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anne truitt essays Though Anne Truitt’s art has not shaped art-historical and critical debates at the level of many of marine research her contemporaries, whether Morris Louis, Robert Morris, Eva Hesse, and others, her work warrants all the attention the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden devoted to her in this retrospective exhibition, Anne Truitt: Perception and Reflection . Curated by Kristen Hileman, it included drawings, paintings, and sculptures by the artist from the early 1960s to 2004, the year of soul surfer her death. Research. The Hirshhorn installed Truitt’s art chronologically, which highlights how she rather quickly discovered and, with few exceptions, persisted in of dissertation pursuing what would become her signature form: a painted four-square columnar or pillar-like form averaging around six feet in height. The comparison to a column is research papers, potentially misleading because the sculptures are clearly not in any way intended to provide architectural support. Truitt underscored the works’ status as an autonomous artistic object when in the 1960s she lifted the sculptures an inch or so off the floor by a recessed supporting structure invisible to the viewer when both the what is a good statements sculpture and viewer are standing erect. There are many variations on this columnar-like form—sometimes they are wider, sometimes shorter or taller, sometimes they have a protruding extension, and occasionally the sculptures are designed to research papers lie horizontally and parallel to the ground. As a necessary security and conservation measure, the Hirshhorn displayed Truitt’s sculptures on low-level platforms; the tradeoff is that this display technique reduces the physical and visual intimacy between aesthetic object and eldest paolini viewer and makes the sculptures appear more aloof than they otherwise would be. Given Truitt’s commitment to geometric forms stripped of ornament, her sculptures would seem to marine biology fit neatly into the Minimalist camp. And Men Thesis Statement About Loneliness. Indeed, Truitt participated in the exhibition Primary Structures: Younger American and British Sculpture at the Jewish Museum in 1966, which included artists commonly associated with Minimalism, among them Robert Morris and Donald Judd. Biology. Yet, in painting the sculptures pink, baby blue, orange, black, and so forth, or in painting them with bands of color, Truitt transformed the wooden surfaces into a field of sensuous color.
In this respect, it is significant that she studied briefly with the Washington Color Field painter, Kenneth Noland, and visited Morris Louis’s studio. In the end, Truitt merges two positions in art that we otherwise understand as radically opposed: Minimalism and Color Field painting. On The Iliad Selected Criticism. Whether or not merging seemingly irreconcilable differences was her intention (and it clearly was not) is immaterial; from an art-historical perspective, this is marine biology research papers, one of surfer her most significant achievements. Truitt had a strong desire to be a painter and sculptor concurrently, approaching a single artwork as both two and three dimensional. Early works such as Watauga (1962) and Hardcastle (1962) make this explicit. Both pieces consist of a smooth, painted panel positioned upright and, as in the case of Watauga , supported by a base, or, as in research papers the case of Hardcastle , braced by two long diagonal slabs of painted wood attached to the back. Although both works consist of a panel that calls attention to and men about loneliness itself as flat and frontal, they also invite the viewer to move around them to see their sides and research papers backs. As early as 1962, Truitt conceived of what good what would become her principle structure, the marine research four-square columnar form, in which no single side can be said to constitute the front or back. Essays Iliad Modern Criticism. Truitt discharges the sculptures of a primary vantage point when she paints each of the four sides in a similar tone or with bands of different colors of varying width. In the papers later case, when no one side is the same, each side is individualized, which the viewer only discovers by walking around the sculpture, producing an unpredictable, temporal, and non-literary “narrative” experience. (“Narrative” is Truitt’s word choice to describe this effect.) The viewer of the Hirshhorn show is able to experience this phenomenon most fully when Truitt’s sculptures are isolated (rather than grouped closely together), permitting the selected criticism viewer to walk a full 360 degrees around them.
The exhibition is accompanied by a catalogue with an essay by Heilman and art historian James Meyer. Museum catalogues are an important venue of art-historical research and knowledge for marine papers, the reading public, and it is incumbent upon soul museums to enlist the most adept curators and scholars to write for them. On this point, the marine biology differences in Heilman’s and essays iliad criticism Meyer’s essays are striking. In her essay, Heilman weaves together commentary on Truitt’s art and life, quoting extensively from Truitt’s prolific journals, and generally accepting the marine papers artist’s every word as truth. The main problem with the essay is that there is no overarching thesis and is a thesis argument or, at least, not a convincing one. Hileman wants to develop a conventional “iconography” of Truitt’s work based on the artist’s life and thought. Although Truitt’s art is as abstract as art can be, Heilman wants the viewer to see references aplenty, so that each shape and color possesses some personal meaning and association in research Truitt’s life. Selected Modern. (Truitt’s art is “inextricably linked to life” (43), she concludes.) This is a familiar and, in this case, flawed methodology. In an early sculpture, First (1961), a sculpture in the form of a low picket-like fence, Heilman searches endlessly for referential clues, concluding at one point that the three pickets “expand the work from a consideration of the concept of boundaries to biology research a depiction of thesis statements three joined but distinct entities, perhaps not without parallels in the relationships among Truitt and her two siblings” (14). Hileman is essentially asking that the work be seen as representing Truitt herself (via the tallest post) and her twin siblings (the two smaller posts on marine biology research papers, either side). Journey. This kind of literal association is not always helpful in marine biology papers understanding Truitt’s art, and at a certain point its defective character becomes clear: If the of mice loneliness two shorter posts on either side of the taller one represent Truitt’s younger twin sisters, why are they unequal in marine papers width?
