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Barack Obama Embellishes His Resume. Don#8217;t get me wrong I#8217;m a fan of Barack Obama, the Illinois freshman senator and hot young Democratic Party star. But after reading his autobiography, I have to say that Barack engages in some serious exaggeration when he describes a job that he held in the mid-1980s.I know because I sat down the hall from him, in the same department, and worked closely with his boss. Personal Essay Sketch. I can#8217;t say I was particularly close to Barack he was reserved and distant towards all of his co-workers but I was probably as close to 2007 synthesis, him as anyone. I certainly know what he did there, and it bears only a loose resemblance to what he wrote in his book. Eventually a consulting house to multinational corporations agreed to hire me as a research assistant. Like a spy behind enemy lines, I arrived every day at my mid-Manhattan office and sat at essay sketch my computer terminal, checking the Reuters machine that blinked bright emerald messages from across the essay professional aspirations globe. As far as I could tell I was the only black man in the company, a source of essay sketch shame for me but a source of considerable pride for the company#8217;s secretarial pool. First, it wasn#8217;t a consulting house; it was a small company that published newsletters on international business. Like most newsletter publishers, it was a bit of a sweatshop.
I#8217;m sure we all wished that we were high-priced consultants to multinational corporations. But we also enjoyed coming in at ten, wearing jeans to on christmas, work, flirting with our co-workers, partying when we stayed late, and bonding over essay sketch the low salaries and heavy workload. Ap English Language Synthesis Essay. Barack worked on essay sketch one of the company#8217;s reference publications. Each month customers got a new set of pages on business conditions in a particular country, punched to on christmas, fit into a three-ring binder. Barack#8217;s job was to get copy from the country correspondents and edit it so that it fit into a standard outline. There was probably some research involved as well, since correspondents usually don#8217;t send exactly what you ask for, and you can#8217;t always decipher their copy. But essentially the job was copyediting. It#8217;s also not true that Barack was the only black man in the company. He was the personal only black professional man. Fred was an African-American who worked in the mailroom with his son.
My boss and I used to 2007 ap english and composition, join them on Friday afternoons to personal, drink beer behind the stacks of office supplies. That#8217;s not the kind of thing that Barack would do. Like I said, he was somewhat aloof. #8230;as the months passed, I felt the idea of becoming an organizer slipping away from me. The company promoted me to the position of financial writer. I had my own office, my own secretary; money in the bank.
Sometimes, coming out of an interview with Japanese financiers or German bond traders, I would catch my reflection in the elevator doorsaˆ”see myself in a suit and anna requiem tie, a briefcase in personal essay my handaˆ”and for a split second I would imagine myself as a captain of resume verne industry, barking out orders, closing the deal, before I remembered who it was that I had told myself I wanted to be and personal essay felt pangs of guilt for my lack of reflective resolve. Barack was not promoted. Instead, he did the same thing that I did in my first job out of college: Volunteered for more interesting work (writing articles) than the work he was hired to personal, do (copyediting a reference service). As far as I know, he always had a small office, and the only secretary in the company worked for Norman, the president. Barack never left the office, never wore a tie, and had neither reason nor opportunity to interview Japanese financiers or German bond traders. Then one day, as I sat down at my computer to resume jules, write an personal sketch, article on reflective interest-rate swaps, something unexpected happened. Auma called. Personal Essay. I had never met this half sister; we had written only intermittently#8230;[several pages on essay his suffering half-sister] A few months after Auma called, I turned in my resignation at the consulting firm and began looking in earnest for sketch, an organizing job.
All of Barack#8217;s embellishment serves a larger narrative purpose: to retell the story of the Christ#8217;s temptation. The young, idealistic, would-be community organizer gets a nice suit, joins a consulting house, starts hanging out with investment bankers, and barely escapes moving into 2007 ap english essay the big mansion with the white folks. Sketch. Luckily, an angel calls, awakens his conscience, and crack helps him choose instead to essay, fight for the people. Resume Jules Verne. Like I said, I#8217;m a fan. His famous keynote speech at essay sketch the Democratic National Convention moved me to tears. The Democrats not to mention America need a mixed-race spokesperson who can connect to both urban blacks and rural whites, who has the credibility to challenge the status quo on issues ranging from misogynistic rap to unfair school funding. And yet I#8217;m disappointed.
Barack#8217;s story may be true, but many of the facts are not. His larger narrative purpose requires him to embellish his role. I don#8217;t buy it. Just as I can#8217;t be inspired by Steve Jobs now that I know how dishonest he is, I can#8217;t listen uncritically to Barack Obama now that I know he#8217;s willing to bend the facts to his purpose. 2007. Once, when I applied for a marketing job at a big accounting firm, my then-supervisor called HR to personal essay sketch, say that I had exaggerated something on my resume. I didn#8217;t agree, but I also didn#8217;t get the job. But when Barack Obama invents facts in a book ranked No. 8 on the NY Times nonfiction list, it not only fails to be noticed but it helps elevate him into the national political pantheon. A writer, editor and 2007 ap english language aspiring web programmer, hoping to personal essay sketch, turn the madness of verne crowds into the wisdom of crowds.
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Opposing Viewpoints Essays and Research Papers. practiced and combined their actor training methods, specifically Suzuki training and Anne Bogart’s area of expertise and system of creating theatre: the . Essay. Viewpoints training. Essay On Christmas. She has also co-written a book which identifies and outlines the primary Viewpoints , which acts as a practical training guide about theatre-making based on the adaptation of the Viewpoints training system by herself and co-author Tina Landau. Characteristics of her work: Anne Bogart was highly interested in creating bold new productions. Actor , Anne Bogart , Outline of theatre 1474 Words | 5 Pages. Old Earth vs Young Earth DB 1 Completed. line with the majority?
It is my belief that only personal when an individual obtains all relevant facts available to them pertaining to a situation can they form a . viewpoint that is not only reliable and accurate, but will also weather scrutiny and opposition. I believe that God is the reflective on christmas, Divine Creator of personal all things. That being said, I also held the viewpoint that while the Bible is always true and that modern science oftentimes will contradict Scripture, there must be a loophole or common ground in which both. Creationism , Empirical , Evidence 1067 Words | 4 Pages. BSHS 311 Week 5 Paper on Personal Model of Helping. Personal Model of anna akhmatova requiem essay Helping Write a 1,100- to 1,800-page paper on your personal model of helping. Incorporate learning from essay sketch, this course and discuss . how and why you have, at this point in your development, formed your viewpoints . Include: How and why you formed this viewpoint Your view of helping The relationship between the clinician and the participant Techniques or approaches to change A coherent model that is consistent, shows adequate understanding of the. Anne Bogart , Das Model , Multiculturalism 445 Words | 3 Pages.
obtain there own opinions, usually do not realize that other people might not have the same stance as them, and crack, that their opinions might have actually been . formed very logically. More often than not, there are two or maybe even three generalized viewpoints about any given topic. An author who is sketch trying to always, use comparison as effectively as possible will usually broadcast his or her own opinion to essay, as large of an audience as possible by presenting the always resume crack, two general, but explicitly different ideas of personal essay sketch the. Cesare Borgia , Florence , Literature 1175 Words | 4 Pages. to write a sample essay, as everyone is studying different texts. But here is the bread and butter of it all. Reflective On Christmas. In essence, you will be asked to write . along the following essay titles (modes of comparison): - cultural context - vision and viewpoint - theme or issue as explored in 3 texts. Usually 2 of 3 come up every year. Personal Essay. This is an essay artificial division in terms of personal sketch essay titles.
You will end up writing about similar things in each of these essay, just taking a different angle each time. Comparison , Comparison of professional text editors , Linguistics 705 Words | 3 Pages. APPENDIX 2 CBRN Threat Conditions To 501st SBDE CBRN TACSOP FSOP Sample. (5) conditions reflecting indicators and sketch, probability of enemy CBRNE munitions employment. The MEB directed minimum protective actions are included for requiem essay, each . threat level. Personal. THREATCON White 1. Probability of attack: Negligible. 2. Definition: The opposing force does not possess CB defense equipment, is not trained in CB defense or employment and does not possess the always crack, capability to employ CB agents or systems nor will they most probably gain access to CB agents.
3. Enemy indicators: None. 4. Recommended. Force , Opposing force , Personal protective equipment 988 Words | 5 Pages. The House on Mango Street and I Felt a Funeral in My Brain. felt a Funeral in my Brain” by Emily Dickinson provides concepts of insanity in personal essay sketch, different perspectives.
Clearly different forms of professional reality, the author’s . irony are similar. Two distinctive settings appear as visuals of the event taken at different viewpoints . There are many opinions of the exact theme for these particular stories. One may say that “The House on Mango Street” shows sympathy and personal essay, hope. Others may argue that “I felt a Funeral in jules verne, my Brain” indicates insanity and grievance. Personal. Literally. Audience , Audience theory , Emily Dickinson 735 Words | 2 Pages. Phi-105 Week Five Checkpoint - Moral Character View Points. CheckPoint: Moral Character View Points PHI/105: Intro. Resume Jules. To Philosophy Due Date: 10/05/2011 Instructor: Geth Allison Moral Character . View Points Referencing week four discussion concerning moral character, one viewpoint my discussion group overall agreed upon including me is that habits develop from repeatedly doing something and can reflect on a person of good or bad moral character. For example, if a child was taught to say yes sir while growing up by the time.
English-language films , Ethics , Habit 428 Words | 2 Pages. Opposing Viewpoints- Vegetarianism. ? Opposing Viewpoints When it comes to viewpoints there will always be an opposing side. You must . develop your strongly focused opinion with examples and/or reasons. In order for a reader to accept your side you must use clear, powerful, and direct language to really capture them. Express your opinion clearly, and then base it on factual, researched or first-hand information. Hard facts and first-hand experience are so convincing to readers. The way to convince your audience to accept your opinion. Diets , Health , Health care 1012 Words | 4 Pages.
?Chris Lucas Opposing Viewpoints 11/20/2014 Erika Nicholas When you hear the words low prices it is hard not to personal sketch, think of . Wal-Mart. The company that revolutionized discount shopping. Professional. But what happens behind the scenes? How is it that the world’s largest retail chain can offer so many deals? In the last 20 years the anti-Walmart campaign seems to continuously be on the minds of many. Sebastian Mallaby and personal, Karen Olsson share radically different views on the ethics of the Wal-Mart Corporation. In “Up. Discount store , Supermarket , Union busting 1238 Words | 4 Pages. ?Madison Martin CORE 101-19 10/14/14 Opposing Viewpoints Essay Everyone has their own opinion.
The person sitting next to you . can have an entirely different outlook on something you do. Having different opinions is what makes for interesting arguments. Especially an author and a critic… like Steven Johnson and Dana Stevens. In the disgrace essay, article “Watching TV Makes You Smarter”, Steven Johnson believes that TV does make you smarter, while in her article “Thinking Outside the Idiot Box” Dana Stevens. Audience , Audience theory , Critical thinking 1550 Words | 5 Pages.
Mandatory Drug Sentences Opposing Viewpoints. although prohibition with alcohol was overturned. References Merlo, Alida and Benekos, Peter. (1999) “Prison over crowding creates a Need for sketch, Prison . Alternatives”. Article 15. Opposing viewpoints on Prisons. Risley, David. Anna Akhmatova Requiem Essay. (2000) “Mandatory Sentences are an Effective Strategy in the War on essay sketch Drugs”. Article 2. Opposing viewpoints on Mandatory Drug Sentencing.
Mandatory sentencing , Prison 854 Words | 3 Pages. Global Warming Opposing Viewpoints Paper. health. One thing that is certain the debate over jules, global warming will continue. Works Cited Moore, Thomas. “ Global Warming Caused by Air Pollution . Essay Sketch. Will Not Harm Human Health.” Is Air Pollution a Serious Threat to Health? 2005. Gale Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Akhmatova Requiem. Web. 17 June 2011 Patz, Jonathan and R. Sari Kovat’s “ Global Warming Caused by Air Pollution Will Harm Human Health.” Is Air Pollution a Serious Threat to Health? 2005 Web.
17 June 2011. Climate change , Global warming , Heat wave 1196 Words | 4 Pages. Mentor: English Department Introduction to essay sketch, literary theory Viewpoints in literature . (Essay) Sarajevo, February 2010 A viewpoint in literature is the point of resume view from which the personal, narrator tells us the story. Resume Jules. The basic division of viewpoints is external and internal viewpoints . External viewpoint is sketch used if the narrator is not a part of the story himself, but is rather telling us about always crack, other people who are participants. Fiction , First person , Grammatical person 850 Words | 3 Pages. Opposing Viewpoints: Same-Sex Marriage Equality. Opposing Viewpoints Paper: Same-Sex Marriage Equality Introduction If you had a child that grew up to love someone of the same . sex, and wanted you to acknowledge their love for each other by being at their wedding, would you? Unfortunately, many Americans would sadly answer no to this question even when it involves their own child and his or her biological makeup.
Marriage has been traditionally viewed as a religious and legal commitment between a man and a woman, as well as the ultimate expression. Civil union , Homosexuality , Marriage 1521 Words | 4 Pages. Gardasil: A Controversial Vaccine for Cancer? When you ask people to think of causes of cancer, there are a few things that most will say. The most . Personal. common thoughts to requiem essay, hear include genetics and heredity sources, lifestyle choices like tanning or smoking, and essay, just plain random chance. Anna Essay. One cause that most people won’t think of, however, is essay STDs. Sexually transmitted diseases come with a host of language essay problems, but usually cancer isn’t one that is attributed. Certain types of cervical and other. Cervical cancer , Gardasil , HPV vaccine 1873 Words | 5 Pages. joking.
They were kids who were saying things that they have over heard about in their household or have been taught growing up. Stereotyping is personal still an . issue in society today and I feel as though everyone stereotypes. There are many different viewpoints from every individual in the world from their race, background, gender, as well as their age groups. According to Joi Downing, stereotyping is formed many different ways and for many different reasons. Joi states that “stereotyping is formed to. African American , Stereotype , Stereotypes 677 Words | 4 Pages.
Opposing viewpoints in Context: Renewable ENergy. ? Opposing Viewpoints in on christmas, Context – Renewable Energy Opposing Viewpoints in Context – . Renewable Energy There has been debating among people in the United States on how the best energy supply. Some people suggests that the United States should in fact decrease its dependency on oil and begin to invest in essay, an alternative energy source like renewable energy, such as wind and solar power – Go green. Resume Crack. Others have contended saying that converting over to a new power source would not only be expensive. Alternative energy , Energy development , Film 578 Words | 2 Pages. Writing Workshop #7: Using Opposing Documents in DBQs The goal (though not absolute requirement) is always to try to use all of the essay, . documents in 2007 and composition, a DBQ. But students are often unsure of how to use documents that do not support – and may actually contradict – their argument. The following techniques will help you figure out how to sketch, do that. Sample Question (DBQ #7 in always, back of personal essay text): Historians have often portrayed the capitalists who shaped post-Civil War industrial America as either admirable. Andrew Carnegie , Carnegie Hall , Carnegie Mellon University 1346 Words | 5 Pages. General vision and viewpoint Subject matter that reveals a bright or dark outlook In the texts on my comparative course we find subject . Professional. matter that is sketch either largely depressing or optimistic, and thus suggests to us authors and texts whose outlook on life is largely pessimistic or optimistic.
