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Booz Allen Hamilton Interviews and ptlls course Culture. Welcome back to writing service our Firm Profile series. Ptlls Course! Today we#8217;re going to be looking at Booz Allen Hamilton, a firm with a great name and a confusing history. Headquartered in the Greater Washington, DC area, Booz Allen Hamilton is well known for its governmental work. Dissertation! But after several sweeping changes to Booz Allen Hamilton#8217;s infrastructure, the question now hanging over Booz Allen Hamilton is how it#8217;s going to weather the essays, storm and if it will come out stronger on entire caught, the other side. Course! Booz Allen Hamilton Headquarters: McLean, VA. Booz Allen Hamilton Employees: 22,500 Employees. Booz Allen Hamilton Locations: 14 countries, 20 offices. In 1914, Edwin G. Booz developed a theory that businesses could be more profitable and more successful if they could garner advice from impartial outsiders. From this noble seed came a company that birthed management consulting as we know it. And, let’s be honest here, don’t we all love that his last name was Booz, and that he named the company after himself?
From the very beginning, Booz Allen Hamilton has been involved in some very high profile cases. In the 1940s, it was hired to essay in our life help the United States Secretary of the Navy prepare for course essays World War II, and in the 1960s Booz Allen Hamilton coordinated the caught by software, AFL-NFL merger, a move that paved the way for the Superbowl. One of Booz Allen Hamilton#8217;s finest moments from the course essays, early years was in the 1950s when Time Magazine dubbed it #8220;the world#8217;s largest, most prestigious management consulting firm.#8221; Over the years, Booz Allen Hamilton has also done a lot of work for the federal government. From security projects for the Department of Homeland Security, to working with the for linggo, FCC to ptlls course essays improve public warning systems, and providing intelligence support to military and defence agencies, Booz Allen Hamilton has been around the block a few times. This also means it has friends the high places, so you don#8217;t want to take the firm lightly (or, for that matter, be mean to the big boys). Mass Communication Dissertation! One confusing thing about Booz Allen Hamilton, however, is the number of name changes it#8217;s gone through its 100+ year history. Starting off as Edwin G. Course Essays! Booz, it#8217;s also been known as Business Engineering Service; Edwin G. Booz Surveys; Edwin G. Essay! Booz and Fry Surveys; Booz, Fry, Allen Hamilton; Booz, Allen Hamilton; and finally Booz Allen Hamilton. Another confusing thing about Booz Allen Hamilton is its organizational structure. In the good ol’ days, Booz Allen Hamilton was two very distinct businesses. Ptlls Essays! There was one arm that dealt with governmental clients and another that dealt with commercial entities. Roe V Wade! In 2008, after months of negotiations, the commercial side broke away and became Booz Company, with the governmental side keeping the name Booz Allen Hamilton.
As part of ptlls course essays, this process, Booz Allen Hamilton sold a $2.54B majority stake in itself to private equity firm The Carlyle Group as a means of roe v wade statement, reinforcing its independence from Booz Company. Ptlls Essays! Just a few years later, in paper 2010, Booz Allen Hamilton went public and the Carlyle Group remains a majority shareholder. During negotiations, Booz Allen Hamilton agreed not to compete with Booz Company for 3 years and therefore kept within the realms of governmental and public sector work. Ptlls Course! After the provision against competition expired, Booz Allen Hamilton has diversified its client base, moving into wade thesis, technology integration and cybersecurity programs. Ptlls Course! As for Booz Company, it was purchased by PricewaterhouseCoopers and became Strategy , a firm we covered in an earlier Firm Profile. Although Strategy worked to rebrand itself as non-government focused and BAH has worked to diversify, both brands are really overshadowed by the (wealthy but non-stealthy) legacy of wade thesis statement, working directly with Big Brother both in the U.S. and overseas. At the ptlls, top of the Booz Allen Hamilton food chain sits the voting should not be essay, board of directors. The President of the Board is course, Dr. Voting Essay! Ralph Shrader, who served as CEO from ptlls, 1999-2014.
Beneath the board of buy research writing, directors are the ptlls essays, senior management staff, including CEO Horacio D. Rozanski; CFO, Treasurer and mandatory essay Senior VP Kevin Cook; and Executive VP Karen Dahut. Acquisition Program Management. Commercial (Financial Services, Health, and Energy) Economic Business Analysis. Course Essays! Intelligence Operations Analysis. International (Middle East/North Africa) Supply Chain Logistics. Systems Engineering Integration. Should Essay! Management Consulting Engineering Technology Products Solutions Strategic Innovation. Ptlls! Civilan Agencies Defense and Intelligence Energy Financial Health High Tech Manufacturing Specialized Services International Non-Profit.
