictures of natural history] specimens. In 1557 wrote De re metallica a book on the origin of essay on my for kids, metals and fossils including a chapter on oak galls. Encelia resinifera. Engelmann, George , 1809-1884: Eminent St. Louis Ob-Gyn physician and botanist.
Engelmann was born in Germany, received his medical degree in powerpoint paper, 1831, and published his first botanical work in 1833. In Europe he was in the company of Agassiz and other eminent scientists, but in 1832 his adventurous spirit brought him to New York, then to the intellectual capital of Philadelphia, and on to St. Louis in essay friends for kids, 1833. St. Louis was, of course, a starting point for many Western explorations and throughout the next 50 years, Engelmann was sought out by many botanists for his expertise, his support (botanical, financial, and chambermaid moral), and his connections with Eastern botanists Asa Gray and John Torrey. He received and friends described plant collections from many botanists and explorers: Augustus Fendler, John Fremont, Charles Geyer, Josiah Gregg, Charles Parry, Friedrich Wislizenus. He, himself, made a number of collecting trips to the eastern United States, through the journals publish mid-west, into essay friends for kids Colorado, the Southwest, and California. Engelmann is honored in the name of many plants, especially in one of his favorite areas of paper, expertise, the Cactaceae.
According to Dr. Oscar Soule, Engelmann described 108 Cacti which is over two-thirds of the forms recognized today. All thirteen of the Cactus listed in Coulter and Porter's 1874 Flora of Colorado were named and described by on my friends, Engelmann. Photo of George Engelmann from. the Missouri Botanical. In St. Louis, Engelmann was chosen by Henry Shaw, wealthy St. Louis merchant, as his principal advisor in the forming of the the yearling book now world famous Missouri Botanical Garden. Shaw consulted with Engelmann, Asa Gray, and William Hooker as he created the Garden, which opened in 1859. In 1857 Engelmann bought a 62,000 species plant collection in Europe to begin the Garden's Library.
He initiated the herbarium and in 1860 Engelmann hired Augustus Fendler for a year and a half as curator of the Garden collections. Engelmann met Nicholas Riehl shortly after the two of them emigrated to the United States and on my friends for kids settled in St. Louis. Riehl was a good plant collector in France and continued collecting in the yearling, St. Louis. Essay On My? He sold his collection, probably in the early 1850s, to Henry Shaw and that collection along with Engelmann's purchases in Europe, were the beginning of the Missouri Botanical Garden Herbarium, now containing 80,000 type specimens and over six million total specimens (second largest in the U.S. and sixth in the world). In 1890, after Engelmann's death, his plant collection of 100,000 specimens (including his collection from Colorado) and his personal library were donated to the Garden by his son, Dr. George J. Engelmann.
Five thousand of Engelmann's letters and resume 30 boxes of his botanical notes are also in essay on my friends for kids, the Garden's botanical library (considered one of the best in the world). The Missouri Botanical Garden is the oldest in the United States and it proved to be very popular with the public from the very beginning of its existence; in its first two decades (when the St. That Publish? Louis population was about essay on my friends, 300,000), a million people visited the Garden. Now, with the St. Louis metropolitan area at about 3,000,000, well over a million people visit the Garden each year and nearly 50,000 people are annual members. In 1863 Engelmann was elected by persuasive essay, Congress to be one of fifty founding members of the National Academy of Sciences. Engelmann was also a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.
In 1856 Engelmann was one of twelve founders of The Academy of Science of St. Louis and he was a frequent contributor to its prized journal, Transactions of the Academy of Science of on my friends for kids, St. Louis (which is now available on-line). In this web site Engelmann's name appears very often as mentor, collector, and powerpoint paper botanical expert. Charles Parry honored George Engelmann in the name of a most abundant and essay friends beautiful tree, the Engelmann Spruce, Picea engelmannii . Also see Eucephalus engelmannii . Click the following links for more details about George Engelmann: Escobar Zerman, Numa Pompilio and Romulo Escobar Zerman , 1874-1949 and 1882-1946: Mexican agricultural engineers. In Ciudad Juarez in 1906, they founded the Private School of Agriculture, now part of the University of Chihauhau as the Brothers Escobar College of Agriculture. Escobaria missouriensis. Fallugi, V., Abbot , 1627-1707: Italian botanist and Abbot in Vallombrosa, Italy. He was highly respected as a rhetorician, poet, philosopher, and chambermaid theologian and was considered among the best botanists of his time. Essay On My? He was offered a Professorship of Botany at the University of book report, Padua, but he declined the offer.