Lies Of Silence: The subject matter of LS reveals a dark outlook. The central point of the requiem, text is on the dominance of the IRA in Northern Ireland, as they attempt to use the influence of sketch a hotel manager. Ballet , Billy Elliot , Billy Elliot the jules, Musical 1805 Words | 5 Pages. The Federalist Viewpoint One of the major aspects of politics is decision making. Politicians play a direct role in our lives by essay sketch, . deciding what is best for essay professional, the majority of the people. The common goal between all politicians is to make as many people happy while still thinking about what is best in the long run. It is impossible to personal essay, please every single person in this country because we are all very different people.
The United States of American is made up of different socioeconomic backgrounds. Constitution , Democracy , Executive 1431 Words | 4 Pages. Opposing View Euthanasia and Physician Assisted Suicide (PAS) both involve the disgrace essay, practice . of deliberately ending another’s life to put an end to pain and suffering. Personal. More often than not these practices are performed by a doctor on a consenting terminal patient. But is this the right thing to do? It wasn’t too long ago when having diabetes or smallpox were considered to be potentially fatal, with no cure or a way to manage either disease. However.
Death , Euthanasia , Medical ethics 1036 Words | 3 Pages. The Opposing Viewpoints of Slavery in the United States around the resume, 1400s. a positive good. Personal Essay Sketch. What side did each side marshall in support of the case? The opposing viewpoints of slavery in the nation by . the 1400’s were very defined and profound. 2007 Ap English Synthesis Essay. Morals, intentions, and motivational factors all came into play with the controversy. Furthering the development of the nation was quite difficult with the northern abolitionists and southern proslavery advocates voicing their different viewpoints . Abolitionists Stand: The abolitionists were mostly northern citizens.
They. Abolitionism , Abraham Lincoln , Agriculture 674 Words | 2 Pages. 1928 and Choices Narrative Viewpoint. narrative viewpoint Jan 12 Explore how Martin creates a sense of the drama and chaos of the attack on the house in personal essay sketch, pages 119-127. In your . answer you should consider: • Martin's language choices • narrative viewpoint May 11 Explore how Martin uses the first person narrative perspective to suggest Manon's attitudes. Choose two or three sections from the novel to resume jules verne, analyse in detail. In your answer you should consider: • Martin's language choices • narrative viewpoint Jan 11 Explore.
1918 , 1922 , 1928 565 Words | 3 Pages. Snow Child: The Feminist Viewpoint. important person to the Count at the time was the child which is why she was covered and the Countess was bare. This is a symbol of male patriarchy that . women are homogenous and ‘toys’. In conclusion, the Snow Child is a story that supports feminist’s viewpoints of women being conformed to the actions of men. They are made to accept that men have more power over sketch, them and there is not much they can do about it. . Comes , Count , Count von Count 920 Words | 3 Pages. ? Manigault Conflicting Viewpoints Essay M. Anna Essay. Lakeisha Manigault Professor Sharon Thomas Strayer University October 19, 2014 Conflicting . Personal Essay Sketch. ViewPoints Peter Elbow’s introduction to “The Believing Game” and essay on christmas, “The Doubting Game” is personal undeniably the easiest way for anyone to acclimate themselves into the art and the concept of critical thinking. Some of us are already predisposed to unconsciously operate in some of the principles explained by ap english language and composition, Mr.
Elbow and use it daily. While others of us had no idea. Cannabis , Critical thinking , Law 1043 Words | 5 Pages. ? Ethical and Legal Viewpoints Geneva Moore Grand Canyon University Abstract Professional counselors are always . Essay Sketch. confronted with “ethical dilemma” that arises from conflicts in maintaining standards of verne right or wrong in specific counseling practice. Therefore, counselors must be alerted to personal sketch, the professional ethical standard and use it as a guidance in rendering services to the clients. Essay On Christmas. This paper will discuss volunteerism; the legal issues that can surface from volunteering. Business ethics , Ethical code , Ethics 748 Words | 5 Pages. Critical Issue Analysis of Opposing Viewpoints on sketch Aborting a Handicapped Fetus. Critical Issue Analysis of Opposing Viewpoints On Aborting a Handicapped Fetus The continued debate between anti-abortion . lobbyists and anna akhmatova, pro-choice activists regarding the personal, ethics of abortion has ensured a steady stream of written opinions. With fairly recent advances in prenatal screening, doctors can detect whether a fetus is healthy or not and more abortions are being performed due to disgrace essay, this awareness.
In turn, the issue of whether aborting a handicapped fetus is ethical or not is being much. Abortion , Abortion debate , Fertility 804 Words | 2 Pages. Classical Management Viewpoint of the Worker. Q11 a The classical management writers had a particular viewpoint of the worker. Discuss what this was. . [12 marks] a The evolution of management has been in personal, existence since the construction of ap english and composition essay massive structures such as the essay sketch, pyramids in Egypt in the ancient days and the Great Wall of China during the Qing Dynasty period. It is jules thus evident how important the role of management and its application is globally and through the passage of time. The emergence. 21st century , Formal organization , Management 1901 Words | 6 Pages.
indicates that his success is essay inspiring black youth and states quotes from black young voters: “It’s our time to shine.” and “It's a great time for essay professional aspirations, Blacks in . Sketch. America.” The overall style of the essay professional aspirations, cover story is informal, positive and informative. Its viewpoint reflects the personal, pride that the JET magazine’s black audience of the magazine is feeling at seeing Sen. Obama’s success. The Network Journal’s May 2008 cover has the title of the magazine printed in large, bold and red text block with white formal. African American , Barack Obama , Black people 967 Words | 3 Pages. Opposing Gun Control Laws Eng. / 102 May 30, 2012 Opposing Gun Control Laws Watch out! Murder and mayhem is disgrace essay surely on sketch the . horizon as gun control laws are being dropped, and penalties could be imposed on those who do not comply. The debate over the use of guns in the United States can be traced back as far as 1791. The United States has the disgrace essay, greatest percentage of private firearm ownership in the world. Most people do not just own one gun they own two or more guns. The average citizen comes to.
Cannon , Firearm , Gun 1904 Words | 5 Pages. ?In the light of the essay, above statement, compare the general vision and disgrace essay, viewpoint in at least two texts you have studied in your comparative . course. Throughout my study of personal sketch Wuthering Heights by Emily Bronte, Sive by John B.Keane and Casablanca directed by Michael Curtiz, there was no doubt that each text presented me with an outlook on life which shaped my general vision and view point to either one of positivity or in many cases, negativity. Always. In all three texts which I have studied, the sketch, author’s use. Catherine Earnshaw , Emily Bronte , Heathcliff 1674 Words | 4 Pages. Miller 1 Into The Wild Two Viewpoints Into The Wild is the jules verne, story of a young man Christopher McCandless (Emile Hirsch) who is trying to break . away from the norm’s of sketch society and essay professional aspirations, the overbearing influence that his parents try to essay, have in language and composition synthesis essay, his life. Christopher graduates from Emory University and has the grades to go to essay, adventure of a lifetime, tramping his was across the western United States with the final goal of his adventure, living alone in the wild of Alaska. Critics Roger Ebert of the Chicago.
Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor , Chicago Sun-Times , Christopher McCandless 1063 Words | 3 Pages. Opposing Arguments: Abortion Introduction: Why abortion is immoral by reflective essay, Don Marquis is the start of essay two discussions pertaining to whether . abortion should be acceptable in our modern society. The argument, Marquis makes, is that abortion actually deprives the fetus’s “future-like-ours.” Many philosophers support Marquis’ belief by 2007 language synthesis, arguing that fetuses have their own possibilities; thus, killing fetuses is absolutely wrong (Marquis, 105). Essay. Nevertheless, there are also other philosophers who criticize. Abortion , Abortion debate , Developmental biology 2214 Words | 6 Pages.
Name: Course: Professor: Date: Personal ethical viewpoint My seven years of working in HMO as a marketing manager has made me gain a lot of . skills and experience. Since my arrival, I have interacted with the company’s employees at a personal level and inspiration has worked both ways. The employees have been a source of aspirations inspiration to me in as much as I have been to them. Essay Sketch. My top notch in resume jules verne, the marketing area has given me the ability to be able to plan and essay sketch, put business strategies into execution. I. Librarian , Literacy , Marketing 843 Words | 3 Pages. Opposing Gay Marriage Nearly seventy percent of people in the United States oppose gay marriage. There are a lot of reasons why gay marriage . should be opposed. Marriage is an professional aspirations institution between one man and one woman.
Marriage is for personal, procreation (The Divine Institution of Marriage). Ap English And Composition Synthesis Essay. Gay and lesbian couples would represent a profound change in the meaning of marriage. I strongly disagree with same sex marriage because it is against the laws of nature, society and religion. Personal Sketch. First let’s look at. AIDS , Bible , Gay 1329 Words | 4 Pages.
Opposing Perspectives and Solutions of 2007 language essay Distracted Driving. naturalistic argument by personal sketch, taking statistics found from researchers and trusts their results as facts. He is professional aspirations able to personal, conclude that built-in technological . devices allow drivers to keep their attention in front of them, similar to tuning a radio. An opposite jules verne viewpoint is taken by personal sketch, Reynolds, who argues against the data that is obtained by traffic accident studies. He offers three separate forms of essay on christmas evidence as to why these results cannot be trusted. First, the people that are used for these studies are aware of. Automotive industry , Cellular network , Cigarette 934 Words | 3 Pages. the perspectives of reporters at CBS and essay sketch, Senator Joseph McCarthy in crack, viewing McCarthy's actions as he, takes charge… of Communist infiltration. Just as . Hughes' relationship with Plath raised questions from essay sketch, public opinion, but he dismisses their viewpoints through his emotional poetry.
Clooney uses Edward R. Murrow to expose Senator McCarthy as a fear monger of communism in his television segment, See it Now, as he presents his story from anna akhmatova, a low angle shot. This presents Murrow in a powerful position. 1908 births , Edward R. Murrow , George Clooney 997 Words | 3 Pages. Opposing The Death Penalty Taking this course has made me ponder on many issues which I never deemed worthy of personal sketch my thoughts. I always . considered the death penalty one of disgrace essay those things which I never had to personal, concern myself with. Essay Aspirations. First of all I'm not planning to commit any vial crimes, and I don't think anyone I care about has those plans either. Secondly, I've never been conscious or concerned with the likes of criminals.
When we began speaking on the subject, I thought we were only going to. Capital punishment , Capital punishment in the United States , Crime 1103 Words | 3 Pages. Opposing Forces Civil Rights Movement. Opposing forces When looking back on the Sixties, one of the most dominating themes of personal essay sketch that period was the Civil Rights Movement. The quest . for civil rights had been started long ago, when the ap english, black man was freed from the bonds of slavery. Over a hundred years later, the problem of personal essay sketch blacks being treated as second-class citizens still persisted. What could be done to correct the crack, present situation? Some, both blacks and essay, whites, believed that non-violence was the only means to achieve civil rights. Black people , Black Power , Black pride 2317 Words | 7 Pages. There are many distinct differences between the northern and southern settlers that came from Europe to inhabit the new world. Ranging form religious to . economic backgrounds, these differences eventually lead to opposing viewpoints on slavery.
The Protestants, mainly the Puritans, settled the north. Their strong religious convictions stemming from religious persecution in England and lack of anna a long growing season lead to personal essay, an independence from slavery. The southern parts of the colonies were settled. Anglicanism , Bishop , Catholic Church 594 Words | 2 Pages. An Inspector Calls: Issues and Priestly's Viewpoint. An Inspector Calls: Issues and Priestly's Viewpoint 22nd March 1997 Martin Howitt 11W Discuss some of the issues raised in An . Essay Aspirations. Inspector Calls and show how Priestly expresses his own viewpoint in the play.
The play is set in the 1912 on an English street scene in the evening. Sketch. The plot of disgrace essay An Inspector Calls is about a police inspector who interrupts an elegant engagement dinner party to question the family and their guests about an unsuspected suicide of a young working-class girl. An Inspector Calls , Family , J. B. Priestley 1157 Words | 4 Pages. ? Interview with the Opposition: Gay Marriage I chose to use this assignment as an opportunity to discuss my viewpoints on gay marriage . with my wife. Personal. We tend to agree on most other subjects and really feed off of each other’s opinions and resume, beliefs, so I thought maybe this assignment would help shine some light on why exactly we disagree. And maybe more importantly, which one of us is right (ha-ha-ha). I think it’s important to sketch, mention that we both come from very similar backgrounds. Having. Bible , Biblical studies , Criticism of the Bible 638 Words | 2 Pages. Same-sex marriages: Viewpoints and Theories. question this article poses is, should same-sex couples have the always resume crack, same rights to marriage as opposite-sex couples?
There are many different . viewpoints and theories related to this ethical dilemma, which include egoists, social contract theory (Thomas Hobbes), consequentialist and utilitarian beliefs, Immanuel Kant and deontological ethics, and virtue ethics. Each viewpoint and personal essay, system of belief differs from another, yet they all make very strong, convincing points. Egoists only do what would be in on christmas, their. Deontological ethics , Ethics , Gay 1730 Words | 5 Pages. VIEWPOINT NEUTRALITY AND GOVERNMENT SPEECH. VIEWPOINT NEUTRALITY AND GOVERNMENT SPEECH Joseph Blocher* Abstract: Government speech creates a paradox at the heart of the personal essay, First . Amendment. To satisfy traditional First Amendment tests, the government must show that it is not discriminating against a viewpoint . And yet if the government shows that it is condemning or supporting a viewpoint , it may be able to disgrace essay, invoke the government speech defense and thereby avoid constitutional scrutiny altogether. Government speech doctrine therefore rewards. First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution , First Amendment to the United States Constitution , Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution 31617 Words | 108 Pages.
should deviate from the goal of personal sketch maximizing profit to take others responsibilities that help to promote the total welfare of the anna, whole society. I will first . Personal Essay. discuss these two viewpoints and give my opinions on such reasons then, finally, draw up my conclusion on CSR. Discussion of the Friedman point of view: From the Friedman viewpoint , businessmen who seriously take the CRS such as fighting poverty, avoiding pollution… are “unwitting puppets of the intellectual forces that have been undermining the basis. Corporate social responsibility , Government , Milton Friedman 3078 Words | 8 Pages. Difference between Classical Approach to Management and disgrace essay, Behavioral Viewpoint. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CLASSICAL APPROACH TO MANAGEMENT BEHAVIOURAL VIEWPOINT : The classical view point is all about the . different-different methods and different ways for manage work and organizations more effectively. The classical view point includes the three types of approaches such as : 1. SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT 2. BUREAUCRATIC MANAGEMENT 3. Essay Sketch. ADMINISTRATIVE MANAGEMENT These approaches are related to mostly at the top level of management which include systematic and disgrace essay, scientific analysis. Abraham Maslow , Fundamental human needs , Management 1302 Words | 5 Pages. The contrast in sketch, viewpoints between Huffington Post and Fox News in general could not be more pronounced, as each endeavor to cater to specific . viewpoints ; in the case of requiem essay Huffington Post more Liberal, and Fox News more Conservative leaning.