Shanghai, China Wellington, New Zealand Bangkok, Thailand Dubai, United Arab Emirates Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates Hong Kong, Hong Kong Jakarta , Indonesia Seoul, South Korea Beirut, Lebanon. Essay Life! Tbilisi, Georgia London, United Kingdom Copenhagen, Denmark Helsinki, Finland Paris, France Munich, Germany Berlin, Germany Frankfurt, Germany Dusseldorf, Germany Milan, Italy Rome, Italy Oslo, Norway Warsaw, Poland Moscow, Russia Madrid, Spain Stockholm, Sweden Amsterdam, Netherlands Vienna, Austria. Central South America. Sao Paulo, Brazil Rio De Janeiro, Brazil Santiago, Chile Bogata, Colombia Buenos Aires, Argentina Caracas, Venezuela. Huntsville, AL Los Angeles, CA San Diego, CA San Francisco, CA Colorado Springs, CO Washington, DC Tampa, FL Atlanta, GA Honolulu, HI Chicago, IL Leavenworth, KS Linthicum, MD Lexington Park, MD Annapolis Junction, MD Rockville, MD Boston, MA Omaha, NE Parsippany, NJ Newark, NJ Eatontown, NJ New York, NY Cleveland, OH Dayton, OH Philadelphia, PA Charleston, SC Dallas, TX Houston, TX San Antonio, TX Salt Lake City, UT Mclean, VA Chantilly, VA Herndon, VA Falls Church, VA Arlington, VA Stafford, VA Norfolk, VA Mexico City, Mexico. Ptlls Course Essays! Your career path at buy research service, Booz Allen Hamilton migrates upwards through 6 total levels: Those joining the firm right out of ptlls course essays, college will be hired as Consultants and MBAs will join as Associates.
Booz Allen Hamilton offers 8-10 week long summer internships to all who can demonstrate the following: 30 credit hours of coursework A declared major Enrollment at an accredited college or university at the undergraduate or graduate level. Because of the early requirements, BAH can be a great place to do an early internship. Unlike Bain or LEK, the firm doesn#8217;t restrict itself to junior hiring and you have a great opportunity to learn some grand consulting processes and get a brand name on your resume with absolutely no experience. Booz Allen Hamilton also has specific internship opportunities for disabled students, the Emerging Leaders Internship Program. If you have a qualifying disability under the paper plagiarism, ADA, have completed at least 45 credit hours, and ptlls have a minimum 3.0 GPA, visit www.emerging-leaders.com for more information. To apply for an internship, visit www.boozallen.com/careers, create a profile, and use #8220;internship#8221; keyword search all internship opportunities.
Hiring begins in the fall and lasts throughout the of colours, spring, but applications are accepted throughout the year. Candidates will be interviewed on campus or over essays, the phone. Roe V Wade! As a high level firm with world class name recognition, you will have plenty of opportunities should you decide to transition out. From academia, to ptlls essays the corporate world, to MTV, former Booz Allen Hamilton employees have pretty much done it all, and that#8217;s before we get into all the high level federal opportunities readily available to you. When you put things in for linggo ng wika 2013 the context of its history, Booz Allen Hamilton is ptlls essays, uniquely positioned to give its alum access to a both public and private sector opportunities. Essay In Our Life! Having retained the governmental work, kept the prestigious 100-year-old #8220;Booz#8221; name, but now exercising its freedom to ptlls essays work with commercial entities working at Booz Allen Hamilton would definitely be a wise move for your early career. That being said, even though Booz Allen Hamilton does now have the freedom to work with commercial clients, it#8217;s only been able do so since 2011 and service building up a significant reputation and course essays client base takes time. Jonathan Black – Director, Corporate Affairs University of Oxford Rohit Bhagat – Global Chief Operating Officer Barclays Global Investors Sir (Francis) Christopher Buchan Bland – Chairman Royal Shakespeare Company Chipper Boulas – Former Vice President of Corporate Strategy eBay Jonathan S. Bush – President, CEO, and Co-founder Athena Health Art Collins – Chairman and CEO Medtronic, Inc.
Tim Collins – Founder and should essay Chief Executive Ripplewood Holdings Edward C. Course! Davies (Ted) – Managing Partner, Unisys Federal Systems Karen Fawcett – Director Standard Chartered Bank Malaysia Richard Gay – Senior Vice President of Strategy and Business Operations VH1 and CMT, MTV Networks Rhonda Germany – Vice President of entire paper, Strategy and Business Development Honeywell Patrick Gorman – Senior Vice President and Chief Information Security Officer Bank of America Gerry Horkan – Vice President of ptlls course, Corporate Strategy Yahoo! Inc. Paul Idzik – Executive Vice President and Chief Operating Officer Barclays PLC Abigail Johnson – President Fidelity Investments Raymond J. Lane – General Partner Kleiner Perkins Caufield Byers Edward J. O#8217;Hare – Chief Information Officer U.S. General Services Administration#8217;s Federal Acquisition Service Todd Y. Park – Co-founder and Chief Development Officer Athena Health Mark DeSantis – Chief Executive Officer ANGLE Technology Stan Scoggins – Vice President of dissertation, Worldwide Digital Assets Universal Studios Owen Nieberg – Chief Operating Officer All About Braces Deven Sharma – President Standard Poor#8217;s Michael Wolf – Former President and COO MTV Networks. Boozers (yes, we#8217;re calling them that) seem to have mixed reviews when it comes to working at Booz Allen Hamilton. There are lots of perks, such as flexible hours, great benefits, great work-life balance, paid parental leave and paid overtime for entry level Consultants who work more than 40 hours in a week (that will likely be you). Ptlls! But that#8217;s not to say there aren#8217;t drawbacks. After making a name for mandatory itself as a government contractor, the economic downturn hit. Hard.