James Meyer’s essay is a well-written and probing instance of is a thesis statements interpretative art history. Meyer begins with a description of A Wall for Apricots (1968), demonstrating how it alludes, abstractly, to the body, invoking a “somatic perception.” To my mind, this introductory point is the most questionable one in his essay, not because this type of sculpture-body analogy is so frequent in the scholarship on Minimalism; rather, as a viewer, I experience just the opposite. Marine Biology Papers. Because Truitt’s immobile sculptures follow so severely the logic of the cite of dissertation works right angle, her works insist on their difference from the flaccid, curvilinear, and anxious human body. In any case, Meyer does not pursue the body analogy at marine biology papers, length in the rest of his essay, and essays modern therefore it does not seem central to his primary argument. Instead, Meyer argues convincingly that whereas other Minimalists sought to purge their work of allusion, Truitt sought “to maximize, to condense, to add ” (54; emphasis in original). Quoting from Truitt that all her life she aimed to gain “maximum meaning in the simplest form,” Meyer builds his analysis around Truitt’s remark, adding that the artist’s “negotiation of this ration is the crux of Truitt’s ambition.” To illuminate the significance of this measure, Meyer demonstrates why Truitt abandoned the disjunctive, asymmetrical sculptures she produced during the mid-1960s when she was living and working in Tokyo and committed her work rigorously to the columnar structure. The Tokyo works were “‘maximum’ sculptures yet their forms were not the simplest they could possibly be,” Meyer explains, adding that the column, on the other hand, was truly a “‘simplest’ form, a form so simple it could sustain a synecdochic dilation of meaning” (60). The terms at the end of this quote are central to Meyer’s analysis and methodology.
He draws upon biology his study of thesis about loneliness linguistics to demonstrate that Truitt’s decision to employ the four-square column is an instance of a “synecdochic pursuit,” meaning that the column is a part that represents the marine papers whole and thus is “capable of eliciting the iliad criticism most associations because it is so reduced” (60; emphasis in original). On this point, the marine biology research difference between Meyer’s and Heilman’s methodology becomes evident: Where Meyer aims to reveal how the sculptures operate formally and semantically in producing meaning, Heliman instead seeks such meaning in literal parallels to the artist’s life. Robert E. Haywood, Deputy Director, Contemporary Museum, Baltimore.
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a essaydi Photographs by marine, Lalla Essaydi: L#8217;Écriture Féminine / Le Corps Féminin. Elements of tradition and femininity grace Lalla Essaydi#8217;s photographs. These images, while elegant and ethereal, are also brutally honest in their revelation of the artist#8217;s personal history, intimate self, and cultural mores. Of Mice Statement About! This exhibition features selections from the marine biology research artist#8217;s best known work#8212;the photographic series Converging Territories and soul Les Femmes du Maroc #8212;which have won her international acclaim. Marine Biology Research Papers! Les Femmes du Maroc , 2006. Cite Works! Chromogenic print on marine research papers aluminum, 33½ x 40 inches. Courtesy of the artist and works Edwynn Houk Gallery, New York. In both series, flowing cloth#8212;pure in biology papers its unbleached, natural hue#8212;covers women and cite works scenes that are carefully staged by biology papers, the artist.
In deceptively simple settings, the only visible surfaces are cloth and skin. Essaydi ornately inscribes both with henna, a natural dye associated with women#8217;s adornment throughout the Islamic world. Converging Territories #21), 2004. Chromogenic print on aluminum, 40-3/4 x 33-1/4 inches. Cite Works! Courtesy of the papers artist and Edwynn Houk Gallery, New York. Widely identified with special occasions, the powdered henna, mixed into a paste and applied to the skin, effloresces and wears away. Although henna#8217;s substantive form is ephemeral, its traces remain on the skin for eldest paolini, several weeks and record its fleeting presence. Marine Biology Research Papers! In Essaydi#8217;s photographs, delicate webs of henna and its residual designs stream across the picture plane, only intermittently interrupted by a form#8212;a face, a hand, a foot, a flower#8212;that at times also bears its deep redbrown mark. In this context, henna evokes a sense of memory, the reliving of a personal and collective past.
But the delicate patterning is not purely aesthetic, nor are these women merely silent beauties to essays on the iliad modern criticism, behold. The design is narrative text, written in Arabic and excerpted from Essaydi#8217;s personal journal in which she considers and reconsiders her experience as a woman, Muslim, Arab, and African. Although she remains behind the camera, these photographs constitute an intimate portrait of the research papers artist. While the photographs provide a space for Essaydi to writing a research journey, voice her own reflections, they are not uniquely personal; they also represent a narrative shared by marine biology, women with similar understandings of what Islamic heritage, cultural mobility, and gender identity. Indeed, Essaydi considers this work a collaborative endeavor undertaken with the Moroccan women who pose for marine biology papers, her photographs. The images are captured after hours of preparation. As the models and backdrops are painted with henna, the artist and her collaborators engage in a lively exchange, recounting memories and writing a research experiences of being women of Moroccan heritage. The images, then, depict women in repose, caught in papers moments of quietude, rather than immutably silenced. Essaydi#8217;s photographs reverberate with their conversations, past and present. Of Dissertation! The serenity and elegance of biology these photographs belie their subversive nature. Essaydi transgresses gender stereotypes by using calligraphy, a sacred Islamic art form traditionally reserved for men.
Even more, she expresses herself through calligraphic script, rather than writing in the service and spirit of the Qur#8217;an, the Muslim holy book, as convention dictates. Subjecting text and content to her will, the artist employs writing as a delicate act of defiance against a culture in which women have been relegated to the private sphere. Essaydi#8217;s photographic work challenges conventions of space in multiple ways. This is clearly the eldest paolini essay case with respect to Islamic cultures in which religion has historically dictated spatial boundaries for men and women. The presence of men defines public venues, streets, and meeting places, while women have customarily been confined to biology papers, private spaces, though this is increasingly contested by women throughout the Muslim world. The artist also challenges the expectations of viewers, who rely on the clear juxtaposition of positive and negative space and on depth of field as primary points of on the iliad selected modern orientation.
This is seldom possible in Essaydi#8217;s photographs in which spatial relationships are obscured by script. Instead, the writing serves as the defining element of the composition, constituting the foreground, background, and subject. The artist removes all allusions to clearly recognizable architectural elements, and biology papers substitutes her signature use of hennainscribed cloth. Of Dissertation Works! What remains is, quite simply, space. In Essaydi#8217;s work, it is rarely defined except by the presence of the women who inhabit it. She lures viewers in and, once they are engaged, compels them to biology research papers, make sense of the scene. The ambiguous space of the photographs resonates with Essaydi#8217;s personal experience and, perhaps, her frame of mind. Relocating multiple times during her lifetime has required multiple reinventions of self, particularly when cultures are crossed, children are raised, and of dissertation time has passed.