The Vallombrosan Monastery was founded in the 11th century by Saint Giovanni Gualberto, now Italy's patron saint of forests, and had many notable botanists. The Monastery endured several destructions, including that by essay friends, Napoleon in 1808. It was rebuilt in 1815. Journals That Publish Lyric? The Monastery was closed by on my for kids, the Italian government in critical essays jamaica, 1866 with only a few monks remaining at the main church. The Abbey is in essay on my, the hills about 20 miles from Florence and for several centuries has attracted famous visitors, such as, John Milton, Mary Shelley, William Wordsworth, Robert and Elizabeth Barrett Browning. The Yearling? Fallugia paradoxa. Fassett, Norman 1900-1954: Professor of Botany at the University of Wisconsin.
Specialized in taxonomic botany and in preserving Wisconsin flora and habitat. For 17 years Curator of the University of Wisconsin herbarium which grew under his directorship from 96,000 to 380,000 specimens, including over 28,000 specimens he collected. One of the founders of the American Society of Plant Taxonomists. Author Spring Flora of Wisconsin , Manual of Aquatic Plants , and Grasses of Wisconsin . Fassett was a teaching colleague and good friend of Aldo Leopold and the two worked on many conservation issues together. Streptopus fassettii (now Streptopus amplexifolius ) Fee, Antoine , 1789-1874: Pharmacist, botanist, prolific author, professor, Director of the Botanical Garden of Strasbourg.
Just before his death, he was elected President of the Société Botanique de France. He was a cryptogamist (working on ferns, lichens, and fungi) and, among many other writings, published a 7 volume series Essai sur les Cryptogames de écorces exotiques officinales ( Essay on essay friends for kids, the Cryptogams that grow on Exotic Medicinal Barks ). Cheilanthes feei . Fendler, Augustus , 1813-1883: Assiduous and highly respected (though short-time) botanical collector for the renowned Asa Gray and George Engelmann. Studies? Fendler was chosen by Engelmann to fulfill Gray's desire to find and fund a collector to visit the Santa Fe area. In 1844 Fendler met with Engelmann in St. Louis for advice about essay on my friends for kids, collecting techniques, practiced collecting in the St.
Louis area for a time, was loaned $100 by Engelmann to begin collecting plants in book report, the Southwest, botanized along the route to Santa Fe, and in 1846 began a year of collecting in Santa Fe. He returned to St. Essay Friends For Kids? Louis and received high praise from Gray for chambermaid resume, the quality of friends, his collection to, in, and from Santa Fe: he was, said Gray, a quick and keen observer and an admirable collector (as quoted in persuasive experience, Ewan). Gray wrote Engelmann after receiving Fendler's collection: CAMBRIDGE, December 20, 1847. I got a parcel from New York on Saturday evening, containing. a set of essay, Fendler's from Santa Fe, up to Rosaceae. The specimens are perfectly charming! So well made, so full and perfect. Better never were made. In a week I shall take them right up to study, and they are Rocky Mountain forms of vegetation entirely, so I can do it with ease and comfort. It is a cool region that, and chambermaid resume dry.
If these come from the friends for kids plains, what will the mountains yield ? Fendler must go back, or a new collector. All Fendler's collection will sell at once, no fear, such fine specimens and so many good plants. Pity that F. did not know enough to leave out some of the common plants, except two or three specimens for us, and bestow the as coursework same labor on the new plants around him. Send on the rest soon. Yours cordially, A. GRAY (From Asa Gray's letters) TO GEORGE ENGELMANN. CAMBRIDGE, February 29, 1848. . . . Now for Fendler himself. He ought to go back, and without delay.
He has gained much experience, and will now work to greater advantage. He makes unrivaled specimens, and essay friends for kids with your farther instructions will collect so as to make more equable sets. If he will stay and personal experience bide his time he can get on to the mountains, and must try the higher ones, especially those near Taos. Let him stay two years, and if he is energetic he will reap a fine harvest for botany, and accumulate a pretty little sum for himself, and have learned a profession, for such that of a collector now is. Drummond made money quite largely.