This meant revenues shrunk rapidly, as government spending was cut. Booz Allen Hamilton was left trying to recover fiscal ground and there#8217;s been a huge push from the top to make sure the bottom line is at a desirable level. Experienced staff, in particular, are having a harder time in the midst of this season because they feel Booz Allen Hamilton#8217;s priorities have shifted in the wrong direction and they miss the ptlls course essays, way things used to essay for linggo ng wika 2013 be. Essays! Since Booz Allen Hamilton went public in 2010, they feel many of the roe v statement, decisions and cuts that the ptlls essays, management made have been in service the interests of shareholders and not employees. Many remember how things were before 2008 and ptlls essays fear Booz Allen Hamilton will never return to the place of strength it once had.
If you look closer, there are a few decisions that are a little bit concerning. The health benefits, though still excellent, are more expensive than they used to communication dissertation be, with higher deductibles. Ptlls Course Essays! Offices are being sold off to increase the paper plagiarism, bottom line, despite falling revenues. Raises, too, are now no longer based solely on performance but are tied to ptlls essays many other factors, making them harder to mass dissertation get. What#8217;s interesting though is that, in a case of ptlls, not missing what you never had, newer staff members seem to really like working there and communication don#8217;t really have as many complaints.
On balance, it would seem that Booz Allen Hamilton is ptlls course essays, still a good firm to work for, even if some of the changes being made are disappointing, though not catastrophic. There are some within the firm who feel Booz Allen Hamilton is moving further away from strict management consulting and instead becoming a data sciences or high end analytics firm. Even though there are many great aspects to working at Booz Allen Hamilton and it is still a great place to mass communication dissertation work, there are obviously a few things you should take into essays, consideration before accepting an offer. A definite high point about being a Boozer, however, is the firm#8217;s ongoing commitment to roe v wade thesis statement junior staff members#8217; career development. Even though all firms say it#8217;s a priority, not that many actually follow through with it. Ptlls Course! With internal courses, external courses, and mentoring programs among other things, Booz Allen Hamilton strongly encourages its staff to pursue growth throughout the year. Even if the paper caught, firm itself is experiencing turbulence and change, if you work there, especially at the start of you career, you#8217;ll definitely come out with some valuable experience.
Start with character, intelligence, and industry Daily—think right, act right, eat right, sleep right, work right, and play right Know your own blind spots Always be willing to listen and to ptlls essays help worthy young people Require character, intelligence, and mandatory “hard work” as the starting foundation in essays selecting people Pick the cream of the crop for mass dissertation your partners Fear not the future, nor people. Essays! (2015) #1 Best Consulting Firms for entire Public Sector Consulting Vault (2015) Perfect Score Corporate Equality Index Human Rights Campaign (2014) Susan Penfield (Vice President) Women of Excellence Award National Association for ptlls course essays Female Executives (NAFE) (2014) Top 100 Companies for Working Mothers Working Mother Magazine. BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON INTERVIEWS AND RECRUITING. First things first: the chance of you getting a case to solve in paper writing service a Booz Allen Hamilton consulting interview is ptlls essays, greatly reduced when compared to other large firms. Caught By Software! It almost sounds sacrilegious to put that in course essays print, but it#8217;s true (and wonderful for paper by software those of essays, you that don#8217;t love cases). When you#8217;re interviewing at Booz Allen Hamilton, your first interview will be on voting, campus, on the phone, or sometimes even in person it all depends on your circumstances (learn more about case interviews).
For the next interview, you will most likely have several 1:1 interviews with different mid-senior level staff members. Be prepared to ptlls speak highly of yourself and of your experience. Know your resume inside out so that you can walk your interviewer through your highlight reel with ease. Booz Allen Hamilton is dissertation, a highly interpersonal firm, and many interviewees speak highly of the interview process, saying they felt like their interviewer was getting to know them as a person and not just asking them a memorized set of questions, so remember to present yourself well. Make and maintain good eye contact, a good firm handshake, etc. If you can make a good connection with your interviewers and represent yourself well, you will put yourself in a great position to be hired. Applying to Booz Allen Hamilton? Or maybe you already have an interview with Booz Allen Hamilton and would like to make sure you#8217;re up to speed with your resume and ptlls course any potential cases that may pop up. Carnegie Mellon University Columbia University Duke University Florida State University George Mason University George Washington University Georgetown University Georgia Institute of Technology Hampton University Harvard University Howard University Johns Hopkins University Mississippi State University MIT Morgan State University Norfolk State University Northeastern University Ohio State University Old Dominion University Penn State University Purdue University Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Gallaudet University Texas AM Towson University University of California, Irvine University of essay for linggo ng wika, California, San Diego University of Dayton University of Delaware University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign University of Maryland, Baltimore Co. Ptlls! University of ng wika, Maryland, College Park University of ptlls course, Notre Dame University of roe v wade, Puerto Rico University of Texas, Austin University of Texas, Dallas University of Texas, San Antonio University of Virginia Virginia Tech Williams College. Ptlls! Booz Allen Hamilton has established a forum for employees with disabilities, introduced ASL interpretation at essay for linggo ng wika 2013, major meetings and ptlls course essays closed-captioning of corporate videos.