The space the artist occupies, then, is ill defined, located between cultures, traditions, and histories. These works, abstracted from a definitive place, conjure the marine papers distance between the artist and her homeland. In Morocco, women have traditionally been expected to remain indoors at most times, and those who transgressed rules of gender conduct have sometimes been subjected to more extreme confinement, a practice only recently abandoned. For the Converging Territories series, the artist revisited a large, unoccupied, familyowned house in Morocco where women who defied traditional gender roles were secluded from others. Converging Territories #28 , 2004. Chromogenic print on aluminum, 40-1/4 x 32-5/8 inches.
Courtesy of the artist and Edwynn Houk Gallery, New York. Returning to works, her home country and childhood, Essaydi photographed Moroccan women and marine research girls in this family house. In the dissertation writing a research journey act of taking it over, she literally redressed it through careful staging. She reversed the connotation of these spaces, transforming them into a place where women are seen, not hidden. Especially when Essaydi#8217;s work is understood as a collaboration between the artist and her models, this site becomes a place of intimate dialogue and expression, where voices are unleashed rather than muted. Biology Research Papers! Converging Territories #32, 2004. Chromogenic print on cite aluminum, 48 x 58-1/8 inches. Courtesy of the artist and Edwynn Houk Gallery, New York. Essaydi#8217;s distinctive artistic process is biology papers indebted to Moroccan wedding customs, which include adorning women#8217;s bodies during the Night of the cite of dissertation works Henna, an elaborate celebration that is a prelude to the wedding itself. On the eve of her marriage, the bride and her female friends and family members come together to apply henna to her hands and feet in intricate designs. In the Apparel stilllifephotographs of the Converging Territories series, instead of ornamenting women#8217;s bodies and skin, Essaydi writes upon objects that are customary wedding gifts, such as flowers, eggs, and sugar.
In the context of marine biology papers Essaydi#8217;s larger body of work, in which women#8217;s bodies are so inscribed, the gifts associated with the bride invoke her presence. Essays Criticism! Apparel #6 (flowers), 2003. Chromogenic print on aluminum, 33½ x 40½ inches. Courtesy of the marine research artist and Edwynn Houk Gallery, New York. In Les Femmes du Maroc, Essaydi once again stages Moroccan women in enigmatic spaces awash with text. Rather than taking a site from her past as a point of departure, in this more recent series she engages the what is a good thesis imaginary spaces of specific nineteenthcentury Orientalist paintings in biology which European artists rendered their romanticized impressions of the Islamic world. The name Essaydi has given the series, Les Femmes du Maroc, is soul surfer itself a play on the title Les Femmes d#8217;Algiers (1834), a wellknown painting by the French Romantic artist Eugène Delacroix. Les Femmes du Maroc: Harem Woman #1, 2008.
Chromogenic print on aluminum, 40 x 30 inches. Courtesy of the artist and Edwynn Houk Gallery, New York. Essaydi recasts each painting, stripping it of nearly all decoration and affectation. She removes the opulent color, the elaborate décor, and the male figures that occupy European Orientalist paintings so that, in her own work, women and their gestures become the sole focal point. Rather than simply replicating the centuriesold Western tradition of exoticizing the Eastern #8220;other#8221; and the female body, the artist inserts her own narrative#8212;literally and figuratively#8212;into the images, thereby inviting viewers to reconsider mythologies of an imaginary notion of the Orient. More than simply cultural critique#8212;whether of Arabic, Islamic, or EuroAmerican narratives#8212;Essaydi subverts the terms of biology research papers those cultures by appropriating their visual vocabularies. Les Femmes du Maroc 35 , 2006. Chromogenic print on aluminum, 34 x 40 inches. Eldest Chris Paolini! Courtesy of the biology research papers artist and Edwynn Houk Gallery, New York. In one of her signature images from the series, Essaydi reinterprets La Grande Odalisque (1814) by JeanAugusteDominique Ingres; her rendition now resides in the collection of the is a thesis Musée du Louvre in Paris along with the original painting.
By appropriating this imagery, Essaydi directly confronts the manner in which Orientalist paintings have fostered monolithic stereotypes of the Islamic world as exotic, sublime, sensual, and remote. Established during the nineteenth century, these deeply entrenched misconceptions persist and remain highly charged in the twentyfirst century. Les Femmes du Maroc 35 , 2006. Chromogenic print on aluminum, 34 x 40 inches. Courtesy of the artist and Edwynn Houk Gallery, New York. Together, the works in marine research this exhibition demonstrate the artist#8217;s critical exploration of themes addressing women, space, and memory. While deeply engaged with varied histories, Essaydi#8217;s work is works indelibly linked to her own experience and bears witness to her ongoing interrogation of conventional distinctions#8212;women and men, public and private, past and present, self and other, memory and marine imagination#8212;that beg to be reexamined and reformed.
Photographs by Lalla Essaydi: L#8217;Écriture Féminine / Le Corps Féminin.
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essay rule of law The Power of Independent Thinking. Liberty and the Rule of Law. Student Winner. Third Prize (Tie) ($500) #147;The great aim of the struggle for research papers, liberty has been equality before the law.#148; The term #145;rule of law,#146; since reformulated by A.V. Dicey in the 19 th century, has traditionally meant to eldest paolini, include such notions as supremacy of marine standing law over arbitrary power, equality before the law (which applies also to government officials), and a binding constitutional framework. In the broader context of Hayek#146;s work in political philosophy, his idea of equality is meant to incorporate these notions. Eldest Paolini. The following essay sketches out some highlights of the struggle for this ideal, and then address the role that equality before the law#151;and the rule of law more generally#151;performs in marine research papers allowing modern civilization to prosper. In The Constitution of Liberty Hayek explains that only equality before the law, and not equality of outcomes, is consistent with a free society. Material inequality is in fact a necessary by-product of freedom.
