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Oil drilling in alaska essays

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biography content Kitano Takeshi was born January 18, 1947, in Umeshima, Adachiku, Tokyo, the youngest of four, having two elder brothers, Shigekazi and in alaska essays Masaru, and an elder sister, Yasuko. Masaru, already a young adult, was working as a translator, while the rest still attended school. His father, Kikujiro, originally a lacquer, worked as a housepainter and essay competition 2010 decorator after a short and essays failed attempt as fletcher. This was post-war Japan and drama poetry thinking were the lucky had a regular job, getting a monthly pay check, Kikujiro had to in alaska essays support his family by taking any job he could get. Takeshi and his brothers had to help him with his work, which he hated, as his classmates would make fun of and wade thesis look down on in alaska him. But the appearance as a man who worked hard to in toronto support his family was only superficial.

He was an alcoholic and would spend most of the money he earned on in alaska essays alcohol, and when he had been drinking, he would become violent and beat up both his wife and his kids. Eventually, Kikujiro left his family. His mother, Saki, was strict and devoting herself to oil drilling the education of positives and negatives tv essay, her children. Working tirelessly, she would save every cent and use the money to buy books for her children. She made them take summer school, she made them take classes in essays English and calligraphy and she would punish them if they didn?t kept up their work. She would even sometimes stand behind them with a light in order for them to oil drilling in alaska essays read. She was a very caring mother. Shigekazi, the eldest brother, would support her doing this.

She would consult with him and he would raise money to summer doll analytical pay for their tuition. In his book Kodoku, Kitano descripes how Shigekazi would function as the head of the family, the man of the house, and how he and Saki did everything for him, his brother and her sister. If we look back on essays her life, it is easier to understand why she pushed her children so hard. Her mother died when she was an infant and seventeenth doll analytical when her father hit hard times, she was forced to oil drilling in alaska go to Tokyo and become a servant to a wealthy family when she was thirteen. Here she met Ushi, who was a private teacher to the daughter of the house. They became good friends and it was arranged that Saki should marry her son. Sadly, he died shortly before the wedding. Loving her like her own daughter, Ushi chose to adopt Saki and arranged marriage between her nephew, Kikujiro, and in toronto Saki. It was not only because she didn?t wanted her children to end as Kikujiro, it was also because, the poor can only escape poverty through good education. She had experienced the lack of both poverty and having no education on her body. She did not want her children to having to feel nor go thru that.

Last and not least, because of the post-war educational reform, which in its attempt to imitated USA caused both academic snobbery and oil drilling in alaska essays new, higher, demands, the need for a good education became important even in fields not expected. Takeshi lived and grew up in Adachi ward in Senju, one of the poorest and roughest neighbourhoods of Tokyo, in a one room house, together with his brothers and sister, his mother and his grandmother, Ushi. Oil Drilling In Alaska! Hard enough while Kikujiro lived with them, but it became even harder after he left and Saki had to support the family. Essay On Are Than Our Forefather! They were very poor. In his autobiography, Takeshi-kun Hai!, Kitano tells, that they would use old wooden orange boxes as desks to study at and they would sit under the streetlight at night when reading. But there were also happy times. Essays! Almost like the cheerful parts of a Naruse drama, Kitano, for instance, tells how their home was the first house to get a television set in of reality tv essay the neighbourhood and henceforth became the centre of the community, and later, I remember my neighbourhood as being like one big family. People still growing vegetables in nearby fields and oil drilling in alaska washed them in the river, boys chased butterflies and roe v thesis statement dragonflies, their moms chatted at the public baths while their dads tipped a few at the bar on oil drilling in alaska essays the corner. This community sense of thesis statement, friendship and oil drilling family remains today visible as motifs in the film by Kitano Takeshi. ! In his biography, Imai Takako notes, that Kitano desperately wanted to escape his background and in alaska become the centre of attention. In junior high school he joined the baseball team, but was because of essay competition 2010, his size never picked for any important position.

Later, at age 12, he joined a local baseball club, the Shimane Eagles, and became a pitcher, but left both teams after a year or so. The reason was, that Kitano had discovered boxing and began to train with much vigour, so much so, that he almost didn?t pass the entry exam to Adachi High School. In Alaska Essays! Excelling in math and arts, Kitano wanted to become an and negatives, engineer and build cars. Cars were very much so a luxury item and to work for in alaska a big car company, as Honda, was a dream of his. In 1965, Kitano took and passed the entry exam at the prestigious Meiji University and began to study engineering. But not sooner than he began to study, did he begin to become distracted by other things and soon his goals and roe v thesis statement dreams were in oil drilling essays the past.

Instead of pursuing his academic career, Kitano began hanging out in Shinjuku, a quarter latin or Asbury Height equivalent in Tokyo. Here poet, writers, painters and other sorts of exploring literature poetry thinking writing, intellectuals and in alaska artists would hang out in hope to make a name themselves. He also began calling himself a futen. Literary meaning mad people, futen were social drop-outs, who rebelled against the establishment and who wanted to be free from an statement, existing theory of value. While copying the look of the hippies and adopting their beliefs, the futen was more differentiated than their American counterpart, ranging from free love anti-war to beatniks. Kitano belonged to the latter. He would sit and oil drilling essays listen to jazz music and discuss French existentialism, art and literature.

He would go to the library and read section up and in toronto down in oil drilling in alaska essays order to keep up. After four years of university, Kitano dropped out, October 1, 1970, though other sources falsely say, he was expelled for rebellious behaviour. Deeply disappointed, Saki kept on paying tuition for another year, in oil drilling in alaska essays hope that Takeshi would return and graduate. A note here should be, that Kitano eventually did graduate. He was awarded an honorary Bachelor of Science in engineering, September 7, 2004. When he recieved the degree, he was very proud and resume in toronto said, I will tell my mother about oil drilling essays this happy news.

While attending university, Kitano became conscious of , death. Essays! We can only speculate to resume what degree reading Sartre and Camus influenced the way he began to think, but while being sick with an throat infection, Kitano began to worry about getting cancer. He suddenly realised, that he wasn't living his own life and oil drilling in alaska essays developed an angst. How could he die without having done something he wanted to do? While having no exact idea what he really wanted to do, he still became defiant and decided to drop out. A futen university drop-out, Kitano began working odd jobs to support himself. Essay Fiction Literature Poetry Thinking Writing! Over the next couple of years he would work as a waiter, a cargo handler, a salesman, a supermarket clerk, doing manual labour and even driving a taxi, before getting tired of being a futen. He even tried to get back his dream and applied for a job at in alaska essays, a local Honda factory, but didn't get it. It was not so much the ideas, but more the fact, that he never get anywhere and always slept on someone?s floor. Kitano had achieved his childhood goal of escaping his background, but now he has a poor nobody - hardly the center of attention.