Booz Allen Hamilton Chairman Ralph Shrader has also worked closely with the President#8217;s Committee on Employment of People with Disabilities (PCEPD), Business Leadership Network and is the recipient of entire caught, leadership awards from the National Business Disability Council.
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Leading off is our winning entry by Jordana Narin, a sophomore at Columbia University. Many writers explored how they avoid labeling relationships (or even talking about ptlls, what the relationship is) because doing so may lead to expectations and responsibilities that feel constricting. But for some this avoidance can have troubling consequences, as Ms. Narin’s essay eloquently illustrates. Subjects tackled by other top finishers cover a broad range, from asexuality to on importance in our, Tinder matches and ptlls course, from hooking up to purity pledges. Congratulations to Ms.
Narin and mass communication, our other winners, and thank you to all who participated. — Daniel Jones. Columbia University in the City of New York. New York, NY, Class of 2017. Fashion Institute of Technology. New York, NY, Class of 2016. North Central College.
Naperville, IL, Class of course 2016. Santa Monica College - SMC (Official) Los Angeles, CA, Class of 2017 (after transfer to university) Colorado State University. Fort Collins, CO, Class of should mandatory 2016.
New York, NY, Class of 2018. Ithaca, NY, Class of 2015. New Haven, CT, Class of 2017. Amherst, MA, Class of 2015. New York University, New York, NY, Class of ptlls course 2015. Previous Finalists’ Essays The 10 Best Modern Love Columns Ever » View all Modern Love columns » Even in Real Life There Were Screens Between Us. Eating the Forbidden Ham Sandwich. A Love for the Ages, but Which One?
Stuck at the Border Between the essay of colours in our Sexes. Want to Be My Boyfriend? Please Define. Instant Message, Instant Girlfriend. My Dropout Boyfriend Kept Dropping In. Let’s Not Get to Know Each Other Better.
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920 Words Essay on the Choice of a Career. The selection of a career or profession is one of the most important things of life. But it is equally difficult. The lack of ptlls course guiding services, proper counseling and ever increasing unemployment has further complicated the service, matter. There is cut-throat competition. Therefore, most of the young men and women in search of suitable jobs are a confused, indecisive and frustrated lot. It has generated a deep sense of frustration and indiscipline among the young people.
A right choice of course essays a career is fundamental importance. On it does depend one#8217;s success or failure in writing life. A correct choice may lead to happy, prosperous and satisfying career and life. On the other hand, a wrong selection may result in failure, disappointment and sadness in life. The result of prolonged indecision rimy still proves worse. Image Source : cdn.publishyourarticles.net.
Therefore, the problem should be faced and resolved as early as possible. It is better if one decides at the school stage itself what career one is course going to adopt in future. But the school-going students are quite young, inexperienced and raw to take a right decision. Essay. They cannot be the best judge in the matter. Ptlls. What are needed are proper guidance, counseling, advice, vocational training, encouragement and orientation. And parents, teachers, professional guides and counselors should help them.
They can help the students choose right professions and careers, keeping in mind the aptitude, talent, skills, resources etc., of each and every student, a prospective professional. This will also go a long way in solving the problem of unemployment and proper development of our human resources. Life has become all the more complex and competitive. There is a keen struggle and competition in the world of careers and professions. And only the fittest will survive. After finishing their school and college education or training, the young students are baffled as to which profession to choose. They find themselves groping in voting not be the dark. The tough competition and corruption further increase their difficulties. A young man or woman may possess sufficient training, education, orientation and aptitude for a particular job or position and ptlls course yet he or she may not get it because of various problems. Gone are the paper, days when life was easy, simple, smooth and harmonious, and in the majority of the cases the son followed his ancestral profession or trade, and was trained in the same at home. With the rapid change in attitudes, situations and progress in ptlls essays science and technology, things have radically changed.
The entry of women in professions and services has further increased the complications. And so, the selection of a right career at a right time has become a very tough job. It needs proper, full and comprehensive consideration. There are professions, careers, trades and jobs in plenty. There are a number of professional and training institutions like It#8217;s., polytechnics, engineering colleges etc., which give training in various trades, skills, professions and ng wika jobs, such as medicine, engineering, teaching, business, commerce, banking, computer science, advertising, journalism, government services, positions in ptlls course armed forces, and scores others. Then one can begin his own workshop, factory or shop, or choose a career in police, films, commercial art etc. The whole world of careers is roe v thesis yours, but each and every profession requires a special aptitude, training, guidance, education and preparation.
One may wish to become a doctor or an engineer, but mere wish is not enough. Wishes, without proper and matching qualifications and deeds, result in frustration and failure. There are many factors that go in making a successful and course essays happy career. Besides mental make-up, education, training and of colours skills, the financial resources have also to be taken into consideration. For example a young man may possess all the essays, training, skills and aptitude for running an mass dissertation, industry. But he cannot venture to be an entrepreneur unless he has sufficient financial backing and course muscle.
In these circumstances, he will have to settle for a less ambitious career. But if he has a strong will power, nothing can prevent him from on importance in our achieving the goal in the long run. One may start from ptlls course essays scratch and end up as a business tycoon. A career should be chosen at the earliest possible stage but with proper and should not be mandatory full deliberation. The help and guidance of teachers, parents, experienced people and essays professionals should be sought in the matter. I am a XII class student and I am- not required to enter into any profession just now. And yet I have decided about voting should my career and profession. I have thought long and well over the matter with the help and guidance of my parents, teachers, physical training instructor and others well qualified to advise me. I have decided to become a soldier in course our army. I have robust health, strong determination and sense of strict discipline. I like adventures, bold and daring acts.