However because this story relates to a proposal that is personal essay being put together by both Lindsey Graham from the Republican Party, and Chuck Schumer of the always crack, Democratic Party the content on Fox News is somewhat more centrist than the usual fare, to emphasize the working. Democratic Party , Human migration , Illegal immigration 551 Words | 2 Pages. Opposing Embryonic Stem Cell Research. Opposing Embryonic Stem Cell Research Stem cell research has a lot to personal, offer in the way of treatments, or even cures to some devastating . Reflective Essay. diseases that humans face. However, research using human embryonic stem cells that can only be obtained by killing a human embryo can not be condoned or paid for by the United States Government.
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It will be seen that, for the most part, Christianity in the West has encouraged people to take a negative attitude on the subject. By contrast, the Eastern religion of Buddhism has taught people to have a more tolerant attitude toward homosexuality. . Bisexuality , Buddhism , Heterosexuality 2848 Words | 9 Pages.
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3D Printing Essays and Research Papers. Strausbaugh 3 Heidi Strausbaugh Mrs. Essay Sketch. DiSanza Microsoft Office 1 2 October 2014 3-D Printing : Endless Possibilities The introduction of 2007 ap english essay . Personal Essay Sketch. 3-D printing is shifting the production of objects from the anna essay factory to the home. Personal. 3-D printing is an disgrace essay additive technology in which objects are built up in layers in a process that at the current time takes several hours. However, it enables consumers to free themselves from traditional suppliers and gives them the essay sketch choice to express their own ideas, customizing.
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Now it’s a . reality. The year is 2015 and the technologies nowadays have expanded. From laptops to cars, they have all been remodeled for the fast-pacing society. Now, the printing world has evolved more than we ever imagined! The 3D printer is probably one of the greatest inventions of society today. But of course, with every invention there are always some disadvantages. 3D printing is one of the greatest inventions. 3D printing , Inkjet printer 940 Words | 4 Pages.
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OBJECTIVE: 3D printing is disgrace essay a form of additive manufacturing technology where a three dimensional object is essay sketch created by laying down . successive layers of material. It is also known as rapid prototyping, is resume jules verne a mechanized method whereby 3D objects are quickly made on a reasonably sized machine connected to a computer containing blueprints for the object. Personal Essay. The 3D printing concept of custom manufacturing is exciting to language, nearly everyone. This revolutionary method for creating 3D models with the use of personal sketch inkjet. 3D printing , Additive manufacturing , Desktop manufacturing 1204 Words | 4 Pages.
Global 3D Printing (Polyjet, FDM, SLS, SLA) Market -Worldwide Industry Analysis, Growth, Trends, And Forecast, 2013 - 2019. The 3D printing market has seen rapid growth in recent years due to its increasing applications across different sectors Such as . Crack. consumer products and electronics, automotive, medical, industrial and sketch, aerospace. Resume Jules Verne. Decreasing cost of 3D printers and its increasing adoption across the government and education sectors is further expected to spur the demand in the coming years. Additionally, 3D printer manufacturers are continuously focusing on the development of personal essay new 3D printing materials, which would provide. 3D printing , Fused deposition modeling , Inkjet printer 424 Words | 3 Pages. ?What is 3D printing ? 3D printing is a process of making three-dimensional solid objects from a . digital file.
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The design is always made in a computer aided design (CAD). 3D modeling , 3D printing , Digital fabricator 699 Words | 5 Pages. prototyping 3D printers 3D printing is personal essay a form of additive manufacturing technology where a three . dimensional object is created by laying down successive layers of material. 3D printers are generally faster, more affordable and easier to use than other additive manufacturing technologies. On Christmas. 3D printers offer product developers the ability to print parts and assemblies made of several materials with different mechanical and physical properties in a single build process. Personal Essay Sketch. Advanced 3D printing technologies. 3D printing , Additive manufacturing , Direct digital manufacturing 1005 Words | 4 Pages. 3D Printer Market in South Korea 2014-2018. ? 3D Printer Market in South Korea 2014-2018 3D printing , also known as additive manufacturing, uses . computer-aided designs to resume jules verne, create an personal object. It is a process of making 3D objects using plastic, metal, and reflective on christmas, composite materials, usually layer upon layer, to build physical models, prototypes, patterns, tooling components, and production parts.
A 3D printer creates 3D objects of any shape without any molding, assembly, or use of machines. It helps in making high-end goods at a reduced cost. In. 3D printing , Additive manufacturing , Fused deposition modeling 351 Words | 3 Pages. Using 3D printers as production tools has become known in industry as “additive” manufacturing. The additive process requires less raw material . and, because software drives 3D printers, each item can be made differently without costly retooling.
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3-D Printing : The Beginning of a Revolution Specific Purpose: To inform my audience of the essay process of 3-D printing and the . many real-world applications. Thesis: With the advancement of 3-D printing technology these printers can and will change our lives in the manufacturing and medical industries. Disgrace Essay. INTRODUCTION Thesis: With the advancement of 3-D printing technology these printers can and personal, will change our lives in the manufacturing and resume, medical industries. Attention: Imagine a. 3D printing , Additive manufacturing , Inkjet printer 1196 Words | 4 Pages. Essay Sketch. 3d Printing: Endless Possibilities. Disgrace Essay. Diane Sargent CS-120 5 May, 2013 3D Printing : Endless Possibilities 3D printing is beginning . to break through in almost every field imaginable. From Architecture, Medical, Space, Art, Culinary, and Arms fields; some I’m probably even forgetting. 3D printing has made me really interested since I first read about the controversy around the 3D printing of a gun that could shoot at least one round before it broke. Personal Sketch. Later there were blue prints posted online to a 3D printed pistol that could shoot up. 3D printing , Inkjet printer , Printing 1239 Words | 3 Pages.
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Three-dimensional printing , also known as additive engineering, is the process by which extracts are used to reflective, make solid 3D objects of virtually any shape from a digital model. Personal Sketch. This is achieved using specially formulated additives, such as plastics, which are formulated into anna essay, consecutive. 3D printing , Additive manufacturing , Desktop manufacturing 3191 Words | 12 Pages. Using 3D Printing to Produce Body Parts · How amazing would it be that everyone’s life could be saved, from needing a heart or . Personal Sketch. needing an ear to have the ability to look and have a normal life? “Nearly 120,000 men, women and children currently need lifesaving organ transplants.”( Statistics | Donatelife) And the saddest thing is about “Every 10 minutes another name is added to the national organ transplant waiting list.”( Statistics | Donatelife) We are in need of organ donors, but not a lot. 3D printing , Anthony Atala , Human anatomy 790 Words | 2 Pages. 3-D Printing Have you ever wondered how powerful and anna requiem essay, destructive a 3-D printer could be? The production and sales of personal essay sketch 3-D printers should be . outlawed in the U.S.A. because, you can potentially be harmed by resume the effects of melting plastic, and you take away money from America’s small businesses, and finally it can be used to create car parts more local thus hurting the economy. The idea of sketch a 3-D printer should be abolished in the United States. Akhmatova. 3-D printing has some very negative health effects. 3D printing , Inkjet printer 663 Words | 2 Pages. ? 3D PRINTING TECHNOLOGY Contents: 1. Introduction 2. History Of 3D Printing 3. Current . 3D Printing Technologies 4. Essay. The Basic Process Of 3D Printing 5. Resume Jules. 3D Printing VS Conventional Technologies 6. Applications 7. Conclusion Introduction 3Dimensions printing is a method of converting a virtual 3D model into a physical object. 3D printing is a category of rapid prototyping technology.
3D printers typically work by printing successive layers on top of. 3D printing , Additive manufacturing , Direct digital manufacturing 3423 Words | 10 Pages. In the 21th century, human beings have witnessed the rapid improvement of technology. 3D printer is a desktop device that can print out an . actual thing, such as entire cars, shoes and even blood vessels, and the price of this device is getting less costly nowadays.( 3D printing is an personal emergent technology that allows personalized and disgrace essay, customized manufacturing of essay real 3D objects. So in the same way that desktop publishing allows the individual to print books( rather thatn going to disgrace essay, a publishing house))However. 3D printing , Inkjet printer , Instant manufacturing 847 Words | 3 Pages. Research of an Innovative Hardware Object. Personal Essay. How the components of a 3D printer work?
3D printing is part of resume a process known as additive manufacturing; the . object is created by personal sketch adding layer by ap english layer. Additive manufacturing allows designers to create complex parts for machines, airplanes and cars at a fraction of the cost and time of standard means like forging, molding, and sculpting. The first step in 3d printing is to create a blueprint of the object you want to essay sketch, print. There are many different modeling software’s u can use for example; Google. 3D printing , Additive manufacturing , Desktop manufacturing 1295 Words | 5 Pages. ?Additive manufacturing or 3D printing  is a process of making a three-dimensional solid object of virtually any shape from a . digital model.
3D printing is 2007 language synthesis achieved using an additive process, where successive layers of material are laid down in personal essay sketch different shapes. 3D printing is also considered distinct from resume crack traditional machining techniques, which mostly rely on personal the removal of material by methods such as cutting or drilling (subtractive processes). London and Paris fashion weeks are months away. Reflective Essay On Christmas. 3D printing , Digital fabricator , Inkjet printer 1056 Words | 3 Pages. ?Trend: 3D Printing 2014 is the year that will see an explosion of the 3D printer, not only in regards to the use . by personal sketch organisations, but also being made available to the masses. It is said that 3D printing has been occurring for the last 25 years, but with the development of technology leading to a drop in cost, 3D printing is disgrace essay now more accessible and cost-effective than ever before (Sunday Times, 2014). According to essay, News24 (2014), A 3D printing trend playing out at always crack the Consumer Electronics Show.
3D printing , Inkjet printer 979 Words | 3 Pages. Introduction MakerBot is sketch a Brooklyn, New York-based company founded in January 2009 producing 3D printers. MakerBot(MB) builds on always crack the early . progress of the RepRap Project with the goal of essay sketch bringing desktop 3D printing into the home at an affordable price. The company started shipping kits in April 2009 and has sold approximately 3,500 units as of March 2011. Demand for the kits was so great in 2009 that the company solicited MakerBot owners to provide parts for future MakerBots from their own MakerBots. 3D printing , Inkjet printer , Rapid prototyping 1475 Words | 6 Pages. Essay Katharina Hahn 3D Printer: 21. Anna Requiem. Century Industrial Revolution?
A revolutionary production process changes the contemporary . understanding of brands. The introduction of 3D printing is shifting the production of objects from the factory to the home. It enables consumers to personal, free themselves from essay traditional suppliers and gives them the choice to follow their own acquisition strategy. Due to this development, brands need to redefine their status as well as their sovereignty of personal essay production. This. 3D printing , Direct digital manufacturing 1991 Words | 6 Pages. modern day technology, there is no reason why we cannot develop a craft to fit the needs that our planet requires. Technology. In 20 years, I project that . our craft will consist of many more fuel-efficient parts and resume verne, cost saving measures. With 3-D printing becoming more and more practical, I believe that a majority of the aircraft we will use will consist of a large amount parts fresh off of the printer.
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3D printing , Direct digital manufacturing , Fused deposition modeling 2435 Words | 7 Pages. Impact Of Technology On Business 1. ? Impact of Innovative Technology on personal sketch Business - 3D Printing Impact of Innovative Technology on Business - 3D . Printing Research undertaken by Singhal and Hendricks  indicated that when disruptive events occur within manufacturing supply chains they can have significantly adverse effects on shareholder value often resulting in share price losses of up to 25%. Disgrace Essay. This research, Figure 1, shows the essay main types of events which cause particularly significant effects. These detrimental effects on stockholder. 3D printing , Direct digital manufacturing , Enterprise resource planning 1457 Words | 9 Pages. Always Crack. manufacturing? Rapid prototyping is a group of techniques used to quickly fabricate a scale model of personal essay a physical part or assembly using . 2007 Language Synthesis. three-dimensional computer aided design (CAD) data. Personal Essay. Construction of the part or assembly is usually done using 3D printing or additive layer manufacturing technology. The first methods for rapid prototyping became available in akhmatova requiem the late 1980s and were used to produce models and prototype parts. Today, they are used for a wide range of applications and are used to manufacture production-quality.
3D printing , Fused deposition modeling , Laser 1973 Words | 6 Pages. Fashion’s ongoing progress. Ever heard of the essay Twitter dress, LED dress or the 3D printed dress worn by Dita Von Teese? The Twitter dress and . LED was developed by Francesca Rosella. Basically everyone got the message or rather the ‘tweet’. Fashion and Technology are the new couple. But unmistakably, the biggest breakthrough is the 3D printed dress, showing that wearable technology is just around the corner. 3D printing technology is still in its infancy, but it has already made its way to the world. 3D printing , Clothing , Direct digital manufacturing 2004 Words | 5 Pages. Essay Professional. impact of 3d printing on essay business. 3D printing , Additive manufacturing , Inkjet printer 2708 Words | 11 Pages. techniques including laser, optical scanning, photosensitive polymers, material extrusion deposition, powder metallurgy, etc. to directly produce a . physical model layer by layer (Layer Manufacturing) in accordance with the geometrical data derived from a 3D CAD model.
RP can deliver working prototype at the early design stage of the new product cycle so manufacturers can use the working prototypes in bridging a multi-disciplined team composed of the marketing, design, engineering manufacturing people. Jules. 3D printing , Computer-aided design , Computer-aided manufacturing 1864 Words | 7 Pages. Top Report-Inside 3D Printing-Technologies, Market Forecast And Business Opportunities. Essay. 3D printing technology has a broad range of applications, including consumer products, medical equipment, machine parts, . automobile components, architecture models, toys, and even food and dessert. This report profiles major 3D printing processes, such as SLA, SLS, LOM, and 2007 ap english and composition synthesis essay, FDM, to personal essay, name a few, with their pros and resume, cons analyzed. Also included are the essay sketch 3D printer market value forecast and market opportunities in the supply chain from the perspective of hardware, software, and resume jules verne, business model. Browse. 3D printing , Additive manufacturing , Fused deposition modeling 424 Words | 3 Pages. 3D Printing, A Revolution In The Sex Toy Industry. PressReleasePing 3D Printing , A Revolution In The Sex Toy Industry 3D printing technology can . transform our lives in many ways.
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Creators Liz and Kyle Von Hasseln. 3D printing , Inkjet printer , Mobile phone 363 Words | 2 Pages. 3D Printing Porter s Five Forces Analys. easily 3D printing will lower barriers to market entry and will enable innovative start-ups to target the market using . Verne. crowd-funding.. Free RD also dramatically lowers the barriers to entry. Essay Sketch. Capital requirements - Lower costs of reflective essay technology equipment. First, AM reduces the capital required to achieve economies of personal essay sketch scale. Second, it increases flexibility and reduces the capital required to 2007 ap english language synthesis essay, achieve scope.. Government policy - Although 3D printing opens up new practical challenges, protection of 3D designs. 3D printing , Competitor analysis , First-mover advantage 652 Words | 3 Pages. address?
What is the current technology(ies) used to solve or lessen the problem? How well or poorly dies the current technology(ies) deal with the personal essay . problem? The introduction of 3D printing in jules the mid-1980s was a tremendous leap forward in the area of product prototyping. Prior to the introduction of 3D printing techniques, product manufacturers often spent significant time developing prototypes for various types of pre-production testing. Early in essay the industrial revolution, prototyping often. 3D printing , Fused deposition modeling , Inkjet printer 3419 Words | 11 Pages. think of this: Have you ever thought about, instead of always crack a regular printer printing only thin slices of paper, that one day we would be . Personal Essay. printing out a whole 3-dimensional object? This is what I am going to talk about today. 3D printing technologies.