In 1972 Kitano moved from Shinjuku to Asakusa, downtown Tokyo. Asakusa ward 6 was a centre for amusements and was full of cinemas, theatres, comedy theatres, variety theatres and striptease theatres. The reason Kitano moved was that he wanted to be a comedian. Oil Drilling In Alaska! He wanted to be the centre of attention. But more than just to become the centre of essays, attention, Kitano sought to break away from his background and live his own life.

In the book Yosei, Kitano talks about his need to do so. As a child, whenever he would find something funny, his mother would scold him, telling him it wasn't funny. Likewise she always forbid him to express himself and in alaska essays how he felt, as it not only was unbecoming, but also gross. As a comedian says and does what he thinks is funny, by expressing himself, the choise of becoming one was another act of summer of the seventeenth doll analytical essay, defiance. Thus to defy became Kitano's selfrealisation and the means to become independent and live his own life. To become a comedian, one must first become an apprentice to a comedy master. So Kitano walked around from comedy theatre to comedy theatre, asking, even begging, to be introduced to one, and essays time and time he was refused introduction.

It was around time a sign caught the attention of young Takeshi. While the main attraction at the French theatre was striptease, it also has stand up comedy by Fukami Senzaburo. Resume In Toronto! Kitano liked his work and asked the lady at the box office if she would introduce him. Surprisingly he would, but on one condition, that Kitano would work as a liftboy. Over the next months Kitano would work the lift and do other tasks at the French theatre. Oil Drilling Essays! He became good friends with both dancers and staff, and was very will liked. So as promised, Kitano was introduced to Fukami.

Reluctant Fukami agreed. Kitano was more a student than Fukami was a teacher, but his persistence and dedication impressed Fukami, who little by little opened up more and more, as Kitano improved day by day. Eventually, Fukami could not teach him anymore dance steps and encouraged him to essays learn tap dancing and take acting classes. Not soon after Fukami decided to give Kitano his break and asked him to play a transvestite. Resume In Toronto! But despite the audience laughing, Fukami was not pleased, stopped the apprenticeship and didn?t talk to Kitano or casted him for a long time. Back working the lift, Kitano grew more and more frustrated. Then luck showed its face. One of the comedians had resigned, so Kitano was asked, if he couldn?t stand in. Dressed up as a transvestite, he would now work as the master of ceremonies, which basically was entertaining the audience between acts. Being completely new to this, Kitano made mistake on mistake, but people liked him and forgave him. Even Fukami, who soon took him into apprenticeship again.

Over the next two years Kitano did nothing but comedy. When not working, he would tireless practise comedy routines over and over again. He was consumed by it and oil drilling in alaska even when relaxing with friends, all he could do was to talk about resume in toronto comedy. But doing so, Kitano once again found himself getting nowhere. Asakusa was slowly falling behind in the rapid pace Tokyo moved onward and Kitano had no intentions of growing old there. For some time now, Kitano had thought about teaming up with another comedian. Around that time he met Kaneko Kiyoshi, called Jiro, who also worked at the French theatre. He knew Kitano and approached him in hope to essays join forces.

Kitano was not sure about the whole thing. Each day Jiro would talk to Takeshi about it, each day Takeshi would grow more and in alaska more concerned. It was not so much that he didn?t wanted to leave, it was more that he didn?t wanted to writing be disloyal to his master. Eventually, Kitano gave in. The desire to become famous was too strong and oil drilling as he told Fukami the news, Fukami became very upset and fell ill. They took on the name Shokakuya Jiro, Jiro, but they hardly got any gigs and even when they worked, they made lesser money than their old jobs at the French theatre would pay. It is important note, that back then all the star comedians were double acts and that in order to get jobs on the big stages you needed one of the star teams to mentor you.

So in order of improving their situation, Jiro decided that they should let Columbia Top Light (one of the most famous teams) be their mentor, who in turn, after having accepted them, gave them a new name, Sora Takeshi Kiyoshi. But neither the mentor, the new management nor the new name brought any improvements with it. Kitano grew not only frustrated, because he now was doing as bad as before he joined the French theatre, but also because he had left and disappointed Fukami. Assessing the situation, it was clear for essay fiction literature thinking Kitano, that the problem was the material, which was written by Jiro. Oil Drilling Essays! It simply wasn?t funny. Soon Kitano would become so despondent, that he would show up drunk or not at all ? and when he showed up, he would be rude and start fights with the audience if they didn?t laugh. They broke up as team. Kitano then saw a show by a man called Youshichi, who would speak obscenities so rapidly, as if his mouth was a machinegun.

That was what he had been looking for, a new approach. Kitano was excited and competition inspired. He wrote up a completely new comedy routine for him and Jiro, where Kitano would play a city person from in alaska Tokyo who would insult a farmer coming to the big city, played by Jiro. Approaching Jiro with the new material, Kitano suggested that he was in on are than our forefather charge of the material and a catchy new name. Oil Drilling In Alaska! After some tugging, they decided on The Two Beats, reflecting Kitano?s love for jazz: Henceforth Kitano would be Beat Takeshi and summer of the doll analytical Jiro would be Beat Kiyoshi. What The Two Beats made was not really manzai. Kitano had never studied it, nor been a fan of it. Oil Drilling Essays! The traditional form of manzai requires two people: the tsukkomi (the joke teller) and the boke (the victim, fall guy). Resume! The tsukkomi introduces the subject and the boke creates punch lines by answering in north when asked in south, the tsukkomi then picks up the lead again, often hitting the boke over the head.

The manzai of in alaska, The Two Beats was completely different. Kitano simply went off into a monologue and Kiyoshi, having a hard time following Takeshi and making up snappy relies on the spot, would comment with things like, what are you talking about?. It was soon labelled New Wave Manzai and created a boom in comedy. The material was obscene and vulgar. Roe V Wade Thesis Statement! Beat Takeshi would be the machine-gun mouth shooting words like shit, cock and pussy out in a non-stop stream, while Beat Kiyoshi would interject. It was an instant hit. In Alaska! Kids loved it. Wherever they played in Asakusa, they played for a sold out house. Even famous comedians would come down and see this new act. Roe V Thesis! Eventually the manzai boom would become so big, that comedy festivals were organised and comedians would act on stages, where bands like The Beatles and Deep Purple had played.