I had rather Fendler would go north and west than south of Santa Fe. New Spain and essay friends Rocky Mountain botany is far more interesting to us than Mexican. (From Asa Gray's letters) Fendler began a second expedition in 1849 but lost all of his gear, notebooks, specimens -- everything -- in a flood. When he returned to St. Louis he found his possessions there had been destroyed in a major Mississippi River waterfront fire. Dejected and disgusted, he left the United States for a number of years and never returned to collecting in the Southwest.
He did continue collecting in various other locations and even worked for a short period for Gray at Harvard. Forestier, André Robert , 1736-1812: Physician of St. Book? Quentin, France, first botany teacher to the well-known Jean Louis Poiret (French clergyman, botanist, explorer, and on my Professor of powerpoint, Natural History at the Ecoles Centrale of Aisne, France). The following information about Forestier and the naming of the genus Forestiera , is from Michael Charter's excellent web site, California Plant Names : The Jepson Manual and other sources such as Umberto Quattrocchi have apparently mistakenly attributed the authorship of this generic name to an early 19th century French physician and naturalist named Charles Le Forestier. However, David Hollombe's researches have indicated otherwise. [Hollombe is a present-day biographical researcher.] A communication from friends, him included the following: There was a botanist Charles Le Forestier (co-author with Lefebure of Album floral des plantes indigènes de France , Paris, 1829) but he was not a doctor and not the person for whom Forestiera was named. Jean Louis Marie Poiret (1755-1834) who chose the generic appellation, never gave Forestier's given name in print nor did Dr.
Forestier's two published articles (neither of them on botany). In 1897 Father Antoine Düss, a Swiss priest and botanist writing a flora of the French West Indies [ Flore phanérogamique des Antilles françaises ] assumed that the genus was named for Charles and in film studies as coursework, 1913 Britton and Brown [in An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States and Canada ] combined the fact that the genus was named for a physician with the incorrect name. André Robert Forestier, the son of Aimé and Marie, and a native of Paris, was a doctor of medicine and essay on my friends for kids a physician of the town hospice of Saint-Quentin, Aisne, which was Poiret's home town, and the yearling book report he was Poiret's first botany teacher. Franckenius, Johannes , 1590-1661: Sweden's first Professor of Botany. Essay On My Friends? Wrote about chambermaid resume, plants and their healing properties. Honored by Linnaeus in the name of a family and genus: Frankeniaceae and Frankenia. Wrote Speculum , the first Swedish plant list, and in the Preface Franckenius urges his readers to study plants in their natural habitat.
Frankenia jamesii. F raser, John , 1750-1811: Scottish nurseryman who botanized frequently in the Southern Appalachians from essay on my friends for kids, 1786-1807. He collected for the Kew Gardens and Linnean Society and also sold his plants privately, including to the Empress of Russia, eventually becoming Botanical Collector for Russia for several years. Frasera speciosa , Frasera albomarginata , Frasera paniculata. Fremont, John Charles , 1813-1890: Teacher and surveyor; student of sciences including mathematics, astronomy, botany, geology, and cartography; military expedition leader; American icon; gold rush millionaire; governor, senator, twice candidate for film studies as coursework, President of the United States; strong-headed, court-martialed, impoverished, belligerent, American success and failure story. I have made Fremont's biography lengthy, not because he was a central botanical figure of the nineteenth century (although his collections were numerous and many plants are named for him), but because his life shows so well the relationship of the explorer/scientist/politician to the public, the government, and the botanical world. In 1838 Fremont was commissioned as Second Lieutenant of Topographical Engineers, and was assigned as chief assistant to the French scientist Joseph N. Nicollet for a survey between the Missouri and essay for kids Mississippi Rivers. Critical Kincaid? Nicollet tutored Fremont in all aspects of essay, expedition logistics and in the gathering of scientific information. Chambermaid? Fremont then went on, between 1842 and 1854, to lead five Western expeditions, traveled over essay on my friends for kids, 20,000 miles, mapped large areas of the West, collected over critical essays jamaica kincaid, a thousand plant specimens, and inspired a huge wave of pioneers with his reports about the lands his expeditions found.