In this presentation, I am going talk about the engineering technologies behind 3D printing and also its application in various field. On Christmas. So many of you might ask, what is 3D printing ? And how is it possible to print out an essay sketch object that has 3-dimensional shape. 3D printing , Direct digital manufacturing , Fused deposition modeling 681 Words | 1 Pages. Introduction 3D Printing is a becoming a very popular method of professional production for those that need models produced quickly and on a . small scale. 3D printing is the process of making a real, solid 3D model from personal essay it’s original digital format. The benefits of 3D printing are numerous and are continually being improved as the technology changes. With the rise of this new technology, it can no longer be viable for companies to sit back and ignore it. Requiem. As a production company Fuse Media needs to invest. 3D printing , Fused deposition modeling , Inkjet printer 3770 Words | 10 Pages. Successful Business Models For 3d Printing Preview.
Models for 3D Printing Seizing opportunities with a game changing technology Onno Ponfoort In cooperation with Wieke Ambrosius, . Essay. Laurens Barten, Gijs Duivenvoorde, Linda van den Hurk, Amir Sabirovic Erik Teunissen Successful Business Models for 3D Printing Seizing opportunities with a game changing technology Onno Ponfoort In cooperation with Wieke Ambrosius Laurens Barten Gijs Duivenvoorde Linda van den Hurk Amir Sabirovic Erik Teunissen Successful Business Models for 3D Printing Table of. 3D printing , Additive manufacturing , Inkjet printer 2416 Words | 8 Pages. p.2 9/17 3D Printing 3D printing is a technology that lets you take a digital file and turn it . into a physical object. You can take almost anything and create it. Professional. Everything that is printed, is personal essay sketch protected by copyright. You take a 3D digital file and just with the jules click of a button you can create it. You can download a 3D file offline, or create one yourself.
The software makes it layer by layer. You can literally print out anything you can possibly think of. They're being made so that they're. Sketch. 3D printing , Blood , Great Barrier Reef 4631 Words | 12 Pages. 3-D Printing DeVry University Professor Robert Clark I. Historical development and context a. Essay On Christmas. The birth of . 3-D printing b. Building Parts: Layer by Layer c. New advances to medicine thru the use of personal sketch engineered organs d. Open-source collaboration with 3-D printing e. Mass customization in manufacturing thru the use of selective laser sintering (SLS) machines f. First self-replicating printer g. Anna Akhmatova. Do-it-yourself co-creation service launches h. Major breakthrough. 3D printing , Direct digital manufacturing , Fused deposition modeling 3064 Words | 9 Pages. How Will 3d Printing Affect the Process and Quality of Constructing Housing in the 21st Century? 5/2/2013 ARCH 470 Charles Lagreco Guillermo Heuze Final Paper: How will 3D printing affect the process and quality of . constructing housing in the 21st Century? The role of Technology in the 21st century cannot be over looked.
It has completely transformed the way we live and the way we interact with each other. It has enabled the formation of numerous possibilities that were not previously imaginable. 3D printing has evolved so much in the past 5 years where we can now virtually make any shape. 3D printing , Building , Construction 6489 Words | 17 Pages. 3D - PRINTER For more information visit : www.nana.com ! -an ! innovative product ! Nishant Chanana!
Abhay Kelkar! Nagarjun Bagalore! Alex . Justin Sulaiman Vision and personal, Mission • Vision: ! To empower the success and growth of small and medium size businesses through the disgrace essay power and personal sketch, promise of 3D direct manufacturing.! • Mission: ! Our mission is to disgrace essay, deliver innovative, cost effective 3D printing solutions for direct manufacturing to small and medium size businesses. Values • Our Values are CLEAR. 3D printing , Additive manufacturing , Fused deposition modeling 549 Words | 23 Pages. What is 3D printing ? …“ 3D printing is a form of additive manufacturing technology where a three . Personal Essay. dimensional object is crack created by essay laying down successive layers of synthesis essay material. 3D printers are generally faster, more affordable and easier to essay sketch, use than other additive manufacturing technologies. 3D printers offer product developers the ability to reflective essay, print parts and personal essay sketch, assemblies made of several materials with different mechanical and physical properties in a single build process. Advanced 3D printing technologies.
3D printing , Digital fabricator , Fused deposition modeling 4201 Words | 15 Pages. conduct a TA of the selected technology This assessment will look at essay 3D printing and its impacts. Essay. 3D . printing has many capabilities but comes with, like many technologies, pros and cons. It allows one to essay on christmas, create a wide variety of products from a number of materials. It can be used for product formation, allowing designers and engineers to personal essay, test out ideas for always resume crack, dimensional products cheaply before committing to essay, the process. 3D printing also allows doctors to create replicas of the human parts they are about. Disgrace Essay. 3D printing , Inkjet printer , Printing 767 Words | 2 Pages. ? The 3D Printing Revolution There is a revolution abound in personal essay sketch the world of manufacturing. This revolution, known as . 3D printing or additive manufacturing, is bringing costs down and and composition essay, heightening awareness for even the smallest consumer.
3D printing has been around for sketch, more years than some would think, but has only recently come into the limelight. In fact, a version of this easily adaptable technology dates back nearly 30 years. History of 3D Printing Charles Hull can be credited with developing. 3D printing , Direct digital manufacturing , Fused deposition modeling 4273 Words | 12 Pages. Verne. Performance of 3D Printed Models as a Means for Spatial Engineering Information Visualization. Historically, physical three dimensional ( 3D ) models built by hand provided 3D physical representations of the project to essay, assist . in disgrace essay sequencing, visualization, and planning of essay sketch critical construction activities.
This practice has greatly diminished since the disgrace essay adoption of three dimensional CAD (computer-aided design) and BIM (building information modeling) technologies. Recently, additive manufacturing technologies have allowed for three dimensional printing of 3D CAD models. By applying a cognitive based. 3D printing , Computer graphics , Computer-aided design 457 Words | 2 Pages.
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Essay on Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) Read this essay to essay learn about Foreign Direct Investment (FDI). After reading this essay you will learn about: 1. Introduction to FDI 2. Concept of FDI 3. Foreign Portfolio Investment 4. Raison d’etre 5. Benefits 6. Selection 7. Negative Impact 8. Types 9. Theories 10. Patterns 11. Reflective On Christmas? Policy Framework 12. Promotion 13. FDI Trends in India.
Essay on the Introduction to FDI Essay on the Concept of FDI Essay on Foreign Portfolio Investment in comparison to FDI Essay on Raison d’etre for personal essay FDI Essay on the Benefits of FDI Essay on the Selection of FDI Destinations Essay on essay professional aspirations, the Negative Impact of Foreign Direct Investment Essay on essay, the Types of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) Essay on the Theories of Foreign Direct Investment Essay on the Patterns of FDI Essay on the Policy Framework to Promote Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) Essay on the Promotion of Foreign Direct Investment in India(FDI) Essay on FDI Trends in India. International trade and foreign direct investment (FDI) are the two most important international economic activities integrating the world economy. Jules Verne? With the increase in the mobility of factors of production across countries, FDI has become an integral part of a firm’s strategy to expand international business. FDI is the largest source of external finance for developing countries. At present, inward stock of personal sketch, FDI amounts to about one-third of the developing countries’ gross domestic product (GDP), compared to merely 10 per cent in 1980. FDI plays a crucial role in the development process of host economies.
It also has a significant role in always resume, enhancing exports of the host country. Essay? It is estimated that the akhmatova essay, sales from foreign-owned facilities are about double the value of world trade. FDI not only serves as a source of capital inflow into host economies, but also helps to enhance the competitiveness of the domestic economy through transferring technology, strengthening infrastructure, raising productivity, and generating new employment opportunities. FDI has often been viewed as a threat by host countries due to the capacity of transnational investing firms to personal essay influence economic and political affairs. Many developing countries often fear FDI as a modern form of economic colonialism and always crack exploitation, similar to their previous unpleasant experiences with colonial powers. Yet, FDI flows are generally preferred to other forms of essay, external finance because these are non-debt creating, non-volatile, and the returns depend on the performance of the project financed by the investors. FDI is considered superior to other types of capital flows due to various reasons: i. Firms entering a host country through FDI have a long-term perspective in essay, contrast to essay foreign lenders and portfolio investors. Therefore, FDI flows are less volatile and easier to sustain at the time of resume, economic crisis.
ii. Debt inflows may finance consumption whereas FDI is personal sketch more likely to be used to improve productivity. iii. Since FDI provides more than just capital by offering access to internationally available technologies, management know-how, and marketing skills, it is likely to have a strong impact on economic growth. A firm has to evaluate various options to anna requiem cater to foreign markets and select the most appropriate mode of international business expansion. Geographical distances of markets or resources, especially for low-value products, make it more attractive to get into manufacturing operations overseas.
In addition, the firm has to carry out personal essay sketch a risk benefit analysis of licensing vis-a-vis ownership for its international operations. A foreign firm investing in India should understand the institutional and regulatory framework for investment promotion in India. In simple terms, FDI means acquiring ownership in an overseas business entity. Essay Aspirations? It is the essay, movement of reflective on christmas, capital across national frontiers, which gives the investor control over the assets acquired. Essay? FDI occurs when an essay aspirations, investor based in essay, one country (the home country) acquires an asset in another country (the host country) with the intent to manage it. It is the management dimension that distinguishes FDI from portfolio investment in foreign stocks and disgrace essay other financial instruments. Personal Sketch? Conceptually, a firm becomes a multinational corporation (MNC) by crack, way of FDI as its operations extend to multiple countries.
FDI is defined as an investment involving a long-term relationship and reflecting a lasting interest and control by personal, a resident enterprise (foreign direct investor or parent enterprise) in one economy in an enterprise (FDI enterprise or affiliate enterprise or foreign affiliate) resident in an economy other than that of the anna akhmatova requiem essay, foreign direct investor.’ For acquiring substantial controlling interest, generally 10 per cent or more equity is to be acquired in the foreign firm. The ‘lasting interest’ implies the existence of a long- term relationship between the direct investor and the enterprise wherein a significant degree of influence is exerted by the investor in the management of the direct investment enterprise. Direct investment enterprise refers to an incorporated enterprise in which a foreign investor owns 10 per cent or more of the ordinary shares of voting power or an unincorporated enterprise in which a foreign investor has equivalent ownership. Ownership of 10 per cent of the ordinary shares or voting stock is the criterion for determining the existence of a direct investment relationship. These are either directly or indirectly owned by the direct investor. The definition of direct investment enterprise extends to the branches and subsidiaries of the direct investor. FDI is characterized by decreased sensitivity to fluctuations in foreign exchange rates. Since FDI is the result of a long-term perspective by the investor, it is personal sketch much less volatile than foreign portfolio investment.
It has been reported that most FDI (i.e., more than 90%) leads to intra-corporate trade at international level. The returns of FDI are generally in form of 2007 ap english and composition, profit, i.e., retained earnings, profits, dividends, royalty payments, management fees, etc. Essay # 3. Foreign Portfolio Investment in comparison to FDI : Foreign portfolio investment (FPI) is defined as an essay, investment by individuals, firms, or a public body in foreign financial instruments, such as foreign stocks, government bonds, etc. In FPl, the jules verne, equity stake in the foreign business entity is not significant enough to exert any management control. Thus, FPI is the sketch, passive holding of securities and other financial assets by essay, a foreign firm, which does not entail management control of the issuing firm. High rate of returns and mitigation of risks due to geographical diversification positively influence FPL Thus, FPI is passive whereas FDI is active. The returns in essay, the case of FPI are generally in disgrace essay, the form of non-voting dividends or interest payments. Portfolio investment, like FDI, is part of the capital account of balance of payment (BoP) statistics.
It is important to personal sketch understand why a firm takes a decision to invest in foreign countries when low-risk alternatives to cater to foreign markets, such as exporting and licensing, are already available. As the firm invests its own resources in disgrace essay, a foreign country, the firm is sketch exposed to greater risks. Major factors that influence a firm’s decision to invest in essay, foreign markets are discussed. Higher costs of personal essay, transportation between the production facilities and geographically distant markets make it economically unviable for firms to compete or enter such markets. Substantial costs of reflective, transportation have to be incurred for marketing products in countries located at larger geographical distances. For a product with low unit value, i.e., value to weight ratio, such as steel, fast food, cement, etc., the cost of transportation has much larger impact on its competitiveness in foreign markets compared to a high-unit value product, such as watches, jewellery, computer processors, hard-disks, etc. Therefore, for low-unit value products, it becomes more attractive to manufacture the products in personal, the foreign country itself either by way of licensing or FDI. Liability of resume, foreignness : A firm’s unfamiliarity with the host country and lack of essay sketch, adaptation of essay, business practices in a foreign country often result in a competitive disadvantage vis-a-vis indigenous firms. Personal Essay Sketch? This adds to the cost of doing business abroad, which is termed as liability of foreignness’. For instance, Kellogg’s unfamiliarity with Indian breakfast habits led to faulty positioning of its cornflakes as a substitute to the traditional Indian breakfast and has been a classic marketing blunder.
It took several years for Kellogg’s to understand the centrality of its traditional food in India’s lifestyle before repositioning its cornflakes as a complementary rather than a substitute to disgrace essay the Indian breakfast. In another instance, Disneyland failed miserably in its French venture primarily due to lack of product adaptation in view of significant differences in personal essay, customers’ preferences in resume crack, Europe vis-a-vis the US market. It has to arrive at a trade-off between scale benefits from concentrating production at a single location and personal essay sketch exporting or benefits of FDI, such as proximity of production locations, higher level of control, and gaining better access to essay professional aspirations the market. Potential benefits of FDI to host countries include the following: Access to superior technology: Foreign firms bring superior technology to the host countries while investing. The extent of benefits depends upon the technology spill-over to other firms based in personal, the host country. The investing foreign firm increases industry output, resulting in always resume crack, overall reduction in essay sketch, domestic prices, improved product or services quality, and greater availability.
This intensifies competition in host economies, resulting in net improvement in consumer welfare. Increase in domestic investment: It is found that capital inflows in the form of FDI increase domestic investment so as to survive and resume jules verne effectively respond to the increased competition. Bridging host countries foreign exchange gaps: In most developing countries, the levels of domestic savings are often insufficient to support capital accumulation to achieve growth targets. Besides, the level of foreign exchange may be insufficient to purchase imported inputs. Under such situations, the essay sketch, FDI helps in making available foreign exchange for essay aspirations imports.
Essay # 6. Selection of FDI Destinations : A firm has to evaluate various countries as investment destinations and personal essay select the most appropriate one for investment. Briefly, the factors influencing net profit of an MNE’s operations in a host country include the following: Cost of language and composition essay, capital input: Cost includes interest rate and financial capital employed for setting up of plant or the rent. Wage rate is highly significant for the manufacture of labour-intensive products. The prevailing taxation rates of the host country are of prime importance while making an investment decision. A large number of countries provide tax holidays to foreign companies in order to attract FDI. Costs of inputs:
The costs of inputs in the host country, such as raw material, intermediate products, etc. influences the production cost which in turn influences the investment decision. Cost of logistics: Logistics, including availability of various modes of transport, and the cost of transportation, influence the FDI decision. Demand of a product in the host country market, including consumer preferences and their income levels, significantly affects the investment decisions. Personal? In terms of ‘most attractive’ global FDI locations, four of the top five countries, as ranked by trans-national corporations TNCs are surprisingly, countries from developing economies. China is considered the most attractive investment location by 52 per cent of respondents followed by India with 41 per cent (Fig. Crack? 12.1).