It became huge. But It was not just about being vulgar. While the targets of Kitano were the elderly, children, handicapped, the poor, the ugly, the goverment. and women, his anti-social and anti -humanitarian humour was about essay our forefather attacking conventions. In that aspect The Two Beats were on a similar path as the American Lenny Bruce. Both would take subjects not generally associated with humour, rather considered serious matters, like for instance death or race, or private matters, like illness and sex, and then thru the humour show the hypocrisy behind it. Then again. Beat Takeshi was, and still is today, the child who stuck firecrackers up the ass of frogs and blew them up. And his comedy is the same. One night an executive producer from NHK, the biggest television network in essay Japan, saw them and got them a gig on television.

This was 1976. Being given a list of things they could not say on television, Kitano said ass over and over again. The result: The producer was fired and The Two Beats where signed on. On TV, their show turned absurd. They would repulse viewers with their verbal routines and do silly things as jumping into a river and coming out essays with fish in their mouths. And while the critics hated them more and of the seventeenth more, the audience loved them more and more. Eventually, their shows were closely monitored and they were instructed to follow do not say lists. They even banned Kitano for a year, but to little effect. All traditional and conservative forces lined up and essay we happier than attacked them for not being funny and essays their material for not being comedy, but as Kitano notes upon in his book The Asakusa Kid, the more they persecuted us, the more famous we became. Peaking, Kitano felt he needed to develop. Essays! During the late 70's, Kitano began to of reality tv essay do solo acts, developing a new style and diversifying, showing a darker side of both his comedy and himself.

Much had to do with Kitano wanting to be taken serious and act. Oil Drilling! Following the advice of friend and director Nagisa Oshima to steer away from comedy, he begun playing criminals, even taking on a role as a psycho killer in oil drilling essays a television serial, which became a huge success. Kitano continued to act in positives and negatives tv essay drama on television, further diversifying himself by hosting talk shows. He also began writing. Eventually he had to oil drilling essays choose between his own career and the one of The Two Beats, so they broke up in the early 80's. To the public, Takeshi was a player, having several girlfriends at the same time, but truth is, that for many years, Takeshi had been seeing the female comedian Matsuda Mikoko. ! She understood what drove Takeshi. And she knew how to get him where he needed to go. In Alaska Essays! It was her, who helped him thru the early years. She was his muse and he was head over heals in love with her.

They became married in 1978. Their first child, their son Kitano Atsushi, was born on March 31, 1981, and October 5, 1982, Mikoko give birth to their daughter, Kitano Shoko. Wade Thesis! Officially he of oil drilling in alaska, course claimed that she had conned him, that she had drugged him and made him sign the marriage registration without his knowledge. About the same time, the popularity of The Two Beats took off. It became in to see comedy, especially authority defying comedy as performed by oil drilling in alaska essays, the beats, and even Kitano?s mother, Saki, who always had been against the idea, finally accepted and and negatives tv essay supported his choice of career. As if things couldn?t get any better, tragedy struck.

In 1979, Kikujiro, Kitano?s father, had a heart attack and oil drilling was hospitalised. The family would sit by his side around the clock, and as soon as Kitano was done with work, he would rush to the hospital. One day during work, the phone rang and essay 2010 Kitano was told that his father had passed away. Oil Drilling In Alaska Essays! In an rare interview, Kitano goes back and tells us, that the last words of his father had been, I?m sorry. It was during these times, that Kitano began to diversify. He began doing solo acts and developed a new style, showing a darker side of drama essay, both his comedy and himself. Much had to do with Kitano wanting to in alaska be taken serious and act. Writing Competition! Following the advice of friend and summer of the doll director Oshima Nagisa to steer away from essays comedy, he begun playing criminals, even taking on a role as a psycho killer in a television serial, which became a huge success. Kitano continued to competition act in drama on essays television, further diversifying himself by hosting talk shows.

He also began writing. Summer Essay! In 1983, at oil drilling, the peak of their career, tragedy struck once more. Preparing for a show, sitting in his dressing room, Kitano was told that Fukami Senzaburo had died. Kitano was devastated, went into shock and couldn?t stop shivering. Not only was Fukami the man who shaped Kitano as comedian, he was also the man who?s heart Kitano broke when leaving the French theatre, something he never had apologized for. In Alaska! Personally, I believe the death of Fukami to be the catalyst, that, still today, drives Kitano to of reality constantly improve himself and to essays be his own greatest critic.

Despite their huge popularity, it was clear to them both, that Kitano was moving more and more away from The Two Beats. Eventually he had to essay we happier our forefather choose between his own career and oil drilling the one of The Two Beats, so they broke up in the early 80's. Drama Essay Exploring Literature Poetry! In 1981, Kitano became a host on the radio program All Night Nippon. It was aired nightly at essays, 1 am and the majority of summer doll analytical essay, its listeners where high school students. Oil Drilling In Alaska! The show would name a topic, then having its listeners write and send them post cards, which the host then would read and comment. Kitano would be on the show once a week and his topics where not the usual ones, but an extension of his Beat-humour. For instance, on the topic How to wank off, he would suggest that you could dress up as a cow, with your dick hanging out and then having a milkmaid giving you a hand job believing she was milking a cow. Needless to say the kids loved the show.

He addressed his listeners as Omaera (the lot of you), a term used by gangleaders about the common members, and in return they saw him as a role model, as an elder brother. Some began to essay competition hang around outside the radio station. They called themselves Gundan (Takeshi?s army) and referred to Kitano as Tono (my lord), the name samurai would call their master. In return he took them on as apprentices and planned a series of programmes called Ganbaruman, where the army members were given dares, one more insane and potential deadly than the other. The public was outraged, but that didn?t affect neither Kitano, nor the Gundan, nor the listeners.

A footnote here should be, that in turn, many of the Gundan would appear in the films of Kitano: Gadarukanaru Taka, Dankan, Tsumami Edamame, Yanagi Yurei, and Ide Rakkyo are in Boiling Point , Dankan, Sonomanma Higashi and many others are in Getting Any? , Tsumami Edamame is in Hana-bi and than Ide Rakkyo and Great Gidayu are in Kikujiro . Another part of the show became Kitano talking about his childhood, which extended into him talking openly about his sexlife, even his extra-marital affairs, which extended to him disclosing secrets about himself, his family, his friends and famous people. One night Kitano talked about a prostitute he regular visited and mentioned her real name and instantly his listeners would invade the soap house in hope to become soap-brothers with Kitano. In the spring of 1981, Kitano began appearing on oil drilling in alaska the TV show Oretachi Hyokinzoku (We are Jokers), a Japanese version of the American comedy show Saturday Night Live. Here, Kitano invented the character Takechan-Man, a superhero who each week would fight his enemy The Black Devil and and negatives of reality together they would do childish and silly things. Kids love Takechan-Man so much, that he soon was as popular as the computer game and children cartoon Mario Brothers. In 1985, NHK made a TV-series out of Kitano?s book Takeshi-kun, Hai! Kitano had for oil drilling in alaska a while been writing books, amongst them also novels. Where Kids return and positives and negatives of reality Asakusa Kid were about his childhood, written for an adult audience, this book Takeshi-kun, Hai! was written as a children?s book and in alaska became a bestseller. Essay! All three books are essential and critically acclaimed writings about Kitano?s childhood. NHK made the novel into a 15-episode soap, which as the book, became a huge success.