However, equality before the law is clearly not sufficient for the kind of society that Hayek was advocating, since it could arguably exist under a totalitarian regime. It must exist as part of the what thesis, rule of law, or a #147;meta-legal doctrine or political ideal#148; that puts limitations on what laws ought to be. The notion of equality before the law arose soon after government was established in papers its earliest form, for it only makes sense once people move out of family or small tribal communities into a research journey, larger, impersonal societies. If we begin in ancient Greece, this notion of equality starts to appear even before legal institutions became a subject for systematic study. Aristotle spoke of the rule of laws instead of men, and Pericles#151;whom Hayek quotes approvingly#151;thought this to be a distinguishing characteristic of Athens. Research. However, the writing journey, Greeks did not yet understand that if a legislative body can decide a particular case, it is neither legislating nor adjudicating, but exercising arbitrary power. Nor was this fully understood by the Roman Republic, although as this was the beginning of marine law in its modern sense, some of its weaknesses might be forgiven. The Romans did develop some of these ideas of soul thesis equality, along with its practical advances in marine biology research legal institutions. The failure of Greek law, by dissertation writing a research, contrast, was the lack of a competent tribunal to apply the private law to its citizens. There was no legal profession, and law as a popular activity was not conducive to providing general rules. These defects were partly remedied in Rome, and #147;[t]he result,#148; according to marine research, Zane, #147;was that among the soul surfer, Romans there was a rule of law.#148; Courts began the process of resolving particular cases according to general rules, and writers such as Cicero argued that not all enacted laws are necessarily just.
Although Rome was a hierarchical society, Hayek admired the marine research papers, late republican period for is a thesis statements, its advances, until these were reversed during the Empire. The emperors of Rome decreed themselves to be above the law (something which would be reincarnated many times in European history), but even they felt the need to justify their power as coming from the will of the people. The idea of the rule of law would survive however#151;if a bit bloodied#151;through the Germanic kingdoms of the research papers, Dark Ages. In early medieval political theory, which was dominated by soul thesis, the Church, rebellion against the king was not permitted, but the research papers, idea of the iliad selected criticism, king being bound by the law was seen throughout the period. The rule of marine research law was emerging, and England took its role as the leader of this tradition.
The Magna Carta was the first step in a process that would culminate in the Glorious Revolution nearly a half-millennium later. Of course even England did not realize the ideal of individual liberty during this long evolutionary period, but it was developing a legal tradition that would set it apart from the Continent. Following Hayek, we can jump ahead in our story, as #147;individual liberty in modern times can hardly be traced back further than the England of the chris, seventeenth century.#148; And as J.M. Kelly noted, #147;[Equality before the law] is a value which, in a Europe full of privilege, found a full expression only in the voice of the English revolution.#148; The ideas were heard most clearly from the marine biology, Levellers during the what, English Civil Wars, and then from Locke, whose most influential works would come after the Glorious Revolution. The sole function of the government, according to Locke, was the protection of property in the broad sense, meaning #145;lives, liberties and estates.#146; And even though he would endorse majority rule, he also argued that the legislature should not have arbitrary power. Biology Research. Also notable in this century was a conception of natural rights that focused on individuals rather than social duty, as well as a secular rather than theological foundation. Outside of England, for example, Pufendorf would anticipate Kant: #147;Let no one act towards another in such a way that the cite works, latter can justly complain that his equality of marine right has been violated.#148;
In the 18 th century, we begin to statement, see the split in intellectual traditions that Hayek often addressed. The rationalists, most notably in France, wanted to start anew and base everything on reason, while the thinkers of the Scottish Enlightenment (whom Hayek admired so much) did not, but instead wrote of research #145;establishments which are indeed the result of human action but not the execution of human design.#146; It was in fact the unintended consequences of the early rationalist view that led to setbacks for liberty, rather than a deliberate strategy advocating centralized power. During this time, the call for laws to a research journey, be subject to reason was a reaction to the arbitrary rule and privileges of the elite, so the intentions of these writers and marine research papers activists were consistent with what would become classical liberalism. Tocqueville, whom Hayek puts squarely in the anti-rationalist tradition, illustrates the similarity between these two branches of thought at the time. In summing up the theme of the Enlightenment writers, Tocqueville writes:
They all started with the principle that it was necessary to substitute simple and elementary rules, based on dissertation journey reason and natural law, for the complicated and traditional customs which regulated society in biology papers their time. Cite Of Dissertation. The whole of the political philosophy of the eighteenth century is really comprised in that single notion. It was only when the rationalist vision was brought to its logical conclusion in the French Revolution that it became antithetical to liberty. Edmund Burke would become a fierce critic of the Revolution and its intellectual foundations, and his claim for the superiority of organically grown systems over those designed in the name of reason would be repeated by Hayek. The rationalist school of thought would continue to biology research, have great influence, and it led to the codification of laws in continental Europe and the reform movements from the thesis, 19 th century to the present day. The result has been a movement away from the marine biology papers, classical liberal ideal of laissez-faire government. Eldest Chris. However, the basic notions of the rule of law and private property have survived. The collapse of socialism served to vindicate them to some extent, although interventionism that is in opposition to the rule of law is still alive and well.
Finally, Hayek and others saw the early United States as taking over the tradition of individual liberty from England, as the colonists objected to the increasingly arbitrary power of the British Parliament. They saw the marine research, necessity of a written constitution to limit the power of any particular branch of government, and saw it also as laying down general principles to prevent arbitrary rule. It so happens that this attempt at division of paolini powers has not succeeded, nor did the attempts to limit legislative power to strictly enumerated functions, but certainly the intentions of the Framers were in line with this classical liberal tradition. An important point is that despite appearances, the American constitution was not a product of the rationalist #145;French tradition,#146; as the government emerged from general principles and its structure even a few years later could not have been anticipated by marine papers, its framers. While there are many examples when the legislature and cite courts have ignored these general principles, there survives something of a consensus that prevented an even greater encroachment of liberty. The U.S. experience has been another in the long line of biology research imperfect experiments in of mice thesis about forming a free society. The Functions of Liberty. According to biology papers, Noel B. Reynolds, #147;The rule of law is a solution to a problem, and as the classical liberal tradition has always recognized, the problem is tyranny.#148; Hayek would hardly disagree, but incorporating his insights on how markets work, he saw the a research journey, fundamental problem solved by a free society to marine research papers, be the use of dispersed knowledge that can never be known to a centralized body. Giving people equal opportunities to selected criticism, use their knowledge for their own ends not only fulfills the Kantian maxim of respecting the autonomy of the individual, but is how society adapts to biology research papers, new conditions and discovers new ways to soul thesis, live. As Hayek put it, #147;a condition of liberty in which all are allowed to use their knowledge for their purposes, restrained only by rules of just conduct of universal application, is likely to produce for them the best conditions for achieving their aims.#148; This may seem uncontroversial, but the opposing mindset tends to ask the marine biology research, question: Why shouldn#146;t the government attempt to use our inherited knowledge of society and scientific method to improve on institutions that have evolved without conscious direction?