India’s high ranking is considered to be even more remarkable given the fact that FDI inflows to India have been modest until recently. The US is the only developed country in the top five investment locations. Although, Germany, UK, and Australia could make it into the top 10, traditionally important FDI destinations, such as Canada, France, the Netherlands, and Italy were not included. This implies that TNCs expect investors to move away from established FDI locations, which often have saturated markets and high production costs, towards emerging economies that are often more dynamic. The overall trend in FDI inflows in recent years in developing countries is taking the lead in global FDI recovery. As indicated in personal, Exhibit 12.1, India has emerged as a hot investment destination.
Leading global firms from a variety of industrial sectors, including IT, telecom, and automobile have not only made substantial investment in India but also plan to commit significant resources in the future too. Essay # 7. Aspirations? Negative Impact of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI): In most countries, public opinion towards foreign enterprises is sketch not very favourable and FDI is feared due to essay on christmas its impact on domestic firms, the economy, and culture. The major concerns about the negative aspects of personal essay sketch, FDI are as follows: Multinational enterprises (MNEs) are far more advanced than domestic companies, owing to professional aspirations their large size and financial power. In some sectors, this is leading to sketch MNE monopolies, thus impeding the entry of domestic enterprises and harming consumers. MNEs’ ability to operate at a large scale and invest heavily in marketing and disgrace essay advertising and RD activities differentiate their products and essay makes entry of new firms far more difficult as they are unable to make similar investments in RD and marketing strategies. (ii) Crowding-out and reflective on christmas unemployment effects: FDI tends to discourage entry and stimulates exit of domestic entrepreneurs, often termed as the crowding-out effect.
As FDI enterprises are often less labour intensive, their entry results in higher unemployment and increased social instability. MNEs often function in a way that doesn’t result in technology- sharing or technology-transfer, thereby making local firms technologically dependent or technologically less self-reliant. Foreign investors import their inputs and use the host country as a processing base, with little value-added earnings in the host country. A large proportion of their profits may be repatriated. Large foreign investors often bribe government officials and distort market forces. With MNEs holding a dominant position in sensitive industries, such as telecommunications, and the supply of core equipment and software for the information technology (IT) industry, there is a danger that the strategic interests of the host country may be compromised. Essay # 8. Personal Essay? Types of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI): Foreign direct investment may be classified under various heads depending upon the criteria used.
Major types of FDI are discussed here: (i) On the Basis of Direction of Investment: Foreign firms taking control over essay professional, domestic assets is termed as inward FDI. From an Indian perspective, direct investments made by foreign firms, such as Suzuki, Honda, LG, Samsung, General Motors, Electrolux, etc., in India are examples of personal essay, inward FDI. Domestic firms investing overseas and taking control over foreign assets is known as outward FDI. Such outward FDI is also known as Direct Investment Abroad (DIA). From the requiem essay, Indian point of view, direct investments overseas by Indian firms, such as Tata Motors, Infosys, Videocon, ONGC, Ranbaxy, etc., are illustrations of outward FDI. (ii) On the personal essay sketch, Basis of Types of Activity: When a firm invests in a foreign country in similar production activity as carried out in home country, it is termed as horizontal FDI. Thus, horizontal FDI occurs when the multinational undertakes the same production activities in multiple countries. Horizontal FDI enables the investing firm to exploit its competitive advantage in the host country. Resume Crack? Multinational firms from both developed and developing countries use horizontal FDI to establish their competitive advantage abroad.
A number of MNEs, such as Coke, Pepsi, Kodak, HSBC, LG, Samsung, etc., expanded internationally by way of horizontal FDI. Direct investment in industries abroad so as to sketch either provide inputs for the firm’s domestic operations or sell its domestic outputs overseas is termed as vertical FDI. Thus, vertical FDI takes place when the jules, multinational fragments the production process internationally, locating each stage of production in the country where it can be done at the least cost. A firm gains control over essay, various stages of the value chain from sourcing raw materials to manufacturing and to marketing. The MNEs fragment their production activities geographically on disgrace essay, the basis of factor intensities in vertical FDI. Backward vertical FDI: Direct investment overseas aimed at essay sketch, providing inputs for the firm’s production processes in the home country is termed as backward vertical FDI (Exhibit 12.2). Such FDI is historically common in extractive industries, such as mining (gold, copper, tin, bauxite mining, and petroleum extraction).
Companies like British Petroleum and always resume Shell have expanded their international business by backward vertical FDI. Forward vertical FDI: Direct investment in a foreign country aimed to sell the output of the firm’s domestic production processes is referred to as forward vertical FDI. Setting up a marketing network, assembly, or mixing operations overseas are illustrations of forward vertical FDI. Direct investment overseas aimed at manufacturing products not manufactured by personal, the firm in the home country is termed as conglomerate FDI. (iii) On the Basis of Investment Objectives: In order to gain privileged access to resources vis-a-vis competitors, MNEs invest in countries with availability of natural resources. Professional Aspirations? This ensures the MNE of stability of personal essay, raw material supply at right prices. The major economic determinants for resource seeking FDI include: i. Professional? Availability of raw material.
ii. Complementary factors of production. iii. Physical infrastructure. When resource-abundant countries lack capital and necessary technical skills for resource extractions, such FDI is favored. When host countries are no longer constrained with the availability of capital and technical skills and personal essay are able to set up competitive indigenous enterprises, FDI gives way to non-equity arrangements and ap english language and composition essay arm’s-length trade relations. Historically, resource-seeking FDI has been very important but its significance has declined considerably over time. However, resource-seeking FDI still remains extremely important for investing in developing countries.
Such types of MNEs are common in sectors, such as oil, agro-processing, metals like steel, copper, bauxite, etc. Moreover, resource-seeking FDI is also preferred for production of labour-intensive goods. For instance, naturally occurring soda ash in Kenya reduces the personal essay, cost of production by half for chemical industries. Cheap gas in Trinidad and Tobago considerably brings down the cost of steel production. Morocco is an essay professional aspirations, investment destination for Tata Chemicals because the personal sketch, country holds 60 per cent of the world’s phosphate resources. MNEs invest in countries with sizeable market and growth opportunities in order to protect existing markets, counteract competitors, and to preclude rivals or potential rivals from gaining new markets.
Investing in other countries helps the investing firm to reduce transaction costs, improve buyer understanding by bringing it closer to the target markets, and overcome a number of regulatory controls in the host country. The major economic determinants of market-seeking FDI include: ii. Market growth. iii. Regional integration. Market-seeking FDI are often favoured by MNEs in resume, a large number of durable and non-durable consumer goods, such as automobiles, computers, processed foods, cigarettes, etc.
A firm may strategically opt for efficiency-seeking FDI as a part of regional or global product rationalization and/or to sketch gain advantages of process specialization. Efficiency-seeking FDI provides the investing firm not only access to markets but also economies of scope, geographical diversification, and essay international sourcing of inputs. The major economic determinants of efficiency seeking FDI include: i. Productivity adjusted labour costs. ii. Availability of personal, skilled labour. iii. Availability of business related services.
iv. Trade policy. Efficiency-seeking FDI are often favoured in product categories, such as motor vehicles, electrical appliances, business services, etc., besides, in process involving production of consumer electronics, textiles and clothing, and pharmaceuticals. On the basis of entry modes, foreign direct investment may be of the following two types: Investing in creation of new facilities or expansion of disgrace essay, existing facilities is termed as Greenfield investment. Firms often enter international markets by way of personal sketch, Greenfield investments in industries where technological skills and production technology are the key. Further, the selection of FDI mode is influenced by: i. Akhmatova Requiem Essay? Institutional factors. ii.
Cultural factors. iii. Transactional cost factors. Particularly, the attitude towards takeovers, conditions in capital markets, liberalization policies, privatization, regional integration, current sales, and the role played by intermediaries, such as investment bankers affect the mode of essay, direct investment abroad. Investment promotion by host countries aims at investment in new greenfield ventures as it is viewed to generate economic benefits.
In developing countries where the right types of companies are not available for acquisition, Greenfield operations are the preferred mode of FDI. Mergers and acquisitions : For establishing overseas production facilities, mergers and acquisitions (MAs) are crucial tools for a firm’s internationalization strategy. MAs have become an anna requiem essay, increasingly popular mode of investment among firms worldwide in order to essay sketch enhance their competitiveness so as to consolidate, protect, and advance their position by acquiring companies internationally. It is estimated that about 70-80 per cent of FDI are in the form of MAs. In developed countries with large number of competing firms, MAs serve as principal source of disgrace essay, FDI.
However, an MNE has to make Greenfield investments in essay, developing and requiem least developed countries where the personal, right type of target firms are not available for acquisition. The value of India’s total cross-border deals, both inbound and outbound, increased significantly by 409 per cent from reflective essay on christmas, US$9.5 billion in personal, 2005 to US$48 billion in 2007 but declined to US$25.63 billion in 2008. The value of inbound deals increased by 200 per cent from US$5.1 billion in 2005 to US$15.5 billion in 2007 whereas the outbound deals during the same period increased rapidly by 662 per cent from US$4.3 billion to US$32.8 billion. However, both inbound and outbound deals declined^ to US$12.48 billion and on christmas US$13.15 billion, respectively in 2008. The major foreign MNEs acquiring Indian firms during 2005 to 2007 included Vodafone, Maxis Communication and Apollo, Vendanta Resources, Mylan Laboratories, Mittal Investments, Citigroup, Oracle, Holcim and Matsushita Electric Works Ltd (Table 12.1) whereas major overseas acquisitions by Indian firms included that of Tata Steel, Hindalco, Suzlon, Essar Steel Holdings, Great Offshore, United Spirits, Tata Power, Tata Chemicals, J SW Steel Limited, Wipro Technologies, Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories, and Suzlon Energy (Table 12.2).
The most attractive returns from mergers occur where scale economies can be achieved, which means essentially buying consolidation among peer companies. India is likely to witness a relatively large volume of horizontal combinations where companies buy their peers. An acquisition may be termed as a ‘hostile takeover’ when it is personal sketch resisted by the target firm’s management and board of directors. Such takeover attempts are strongly resisted by the target firm. In order to prevent the acquiring firm from such takeovers the target firm often resorts to use of ‘poison pills’ by increasing the cost of disgrace essay, negative items as a strategic option, as discussed in Exhibit 12.3. However, the acquiring firm may raise the attractiveness of its offer, through a ‘sweetener’ to sketch effectively counter the target firm’s resistance.
Investment by foreign firms in the manufacturing sector is termed as industrial FDI. Major objectives of FDI in the manufacturing sector include: i. To achieve cost efficiencies by way of taking advantage of availability of raw material inputs and manpower at cheaper costs. Savings in anna requiem, costs of logistics due to sketch proximity to inputs, markets, or both, results into 2007 and composition synthesis essay cost reduction. ii. To bypass trade barriers such as high import tariffs and personal essay other import restrictions. iii. To be closer to the markets and serve them more efficiently.
iv. To have physical presence due to strategic reasons. Investment by aspirations, a foreign firm in essay, services sector is termed as non-industrial FDI. The major reasons for non-industrial FDI are: i. Resume? As services are non-tradable, FDI becomes a strategic option to enter international markets. ii. To overcome regulatory obstacles. iii. Sketch? To create regular contact with the customer. (vi) On the Basis of Strategic Modes: In response to trade barriers of the host country, such as import restrictions and prohibitive tariff structure, FDI is made a substitute for exports.
It is always aimed to personal essay sketch serve the target market and reflective on christmas its surroundings effectively. Essay Sketch? Entry mode for such types of FDI is always typically through MAs. Countries with high per capita income are generally targeted for export replacement FDI. In order to personal essay sketch minimize a firm’s cost of production and distribution, FDI is made so as to disgrace essay utilize the target country to serve the global markets. The competitive advantage and the incentives offered by the host country plays a crucial role in essay, attracting such FDI. Greenfield investment is often the mode of entry in such target markets as these have relatively low per essay, capita income. Firms invest in foreign countries so as to use the target as a base to serve investors’ home country.
The basic objective of firms in this kind of FDI is to obtain cheap inputs to support home production. Bilateral trade agreements play an important role in essay sketch, FDIs to promote substitutions. Firms generally target countries with middle to always resume crack high per capita income, using the Greenfield operations as the entry mode. Essay # 9. Personal Essay Sketch? Theories of Foreign Direct Investment: Most trade theories fail to explain why a firm invests in foreign countries in aspirations, unfamiliar environments, making its operations much more complex, difficult to manage and, therefore, running additional risks. An FDI theory should help one conceptualize answers to typical ‘W and ‘H’ questions such as: Who is the investor? A domestic or a foreign investor, an established multinational company, or a little known new firm. What kind of investment is to be made? Whether it is Greenfield or merger or acquisition?
Whether the investment is first-time or sequential? Why should the firm go abroad? Reasons for internationalization, such as scale or scope economies, cost reduction, increased profitability, or strategic reasons for making the investment. The firm has to carry out analysis of socio-cultural, political, and economic factors before deciding upon the selection of host country for personal sketch investment. The timing of investment decisions in view of product lifecycle stages, maturity of the market, and firm’s resource availability. How to internationalize? In view of various modes of international business expansion, the firm has to essay professional select the best suited entry mode.
Principal theories of international investment that address one or more of these issues are discussed here. The earlier theories were based on personal essay sketch, the belief that FDI takes place due to differences in the rates of return on capital across countries. Capital is likely to be attracted to markets that offer higher returns as long as there are differences in interest rates or prices between markets. These theories were based on the assumption that markets were perfectly competitive and firms invest overseas as a form of factor movement to benefit from differential profits. The theory of capital arbitrage is more suitable for foreign portfolio investments where the returns on capital are crucial in the short term.
A firm has long-term interest in FDI, a variety of multiple factors influence the investment decision, besides higher rate of return. Therefore, the scope of capital arbitrage theory is limited to providing a broad explanation of FDI. Factors that inhibit markets from working perfectly are known as market imperfections. Government policies, including import restrictions and quotas, incentives on exports and FDI, tax regimes, restrictions on FDI, and government’s participation in trade are some of the examples of always crack, government intervention that create market imperfections. The basic objective of such restrictive measures is to promote a country’s industrial development and manage the balance of trade. Most developing countries often practice the import substitution strategy by restricting imports and promoting domestic production of less competitive indigenous firms. However, developed countries are in no way behind in protecting their domestic industries by essay sketch, providing huge subsidies and incentives to domestic producers, besides using a variety of ever-evolving non- tariff barriers to jules restrict entry to their markets. Essay? A combination of 2007 and composition essay, all these factors contributes to imperfections in the international markets.
Such market imperfections make exporting both restrictive and expensive. In order to access restrictive markets with market imperfections, FDI is often employed as a strategic tool for international business expansion. Sketch? FDI effectively bypasses the trade restrictions, such as prohibitive import tariffs and quotas. MNEs tend to ap english exploit market imperfections created by the host country governments by direct investment overseas. Sketch? Such protectionist measures decreased profitability of exporting automobiles from Japan to Europe and increased profitability of FDI to essay on christmas cater to the market.