Kitano was disturbed by its success, as it made people realise that he was far more intelligent than he made himself out to essays be, and that he had a kind and resume gentle heart. In 1986, Kitano took the Ganbaruman a step further when making Fuun! Takeshi jou (Hero Takeshi Castle). Takeshi was the count of a castle and to in alaska get to him the guests had to complete a series of obstacle courses, which were just as insane as the Ganbaruman, but not quiet as deadly. It was very much like a real life version of the computer game Super Mario Brothers. It ran for roe v wade three very successful years and was subsequently sold to many countries, amongst them the US, where it runs today as MXC - Most Extreme Elimination Challenge. Takeshi Castle mutated into Ultra Owarai Quiz, where the Gundan, along with one-hit wonders and unpopular comedian and actors, all craving to be on TV, would play a game on essay on are our forefather the TV stations car park, where the object was, apart from being humiliated by Kitano, to oil drilling grab a ball that said Atari (You Win!). Those winning, would then go on to the finals where they would be subjected to essay fiction literature insane things. For instance, Kitano would place a contestant on in alaska essays the top of a tower (secured with bungee-rope) and if he answered wrong, the would push him off the tower. The fireworks battle and the landmines in Sonatine is very much so an extension of this show.

It all made Kitano feel uneasy. The more popular he became, the more accepted he would become and the more uncomfortable Kitano would feel. Years earlier, he attacked popular household comics as sell outs. Comedians are supposed to make people laugh by in alaska, doing things they?re not allowed to do. Once they start taking about family values and humanity, they?re not comedians anymore. In Alaska Essays! Not long after he had become a success with Takechan-Man and thereby had been given a public nice guy image, he would rebel against it. Thus, in positives and negatives tv essay 1982, he would begin flashing his genitals on essays live TV. Another such rebelling stunt was his 1986 attack on the offices of the weekly gossip magazine Friday. Prior to the incident, it had shown a picture of thesis statement, Kitano with a woman they claimed was his mistress. Kitano became furious and together with Gundan, he broke into the office, beat up the staff members and demolitioned the place. Kitano would later try to excuse the incident as a joke.

It happened to oil drilling in alaska essays take place on the anniversary of the Chuushingura raid, so he and Gundan thought it would make a funny gesture. He also pointed out, that they used fire extinguishers to spray the office (in Japanese slapstick they are the equivalent of American pie throwing). While few bought into Kitano's excuse, surprisingly many understood his outrage against the attack on writing competition 2010 his privacy - they just didn't accepted the way he expressed it. In light of the pressure from the incident, and the stress which came in its wake, Kitano decided to take a, what would amount to, seven month break from work. While he was away, the producers discussed firing him, even banning him from TV, but when he returned, a public poll voted him the most popular TV celebrity on NHK - and resume in toronto like that, Kitano was back and more popular than ever. The irony of the Friday incident was, that in 1987, another scandal magazine revealed the identity of Kitano?s real mistress. And while Mikoko, left Kitano for oil drilling essays a period, they decided not get divorced and found together again. In retrospect, it seemed that 1987 was a year of cleaning the table and making new plans, and the most significant was Kitano leaving Ota Productions, the agency he had been with since 1974, and in toronto setting up his own agency: Office Kitano. Another irony was, that even though Kitano had achieved his childhood goal of escaping his background and becomming the center of attention, he had grow more and more disillusioned by the entire TV world. He needed a new toy. In Alaska Essays! In 1980 Kitano took the jump from television to film, but with no success, neither personally nor professionally.

The problem was, that he, as a famous comedian, was cast in comedies and as such had to act comic. An example is his second, Danpu wataridori (Ikuo Sekimoto 1981), where he plays a cop doing nothing but telling jokes and doing gags or Sukkari? sono ki de! (Kotani Shusei 1981), a romantic comedy, where he played a hapless lout who wants to be a film producer. Knowing him from oil drilling in alaska essays his TV days, Oshima Nagisa casted Kitano as the sadistic prison camp leader Hara in his 1983 drama Merry Christmas, Mr. Lawrence . Kitano gave a stellar performance, acting extremely professional and beyond experience. Resume In Toronto! It was during the shooting of Merry Christmas, Mr. Lawrence , where Oshima gave Kitano two advices: (1) Always aim for the biggest part and (2) Drop comedy and oil drilling in alaska essays play villains. Following the advice, Kitano landed a mayor part, playing the real life serial killer Okubo Kiyoshi in essay than our forefather the TV-drama Okubo Kiyoshi no Hanzai (The crime of Kiyoshi Okubo, Yamaizumi 1983). Kitano was perfect for the role. Oil Drilling! Okubo would pick up girls, pretending to than our forefather be an oil drilling essays, artist, then rape and strangle them. Kitano once again played beyond his experience. With the greatest attention to detail, Kitano would meticulous portray the idiosyncrasies of in alaska essays, Okubo; his childishness, his insecurity and his violence.

Oshima had recognised Kitano?s troubled youth and his ability to reflect and draw from it, the very ability that made him such a good actor. A nice anecdotal tangent is, when Kitano in 1996 meet Hou Hsiao-Hsien, he would tell him, I bet you were a wild guy when you grew up. Hou asked Kitano how he would know and Kitano told Hou, I sense the same vibe in your work that I have in mine. One might say, that Kitano at this point had reached an essays, understanding of what made him great and essay fiction poetry writing how he should use it. But one thing was Oshima recognising Kitano?s talent and hidden aspects, another was how the public reacted to Kitano. Some of the Japanese audience were confused by oil drilling in alaska essays, seeing their most prominent comedian in a serious role, so they laughed when he was on screen. Kitano was deeply hurt: It is ok to be laughed at on essay exploring fiction stage or on TV, doing your act, but I didn?t liked to be laughed at in public. I didn?t wanted to be told, I was a funny guy in my private life. When producer Yagi Yasuo and director Yamaizumi were preparing their next TV-drama, they both wanted Kitano again and he happily accepted, as the only film roles he could get was comic bit parts. His next role was another real life part, portraying the cult leader Jesus Sengoku in Iesu No Hakobune (The Ark of Jesus, Yamaizumi 1985). Essays! Sengoku had a bible study group in in toronto form of a self-sufficient community, where a lot of young women were drawn to.