The fact that many people, and especially our political leaders, would surely think this to be a reasonable goal shows that Hayek was not merely arguing against and men thesis statement a straw man, nor was his analysis only appropriate for marine biology research papers, central planning of the early 20 th century variety. It should be pointed out that the formula #145;equality before the law#146; is not a simple guide to policy, nor is anything like #145;laissez-faire#146; or #145;respecting private property.#146; So the question is how to define the private sphere of action in which individuals can use their own knowledge for their own ends. It is this conception of knowledge that to Hayek was so important for a society that progresses, and for which equality before the law is necessary. In most of his writings, Hayek was more concerned with the process in eldest chris paolini which this these limits were decided, rather than laying out the proper functions of government in any detail. This is why he often advocated the adjudication by courts as opposed to legislation; the former is more adaptable, more likely to incorporate local knowledge of the parties involved, and marine biology research papers less likely to result in restrictions on parties not involved in a particular dispute. Buchanan takes a similar approach: Each man counts for one, and that is that. Thesis About Loneliness. Once this basic premise is fully acknowledged. [a] criterion for #145;betterness#146; is suggested. A situation is judged #145;good#146; to the extent that it allows individuals to get what they want to get, whatsoever this might be, limited only by the principle of mutual agreement. Individual freedom becomes the overriding objective for social policy. 
The alternative to this is to use the subjective valuations#151;usually in the guise of objectivity#151;of some particular person or group. Yet Buchanan also argued that anarchy was not practicable. So for him the question was also how to define the biology papers, limits on freedom, and what good thesis he also places emphasis on the (individualist) process by biology papers, which this is determined, rather than specific outcomes. The rules defining individuals#146; protected domain must solve certain problems that are inherent in a modern society. Besides the division of knowledge, there is the tendency for people to favor their own interests, and also the problem of power, or enforcement abuse. The latter refers to problems inherent in chris essay allowing a monopoly on coercion#151;in other words, the marine papers, erroneous or improper use of force.
The rule of cite works law is the most effective way yet discovered to deal with all of these issues. A proper conception of this ideal leads to a process for delimiting private property and enforcing contracts, which allows individual knowledge to be used effectively and for disparate aims to marine biology research, be reconciled. In particular, the process consistent with this is an evolutionary growth of law guided by general principles, hence the dissertation writing, emphasis on adjudication by courts. To take a more concrete example, consider the provision of public goods. It is often claimed that government is necessary to overcome the free-rider problem. To argue this, however, it is not only necessary to show that free-riding is sub-optimal, but also that taxation and government provision is an improvement. This is not obvious once you consider the knowledge and research papers interest problems#151;that is, in not using local and individual knowledge that may be able to of dissertation, provide this good, and ignoring the incentives faced by government officials. Private property and freedom of contract, which is part of the framework that naturally evolves from the conception of the rule of marine papers law, do provide incentives (however imperfect) to solve the free-rider problem.
It is important to keep in mind that even Hayek#146;s richer development of the notion of the soul surfer, rule of law may not be enough to guarantee a liberal society. The conditions of generality and abstractness of law that he emphasized can conceivably occur in a non-liberal regime, and Hayek was led to make concessions to government intervention that would likely be rejected by many other classical liberals. This is part of the reason to emphasize the historical development of the rule of law, as Hayek was always aware of the evolutionary nature of changes in society. This is also why Barnett, who argues for the classical liberal rule of law along with a polycentric legal order (i.e. Marine. one without a coercive monopoly), points out that whether this order will be liberal will depend on how it comes about#151;a violent overthrow is likely to have different consequences than a peaceful reform movement. No one is suggesting that issues of path dependence, evolved cultural differences, and entrenched interest groups are problems to be ignored when it comes to reform. The failed attempts to transplant Western institutions to soul surfer thesis, other countries make that abundantly clear. But of the ways that people have tried to organize themselves in society, the most successful have followed, at least in part, this classical liberal tradition.
How these foundations can be improved even further, and how to research papers, implement and maintain them in different societies, are questions that are still seeking answers. Just as private property benefits even those who don#146;t own any, we might also say that equality before the law also benefits those who never need to chris, exercise it, or are blissfully unaware of it. For Hayek, ignorance and the limitations of reason were inescapable facts of the world. But he put great importance on the battle of ideas, and to understand liberty requires knowledge of the rule of law.  F.A. Hayek, The Constitution of Liberty (Chicago: University of biology Chicago Press, 1960), p. 85.  See Todd Zywicki, #147;The Rule of Law, Freedom, and Prosperity,#148; Supreme Court Economic Review , Vol. 10, 2003, pp. 1-26.  Even more insightful is Hayek#146;s explanation of how inequality is necessary for experimentation and progress.
See Hayek, supra note 1, at pp. 42-49.  See Ibid., at 205-210 and on the iliad criticism F.A. Hayek, The Road to Serfdom (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1972 ), ch. 6.  As Zane put it, #147;In order to insure equal laws it was found, long ages after the Greeks and Romans, that the judicial power must be separately and marine independently exercised.#148; John Maxcy Zane, The Story of Law , 2 nd . ed (Indianopolis: Liberty Fund, 1998), p. And Men Statement. 105.  Hayek, supra note 1, at research, 162.  J.M. Kelly, A Short History of Western Legal Theory, (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1992), p. 236.  Quoted in Ibid., p. Soul. 226. For Hayek#146;s emphasis on Kant#146;s importance, see Chandran Kukathas, Hayek and Modern Liberalism , (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989) and Hayek supra note 1, at pp. 196-197.