I have an aptitude for buy research paper service, a military career. I have almost made it the mission of ptlls essays my life to serve the country in the military uniform. Soon I hope to find myself in Defense Academy, Khadakvasla after completion of my education in the Sank school at Belgium and in Quad. My career in armed forces will provide me with a proper opportunity to roe v statement serve my motherland in the best possible way I can. For me the profession of a soldier is the noblest because it is devoted to the defense of the country#8217;s honour and unity.
The call to the duty is super most in my mind and I personally feel that this feeling of mine can find best possible expression in ptlls defense service only. Mass Communication. Welcome to Shareyouressays.com! Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to discuss anything and everything about Essay. This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and course other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU. Before publishing your Essay on paper writing this site, please read the following pages:
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Quick Guide 25 Ways to Stay Well Abroad in Pictures. A person is no longer contagious for ptlls essays cholera when they have no cholera symptoms and no detectable Vibrio bacteria in paper writing service their stools. Cholera, in general, usually lasts about one week, unless severe symptoms develop. Although a person may be no longer contagious for ptlls course essays cholera, the 2013, infection does not provide enough immunity to prevent the person from coming down with cholera again if reexposed to the bacteria. Cholera is an acute infectious disease caused by a bacterium, Vibrio cholerae ( V. cholerae ), which usually results in a painless, watery diarrhea in humans. Some affected individuals have copious amounts of diarrhea and essays, develop dehydration so severe it can lead to death. Most people who get the disease ingest the organisms through food or water sources contaminated with V. cholerae . Although symptoms may be mild, some previously healthy people will develop a copious diarrhea within about one to five days after ingesting the bacteria. Severe disease requires prompt medical care. Hydration (usually by IV for the very ill) of the patient, and by software, antibiotics in some individuals, is the key to course essays surviving the for linggo ng wika 2013, severe form of the disease. The World Health Organization (WHO) has maps of current and course, past areas with cholera outbreaks (see WHO reference).
It is estimated that about 1.4 million to 4.3 million people are infected worldwide each year, with approximately 28,000-142,000 deaths per year. Only about one in 10 people infected with cholera develop the typical signs and plagiarism caught by software, symptoms. Outbreaks of cholera in 2015-2016 include South Sudan, United Republic of course Tanzania, and Kenya, with over paper writing 216 deaths and most recently, 121 people diagnosed with cholera in course Iraq, their first outbreak since 2012 and in buy research paper Cuba, the first outbreak in over 130 years. The term cholera has a long history (see history section below) and ptlls course essays, has been assigned to several other diseases. For example, fowl or chicken cholera is a disease that can rapidly kill chickens and other avian species rapidly with a major symptom of diarrhea. However, the disease-causing agent in voting essay fowl is Pasteurella multocida , a gram-negative bacterium. Similarly, pig cholera (also termed hog or swine cholera) can cause rapid death (in about ptlls essays, 15 days) in pigs with symptoms of fever, skin lesions, and buy research writing service, seizures. This disease is caused by course, a pestivirus termed CSFV (classical swine fever virus).
Neither one of these animal diseases are related to human cholera, but the terminology can be confusing. Cholera has likely been affecting humans for many centuries. Reports of thesis cholera-like disease have been found in ptlls course India as early as 1000 AD. Cholera is a term derived from Greek khole (illness from bile) and later in the 14th century to colere (French) and choler (English). In the 17th century, cholera was a term used to essay on importance in our describe a severe gastrointestinal disorder involving diarrhea and vomiting. There were many outbreaks of cholera, and by ptlls, the 16th century, some were being noted in historical writings. England had several in the 19th century, the most notable being in on importance of colours life 1854, when Dr. John Snow did a classic study in London that showed a main source of the ptlls course essays, disease (resulting in about 500 deaths in 10 days) came from at least one of the major water sources for London residents termed the Broad Street pump.
The pump handle was removed, and the cholera deaths slowed and stopped. Wade Thesis Statement. The pump is ptlls course, still present as a landmark in London. Although Dr. Snow did not discover the cause of not be mandatory essay cholera, he did show how the disease could be spread and how to stop a local outbreak. This was the ptlls course, beginning of modern epidemiologic studies. The last reference shows the mass communication dissertation, map Dr. Snow used to identify the pump site.
V. Ptlls Course. cholerae was first isolated as the of colours in our, cause of cholera by Filippo Pacini in 1854, but his discovery was not widely known until Robert Koch (who also discovered the cause of tuberculosis), working independently 30 years later, publicized the knowledge and essays, the means of fighting the roe v, disease. The history of cholera repeats itself. The U.S. National Library of Medicine houses original documents about multiple cholera outbreaks in the U.S. from the ptlls essays, 1820s to the 1900s, with the last large outbreak in 1910-1911. Since the roe v wade, 1800s, there have been seven cholera pandemics (worldwide outbreaks). Cholera riots occurred in Russia and England (1831) and in Germany (1893) when the people rebelled against strict government isolation (quarantines) and burial rules. In 2008, cholera riots broke out in course Zimbabwe as police tried to disperse people who tried to essay on importance of colours withdraw funds from banks and were protesting because of the collapse of the health system that began with a cholera outbreak. Similar but less violent public protests have occurred when yellow fever, typhoid fever, and tuberculosis quarantines have been enforced by health authorities.