This explains establishment of manufacturing operations by Japanese automobile majors in Europe and the US. It is important to understand that it is the mobility of capital and immobility of low- cost labour that makes FDI a preferred tool to access foreign markets. Firms often take advantage of market imperfections, such as economies of scale and scope, cost advantages, product differentiations, technical, managerial or marketing know-how, financial strengths, etc., by way of investing abroad. A firm expands internationally in order to exploit its specific advantage or core competence in foreign markets. When the know-how, technology, skills, or trade secrets available with the firm are crucial to a firm’s competitive advantage, it needs to protect such knowledge base within the organization.
Since arm’s-length collaborative strategies, such as management contract and licensing do not provide complete protection to the specific know-how possessed by the firm, internalization is often preferred so that trade secrets remain within the organization. Therefore, a firm expands into international markets by way of investing in a foreign country in order to have control over its overseas operations. An MNE is believed to possess monopolistic advantage, which enables it to operate overseas more profitably and compete with local firms. The benefit possessed by the firm that maintains its monopolistic power in the market is essay termed as monopolistic advantage. For a firm to invest in disgrace essay, physical resources overseas, the following conditions are required: i. The firm should have some additional advantage that outweighs the cost of personal essay sketch, operating in a foreign country and exposing itself to an alien business environment. ii. The firm can exploit such specific advantage only through control of foreign operations by ownership rather than other low-risk means of market access requiring less commitment of resources such as exporting and licensing. Such an advantage specific to the investing firm is also known as firm specific advantage (FSA). Anna Akhmatova Essay? It is the monopolistic advantages such as ‘superior knowledge’ and ‘economies of scale’ not possessed by personal essay sketch, competing firms that justify investment in physical capital overseas. (v) International Product Life Cycle Theory : The international product life cycle (IPLC) theory developed by Raymond Vernon provides an explanation as to why production locations are shifted across countries. Although the 2007 ap english language and composition synthesis essay, theory was developed in essay sketch, the American context, it can be extended to other countries too.
A firm gains monopolistic advantage by innovation of a product or process technology and markets the product domestically or in overseas markets through exports. The product is initially manufactured in the country of innovation even though the cost of production in other countries may be lower. On Christmas? Subsequently, in the growth phase of the product life cycle, when the product becomes standardized, the innovating firm takes advantage of lower cost of manufacturing abroad, and personal starts investing in other countries to create its own manufacturing facilities. The theory suggests that an MNE prefers those countries for investment as manufacturing locations that have market size large enough to support local production. 2007 Language Essay? In the growth phase of product life cycle, the personal essay sketch, FDI is disgrace essay made to other high income countries to shift production with sizeable market. In the maturity stage, technology becomes available to the competitors, the competition intensifies, and the innovating firm shifts production from the country of initial FDI to other lower-cost locations.
As a result, the products manufactured in overseas locations become more cost-competitive vis-a-vis those manufactured in the home country and the foreign-based subsidiaries become not only personal, more competitive to serve overseas markets but their production is also imported into essay professional aspirations the innovating country even to serve its domestic market. IPLC theory is valid for both trade and investment and provides a dependable explanation about trade patterns and investment. The theory explains why firms undertake FDI in essay, countries with low production costs and considerable demand to anna essay support local production. However, the IPLC theory does not touch upon the reasons for undertaking international investment rather than exporting or licensing, which are low cost alternatives for international business expansion. The theory applies mainly to industrial FDI in manufacturing sector. It is generally relevant to large firms with innovating capabilities.
The IPLC theory ignores revenue as it is too cost-oriented. Further, it does not discuss opportunities when FDI is essay more profitable. The eclectic theory (OLI Paradigm) is jules a blend of macroeconomic theory of international trade (L) and micro-economic theories of the firm (O I). Personal? As suggested by resume crack, the eclectic theory, the extent and pattern of FDI are determined by a combination of three factors as discussed here. For the investing firm to be profitable overseas, it needs to possess some core competencies or specific advantages not shared by its competitors. Such advantages, internal to a specific firm, are termed as FSAs or ownership (O) factor. Such advantages should enable the firm either to have a lower marginal cost or higher marginal returns vis-a-vis its competitors so as to enable it to reap more profits from overseas investment. An MNE possesses firm-specific advantages, such as: i. Intangible assets, such as technology, knowledge, information and specific entrepreneurial, technical, managerial, and marketing skills. ii.
Tangible assets, such as natural resources, capital, and manpower. iii. Size economy Due to large size of MNEs they often enjoy economies of scale and scope, access to finance within the MNE, benefits emanating from diversification of assets and risks spread. iv. Monopolistic advantage An MNE may benefit from its monopolistic ownership of scarce natural endowments, privileged access to raw materials, ownership of patent rights, and other inputs. Since an sketch, MNE is required to have its operations in foreign countries, it has to incur additional costs due to: i. Psychic distance because of differences in socio-cultural environment of the host country. ii. Unfamiliarity with the host country’s market conditions.
iii. Differences in legal, political, economic environment, and disgrace essay institutional framework. iv. Personal Essay Sketch? Increased expenses of operation and communication in a foreign country due to disgrace essay geographical difference. As the sketch, indigenous firm in disgrace essay, the host country is not required to incur the essay, above costs, the ‘costs of anna requiem, foreignness’ are specific to foreign firms. Therefore, in order to essay operate profitably and to remain in a foreign market, an MNE has to poises firm-specific advantages that either lower its operational costs or earn higher revenue. The locational (L) advantage or factor of a host country is the requiem, key determinant to its relative attractiveness as an investment destination. The major country-specific advantages can be as follows: Availability of personal essay, factor endowments, availability of raw materials and other inputs, productivity and costs of inputs, market size and its growth, cost of logistics, efficacy, and cost of communication channels. Familiarity of operational environment, socio-cultural similarity, language, low psychic distance between the firm’s home country and the host country. The host country government’s attitudes and policies towards foreign firms and investment, incentives to essay promote FDI, continuity of essay sketch, economic policies, and the stability of the government.
An MNE would, therefore, typically prefer countries with large market size and high rate of market growth, adequate and low cost availability of raw material, inputs and manpower, socio-cultural proximity, economic and resume jules political stability. The internalization factor : The internalization (I) factor explains the entry mode used by an MNE to access international markets. Personal? The core competencies or specific knowledge and know-how possessed by the firm form the basis of economic gains. A firm may transfer its know- how to an unrelated firm in a foreign country by way of licensing and thus earn profits. A firm attempts to internalize its operations: i. To protect its proprietary knowledge from competitors. ii. To create and maintain monopolistic or oligopolistic power in the market by placing entry barriers to its competitors, forming cartels, predatory pricing, cross- subsidizing among its international operations, etc. iii. To protect itself against market uncertainties.
Thus, the disgrace essay, internalization advantages explain why an MNE opts for personal essay sketch wholly owned subsidiaries rather than licensing or minority ownership for accessing foreign markets. Internalization helps a firm lessen the resume verne, incidences of market failure. The eclectic framework distinguishes between two types of personal essay, market failures: Endemic market failure: Such market failure occurs due to natural market imperfections, such as unfamiliarity with markets or lack of market knowledge, the incidence of transaction costs in external markets, interdependence on demand and supply, uncertainty and risks, etc. Structural market failure: Endogenous market imperfections created by an MNE so as to exploit its oligopolistic power are termed as structural market failures. MNEs are often involved in 2007 language, creating entry barriers for competitors, abusing their bargaining power due to their sheer size and financial strength, cross-subsidization, predatory pricing, and price discrimination. Besides, MNEs indulge in arbitraging government-imposed market regulations, such as tariffs and non-tariff barriers, differentiation in taxation regimes, etc., that create exogenous market imperfections.
MNEs are often criticized for adopting unfair practices, such as transfer pricing and under-invoicing, through their affiliates for personal essay their own advantage so as to ap english synthesis essay bypass high tariffs and the taxation differences among various countries. Thus, MNEs effectively arbitrage structural market imperfections through internalization, accumulating tariff and after-tax profits much higher than those of unrelated firms engaged in arm’s-length transactions. While enjoying these benefits of internalization, an MNE has to incur various costs too—those of running large-scale vertically and essay horizontally integrated international businesses. The MNE is required to expend huge amount of financial resources in managing the mammoth organization spread across many countries, often known as governance cost. Multinational firms are often required to invest substantial resources in acquiring know-how or technological competence while entering into unrelated lines of business. The eclectic theory provides the most comprehensive explanation of FDI, integrating firm-specific (O), location-specific (L), and internalization (I) advantages. It logically examines the jules, reasons for personal essay investing overseas, the selection of verne, country location for investment, and personal essay the cost-benefit analysis for selecting the mode of international expansion in resume crack, a holistic manner. In the past decade, the US software firms have increasingly utilized the low-cost IT labour force in India.
Companies wishing to essay capture the benefits of outsourcing can engage in contracting (hiring an Indian contracting company to perform the service) or foreign direct investment (opening an Indian subsidiary and hiring Indian employees). Modern FDI theories predict that Indian software outsourcing should occur primarily in professional aspirations, the form of FDI. However, contrary to FDI theories, many US and European companies are hiring Indian software contracting companies in order to use the low-cost Indian IT labour force. Hybrid model suggests that contracting companies provide their clients with a combination of the advantages of both FDI and essay contracting. The amount of FDI undertaken over a given time period (for example, a year) is termed as the flow of FDI.
If the disgrace essay, investment is made by a foreign firm in a country, it is termed as inflow of FDI whereas investment made overseas is termed as outflow of FDI. The total accumulated value of foreign owned assets at a given time is termed as stock of FDI. FDI comprises equity capital and re invested earnings as per personal sketch, IMF norms. Besides, capacity expansions financed by firms of resume crack, foreign origin as well as short-term or long-term loans that form part of essay, original packages are also treated as FDI. There has been significant growth in FDI over the years. Globally, FDI inflows increased from US$742143 million in 2004 to US$1305852 million in 2006 whereas FDI outflows rose from US$877301 million in 2004 to US$1215789 million in 2006. Verne? International macroeconomic factors, such as general economic slump and essay security concerns adversely affected FDI. This growth reflected increased flows to akhmatova requiem developing countries as well as to South East Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) which more than offset the decline in flows to developed countries. Between 2006 and 2007, FDI inflow’ to Netherlands exhibited the highest growth by 2285 per cent from US$4.4 billion in sketch, 2006 to US$104.2 in 2007 followed by the US (30.3%), Czech Republic (27.3%), and the UK (22.6%) among the developed economies whereas among the developing economies, Brazil witnessed the disgrace essay, highest growth of FDI inflows at 99.3 per cent, followed by sketch, Mexico (92.9%), Chile (92.2%), and Singapore (52.6%) (Table 12.3).
The Russian Federation witnessed an impressive FDI inflow growth of 70.3 per cent whereas FDI declined by 9.4 per cent for India and 3.1 per cent for China. While developed countries remain the major source of FDI, outflows from developing countries have also risen, from a negligible amount in the early 1980s to US$83 billion in 2004. Professional Aspirations? The outward FDI stock from developing countries reached more than US$ 1 trillion in 2004, with a share of 11 per cent in world stock. Developing countries are beginning to recognize the significance of foreign investment in order to achieve their firms’ competitiveness and for enhancing their economic growth. It is important to understand that the government policies in personal sketch, developing countries were restrictive and paid little attention to outward investment. Moreover, the ratio of FDI outflows to always crack gross capital formation was 25 per cent for Singapore in 2002-04 compared to 8 per cent for personal essay sketch the US. A number of firms from developing countries have also used MAs as strategic tools for global business expansion during the last few years. The global FDI increased faster than world trade and world output. There had been considerable debate across the world to reduce barriers to cross-border trade. Multilateral organizations, primarily the GATT and subsequently the WTO, worked to reduce the trade barriers. As a result, there had been significant reduction in tariffs and non-tariff barriers, such as quota systems, which got eliminated from professional, most countries.
However, countries do exercise innovative barriers and firms often use FDI as a tool to circumvent protectionist measures. FDI by Japanese automobile companies in Europe, the US, and some other countries was primarily aimed to circumvent their trade protectionist measures. Rapid globalization in the last decade accelerated cross- border investments. Greenfield foreign direct investment increased from 5656 projects in 2002 to 9796 projects in essay, 2004. Developing and transition (South East Europe and CIS) economies attracted a larger number of Greenfield investment than developed countries. Greenfield investment is the key driver behind the FDI recovery during the ap english language and composition synthesis, recent years. This illustrates the tendency of developing countries to receive more FDI through Greenfield projects than through MAs. China and India attracted significant number of Greenfield FDI projects, together accounting for nearly half of the total number in the developing countries. Recent liberalization measures in India and essay sketch strong economic growth in China, combined with increased liberalization after its accession to WTO, contributed to this trend. The services sector accounted for three-fifth of all Greenfield projects in the world.
However, the FDI surge in 2005 is mainly attributed to increase in aspirations, cross-border MAs. Global MAs increased by essay sketch, 40 per cent to US$2.9 trillion whereas Greenfield projects marginally dropped in 2005. China, India, and the UK received highest number of disgrace essay, Greenfield projects during the year. It has been observed that: i. The increase in share of MAs in personal essay, the total FDI is adversely affecting greenfield FDI. ii. The growing trend of resume, MAs is leading to creation of oligopolistic world, especially in case of personal sketch, strategic industries. iii. Jules? MAs severely affects survival of indigenous firms and industries from developing countries and they need to be more watchful. FDI is personal sketch mainly financed by MNEs through:
The foreign direct investor’s purchase of ap english language and composition, share of an enterprise in a country other than its own. Short- or long-term borrowings and lending of funds between direct investors, i.e., parent enterprises and affiliate enterprises. The direct investor’s share (in proportion to direct equity participation) of earnings not distributed as dividends by affiliates, or earnings not remitted to the direct investor. Such retained profits by affiliates are reinvested. Among various FDI financing options, equity capital is the largest component. Its worldwide share in total world FDI inflows fluctuated between 58 per cent and 71 per sketch, cent, during 1995-2004. The intra-company loans accounted for 23 per essay professional aspirations, cent and re-invested earnings for 12 per cent of the world FDI inflows during the same period.
The later two components are also much less s. In 2001, the share of reinvested earnings in FDI financing reached a low of 2 per cent of worldwide FDI whereas the equity capital registered a higher share. However, in 2007 re invested earnings accounted for about 30 per cent of sketch, worldwide FDI flows. For carrying out cross-country comparison of FDI performance and professional FDI potential, the UNCTAD’s FDI performance and personal sketch potential indices serve as useful tools. Inward FDI performance index : It is a measure of the extent to which a host economy receives inward FDI compared to the relative size of its economy. It is aspirations calculated as the sketch, ratio of a country’s share in global FDI inflows to its share in global GDP. IND i = The inward FDI performance index of the reflective essay, i th country. FDI i = The FDI inflows in the i th country. FDI w = World FDI inflows. GDP i = GDP in the i th country.
A value greater than ‘one’ indicates that the country receives more FDI compared to its relative economic size, a value below one that it receives less, a negative value means that foreign investors disinvest in personal essay sketch, that period. Thus, the index captures the influence of FDI on factors other than market size, assuming that, other things being equal, size is the professional, ‘baseline’ for attracting investments. These other factors can be diverse, ranging from the business climate, economic, and political stability, the presence of natural resources, infrastructure, skills, and personal essay sketch technologies, to opportunities for participating in privatization or the effectiveness of FDI promotion. The countries with top inward FDI Performance Index in 2006 included Luxembourg, Hong Kong, China, Suriname, Iceland, Singapore Malta, Bulgaria, Jordan, Estonia, and Belgium. Reflective On Christmas? The inward FDI performance index improved in 2004 for developing countries as well as transition economies of South East Europe and personal essay the CIS. The improvement had been remarkable in disgrace essay, South, East, and sketch Southeast Asia.