 See in particular, #147;Individualism: True and marine biology research False,#148; in F.A. Hayek, Individualism and Economic Order , (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1948).  Adam Ferguson, quoted by Hayek supra note 1, at essays on the criticism, p. 57.  Quoted in Kelly, supra note 9, at p. 251.  F.A. Marine Biology Research. Hayek, Law, Legislation and Liberty, Vol. 1: Rules and Order , (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1973), p. 1. See also James Buchanan, The Limits of Liberty: Between Anarchy and of dissertation Leviathan, (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2000 ), p. 19. Hayek#146;s point of course is not that all checks have been eliminated, but the conclusion hardly seems as controversial as it might at first glace, given a casual investigation of Congressional acts or popular beliefs about states#146; rights vs. Marine Biology. centralized power.  Hayek supra note 1, at essays on the iliad modern criticism, pp.
183-84.  Hayek writes approvingly of the marine research, Supreme Court#146;s rejection of FDR#146;s attempt at accumulating discretionary powers for specific ends. See Ibid., pp. 190-91.  Quoted in writing a research journey Zywicki, supra note 2, at p.5.
 For Hayek#146;s classic exposition of the role of knowledge in the price system, see #147;The Use of Knowledge in biology Society,#148; in of mice about loneliness Hayek, supra note 11.  Hayek supra note 13, at p. 55.  Bruno Leoni made similar points in arguing against legislation. Marine Biology Papers. See Bruno Leoni , Freedom and the Law, (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 1991), pp. 6, 22.  Buchanan, supra note 13, at p. 4.  See Randy Barnett, The Structure of Liberty: Justice and the Rule of Law (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1998), and chris Hayek supra note 13, at p. 107.  For the preceding discussion, see Barnett, supra note 21, at pp.
162 ff. The point is similar to Demsetz#146;s distinction betweeen the #145;nirvana approach#146; and marine biology the #145;comparative institution approach.#146; See Harold Demsetz, #147;Information and Efficiency: Another Viewpoint,#148; J. Law Econ. , Vol. 12, No. 1 (Apr., 1969), pp. And Men Thesis About Loneliness. 1-22. For some classic examples of market solutions for research, provision of public goods and solving externality problems, see Ronald Coase, #147;The Lighthouse in Economics,#148; J. Law Econ. , Vol. 17, No.
2 (Oct., 1974), pp. 357-76, and soul surfer Steven N S Cheung, #147;The Fable of the marine biology, Bees: An Economic Investigation#148;, J. Law Econ., Vol. 16, No. Dissertation A Research Journey. 1 (Apr., 1973), pp. Marine. 11-33.  For some of Hayek#146;s (sympathetic) critics on and men about this point, see Kukathas, supra note 10, and marine research Norman Barry , #147;The Tradition of Spontaneous Order#148;, Literature of Liberty , Vol. A Research. V, No.
2 (Summer 1982), pp. 7-58. One example of Hayek#146;s controversial policy positions is his view on compulsory military service; see Hayek supra note 1, at p. 143.  As a response to this general line of biology research criticism, Barnett argues throughout his book that the formal requirements of the rule of the law do place limits on cite works substance.  For path dependence and the role of institutions, see Douglass North, Institutions, Institutional Change, and Economic Performance , (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990), esp. ch. Marine. 12.  See Hayek supra note 13, at essays selected modern, p. 121.
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Introduction to the audiovisual essay: A child of research papers two mothers. by Cristina Alvarez Lopez Adrian Martin. The audiovisual essay is not a strict genre or a delimited form – it is the name for a burgeoning field of inquiry, research, and experimentation within academia and and men thesis statement, also beyond it; the expression of critical, analytical, and biology research papers, theoretical work using the of mice statement loneliness, resources of audiovisuality – images and sounds in marine biology, montage. The specific inflection of thesis a chosen name always matters. Out of the various possible candidates in the air at present – video essay, visual essay, videographic moving image study – we choose audiovisual essay because: a. we all need to put an end to the casual ignoring of the decisive role of sound in every form of modern media; b. video (as in electronic videotape) is already an anachronistic term in marine papers, the digital age and of mice thesis about, has been for some time; c. essay is a word which, in the spheres of film and media (both their analysis and production), has come to carry the simultaneous connotations of biology research papers intellectual research and poetic exploration – neither simply a vehicle for what good, instrumental rationalism nor art for art’s sake. It is a word which can create its own problems (see remarks below) but, at present, remains charged and useful as a probe to identify a new energy in creation and critique. The objection is sometimes heard in public forums: but is marine biology papers any of this really new? From Joseph Cornell’s surrealist collage Rose Hobart (1936) to Jean-Luc Godard’s epic Histoire(s) du cinema (1988-1998), filmmakers and artists have long been cutting together appropriated images and sounds in order to make a critical point or pursue their particular politico-philosophical ‘vision’. Celebrated multimedia border-crossers including Agnes Varda, Chris Marker, Ken Jacobs, and Harun Farocki have been extending the ruminative, speculative form of the written essay into renewed, audiovisual formats since at least the essays on the iliad, 1950s. However, something fundamental in the contemporary situation of media has changed for a large number of actual and potential producers (including our students). First, computers offer relatively simple but highly effective technologies of digital production and (particularly relevant for the audiovisual essay) post-production. Marine! Second, the raw materials – the images and sounds of pre-existing films, television, and media items – are available to acquire and manipulate via digital channels in a way that is writing historically unprecedented.
For close to a century experimental filmmakers sourced out-of-copyright movie trailers and black market prints and biology research, literally scoured the bins and dumpsters of rejected footage in order to re-edit, re-film, and creatively manhandle them. Film/video essayists such as Farocki and Marker invented ingenious schemes in order to access the official streams of imagery made by and for corporations or recorded on security cameras. Godard, alongside hundreds of other artists worldwide in surfer, the 1980s, went the VHS or Super-8 route, forensically taping from television broadcasts or reshooting playback off of marine biology research video monitors. The audiovisual essay, in the wide range in which we are encompassing it within NECSUS, is – to adapt the title of Massimo Bontempelli’s novella that Raul Ruiz filmed as The Comedy of Innocence (2000) – the ‘child of two mothers’. At least two! There is the tradition of research and experimentation that comes through avant-garde film and essays on the, video, particularly all that is gathered under the rubric of found footage work. The subject of this kind of audiovisual essay is not restricted to but tends at its primary level to be focused on the critique or examination of cinema itself in marine biology papers, some respect – particular filmmakers or genres, specific movies or fragments therein, or a more theoretical aspect of the ‘cinematic machine’ in general, as a medium and as a part of dissertation writing a research journey cultural history. Biology Research Papers! Then there is the essay-film (or film-essay), that historic breakaway from supposedly objective documentary which stresses the eldest, elements of the personal and the reflective, and marine biology papers, which has itself spawned many sub-forms in the digital age. Where found footage pieces use little or no audiovisual material originated by eldest, the maker the essay-film may use a great deal that is generated first-hand (very often with a small or large component of some pre-existing media archive blended into its overall mix). The range of subjects of essayistic works treated in this mode tends to be broader than in the found footage tradition; cinema and other media may function as a key reference point but usually only as part of a larger social and transpersonal ensemble under investigation.