Despite them being were happy, their parents accused Sengoku for brainwashing and kidnapping their daughters and thru the press it turned into a huge scandal. In Alaska Essays! Once again, Kitano proved himself a very dedicated dramatic actor. While there was no violence in the role, it demanded a kind and sad calm. Kitano would get three small roles, the heroin addicted gangster in Yasha (Demon, Furuhata 1985), the hit man with a social conscience in Komikku zasshi nanka iranai! (Comic Magazine, Takita 1986) and a plain hit man in Anego (Takamori 1988), before turning director himself with Violent Cop (1989). He was rarely cast as anything else than bit actor or in minor roles for feature film. Only two films have him in summer of the seventeenth the lead, Hoshi Wo Tsugumono (Inheritors of stars, Komizu 1990) and Kyoso Tanjyo (Many happy returns, Tenma 1993). The first was based upon an original idea by Kitano, the latter on his novel with same name.

The first real leading role as an drama exploring poetry, drama actor in a feature film not directed by Kitano didn?t happened until 2004 in oil drilling in alaska Blood and Bones (Sai 2004) and Kitano only took the role because he didn?t feel confident enough about his own acting. Meanwhile his career as TV-actor went very well. He continued to act in real life drama?s produced by Yagi. After Iesu No Hakobune , their next film together was Kim No Senso (Kim?s war, Odagiri 1991), where Kitano would play Kim Hui Ro, who after having shot a gangster, took refuge at a hotel and took the guest hostages. Realising his position, he invites the press inside and explains why he was driven to his crime, before letting himself getting arrested. As in oil drilling essays the two prior TV-dramas, Kitano once again proves himself a great actor. Their next film together was Settoku (Persuasion, Yamaizumi 1993) where Kitano plays Jehova?s Witness who is faced with the decision wheater or not to seventeenth essay save his dying son by essays, letting him recieve blood. The collaboration between Yagi, Yamaizumi and Kitano is still to this date a side of Kitano which is relatively unknown to even Japanese fans.

Sad, as it is an important source for studying Kitano as a dramatic actor. In Toronto! Originally Violent Cop never was intended to be more than just another simple slapstick comedy about a Dirty Harry-ish cop, and for Kitano it was nothing more than just another film where all he was supposed to oil drilling do was acting silly. However things turned out competition quiet different and in turn became a defining point in the life and career of Kitano Takeshi. The film were to be directed by veteran director Fukasaku Kinji and it was had a four week shooting schedule. Everything went according to plan, until Kitano informed Nabeshima Hisao, the producer, that he only summer seventeenth would be available for periods of ten days at oil drilling, a time.

The reason was Kitano?s commitments to television and how he structured his time. He had seven shows a week, was on wade TV each day, and oil drilling essays he organised his time so, that he would tape 2 shows a day, the one for the night and roe v wade the one for next week, then using the alternate week to write books or, as in this case, act. His acting had to this point never interfered with his TV work. The TV productions had been flexible and his feature film involvement had been limited to bit parts. But now it constituted a problem. Furthermore, Kitano insisted on only doing one rehearsal and one take. When executive producer Okuyama Kazuyoshi presented Fukasaku with these conditions, he refused to work under such conditions and said, Either I or Takeshi has to go. Essay We Happier Than Our Forefather! With the director and the star, each making it impossible to continue, producer Nabeshima Hisao considered giving up the project.

A meeting was held where people were informed about the development, and instead of giving in, Kitano had said, who will be the new director? Having no new director, Okuyama said so, and as a joke asked Kitano if he would direct it. To everyone?s surprise, Kitano said, Sure? How hard can it be? Soon he would realise exactly how hard it was. Never having directed was quiet a problem and the problem only became bigger, as the crew had experience and oil drilling in alaska insisted on using it. Of Reality Tv Essay! Every day became a challenge for Kitano to oil drilling get the crew to summer of the seventeenth doll do what he wanted. For instance, Kitano refused to having a moving camera, because when you move the camera, you risk getting things into the frame you didn?t plan for; hence the compositions were almost all static camera. Equally unsure about continuity and editing in relation to essays the narrative, Kitano insisted on long takes: a close-up would last ten seconds, a medium shot 20 and resume a long shot could last up to a minute.

In a recent interview, Kitano looks back on those days with mixed emotions. Essays! While he believes it to be a great film, he feels embarrassed. Kitano explains: It was shot a long time ago, when I didn't knew how to roe v wade thesis make a film. At least now, I am beginning to grasp what filmmaking is all about, gradually and continues, So I watched it again the other day on video, so that I could comment on it during the interview, as I had forgotten almost everything about it. Frankly, I couldn't bear to watch it. It's like being forced to oil drilling in alaska essays watch yourself when you were a kid. Essay Our Forefather! I felt so embarrassed. Oil Drilling! But being in control of the film also had its positive aspects. In Alaska Essays! Longing after serious acting parts, Kitano basically rewrote the entire script, removing all comical elements and turned it into a dark gritty drama. He remembered Oshima?s advice and it had served him very well in TV drama. Having done his best, which the crew considered worthy of essay competition 2010, shaking their heads in disbelief, Kitano anticipated the audience to recognize his dramatic acting talent.

It was thus with high hopes that he snuck into a theatre during the first week to essays witness their reactions. To his dismay, the audience would laugh whenever he was on screen. Enraged and disillusioned, he defied the audience and changed his character in his next film, Boiling Point , into a sadistic, violent, misogynistic, sodomising son of a bitch. The clown had to essay competition die. Kitano has later reflected upon this. It took me ten years of playing serial killers and rapists to be perceived as a serious actor amongst the Japanese public.

We know little of what Boiling Point originally started out as. But we know what it became. During the post production of Violent Cop , Nabeshima had discussed a second film with Kitano over lunch and writing 2010 Kitano began to talk about this story about a yakuza. In Alaska Essays! Nabeshima had insisted that Kitano played him, which he later confessed, would have done anyway. Rather than directing, Kitano began to experiment with editing; in we happier our forefather fact Boiling Point is a blue print for elliptic editing which today is so idiosyncratic for oil drilling Kitano. During the post production of poetry thinking writing, Violent Cop , Kitano had discovered editing and actually participated actively in the editing of Violent Cop . In Alaska! In later interviews, Kitano noted upon his direction and his editing, When I write a script, I have the entire film in my head, so when we start shooting, I just do it. Im more interested in the editing process, so I tend to shoot in summer of the seventeenth essay a hurry. Maybe you don?t always have enough footage, but how you play around with it, is what is interesting. One may argue, that the editing process took over control when directing Boiling Point , and essays one may say that the plot only writing serves as a means to produce footage for Kitano to play around with as editor.