He came to for kids be revered as The Pathfinder (although the chambermaid title should more appropriately have been given to his guide on three expeditions, Kit Carson). In 1841, before the five expeditions that he led, Fremont secretly married 17 year old Jessie Benton, the daughter of Thomas Hart Benton, the highly influential Missouri Senator. Benton was angered at the marriage, but he quickly reconciled with Fremont, became Fremont's powerful ally, and utilized Fremont's expeditions to expand America's boundaries. In 1842 Fremont conducted a mapping expedition of the on my for kids Oregon Trail to the Rockies. (Prior to the trip Fremont had received a quick course in plant collecting and persuasive essay preserving from the eminent George Engelmann and on my the expedition collected plants and other scientific data.) Twenty thousand copies of Fremont's report (which was written by his wife) were published by essay personal, Congress in 1841, and the the report then sold several hundred thousand copies when it appeared in major American newspapers and in foreign editions. Essay? Fremont's maps of the Great Salt Lake area influenced the Mormons to studies settle there, and his maps of essay friends for kids, routes across the West were studied and film as coursework followed by all westward moving pioneers. Fremont was thus catapulted into being the most famous American explorer of the time and essay for kids his writings strongly added to Americans' belief in Westward Expansion and Manifest Destiny -- both of which had long been strongly supported in critical essays jamaica, Congress by essay friends, his father-in-law, Senator Benton. Through all of these events and through his whole life, Fremont was rash, brash, headstrong, political, knowledgeable, persuasive, brave, and fool-hardy and these characteristics produced strong supporters and essays kincaid powerful enemies. In the mid-1840's, during his third expedition, Fremont played a significant role in taking California from Mexico.
Californians then honored him by appointing him Governor of the new Territory in 1846, but he was a military officer at the time and essay friends he was ordered to step down from the governorship. For Research? He refused and was court-martialed, convicted, and on my friends for kids ordered dismissed from the lyric military. President Polk upheld the conviction but set aside the penalty. Even so, Fremont resigned in anger from the essay on my Army in 1848. In 1850 Fremont, running as a Democrat, was elected as one of the first two Senators from California. He served the six month short term but failed in his bid for re-election. Fremont made a fortune in the Gold Rush but only after protracted battles in for research, courts and in Congress over land claims, payments, partners, and promises. Fremont's popularity from his Western exploits and his anti-slavery position got him the newly formed Republican Party's first presidential nomination in 1856. Essay On My Friends For Kids? Because Fremont was an outspoken proponent of freeing slaves, Southern states threatened to essay secede if he were elected.
Fremont lost to James Buchanan. When Lincoln became President, he promoted Fremont to Major General. From Fremont's Missouri command post he ordered the confiscation of on my for kids, nearby Southerners' lands, freed their slaves, declared martial law, and then refused to obey Lincoln's order to rescind these unauthorized actions. Lincoln removed Fremont from command after six months of service, but Republican pressure on Lincoln forced him to report reinstate Fremont -- which some came to regret as Fremont proceeded to lose a number of Civil War battles. On My? Fremont was demoted again and again angrily resigned. Fremont lost his gold rush fortune, ran for President as a Democrat in 1864, was convicted by the French in an 1873 swindle case involving the Transcontinental Railroad, and from 1878-1881 was Territorial Governor of Arizona until removed from office by public protests about book report, his shirking of duties.
Fremont's botanical collecting followed the same path as his life: a roller coaster of successes and failures. Prior to his first expedition in on my, 1842 Fremont was unknown in the botanical world: On November 18th, 1842 John Torrey wrote to Asa Gray that a Lt. Powerpoint Paper? Fremont who writes like a foreigner is essay on my friends for kids sending Torrey some plants collected towards the Rocky Mountains. When Torrey received the plants he sent the Compositae (Sunflowers) to Gray and on December 5th, Gray wrote back in great excitement: Tetradymias [Horsebrush] this side of the Rocky Mts. Some new Senecios . How I would like to botanize up there! Is the Lieutenant's name Fremont ? I wish we had a collector to book go with Fremont. It is a great chance. If none are to be had, Lieut. On My? F. For Research Paper? must be indoctrinated , taught to collect both dried spec. seeds.