Multiple outbreaks worldwide continue into the 21st century with outbreaks in India, Iran, Vietnam, and ptlls course essays, several African countries occurring over the last 10 years (some recent outbreaks occurred in Haiti and Nigeria in 2010-2011, and Cuba in 2016). Thesis Statement. Why is cholera history repeating itself? The answer can be traced back to Dr. Essays. Snow's studies that show a source (water or occasionally food) contaminated with V. Wade Statement. cholerae can easily and rapidly transmit the cholera-causing bacteria to many people. Until safe water and food is available to all humans, it is ptlls course essays, likely that cholera outbreaks will continue to mass communication dissertation happen. Quick Guide 25 Ways to Stay Well Abroad in Pictures. What are cholera symptoms and signs? The symptoms and signs of course essays cholera are a watery diarrhea that often contains flecks of whitish material (mucus and some gastrointestinal lining [epithelial] cells) that are about the size of pieces of rice. The diarrhea is termed rice-water stool (See figure 1) and smells fishy. The volume of diarrhea can be enormous; high levels of diarrheal fluid such as 250 cc per kg or about essay of colours in our, 10 to 18 liters over 24 hours for a 154-pound adult can occur.
People may go on to develop one or more of the course essays, following symptoms and signs: Watery diarrhea (sometimes in large volumes) Rice-water stools (see figure 1) Fishy odor to stools Vomiting Rapid heart rate Loss of skin elasticity (washer woman hands sign; see figure 2) Dry mucous membranes (dry mouth) Low blood pressure Thirst Muscle cramps (leg cramps, for example) Restlessness or irritability (especially in children) Unusual sleepiness or tiredness. Other symptoms that may occur, especially with more severe disease, include the following: Those infected require immediate hydration to prevent these symptoms from continuing because these signs and essay on importance in our life, symptoms indicate that the person is ptlls course, becoming or is dehydrated and may go on to develop severe cholera. People with severe cholera (about 5%-10% of previously healthy people; higher if a population is compromised by poor nutrition or has a high percentage of very young or elderly people) can develop severe dehydration, leading to acute renal failure, severe electrolyte imbalances (especially potassium and sodium), and coma. If untreated, this severe dehydration can rapidly lead to shock and death. Buy Research Paper Writing. Severe dehydration can often occur four to eight hours after the course essays, first liquid stool, ending with death in should not be about 18 hours to ptlls course a few days in undertreated or untreated people. In epidemic outbreaks in essay ng wika underdeveloped countries where little or no treatment is available, the mortality (death) rate can be as high as 50%-60%. What causes cholera, and how is cholera transmitted? Cholera is caused by course, the bacterium V. cholerae . This bacterium is Gram stain-negative, comma-shaped, and has a flagellum (a long, tapering, projecting part) for motility and pili (hairlike structures) used to attach to tissue.
Although there are many V. cholerae serotypes that can produce cholera symptoms, the O groups O1 and mass communication, O139, which also produce a toxin, cause the most severe symptoms of cholera. O groups consist of different lipopolysaccharides-protein structures on the surface of bacteria that are distinguished by immunological techniques. The toxin produced by these V. Ptlls. cholerae serotypes is an enterotoxin composed of essay on importance of colours in our two subunits, A and B; the genetic information for the synthesis of these subunits is course, encoded on essay of colours plasmids (genetic elements separate from the bacterial chromosome). In addition, another plasmid type encodes for a pilus (a hollow hairlike structure that supports bacterial attachment to human cells and facilitate the movement of toxin from V. cholerae into human cells). The enterotoxin causes human cells to extract water and electrolytes from the ptlls course, body (mainly the upper gastrointestinal tract) and pump it into the intestinal lumen where the fluid and electrolytes are excreted as diarrheal fluid. The enterotoxin is similar to toxin formed by essay, bacteria that cause diphtheria in that both bacterial types secret the toxins into their surrounding environment where the toxin then enters the human cells. The bacteria are usually transmitted by drinking contaminated water, but the bacteria can also be ingested in contaminated food, especially seafood such as raw oysters. What are risk factors for cholera, and where do cholera outbreaks occur? Everyone who drinks or eats food that has not been treated to eliminate V. cholerae (liquids need to be chemically treated, boiled, or pasteurized, and foods need to be cleaned and cooked), especially in essays areas of the world where cholera is present, is at risk for cholera.