Perhaps Kitano needed to neglect directing to realise the balance required when both directing and editing. It may be many things, but most of all Boiling Point was a huge flop and Kitano left Shochiko. Oil Drilling! He now knew the basics, it was time to be his own boss. Making the first film under the banner of Office Kitano, A Scene at the Sea was made as cheap as possible in oil drilling essays order to get black ink in essay exploring fiction literature thinking writing the books. Kitano would direct, not act, quiet possible because his on screen appearance would cause laughter and oil drilling he didn?t wanted that. To keep production costs at a minimum, Kitano shot at a beach, thereby removing all production design and studio costs and he would work without a script (the film is virtually without dialogue). A Scene at the Sea is , perhaps the most minimalistic film of Kitano and became a moderate success. It was nominated for best direction, editing, screenplay and score, but only Joe Hisaishi returned with an award.

It did however win best film at the 13th Yokohama Film Festival. A reason for Kitano being snobbed and overlooked at the Japanese Academy Awards may lie in what happend at the 1989 award ceremony, where Kitano showed up wearing a Geisha costume (a female dress) and with his Beat persona completely deflated the seriousness of the occasion. Perhaps this is why the Academy, still today, 15 years later, hasn?t awarded his directorial efforts. A Scene at the Sea is also important in another aspect, as it was the first film produced by Mori Masayuki, who as a former TV director of Kitano had joined Office Kitano in thesis statement 1988 and oil drilling since 1992 has been the managing director of Office Kitano, and as such the manager of Kitano. Mori is an important piece in the success of Kitano. Not only does Mori produce the film, he also guides him. Of The Analytical Essay! Kitano told me, that Mori and him think alike, and by discussing ideas with Mori, he enables Kitano to pinpoint his vision (and not going over budget). He will encourage Kitano to pursuit an idea if Kitano is hesitant and keep Beat locked up when not needed. Last and not least, Mori is the manager of Kitano, who, in terms of in alaska essays, Office Kitano, just is a talent. Again, as they think alike, Mori will turn down offers he know isn?t suited for Kitano and present Kitano with offers which is essay, within his talent.

Mori is the angle of Kitano, to oil drilling essays use one of his motifs. Realising the failure of Boiling Point , Okuyama Kazuyoshi had told Kitano, perhaps in essay jest, that the next time they did a film together, if should be a Japanese version of Die Hard . Kitano said, that he had such a script, told Okuyama about the plot, which stars he intended to have in it and Okuyama went ahead and arranged a budget of YEN 500 million (roughly $4,5 million). If it doubtful that Kitano ever have had the intension to make a film a la Die Hard and production had hardly begun, before Kitano and Okuyama came on a collision course. Kitano would go to a remote island, only accessible by plane, once a day, where he would shoot an adaptation of Godard?s Pierrot le fou (the shooting script of Sonatine was actually called Pierrot Okinawa and his perhaps as opposite as possible from the concept of Die Hard ), he would not hire the cast he had suggested, but no names. Back in Tokyo, Okuyama, who as the head of Shochiku was struggling with a bad financial situation, was looking at a potential second flop and became more and more frustrated. When he saw the rushes he became furious. In an interview, Okuyama accused Kitano of all sorts of oil drilling essays, things, said that he would not have his name in the credits and roe v thesis vowed that Kitano never would be allowed to oil drilling direct another film. Despite the predictions of Okuyama, Sonatine turned out to be a huge success. More so, it gave Kitano international recognition, receiving the critics award at Cognac Festival du Film Policier. Oil Drilling In Alaska Essays! Once again, the Academy ignored Kitano and only nominated, and awarded, Joe Hisaishi for best score. This in turn would agitate Okuyama.

He would actually go to in alaska such lengths, that he kept it a secret, that Sonatine had won a prize at the Taormina festival in Italy. When Kitano went to Cannes with Sonatine , journalists would ask him how he felt about winning the prize and Kitano would say, What prize. Despite the predictions of Okuyama, Sonatine turned out to be a huge success. Oil Drilling Essays! More so, it gave Kitano international recognition, receiving the critics award at Cognac Festival du Film Policier. Once again, the Academy ignored Kitano and only nominated, and awarded, Joe Hisaishi for best score. For Kitano, Sonatine is the first film of his where one can sense he is in control of the medium, at least so much, that he now trusts Yanagishima, his cinematographer, to use the camera, as it is the first film by , Kitano with travelling shots and moving camera.

In an interview Kitano pointed out, that . it is with Sonatine that I had the feeling to in alaska essays achieved the first stage as a director. This is also why the film is called Sonatine . Summer Of The Seventeenth Doll Analytical! The word sonatine is a musical term meaning little sonata, which amongst other is used for simple educational pieces; Kitano elaborates: When learning to play the piano, one studies various types of pieces. When one acquires the basic knowledge of these pieces, one has reached sonatine. Its not really control, but it marks the end of first stage of training. So said composer Joe Hisaishi when reflecting upon the events that followed Sonatine . The frustration was visible to oil drilling in alaska all, in hindsight, which is why, today, Sonatine is considered his most bleak film. Essay On Are Than! Despite being scot-free, having killed those who want him dead, Aniki chooses to essays commit suicide, rather than running away with the girl. But in real life things were worse. Kitano would drink more and essay than our forefather more often.

When drunk, he would talk about oil drilling essays suicide and death - I want to die he always said when he was drunk, and then continue to fantasize about ways to die - to the point where he even would scare the Gundan. There are no simple explanations for Kitano becoming more and more disillusioned and self-destructive. A lot has to do with the stress coming from having seven or more shows a week and essay we happier having to be on twentyfour-seven, he was becoming more and more disillusioned with his career, especially because the Japanese audience refused to exploring fiction literature thinking recognize his talent, he considered giving up TV, he had a growing concern about not being funny anymore and not being able to be funny, he was even more scared about becoming an old sell-out comedian, which he elaborated on in an article he wrote after the accident, where he confessed, that he wanted to die before becoming fifty. Oil Drilling! Then there was the problems with his wife and his affairs. In Alaska Essays! A man can only take so much. However, we are getting ahead of ourselves. Kitano followed up on Sonatine with the absurd comedy Getting Any? . Having reached the first stage of oil drilling in alaska essays, understanding cinema with Sonatine , Kitano felt he had to do something drastic and destructive, to break free from this current style and start all over in a new direction. Kitano is, and always was, very afraid of being pigeon holed.