However, it worsened in developed countries compared to 2003. For instance, the essay on christmas, US where the FDI inflows rose by 69 per cent in 2004 had a lower performance index and ranked 114th out of 140 countries of the world due to its lower FDI flows in personal essay sketch, 2002-03. India’s ranking for inward FDI index declined considerably from 98th in 1990 to 120th in 2000. However, it increased subsequently to 121st in 2005 but declined later to 113th in 2006. Outward FDI performance index : Performance in FDI outflows relating to the size of economies is measured by resume verne, outward FDI performance index. It is calculated as the ratio of a country’s share in global FDI outflows to its share in the world GDP. OND i = The outward FDI performance index of the i th country.
FDI i = The FDI outflows in sketch, the i th country. FDI w = World FDI outflows. GDP i = GDP in reflective, the i th country. The differences in the index values among countries reflect differences in sketch, these two sets of anna essay, factors determining outward FDI by Trans-national Companies (TNCs) headquartered in different countries: i. ‘Ownership advantages’, or firm-specific competitive strengths of TNCs (such as innovation, brand names, managerial and organizational skills, access to information, financial or natural resources, and size and network advantages) that they are exploiting abroad or wish to personal essay sketch augment through foreign expansion. ii. Disgrace Essay? ‘Location factors’, which reflect primarily economic factors conducive to the production of different goods and services in home and host economies, such as relative market size, production or transport costs, skills, supply chains, infrastructure, and technology supply. Driven by the competitive pressures of globalization of world economy, both these factors work together and lead a firm to invest abroad by establishing foreign affiliates. These affiliates then become a source of competitive strength for their respective corporate networks. The leading investor economies, in term of personal sketch, outward FDI performance index include Iceland, Hong Kong, China, Luxembourg, Switzerland, Belgium, Netherlands, Panama, Ireland, Azerbaijan, and Bahrain. India’s ranking in outward FDI performance index improved considerably from 94th in 2000 to 65th in 2005 but declined later to 56th in 2006. Inward FDI potential index : The inward FDI potential index reflects the anna, stability of structure variables comprising the index.
It is based on 12 economic and structural variables measured by their respective scores on a range of 0-1. It is the un-weighted average of scores based on: a. GDP per capita. b. The rate of growth of GDP. c. The share of exports in GDP. d. Telecom infrastructure. e. Commercial energy use per personal essay sketch, capita. f. The share of RD expenditures in gross national income.
g. The share of anna requiem essay, tertiary students in the population. i. Exports of natural resources as a percentage of the world total. j. Imports of parts and components of electronics and personal essay sketch automobiles as a percentage of the world total. k. Exports in 2007 language and composition synthesis essay, services as a percentage of the sketch, world total. l. Inward FDI stock as a percentage of the world total. The top economies by essay professional, inward FDI potential index in personal, 2006 include the US, Singapore, the UK, Canada, Luxembourg, Germany, Qatar, Sweden, Norway, and Hong Kong (China). Cross-country comparison of FDI performance vs. potential Indices : A comparison of rankings by the FDI potential index with those of FDI performance index gives an indication of how each country performs against its potential. Countries in the world can be divided in four categories so as to draw up a four-fold matrix as shown in resume verne, Exhibit 12.4. Countries with high FDI potential and performance.
Countries with low FDI potential but strong FDI performance. Countries with high FDI potential but low FDI performance. Countries with both low FDI potential and performance. India falls in the category of sketch, under performer with both low FDI potential and performance. Therefore, there is a lot of scope for enhancing both performance as well as potential.
The concern for disgrace essay below potential countries is how they could raise their FDI performance to match their potential whereas the above potential countries need to continuously strive so as to sustain their FDI performance at essay, levels comparable with those of past while addressing their structural problems. Essay # 11. Policy Framework to Promote Foreign Direct Investment (FDI): Attracting foreign direct investment has become a key part of essay professional, national development strategies for most countries. Such investments are often viewed to augment domestic capital, employment, and productivity, leading to essay economic growth. Despite its positive effects, FDI is also blamed for crowding out domestic investments and lowering certain regulatory standards. The impact of FDI depends on many conditions. However, well developed and disgrace essay implemented policies can help maximize gains from FDI. Although FDI is believed to play a positive role in achieving sustainable development, it does not, however, automatically lead to environmentally and socially beneficial outcomes. Sketch? The nature and extent of these outcomes are critically affected by market conditions, and thus the reflective, regulatory framework, within which the investment takes place. Investment promotion by host countries is broadly made through three different ‘generation’ policies, which are discussed as follows:
First generation policies the liberalization of FDI flows and the opening up of sectors to foreign investors. Second generation policies the marketing of countries as locations for FDI and the setting up of national investment promotion agencies. Third generation policies the targeting of essay, foreign investors at essay professional, the level of industries and personal essay clusters, and the marketing of regions and clusters with the aim of matching the locational advantages of countries with the needs of foreign investors. Major regulatory and incentives measures for FDI may be summarized as: i. Screening, admission, and establishment: a. Closure of ap english and composition essay, certain sectors, industries, or activities to FDI. b. Minimum capital requirements. c. Restrictions on modes of essay, entry. d. Eligibility for bidding on privatization.
e. Establishment of special zones (such as EPZs/SEZs) for FDI with legislation distinct from that governing the rest of the country. ii. Fiscal incentives: a. Essay? Reduction in standard corporate income tax rates o Tax holidays. b. Reductions in sketch, social security contributions. c. Accelerated depreciation allowances. d. Duty exemptions and drawbacks. e. Export tax exemptions. f. Resume Crack? Reduced taxes for personal sketch expatriates. iii. Financial incentives: a. Investment grants. b. Subsidized credits.
c. Credit guarantees. iv. Other incentives. a. Subsidized service fees (electricity, water, telecommunications, transportation, etc.) b. Subsidized designated infrastructure such as, commercial buildings. c. Preferential access to government contracts. d. Closure of the market to resume crack further entry or granting of monopoly rights.
v. Performance requirements: a. Protection from import competition. b. Local content requirements (value added) c. Personal Sketch? Minimum export shares. d. Trade balancing. e. Technology transfer. f. Local equity participation. g. Employment targets. h. RD requirements. More generally, countries typically have a mix of ap english, both resource-seeking and efficiency-seeking FDI, reflecting partial reform of personal sketch, their trade regimes, and the political economy of dispensing patronage.
Consequently, most countries follow dual policy regimes. On the basis of cross-country analysis of FDI regimes of on christmas, six major Asian countries, i.e., India, People’s Republic of China (PRC), Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam, the following observations may be made: i. FDI policy may differ between regions. Three of the six—China, India, and essay Malaysia—feature rather high levels of decentralized economic policy-making. Thailand has been pursuing a policy of ‘industrial decentralization’ for some time. In all six countries, with the exception of Malaysia, economic authority is progressively being devolved away from the centre in varying degrees and at different speeds. ii. There are large inter-industry differences in the degree of protection, and thus difference in 2007 and composition essay, incentive, in all the six countries.
iii. State-owned enterprises (SOEs) typically receive preferential treatment, especially in China, India, and Vietnam, and so do their MNE joint venture partners. iv. Most countries offer some sort of fiscal or financial incentive to sketch foreign investors. These vary by disgrace essay, the sales orientation of the foreign investor, the technology introduced by the investor, the essay sketch, location of the investment, and other factors. v. The regulatory regime frequently offers more than one entry option for potential foreign investors, especially in recently reformed economies. A critical evaluation of FDI and economic development in India and China, as given in on christmas, Exhibit 12.5, brings out the essay sketch, differences in always crack, their approach to sketch economic development. Essay # 12. Promotion of Foreign Direct Investment in India(FDI):
The Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion is responsible for facilitating and ap english language synthesis promoting FDI inflows into the country. It plays an active role in investment promotion through dissemination of information on investment climate and opportunities in India. The department also advises potential investors about investment policies, procedures, and opportunities. It also helps resolve problems faced by foreign investors in the implementation of their projects through the Foreign Investment Implementation Authority (FIIA) which interacts directly with the investors. In addition, a number of personal sketch, government departments, such as Ministries of Finance, External Affairs, Labour, Environment and Forests, etc., are also involved in the investment process. Exhibit 12.6 summarizes the details of agencies involved in synthesis, FDI clearances/approvals in India. The policy framework of FDI in sketch, India evolved in a phased manner, from the strategy of import substitution soon after independence to progressive liberalization that began in the early 1990s.
The Indian government promotes FDI so as to disgrace essay fuel its development plans with increased investment and derive spin-off benefits. FDI inflows in personal essay sketch, the development of infrastructure, setting up of Special Economic Zones (SEZs), and technological up gradation of Indian industry through Greenfield operation investments in reflective on christmas, manufacturing and in projects with high employment potential are encouraged. The FDI policy in India may be summarized as. i. Retail trading (except single brand product retailing) ii. Atomic energy. iii. Sketch? Lottery business. iv. Gambling and betting sector.
v. Business of chit fund and Nidhi Company. vi. Plantation except tea. vii. Trading in Transferable Development Rights (TDR) viii. Activity/sector not opened to private sector investment. FDI up to 24 per resume, cent allowed : i. Manufacture of items reserved for small sector up to 24 per cent above which prior government approval is required. FDI up to 26 per cent allowed : i. FM broadcasting FDI and FII investment up to 20 per cent with prior government approval. ii. Up-linking a news and current affairs TV channels with prior government approval. iii.
Defence production with prior government approval. iv. Insurance FDI and FII under the automatic route. v. Publishing of news papers and periodicals: with prior government approval. FDI up to essay 49 per cent allowed : a. Reflective Essay On Christmas? Setting up hardware facilities, FDI and FII equity with prior government approval. b. Cable network FDI and FII with prior government approval. c. Direct to Home (DTH) FDI and personal sketch FII with prior government approval. FDI cannot exceed 20 per cent. ii. Reflective? Scheduled air transport services under the automatic route.
iii. Commodity exchanges with prior government approval. iv. Essay? Credit information companies with prior government approval. v. Refining in case of PSUs with prior government approval. vi. Asset reconstruction companies with prior government approval.
FDI up to 51 per cent allowed : i. Single brand product retailing subject to prior approval. FDI up to disgrace essay 74 per cent allowed : i. ISP with gateways, radio-paging, and end-to-end bandwidth: 49 per cent under automatic route and beyond 49 per cent with prior government approval. ii. Establishment and operation of satellites: with prior government approval. iii. Personal? Private sector banking: FDI and FII under the automatic route. iv. Telecommunications services: Basic, cellular, unified access services, global mobile personal communication services, and other value added telecom services with 49 per cent under the automatic route and beyond 49 per cent with prior government approval. v. Non-scheduled air transport services, ground handling services under the automatic route. Foreign direct investment up to 100 per cent allowed with prior government approval subject to essay conditions: a. Sketch? Items from small scale sector.
b. Test marketing of items approved for manufacture. ii. Courier services. iii. Tea sector, including tea plantation subject to divestment of 26 per cent equity in favour of Indian partner/public within five years. iv. ISP without gateway, infrastructure provider, electronic mail, and voice mail: FDI up to anna akhmatova requiem essay 49 per cent under the automatic route and beyond 49 per cent with prior government approval.
v. Mining and personal essay sketch mineral separation of titanium bearing minerals and ores, its value addition and 2007 language and composition synthesis integrated activities. vi. Cigars and cigarettes manufacture. vii. Airports-existing projects with prior government approval beyond 74 per cent. viii.
Up-linking of personal sketch, a non-news and current affairs TV channel. ix. Reflective Essay On Christmas? Investing companies in infrastructure/ services sector (except telecom sector) x. Publishing of scientific magazines, specialty journals and essay periodicals. Foreign direct investment allowed up to essay professional 100 per cent under automatic route: i. Personal? Agriculture sector: c) Development of seeds. d) Animal husbandry. g) Services related to agro and allied sectors. ii. Industrial sectors: (a) Covering exploration and mining of diamonds and precious stones, gold, silver, and minerals.
(b) Coal and disgrace essay lignite for captive consumption. (b) Manufacturing activities: (a) Alcohol distillation and brewing. (b) Coffee and rubber processing and warehousing. (c) Hazardous chemicals. (d) Industrial explosive—manufacture.
(e) Drugs and pharmaceuticals. (f) Manufacture of personal sketch, telecom equipment. (c) Petroleum sector: (a) Petroleum sector other than refining including market study and reflective essay formulation; investment/financing; setting-up infrastructure for marketing. (b) Petroleum refining for personal essay private companies. (a) Generation (except atomic energy), transmission, distribution, and power trading. i. Special Economic Zones and Free Trade Warehousing Zones. ii. Industrial Parks. iii.
Construction development projects. (a) Civil aviation. i. Airports Greenfield projects. ii. Helicopter/seaplane services. iii. Maintenance and repair organizations, flying and technical training institutes. iv. Air transport services for NRI investment. v. Ground handling services for NRI investment. (b) Non-banking finance companies.
i. Wholesale/cash carry trading. ii. Trading for exports. In sectors/activities not listed above, FDI is permitted up to 100 per anna essay, cent through automatic route subject to prevailing rules and regulations applicable. FDI inflows in India have shown a fluctuating trend during the last few years as shown in Table 12.4 and Fig. 12.2. Personal? It increased from US$4029 million in 2000-01 to US$6130 million in 2001-02. Disgrace Essay? However, the FDI inflows declined to US$4322 million in 2003-04 but subsequently exhibited a rising trend to US$8,961 million in 2005-06 and thereafter jumped to US$22,079 million 2006-07 and US$29,893 million in personal sketch, 2007-08.
The equity capital accounted for requiem 74.8 per cent, whereas re-invested earnings were 21.8 per cent, and other capital for 3.4 per cent of the total FDI inflows in India, as shown in Fig. Personal Essay Sketch? 12.3 during April 2000 to May 2008. Sector-wise composition of FDI inflows as shown in Fig. Resume? 12.4 indicates that services sector received the highest FDI inflows of US$14,256 million (22%) during April 2000 to May 2008, followed by computer software and hardware US$7,477 million (11.5%), construction activities US$4325 million (6.7%), telecommunications US$4074 million (6.3%), housing and real estate US$3745 million (5.8%), power US$2643 million (4.1%), automobile industry US$2582 million (4.0%), metallurgical industries US$2377 million (3.70/0), petroleum and natural gas US$2007 (3.1%), chemicals US$1519 million (2.3o/o), and others US$19800.3 million (30.6%). Mauritius has been the top investor in India with US$28493 million (40.6%) as shown in Fig. 12.5. followed by the US with US$5327 million (76%), Singapore with US$4973 million (71%), the UK with US$4579 million (6.5%), Netherlands with US$2791 million (4.0%), Japan with US$2151 million (3.1%), Germany with US$1637 million (2.3%), Cyprus with US$1162 million (1.7%), France with US$997 million (1.4%), UAE with US$802 million (1.1%), and others with US$17279 million (24.6%) during April 2000 to May 2008. Foreign Direct investment in Retail Sector : India is the second largest market in the world after China and it fascinates global retailers to invest.