These are not intended as hard-and-fast categorical distinctions. As always, anything that is deemed by some commentator to be a genre, type, model, template, or tradition has usually already produced ample examples of marine biology research papers hybrid combination, anti-type, or peculiar exaggerations of the posited form. We simply wish to flag two extreme points that can be used to collate and works, compare the diverse works and research, tendencies within what is currently a vital, operative field. In the soul surfer, present academic climate, and in light of the resistances to biology papers and questions about the cite works, audiovisual essay that sometimes arise, a dual campaign needs to be waged, exerting pressure from two sides. First, we need to marine biology papers assert and demonstrate that seemingly ‘purely’ poetic forms can carry intellectual ideas and embody practices of dissertation writing journey scholarly research. This is more a matter of fighting ingrained perceptions and assumptions (even among humanities scholars) than of changing the nature of artistic work itself – although that too has been entering a new, hybridised phase in our era of ‘PhDs through practice’ and research-driven art, as more and more practitioners abandon the once fragile and now completely crumbling economy of cultural subsidies and choose to enter the academy to pursue their lifetime of work. Second, and conversely, we need to stress the constitutively creative aspect of essayistic forms when they are forged in image and sound. The traditional academic habit of both beginning with words (in the marine, form of dissertation a research journey a plan, such as a pre-written script or structured outline) and ending with words (as final justification and elucidation) is challenged by a great deal of marine papers work appearing under the audiovisual essay umbrella.
Godard himself was probably the first to articulate this problem back in the late 1970s when he explained to essays on the iliad selected modern television commissioners that his forthcoming found footage/essay works (including Histoire(s) ) would not proceed from marine biology research papers a pre-formulated script but be arrived at solely within the editing process itself, in order that an idea could be seen and heard in a new and more direct way. He would usually be met with the initially enthusiastic but then immediately defensive response: ‘[t]he originality is that it will be visual! […] But can you tell us how it will be visual?’ We do not go so far as Godard in polemically denigrating ‘the word’ in favour of eldest chris some pure audio-vision. Biology Papers! In fact, Godard has never entirely refused words himself, despite the provocative film title Farewell to Language . It is rather the case that in our much-vaunted age of multimediality , intermediality , and transmediality , we should practice what we preach. All the diverse elements of works media (image, sound, graphic design, text, etc.) are available for us to use in different combinations, and we stand only to papers gain from exploring the possibilities of this ‘infinite semiosis’. However, we do need to tread a little carefully with the very word ‘essay’.
What is chris essay positive and marine, helpful about the term is, as we have asserted, the clear link it makes between audiovisual creativity and reflective research/scholarship. Its principal pitfall has been discerned, recently, by Volker Pantenburg at the conference Critical Theory, Film and Media: Where is Frankfurt Now? in thesis, August 2014, during a presentation titled ‘Essayism and its Discontents’. Pantenburg argued that in celebrating the potential of the essay (in whichever medium) to be digressive, reflective, subjective, and marine research papers, so forth, we court the risk of freezing and reifying it into a genre with fixed characteristics – a paradoxical and indeed self-defeating gesture, since it amounts to a way of regularising and codifying what is eldest meant to be surprising, inventive, and boundary-breaking. The aspiration to see and hear anew through the invention of research papers new forms is salutary; the enumeration of a recipe for cooking this up is less so. As Pantenburg (alongside Hito Steyerl in 2011) reminds us, the essay came into being not only with the famous, founding reflectivity/subjectivity of cite of dissertation Montaigne, but very shortly after with the ‘moral instructions’ of Francis Bacon. Marine Research! Our commonplace experience today confirms this sometimes self-cancelling duality: while the essay-as-experiment triumphantly belongs to the tradition of Roland Barthes, Judith Williamson, Walter Benjamin, Christa Wolf, or Ross Gibson, the essay-as-business-as-usual, the conservative and normative op-ed ‘think piece’, belongs to Clive James, Peter Fuller, James Wolcott, and a thousand other high-end journalists (sad confirmation of this can be found in James’ treatment of radical essayists including Benjamin and surfer, Marker in his appalling 2007 bestseller Cultural Amnesia ). After all, the marine papers, extremely schematic, rule-bound assignments that our students are taught to write are also called essays – often duly expunged of of dissertation what Adrian Miles has rightly and enthusiastically inventoried as the essay’s finest propensities toward ‘disjunction, exploration, asides, rambles, excursus, and even digression’. Again, the drive to practice what we academically preach stands to gain much from a concerted push into thoroughgoing audiovisualism. In this inaugural audiovisual essay section we have curated two very different works that give a sense of the papers, possibilities currently sparking to life across the two ends of the spectrum we have sketched out.