However this may be a too neat explanation. Another explanation would be, that Kitano, as he always does when he is pushed, pushes back: If they want to laugh at me on roe v wade thesis screen, then I?ll give them something to oil drilling laugh at. In a recent interview, Kitano said, I wanted to make fun of my own jokes, and send them up. So I made up new routines which were more outrageous than the silliest ones I usually invent. I wanted to essay competition 2010 make myself ludicrous to the point where viewers would say, ?This guy?s had it?. I enjoyed my self-mockery so much I totally lost myself in it. In what Kitano later would describe as artistic suicide, even drawing parallels between him and Kurosawa in an interview by suggesting, that Kurosawa should have made a total bullshit film like Getting Any? , instead of having attempted suicide after Dodes Kaden , Kitano more or less admits that he was suicidal. Oil Drilling In Alaska Essays! To Kitano, Getting Any? was suicide. This really wasn?t a film by Kitano Takeshi. It was a film by Beat Takeshi, just like it was Beat who lead the attack on oil drilling in alaska the Friday offices.

It was self-destructive, with disrespect for career and we happier future. In Alaska Essays! It defied Kitano as much as it defied the audience. I often compare Kitano with Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Oil Drilling! Hyde. Kitano told me, that to him, the Beat persona is sort of a vent, that allows him to get rid of the pressure and stress. the more nervous and stressed I get, so I have to fiction thinking writing do something funny to shake it off, to make me relax.

It's just an instinctive reaction I have. With the stress Kitano was under, Beat simply took over. But where one could have hoped that Kitano would have gotten the stress out of his system with Getting Any? , it had almost the opposite effect. It flopped and drove Kitano further into depression and self-destruction. Mori Masayuki reflected on this in essay on are we happier an interview in 2000, I wonder if I should say this, but I think that accident was destined to happen. During the making of in alaska essays, Getting Any? , we began to be concerned that Kitano was beginning to essay 2010 lose his mental balance. He would say things he never said before. I used to say, something would happen. And the accident happened. Oil Drilling! By the accident, Mori is oil drilling in alaska essays, referring the accident of resume in toronto, August 2, 1994. Kitano had been out drinking with the Gundan and was very drunk.

There are different versions of where he intended to drive, but they all come down to Kitano getting on his new scooter and oil drilling with a unstrapped helmet crashed directly into resume in toronto, a rail road barrier. He was rushed to a local hospital with open skull fracture, brain contusions and oil drilling a fractured cheekbone. His mother, Saki, would visit him and be sweet and full of humour, If you want to die, don?t be such an fiction poetry writing, idiot and crash on oil drilling in alaska essays a scooter, do it in wade statement a Porsche like James Dean. But as soon as she left the hospital, she would cry and spend time at the local shrine praying for his health. After a month in intensive care, Kitano was released from the hospital, September 26, 1994, and had decided to give a press conference the next day. The press had been writing about the accident and his condition daily and speculations had flown around the air. During the press conference, Kitano completely honest and open would talk about what happend, at least as much as he could remember, and admit what things had put him under pressure, caused stress and eventually made him suicidal and self-destructive. Suffering from paralysis in the right side of positives and negatives of reality tv essay, his face, missing parts of oil drilling essays, his cheekbone, which later would be reconstructed, and having a hard time even speaking, Kitano would apologies and set the record straight. ! Many were speculating if Kitano ever would become an actor or comedian again. Granted he was perhaps the most famous person in roe v wade Japan, but at the time of the press conference, Kitano was unable to speak clearly and couldn?t even hold a cigarette between his lips. However it didn?t take long before Kitano had gotten his spirits back and in the same manner he sugar coats his childhood, he exaggerates his stay by claiming, Right after the accident, even in the hospital, I drank probably twice as much as I used to.

I wanted to show that Takeshi hadn't slowed down. Resume! But one thing is the public I can do everything Kitano, another thing is the private Kitano, and he did change. He cut down on oil drilling in alaska essays drinking and smoking. He began to in toronto value time and began stop wasting it. He matured. To prove to himself and to the public, that he was recovering, Kitano acted as a hit man in Gonin (Ishii Takashi, 1995), produced by Okuyama Kazuyoshi, still wearing an eye patch as his eye leaked fluids.

And once he felt he was ready, he began directing his next film, Kids return , based on his own book by the same name. In 1996 Kitano went to Cannes with Kids return. Cannes was not new to essays Kitano, he had been there in 1993 with Sonatine , but this time it was different. On one side, Kitano was delighted. Here, he was, at writing competition 2010, the finest festival in the world, invited on behalf of his film, which had been picked to be screened at the 28th Director's Fortnight (Quinzaine des R?alisateurs). On the other side, Kitano was terrified. He was very aware of, that the critics at resume in toronto, Cannes showed no mercy and would walk out, even openly boo at a film, if they didn?t liked it. So it was a very nervous Kitano, who the evening of April 11, 1996, sat down in the auditorium to present his film. To be honest, I think I would have died if people had gotten up to leave , Kitano said and continued, I had a feeling it was going to be okay when I heard everyone laughing at the scene where the two main characters suspend a doll from the rooftop. The doll is supposed to resemble their teacher - with his penis out.

Kids return is in alaska essays, a most unusual film by Kitano and in many ways it is as unconventional as Getting Any? . First of summer seventeenth doll, all, its autobiographical, which again means personal reflective. Many of the scenes are based on in alaska memories or events from his childhood. For instance, in a scene we see the yakuza boss ask a waiter if he is respecting and being good to positives and negatives his parents. When Kitano grew up, he saw yakuza as role models. They would ask if he had been a good boy, if he respected and helped his parents and would tell him not to oil drilling in alaska essays do this and that. Of course they were no good criminals who would beat you up without a second thought, but they would also set examples for behaviour. Summer Analytical! Secondly, it is the first film by oil drilling in alaska, Kitano where the protagonist doesn?t die. Where the ending is seen as an seventeenth doll analytical, end, by western eyes, its seen as a new beginning by eastern eyes, and as the talk began, it confused many critics in Cannes, who really didn?t knew what to make of the ending, but to resume in toronto Kitano it makes perfect sense, There is something romantic about oil drilling essays knowing you?ve blown it and have to start all over , which again reflects upon himself, this in particular on his accident. The Japanese see virtue in oil drilling persistence, no matter how foolish it may be to a westerner. Another new element was the use of colour. Kitano had begun painting after the accident.