Outbreaks occur when there are disasters or other reasons for a loss of sanitary human waste disposal and the lack of writing service safe fluids and foods for people to ingest. Haiti, a country that had not seen a cholera outbreak in over 50 years, had such circumstances develop in 2010 after a massive earthquake destroyed sanitary facilities and water and food treatment facilities for many Haitians. V. cholerae bacteria eventually contaminated primary water sources, resulting in over 530,000 people diagnosed with cholera that resulted in over 7,000 deaths. This cholera outbreak spread to Haiti's neighbor, the Dominican Republic. Ptlls Course. The Vibrio cholerae strain was closely related to a strain found in Nepal and leads some individuals to blame Nepalese troops that helped with the earthquake disaster as the source of the buy research writing, Haiti cholera outbreak. In third-world countries, hunger can lead people to inadvertently eat contaminated food and/or drink contaminated water, thus raising the risk for cholera to infect malnourished populations. There is some evidence that V. cholerae can survive in saltwater and ptlls essays, have been isolated from shellfish; eating raw oysters is considered a risk factor for cholera, especially in underdeveloped countries and occasionally even in developed countries. A few people are diagnosed with cholera every year in paper plagiarism the U.S. Most of the individuals diagnosed are travelers who were exposed to cholera outside the country, but occasionally, isolated cases are traced to contaminated seafood, usually from ptlls course essays states that border the Gulf of Mexico.
Some individuals are at higher risk to mass communication dissertation become infected than others. People who are malnourished or immune-compromised are more likely to get the course, disease. Children ages 2-4 seem more susceptible than older children, according to some investigators. In addition, researchers have noted that patients with blood type O are twice as likely to develop cholera as others. The reason for this blood type susceptibility is not completely understood.
People with achlorhydria (reduced acid secretion in the stomach) and people taking medicines to reduce stomach acid (H2 blockers and others) are also more likely to develop cholera because stomach acid kills many types of wade thesis statement bacteria, including V. cholerae . Quick Guide 25 Ways to Stay Well Abroad in Pictures. It takes about 100 million V. cholerae bacteria to infect a healthy adult. Because of this high number, significant contamination of food or water is required to transmit the ptlls essays, disease, and direct person-to-person transmission is thought to be uncommon except in outbreaks. In outbreaks, cholera-causing bacteria become highly contagious indirectly and directly by the fecal-oral route because of roe v statement widespread fecal contamination of food, water, and items like contaminated bedding and essays, clothing. What is the for linggo ng wika 2013, incubation period for cholera? The incubation period (time period from exposure to the bacteria to essays the development of symptoms) may vary from a few hours (about six to 12 hours) to five days, with the average incubation period being about two to three days. Paper Writing Service. About six to 12 hours is considered a very rapid incubation period and may suggest that rapid/immediate intervention is required for recovery. What is the essays, contagious period for cholera? The contagious period for cholera begins as soon as organisms are excreted in the feces.
This can occur as early as about six to 12 hours after exposure to on importance the bacteria and can last for about seven to 14 days. Some individuals who are asymptomatic (infected but not having symptoms) will also excrete contagious organisms for course essays about seven to 14 days. What physicians usually treat cholera? Because most individuals have either mild or no symptoms, these people are either not treated or treated by their primary-care physician. However, in some children and in individuals who have more severe disease, besides the roe v thesis statement, primary-care physician or pediatrician, an infectious-disease specialist, a critical-care specialist, a gastroenterologist, and/or an internist may be needed to ptlls help the for linggo ng wika 2013, team manage and treat the patient. In addition, specialists in travel medicine and/or epidemiology can help individuals avoid cholera and/or can give advice about prevention, treatment, and prognosis to those individuals traveling to or living in endemic areas. How do health-care professionals diagnose cholera?
Preliminary diagnosis is usually done by a caregiver who takes a history from the course essays, patient and observes the characteristic rice-water diarrhea, especially if a local outbreak of cholera has identified. The diarrhea fluid is often teeming with motile, comma-shaped bacteria (presumptively V. cholerae ) that can be seen with a microscope. The definitive diagnosis is made by isolation of the essay for linggo ng wika 2013, bacteria from diarrhea fluid. All state health department laboratories in course essays the U.S. are able to perform tests for Vibrio cholerae . Readers may see terms like serotypes Inaba, Ogawa, and Hikojima to mass communication describe V. cholerae ; they simply indicate which O antigens (O antigens designated A, B, or C) are found on these strains of V. cholerae . PCR tests have also been developed to detect the genetic material of cholera, but currently they are not as widely used as the ptlls course, immunologic tests based on type-specific antiserum. Definitive diagnosis helps to distinguish cholera from essay on importance of colours in our life other diseases caused by other bacterial, protozoal, or viral pathogens that cause dysentery (gastrointestinal inflammation with diarrhea). What is the treatment for cholera? The CDC (and almost every medical agency) recommends rehydration with ORS (oral rehydration salts) fluids as the primary treatment for ptlls course essays cholera. Buy Research. ORS fluids are available in prepackaged containers, commercially available worldwide, and course essays, contain glucose and electrolytes. The CDC follows the guidelines developed by the WHO (World Health Organization) as follows: Children 2-9 years: 100 mL-200 mL, up to 1,000 mL/day. Patients 9 years: As much as wanted, to 2,000 mL/day.
Infants 4 mos-11 mos (5 kg-7.9 kg): 400-600 mL. Children 1 yr-2 yrs (8 kg-10.9 kg): 600-800 mL. Children 2 yrs-4 yrs (11 kg-15.9 kg): 800-1,200 mL. Children 5 yrs-14 yrs (16 kg-29.9 kg): 1,200-2,200 mL. Patients 14 yrs (30 kg or more): 2,200-4,000 mL. Age 1 year: 30 mL/kg within 30 min*, then 70 mL/kg over two and a half hours. *Repeat once if radial pulse is essay for linggo ng wika, still very weak or not detectable. Reassess the patient every one to two hours and continue hydrating.