Tell him he shall be immortalized by having the 999th Senecio called S. fremontii . (Quotations from The Expeditions of John Charles Fremont , edited by Jackson and Spence.) Fremont continued to correspond frequently with Torrey for the next eight years and essay friends Torrey received and, with Gray, described Fremont's collections. Fremont thus had the best guidance and assistance, but he was headstrong and book report often did not listen to the expert botanical advice given him. Essay On My For Kids? George Engelmann , to whom Fremont was sent by Torrey for some botanical instruction, wrote Gray on December 6, 1844: Fremont appears to me rather selfish - I speak confidentially - and disinclined to essay experience let any body share in his discoveries, anxious to reap all the honour, as well as undertake all the labour himself. He objected to take any botanist or geologist along with him. even though he himself can not claim any knowledge of [botany]. Essay On My? It was common practice to take a botanist on expeditions, and Fremont knew this: Charles Geyer had accompanied Nicollet on report, expeditions that Fremont had also been on. Friends? So although Fremont's expeditions produced many significant botanical results (Torrey said of the 1842 collection, [It is] a very interesting contribution to North American botany), much more botanically could have come from his expeditions if he had taken a trained botanist. No one knows why Fremont did not take one with him (his ego is most probable), but he did finally relent on the fourth expedition, when he hired the botanist, Creutzfeldt.
Fremont not only the yearling book report refused advice about botany, but he also refused advice about the general conduct of his expeditions, often pushing on too far, too fast, and too carelessly. In his second expedition of 1843-1844, for instance, Fremont's collection from his westward leg of the journey through the Rockies and Great Basin was lost when the mule carrying the essay friends for kids botanical specimens went over a precipice on the final westward descent out of the Sierras following an unbelievably heroic, fool-hardy, and life-threatening crossing of the Sierras in the winter. On the return trip East his collection was lost in essays, a flood on a small tributary of the Kansas River. But Fremont did bring back enough specimens to exhilarate Torrey and Gray. Specimens included the first records of Eriogonum inflatum , Coleogyne ramosissima , Populus fremontii , and many more. On the fourth expedition the losses were far more consequential. On My Friends? Fremont and his men fought for their lives in a winter crossing of the that essays San Juan Mountains of essay for kids, southern Colorado. Ten men died.
Compared to this loss, it was hardly noticed that much of the botanical collections of that trip also perished in the snows of Colorado. Despite the numerous mistakes and losses, Fremont did amass a considerable botanical collection. According to Stanley Welsh, expert on experience, Utah flora and Fremont as botanist (see Welsh's John Charles Fremont, Botanical Explorer ), Fremont's 1842 expedition yielded twenty-two new species of plants, his 1843-1844 expedition yielded seventy-nine, his 1845-1846 expedition yielded fifty-two, his 1848-1849 yielded ten, and his final 1853-1854 yielded one, with three more of on my friends, unknown date for a total of 167 new species discovered by Fremont. Welsh further indicates that, Collections of the first expedition were identified as representing 371 [species]; the second some 379 [species], the third 458, the the yearling report fourth 60, and essay on my for kids the fifth 8. Welsh notes that there were at least an additional 52 species for a total of well over 1,000 different species collected on all the film studies expeditions. In the essay on my friends late 1840's and early 50's Torrey and Gray described many of the plants Fremont collected, and they honored Fremont in the names of quite a few of these, including a number shown on this web site: Senecio fremontii , Mahonia fremontii , Populus fremontii (now Populus deltoides subspecies fremontii ) . In addition, this web site contains photographs of a number of species that Fremont was the resume first to on my friends collect for science: Senecio spartioides, Rydbergia grandiflora, Coleogyne ramosissima, Senecio multilobatus, Atriplex confertifolia, Lycium pallidum, Eriogonum inflatum, Astragalus preussii, and book report Castilleja linariifolia . In 1853 John Torrey detailed Fremont's collections in Plantae Fremontianae, part of the Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge . (Some of the above information came from numerous on-line sources; most came from friends for kids, Mary Lee Spence, The Expeditions of John Charles Fremont , 5 volumes. The primary text for the botanical accomplishments of Fremont, John Charles Fremont, Botanical Explorer , is by book report, Stanley Welsh, author of A Utah Flora ). Last names beginning with A-F on this page.