Found Found Found (2014) is a digital essay by the celebrated Dutch-Australian avant-garde film artist Dirk de Bruyn, who has recently been the subject of the documentary The House That Eye Live In (Steven McIntyre, 2014). Found Found Found might be seen to be taking as its point of departure the type of soul surfer ‘personal travel diary’ which is a hallowed tradition in avant-garde cinema – especially as associated with Jonas Mekas who, increasingly today, approaches his own very intimately shot footage as a vast archive to revisit and re-edit. The title Found Found Found flips that of Mekas’ famous poetic film-essay Lost Lost Lost (1976) – but this fond homage/allusion is also a trenchant critique of a particular cinematic tradition, since the ‘world viewed’ by today’s audiovisual essayist has transformed itself so profoundly in the intervening four decades. Irony looms: what or who is exactly ‘found’ in de Bruyn’s piece? Mixing, as he has done for some 35 years, an immersion in media theory (Marshall McLuhan, Guy Debord, and particularly Vilem Flusser) with the free-play of abstract, structural, and poetic forms, de Bruyn produces a meditation on the type of marine research papers ceaseless loss (of a sense of eldest essay self, of geo-physical co-ordinates, and of social values) produced by a neo-capitalist world premised on international travel, social mobility, and all-pervasive communications networks. Its ‘argument’ is channelled all at once through a montage of biology visual and sonic fragments (many recorded by his digital camera) and of dissertation, through the sensations produced by light, colour, and rhythm.
As ever, de Bruyn’s audiovisual art challenges us to think dynamically in frames, pixels, and micro-seconds, relentlessly tumbling one upon the next – to be a part of the sensorial, media-saturated world as it is experienced, on the move, but also to somehow get outside of it and view the logic of its ideological power structures. Laura Lammer is a student in the Department of Theatre, Film and research, Media Studies at Goethe University, Frankfurt. As a participant in our practical/theoretical class on the audiovisual essay she produced a kinetic reflection on the ‘Apocalypse Trilogy’ of chris paolini essay U.S. filmmaker Gregg Araki, using only short samples layered and treated within a digital editing program. Her Smells Like Armageddon Day – Dreamlike Settings and Magnified Trash (2014) bypasses an excessive dependence on text-as-instruction in biology research, order to deliver its analysis through the careful arrangement, in multiple fragments and essays modern criticism, two major clusters, of the main strategies in Araki’s cinema as Lammer sees them: first, the often garishly-coloured environments in biology papers, which his characters live; second, the of mice and men about loneliness, types of fetish-objects that he presents in eye-popping, close-up inserts. Lammer’s piece offers a clear case of something that an audiovisual essay can do which a written piece, no matter how detailed or brilliant, can scarcely touch: even the typical journalistic words I have just used (‘garish’ and ‘eye-popping’) do scant justice to the design-assault of colour, tone, shape, gesture, and marine biology research papers, vocal inflection that Lammer accumulates and on the iliad modern criticism, co-ordinates in her montage. Through her work we can get closer analytically not only to what Araki’s films materially are but also to what a neo-cinephilic, subcultural taste for research, his type of cinema means and eldest chris paolini, feels like, especially when scored to the music she selected. Smells Like Armageddon Day renews the possibilities for thinking in and through what has too often been hastily dismissed since the mid-1980s as the degraded ‘MTV-style’ music clip. NECSUS is far from acting alone as an academic journal in acknowledging this current ‘moment’ of the biology research, rise of the audiovisual essay. Clearly it is spreading in many directions at once – and this is of mice statement about all to the good. By tentatively circumscribing one spectrum or continuum of the field for biology research, the purposes of this section – with digital, found footage collage at one end and the film/media essay at the other – we hope to orient the thoughts and works of thesis our contributors and marine biology research, readers toward those audiovisual possibilities that actively produce knowledge and ideas via the multiple paths of performative, material research.
Corrigan, T. Of Mice! The essay film: From Montaigne, after Marker . London: Oxford University Press, 2011. Godard, J.-L. Introduction to a true history of cinema and television . Montreal: Caboose, 2014. James, C. Cultural amnesia: Notes in the margin of my time . Marine Research! London: MacMillan, 2007. Lebow, A (ed.). The cinema of me: The self and subjectivity in first person documentary . London: Wallflower, 2012. Miles, A. ‘Materialism and Interactive Documentary: Sketch Notes’, forthcoming in Studies in eldest chris essay, Documentary Film , 2014. Biology Research! Accessed via academia.edu. Rascaroli, L. The personal camera: Subjective cinema and the essay film . London: Wallflower Press, 2009. Steyerl, H. ‘The Essay as Conformism?
Some Notes on Global Image Economies’ in Der Essayfilm . Asthetik und Aktualitat , edited by S. Kramer and T. Cite! Tode. Research! Konstanz, 2011.  See Lebow 2012, Corrigan 2011, and Rascaroli 2009, among others.  Godard 2014, p. xxxviii.  Cinema Journal and essays on the modern, Media Commons have sponsored [in]Transition (http://mediacommons.futureofthebook.org/intransition/), which is in its third issue. One of that journal’s editors, Catherine Grant, via the research, REFRAME research platform of University of what is a thesis Sussex, has spearheaded an invaluable web resource titled The Audiovisual Essay (http://reframe.sussex.ac.uk/audiovisualessay/). Biology Papers! The latter includes the essay, proceedings of the conference Audiovisual Essay: Practice and Theory which was held in marine biology, November 2013 in Frankfurt and organised by the present authors through Goethe University.
These recent events and of mice and men about, publications build upon marine papers previous special issues of Frames (Issue 1, 2012) on ‘Film and Moving Image Studies Re-born Digital?’ (http://framescinemajournal.com/?issue=issue) and the dossier in Filmidee (Issue 5, 2012) on ‘Pratiche del videosaggio’ (http://www.filmidee.it/archive/34/category/144/category.aspx). We should not forget the ongoing, vibrant focus upon audiovisual production in writing journey, extra-academic, cinephilic endeavours including Transit (http://cinentransit.com/), Press Play (http://blogs.indiewire.com/pressplay/) at Indiewire , Photogenie (http://www.photogenie.be/photogenie_blog/), the Vimeo group Audiovisualcy (https://vimeo.com/groups/audiovisualcy), and marine papers, the online extras provided by Sight Sound as well as movie-streaming enterprises such as MUBI (https://mubi.com/notebook), Fandor (http://www.fandor.com/keyframe/category/daily), and the ‘Tan lejos, tan cerca’ section of Filmin (https://www.filmin.es/blog/tag/Tan+lejos%2C+tan+cerca). We would like to thank the following partners for their support: The electronic version of NECSUS_European Journal of Media Studies is published in essays on the modern criticism, Open Access and is therefore free and accessible to the public. We feature PDF downloads to aid referencing and there will also soon be a Print on Demand option.
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