If hydration is course essays, not improving, give the IV drip more rapidly. 200 mL/kg or more may be needed during the first 24 hours of treatment. After six hours (infants) or three hours (older patients), perform a full reassessment. Writing Service. Switch to ORS solution if hydration is improved and the patient can drink. In general, antibiotics are reserved for more severe cholera infections; they function to reduce fluid rehydration volumes and may speed recovery. Although good microbiological principles dictate it is ptlls course, best to treat a patient with antibiotics that are known to be effective against the infecting bacteria, this may take too long a time to essay ng wika 2013 accomplish during an initial outbreak (but it still should be attempted); meanwhile, severe infections have been effectively treated with tetracycline (Sumycin), doxycycline (Vibramycin, Oracea, Adoxa, Atridox, and others), furazolidone (Furoxone), erythromycin (E-Mycin, Eryc, Ery-Tab, PCE, Pediazole, Ilosone), or ciprofloxacin (Cipro, Cipro XR, ProQuin XR) in conjunction with the following antibiotics in conjunction with IV hydration and electrolytes: Many antibiotics are listed; however, because of widespread antibiotic resistance, including multi-resistant Vibrio strains, antibiotic susceptibility testing is advised so the appropriate antibiotic is chosen. In addition, quinolones (for example, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin) should not be used in children if other antibiotics can be effective because of possible musculoskeletal adverse effects. Is it possible to prevent cholera? Are cholera vaccines available?
Yes, cholera can be prevented by ptlls course essays, several methods. Developed countries have an almost zero incidence of cholera because they have widespread water-treatment plants, food-preparation facilities that usually practice sanitary protocols, and most people have access to toilets and hand-washing facilities. Although these countries may have occasional lapses or gaps in these methods, they have prevented many disease outbreaks, including cholera. Individuals can prevent or reduce the entire, chance they may get cholera by thorough hand washing, avoiding areas and people with cholera, drinking treated water or similar safe fluids, and eating cleaned and well-cooked food. In addition, there are vaccines available that can help prevent cholera, although they are not available in ptlls course the U.S., and their effectiveness ranges from 50%-90%, depending on the studies reported. The vaccines are oral preparations, because injected vaccines have not proved to be very effective. Two vaccines (Shanchol and Dukoral) are composed of killed V. cholerae bacteria and don't contain the enterotoxin B subunit.
Unfortunately, both offer protection for buy research writing only about two years, although one report suggests that Shanchol is about 65% effective over five years. Both vaccines are usually given in two doses, about one to six weeks apart. Unfortunately, the vaccines have limited availability; their recommended use is for people going to areas of known outbreaks with the likely possibility the person may be exposed to essays cholera. Some researchers suggest this limited oral vaccine availability should be changed and cite data that oral vaccine may help limit outbreaks, even after they have begun. Research is ongoing; a research study in Haiti will try to determine if a two-dose vaccine in people will suffice to protect a difficult to treat (rural poor) population from cholera and thus save many lives.
There are over 30 universities researching this disease (cholera's epidemiology, pathology, immunology, vaccine production, and other problems) currently worldwide. In 2015, about 2 million doses of oral cholera vaccine were shipped to various outbreak areas, and currently available information suggests that there was a significant reduction in transmission of endemic cholera; the study will be concluded in 2018. In June 2016, the U.S. FDA (Food and Drug Administration) approved the dissertation, first vaccine available in the United States to prevent cholera. The vaccine is ptlls, termed Vaxchora and mass communication dissertation, is manufactured by course essays, PaxVax Bermuda LTD. Roe V. It can be used in ptlls essays adults age 18-64 who are traveling to cholera-affected areas of the world.
The vaccine is a live, attenuated (weakened) dose of V. cholerae serogroup 01, the entire paper by software, most prominent cause of cholera worldwide. Ptlls. The vaccine is administered orally in about 3 ounces of fluid. Mass Dissertation. It is about 80% effective in ptlls course individuals challenged with Vibrio bacteria three months after vaccination. The vaccine should be administered at least 10 days before the individual travels to communication dissertation a cholera-endemic area. The prognosis (outcome) of cholera can range from excellent to essays poor, depending on mass communication the severity of the dehydration and how quickly the ptlls course, patient is given and responds to essay of colours treatments. Death (mortality) rates in untreated cholera can be as high as 50%-60% during large outbreaks but can be reduced to about 1% if treatment protocols (see above treatment section) are rapidly put into ptlls essays action. Essay Ng Wika. In general, the less severe the symptoms and the less time people have dehydration symptoms, the better the prognosis; in many people, if dehydration is quickly reversed, the prognosis is ptlls, often excellent. Where can people find more information about cholera?
What were the symptoms and signs you experienced with cholera? What treatment has been effective for course essays your cholera? What types of tests or exams led to a diagnosis of cholera in you or someone you know? Post Cholera - Prevention in Community. If you live in a community that experiences cholera outbreaks, how do you prevent an infection? Protect Your Eyesight Warning Signs of Common Eye Conditions. Migraine or Headache What's the communication dissertation, Difference? Psoriasis See What It Looks Like and How to Treat It.