Many international players, such as Wal-Mart, Gap, Ikea, and Tesco already source from India despite FDI restrictions. Wal-Mart, through its buying office in Bangalore, sourced goods worth US$1 billion from India in 2004 and planned to increase this to US$1.5 billion in 2005. The major pros and cons of opening up FDI in essay, the retail sector are discussed here. i. FDI in retail would benefit the consumer by 2007 ap english synthesis, offering him/her more choice, better services, wider access, easier credit, and a better shopping experience. ii. Modern retailing will benefit local retailing by forcing it to re-invent as has been the case in China. iii.
It will lead to higher standards of quality, introduce best practices, provide more skilled employment, and improve tax collection. iv. Personal Essay? Foreign direct investment in 2007 ap english, retail would lead to personal less wastage of on christmas, agri-produce due to improved food processing techniques and cold storage facilities. v. Personal Essay? FDI would involve up gradation of infrastructure, logistics, and support services. vi.
It would help Indian products get global recognition. vii. It will help increase the supply of processed foods, apparels, and handicrafts. viii. Elimination of multiple middlemen would reduce transaction costs related to inventory, delivery, and reflective handling. i. FDI in retail would wipe out indigenous mom and pop (kirana) stores as they will not be able to match the standards and services provided by super markets. ii.
The unorganized sector would obviously lose its place and edge in the retail market. iii. Retail FDI would also introduce competitive pricing, forcing a lot of domestic players out of the game. iv. It would reduce employment opportunities by displacing smaller retailers in the unorganized sector, like what has happened in Thailand. v. It would mean legalizing the predatory practices of the MNC retail chains. vi.
Retail-FDI will promote a ‘standardized’ form of global foreign culture. vii. India’s imports are likely to increase as MNCs will dump their products in personal sketch, India. viii. Akhmatova? Since very little investment is personal required in retailing, foreign players would end up remitting their profits. Allowing FDI in retail sector will considerably affect the market structure and the consumers. The government of India opened up FDI up to 51 per cent in retail trade to ‘single brand products’ with effect from 10 February 2006, with prior government permission. There has been considerable debate over the impact of FDI in retail sector. Opening up of the retail sector in China has contributed to growth in labour- intensive manufacturing, as indicated in Exhibit 12.7. In view of the significance of FDI in development process of host economies, most countries promote FDI pro-actively.
A cross-country analysis of disgrace essay, FDI regimes reveals the differences in focus areas and strategies in promoting foreign investment. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages:
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Clinton ‘Misspoke’ About Bosnia Trip, Campaign Says. The Clinton campaign says Senator Hillary Clinton may have “misspoke” recently when she said she had to evade sniper fire when she was visiting Bosnia in 1996 as first lady. She has been using the essay, episode as an example of her foreign policy bona fides. “I certainly do remember that trip to Bosnia,” she said last week. “There was a saying around the White House that if a place was too small, too poor, or too dangerous, the president couldn’t go, so send the First Lady. “I remember landing under sniper fire. There was supposed to be some kind of a greeting ceremony at the airport, but instead we just ran with our heads down to get into the vehicles to get to anna requiem, our base.” But her account has been challenged, first by Sinbad, the comedian, who traveled with her, and then by personal essay sketch, news organizations, most notably the Washington Post, which awarded her four “Pinnochios” which it gives for jules verne, major “whoppers.” And here is another report from that trip: Asked today to square her recent descriptions with these accounts, Howard Wolfson, her spokesman, referred to several contemporaneous news accounts that described the personal essay, region as hostile. Disgrace Essay? He then added: “It is possible in the most recent instance in which she discussed this that she misspoke in personal essay regard to the exit from the plane, but there is no question if you look at contemporaneous accounts that she was going to crack, a potential combat zone, that she was on the front lines.”
Asked at essay, a later point in resume jules the call to sketch, clarify his comment, Mr. Wolfson said that news accounts at the time made clear that the area in which she was landing was “a potential combat zone and was hazardous.” He said that in her memoir, “Living History,” she wrote about sniper fire in the hills and “clearly meant to say that” when she brought it up last week. Crack? He said she had described the event many times the personal sketch, same way and that “in one instance she said it slightly differently.” A third reporter then asked about anna akhmatova essay it, prompting Mr. Personal Essay? Howard to read the relevant passage from her book, in which she wrote: “Due to reports of snipers in the hills around the airstrip, we were forced to cut short an event on the tarmac with local children.” He repeated that this was the one time in which she misspoke. But this formulation was at least the second time in requiem essay recent weeks that she described the sniper fire. She mentioned it on Feb. Essay Sketch? 29 in Waco, Tex., when she was rolling out resume jules, her “red phone” commercial, recalling the essay, trip to essay professional aspirations, Bosnia and saying that the personal essay, welcoming ceremony “had to be moved inside because of sniper fire.”
Update | 5:45 p.m. : Helene Cooper, The Times’s diplomatic correspondent, reports the following: I spoke with William Nash, who was the commander of U.S. Disgrace Essay? troops in Bosnia and personal essay sketch, was at the Tuzla airport with Hillary Clinton. He said there was no threat of sniper fire at the airport during her visit. Aspirations? He said that Mrs. Clinton was gracious during her visit and took pictures with the personal essay sketch, soldiers, but “she never had her head down. Disgrace Essay? There was no sniper threat that I know of.” Comments are no longer being accepted.
Imagine if Obama had misspoke about something he was touting as experience that made him “ready on day one”. Or if he confused Sunnis and Shiites, as McCain did. It would probably lead every news cast and be on the front page of every paper. I think there is a definite double-standard here. To be discredited by Sinbad!
It’s like having CarrotTop call you a liar. Sniper fire in nearby hills is still daunting! It was a hostile area; is this in dispute? This is essay, quibbling in verne the extreme. Comedians (like Sinbad) make jokes out the personal essay, smallest detail. I accept and essay, support that, but such trivia does not necessarily newsworthy stories make.
“Lying” is different from “misspeaking”. Geez, she said last Monday that she came under fire and had to run to her car, and personal, that a greeting ceremony had to essay, be cancelled. And yet we have contemporaneous video proving that the greeting ceremony went on as planned, and she and essay, her daighter walked in a leisurely manner from the plane, greeted a little 8-year-old girl who had written a poem for essay, her, and were not at any time in harm’s way. More years of Clinton lies are not what this country needs. More years of McCain wars are not what this country needs, either. We have a real chance this time to elect an honest public servant who will not insult the intelligence or the integrity of the American people. If you’re tired of spin, lies and personal, death, and want to restore honor and essay on christmas, dignity to the United States of America, support Barack Obama.
This is news? Let me get this straight. No one cares that the US Constitution gets spit on with regard to essay sketch, separation of church and state. Resume? What do I mean? The influence of Religion on Public Policy was seen, historically, as the center of all division between nations and their peoples. It was the wisdom of the founders to make this separation steadfast and so they put it in the Bill of essay Rights [Rights of Individuals and those of Government to protect Individuals]. The freedom to practice whatever belief you follow without undue influence over the public masses is vital to the nation’s highest law. We have religious leaders hiding behind their pulpit and protection of Religion to run their political agendas and to influence generations of parishoners to follow whatever political dogma they so choose. This article speaks about an intinerary the former first lady had and disgrace essay, followers of Obama are hoping this distracts the essay sketch, media from following an actual story that truly has widespread ramifications–Reverend Wright’s Trinity Church and it’s separatist views he calls empowering black people.
I could careless what religion a bigot hides behind. To leverage politics under the cloak of dogma is resume jules verne, not protected free speech and is being followed closely now that this reverend has been instrumental in the beliefs of the personal essay, front runner for the Democratic Party. We ignored George W. Bush and his messianic views. We mocked his inarticulations and because Obama is 2007 language and composition synthesis essay, so articulate we tell ourselves that he isn’t influenced by Reverend Wright. Get real. No reasoned mind sits in any system for twenty years, later admits to hearing this rhetoric but proclaims all the personal sketch, media does is take the words out of context. The nation would be better off if these candidates would keep religion where it belongs–in the language essay, temple, synogogue, church and their private lives. Instead, we continue to accept this divisive influence to infect our political system and thus create the chaos we see today that our founding fathers wisely separated. This flaw in the former First Lady’s itinerary is personal essay sketch, a joke. This flaw in the Reverend Wright’s bigotry is not. just curious; is there anything this woman ever gets right the first time?
So what’s the story? Her account is disgrace essay, generally the essay, same as in her memoir. Sniper fire in the area, outdoor event moved inside. Disgrace Essay? I certainly would’ve been running with my head down with reports of sniper fire in the area. Where’s the story on Obama’s substantive lies/misspeaking? $75,000 in campaign contributions from Rezco. Well, actually $150,000. Oops, I meant to say $250,000. I was not present in church for Rev.
Wright’s inflammatory comments. Um, since videotape may actually exist of sketch it, yeah, I meant to resume, say I was actually present for Rev. Wrong’s hate speech. That’s the real story, but of course we can’t point out the truth about a black man’s lies. That would be racist. This is a major issue. We cannot have a President who lies at personal essay, whim. come on, everyone we need to unite we cannot elect a lair. This video clip of reflective Hillary’s Bosnia Landing is much funnier: How can they expect to be taken seriously? If you look at the video, she is saying, in effect, that the sniper fire was in personal essay sketch gosh darn close proximity to her plane, perhaps even right at the plane.
Did the Secret Service really let her fly into a situation like that? And, where are the brains in her campaign, letting her say something like that? It’s been a couple of weeks or so since Sinbad put out akhmatova requiem essay, his version of the personal essay sketch, “red phone” moment. Didn’t her peeps let her know that there were questions out there and disgrace essay, maybe she should avoid any mention of Bosnia for the time being? If they didn’t give her a heads up, they’re pretty useless. If they did and she ignored them, the Secret Service should change her code name to Icarus. …Wow! Breaking news! …and this just in– Clinton misspoke when she claimed she was “instrumental” in bring peace to Northern Ireland. “You know,” she now says, “my claiming that was just a wee bit silly.” …and this just in– Clinton misspoke when she claimed she never backed NAFTA. Personal Sketch? “You see, I was happy to invite many people to the White House to ap english and composition synthesis, ask them to support it,” she now says, “but I fervently disagreed with my support, then and personal essay, now.”
…and this just in– Clinton misspoke when she claimed she had 35 years of relevant experience. “Come to think of it,” she now says, “I have only been in elected office for seven years. Reflective Essay? My years as an unelected First Lady, with no national security clearance and no role in creating legislation, should be discounted.” …and this just in– Clinton misspoke when she said she is responsible for the State Children’s Health Insurance Program. “Well, I did first oppose it, but I did back it once Ted Kennedy and Orrin Hatch made sure it would pass.” …and this just in– Clinton misspoke when she said that she did not consider her vote for “Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq Resolution of 2002? was a vote for diplomacy, not war. “Come to think of it,” she now says, “‘military force’ sure does sound like we might fire a shot or two.” And as snipers fired over the heads of Sinbad, Sheryl Crow, and essay sketch, Chelsea, then-First Lady Clinton calmly greeted the flak-jacketed 8-year-old Bosnian girl. Ap English? “Hey,” rubbing her tummy, “when are we going to eat?” the Hillary Files released recently, pages 468 – 471 show no problems with snipers and describe the incident EXACTLY as the personal sketch, WaPo reported it and as appears in the youtube video. she’s clearly been caught lying, and she’s been saying it over and over lately, even though her own records show otherwise. she may have faced danger in Bosnia, but she did not at this airport regardless of her recent insistence March 17 at resume, George Washington university. How is “ran with our heads down” misspeaking?
Did she mean to personal, say “walked calmly with our heads high”? And what was she thinking with the fictional version of the story? Were we supposed to admire her for taking her only daughter into a firing range? Oh, my God, who would have thought! Really, life is taking such unexpected turns. Imagine my astonishment when I woke up this morning and saw daylight. Where is the sniper fire? Who cares?
She was there and it was dangerous. The reporter clarifies it in the clip. Always Crack? Watching the video made me even more proud of her. Make up some more experience, Hillary. Tell us how you wrassled the Martians into submission in Roswell, NM. Essay Sketch? Or how you swam to Cuba to poison Castro, but that backfired.
Or how about that time you got into hand to essay on christmas, hand combat with Gorbachev but he got you in personal sketch a half nelson and you were only anna akhmatova requiem, able to get out of it by personal, karate chopping him on and composition essay his birth mark. That was a good one. This is outrageous! It’s only “misspeaking” when it’s not an intentional fabrication. Essay? This is, by the standard definition, a LIE she has been propagating on the campaign trail as recently as last week.
You can tell the difference between mis-speaking and aspirations, lying by how often the personal sketch, account in question has been repeated and by evaluating what benefits, if any, were to be gained from individuals believing in this account. As the story comes as part of Mrs. Clinton’s standard stump speech touting her national security credentials, it is clearly designed to make her look tough. Since we now know that it isn’t true, even though she’s been putting it forward as truth, this is officially a LIE, and ought to be regarded as such by voters, especially those concerned with national security. This is disgusting. I never realized that Hillary had the heart of a lion. But there she is, dodging sniper fire just to say hello to the Military on the battle field.
And don’t tell me you don’t see the bullets flying because you can’t ever see bullets unless your loading them in the rifle. When did Obama ever duck sniper fire to suppoort the Military? The South Side of essay Chicago might be tough, but it isn’t as bad as Serbia or Baghdad. I know now that she has the right stuff to be Commander in Chief. If it was so dangerous, why did she take Chelsea Clinton? Maybe the essay sketch, sequel memoir can be titled “Imagined History”. How do you, on multiple occasions, “misspeak” about claiming to be at always, threat from sniper fire?! No other explanation except embellishment makes sense. Plus, if it really was so dangerous, why did she bring her DAUGHTER with her? No one questions the right of essay parent to requiem, defend their daughter’s honor from disparaging remarks from cable news wonks but taking her to “a potential combat zone” demonstrates good leadership on personal sketch day one??
The whole episode is ridiculous and that is why she should be called to task on it. What else is resume padding? So sick of the Hill-hatred! Mis-speaking about where the sniper-fire came from essay, or was is MUCH DIFFERENT and LESS HARMFUL than listening to a hate-spewing pastor for 20 yrs. Having wrapped herself in this “ready from Day One” mantel, Clinton has no choice but hype her resume to a delusionally high level. The fact that, after “35 years of experience” she seems unable to beat the most “inexperienced” candidate is surprising.
“Misspoke”? It was, knowingly, an essay sketch, outright lie. Let’s call a spade a spade. Look, she clearly lied and that is to be noted. But as an always, Obama supporter, I’d much rather us not get into these back-and-forth gotcha moments. Starting to get sick of it. The latest on personal sketch President Obama, Congress and other political news from Washington -- and around the nation -- from the verne, staff of The New York Times. The Caucus on personal essay sketch Monday suspended its campaign. And Composition Synthesis Essay? Follow First Draft, a fast-paced political briefing on all things Washington and elections.
Readmore… Congress approved funding for equipping Syrian rebels against Islamic States and lawmakers will discuss their votes on sketch several of the Sunday shows.Readmore… President Obama vowed to “degrade and ultimately destroy” ISIS in crack a speech he gave on Wednesday. Sketch? Lawmakers and analysts will discuss his strategy on the Sunday shows. Readmore…