Originally it was part of the therapy to get his motoric skills back, but Kitano had this idea, that since he had bumped his head, he may had become a genius or something, like they do in cartoons, so in order to oil drilling in alaska test it, he would begin to paint. While his paintings would become an integrated element in his next film, Hana-bi , he had become conscient about colours. In Kids return the two colours to watch out for are blue and writing essay red. Last and not the least, Kids return is the first film where Kitano presents us with the angel, and oil drilling in alaska essays as such Kids Return can be seen as the first of three films, I call them the Angel trilogy, where Kitano not only oil drilling essays reflects upon loss, death and facing life, but also reflects upon the angel, with Brother as a four semi attached film concluding his reflecting period. After his recovery, Kitano was one day stopped on the street by an elderly women, who told him she was a fan and that she had been very worried about his health. She gave him a little angel figure and told him that it would look out for him. Kitano then realised, that of the many gifts he had received, there had been quiet a lot of oil drilling in alaska, angels.

There is nothing religious about this motif, it is merely about someone being there to look out for you. While in and negatives Cannes, Kitano met and became friends with Taiwanese director Hou Hsiao-Hsien. During a party, Kitano had spotted him thru the crowd, would sit down next to Hou and say, I knew straight away that I shouldn?t mess with you. Hou seemed confused and Kitano continued, I bet you were a wild guy when you were young. Hou had indeed been a wild one and asked how Kitano would know, to which he answered, I sense the same vibe in your work that I have in mine. It tells me that your motivation comes from all the crap you?ve gone thru in the past. The reason why I feel its important to share this anecdote is, that beside telling us how two directors, who share great respect and oil drilling in alaska essays admiration for each other, became friends, it also tells us something about the new understanding of oil drilling, both himself and his art Kitano had gotten.

Back in 1983, director Oshima Nagisa had cast Kitano to play a serious role, because he could see the crap he had gone thru and the urge to express it. Positives And Negatives Of Reality! Here, thirteen years later, Kitano was able to see it himself and recognise it in others. Perhaps that bump on in alaska essays his head had something to do with it. It was the evening of September 6, 1997. The place was Venice, Italy. On stage came Sally Potter, the president of the Jury. She opened the envelope and announced, that the winner of the 54th Biennale di Venizia and thus the receiver of the Leone d?Oro was Hana-bi by Takeshi Kitano. Applause filled the auditorium, then standing ovation. This was a very popular choice and both the jury, the press and we happier the critics alike had hoped for essays this. Everyone had been so positive about Hana-bi and drama exploring literature thinking many had predicted it to win.

During a press conference for the Japanese press only, Kitano had reflected, I knew I was receiving favourable criticism this time. It made me rather cautious and I tried not to read too much into it. But when a TV director this morning told me, that he had dreamt, that I would win the Silver Lion, I thought to myself ?Oh, shit. In Alaska! Kitano was immensely proud of the award. So proud, that once he returned home, he would declare: I am the master! Hana-bi is the central film of in toronto, Kitano Takeshi in many ways. It is him most critically acclaimed and accoladed film, winner of Leone d?Oro, the Blue Ribbon (the Japanese critics award), the Cesar (European film award), the Kinema Junpo award and the list goes on.

The only thing that is missing is the Japanese Academy Award, but despite 13 nominations, once again, only Joe Hisaishi took home an award for best score. Oil Drilling In Alaska Essays! In his essay Equinox Flower, perhaps one of the finest essays written about Hana- bi , American critic Dave Kehr reflects upon Kitano?s use of the Japanese concept of mono no aware, the sadness of writing essay competition 2010, things, how we experience the wholeness of life by encountering things (mono) and being sensitive to them (no aware), in respect to Ozu, Mizoguchi and Naruse. The concept is unique Japanese, even though it comparable to essays Virgil's famous phrase Lacrymae Rerum (the tears of things) in exploring fiction literature writing Aeneid, and in alaska essays was invented by on are, the Japanese scholar Motoori Norinaga in the 17th century to define Japanese culture and their ability to understand the world directly by identifying themselves with that world. This is hardly a scene one would expect to find in an Ozu film, yet the final passages of Hana-bi , as the couple continues their travel-folder tour of Japan, moving from snow-capped Mount Fuji to sun-baked seashore, suggests nothing so much as the last reel of Ozu's Tokyo Story . Once again, two people who suddenly find themselves on the outside of life turn toward each other and discover, not without pleasure and relief, that their universe has grown very small. When Nishi and Miyuki arrive at oil drilling in alaska essays, the beach - a location fraught with meaning for Kitano, who has used beaches before in Sonatine and Scene by the Sea - they look out over and negatives of reality tv essay the ocean; they see an oil drilling in alaska, infinity before them but realize they have no place to go. Ozu and the other great Japanese classicists concerned themselves with the sad acceptance of the world full of pain and disappointment; in the Sixties, Oshima and Imamura arrived at an angry rejection of a world now ruled by violence and positives horror.

Kitano, the great equilibrist, balances these two traditions; in Hana-bi , his characters achieve a furious peace. It is also the most personal reflective, almost reminiscent, film of his. In Alaska! As in Kids return , Hana-bi is about moving on when you think your life is over. A great deal also has to do with stop living in the past and concentrate on what you have now - the entire film is essay, full of now moments. Kitano says, Being content with what you?ve got is a very Japanese way of thinking and I quiet like it. And like that, Kitano seemed to be free of all his demons. No more fear of essays, growing old, no more fear about becoming a sell-out, no more fear about this and that. I think my accident may have been a blessing in disguise.

It put me in than our forefather a totally different frame of mind. It made me feel good about doing comedy again. I?m very happy with the way things are going now. Seventeenth Analytical! Kitano didn?t even bother with the Japanese audience not recognising him and had titled the script Kitano Opus number 7 and joked: That way they will know that I have made six previous films , and while the film later got a more suitable title, Kitano held on to the joke, as the opening shot is the script with the title Kitano Opus number 7 - just in case. Perhaps most importantly, the most significant statement about Kitano having given up attempting to control everything, Of course I am still officially the director, but I know better than to interfere in its natural direction. I?d rather just say, ?Film, go in any direction you want!? When Scorsese gave up trying to control his film, when making King of Comedy , Sergio Leone would later, after its screening in Cannes, pull Scorsese aside and of reality tv essay say, Marty, this is your most mature film. In the same aspect, Hana-bi is the most mature film by roe v wade, Kitano. It's about not trying to control every aspect, its about letting the images do the work for you. With Sonatine he became an essays, apprentice of resume, film, with Hana-bi he became a master.

As mentioned in previous chapter, Kitano had begun painting and in Hana-bi his paintings are an in alaska essays, integrated motif. From the opening title shots with the angels, to the paintings by Horibe, over the various paintings on in alaska walls (in bars, at the yakuza office, at writing, the hotel), Kitano uses them to establish character and place, but also, by the paintings of Horibe, emotions. Clearly an impressionist, Kitano ranges from Pointillism to Naivism, with excursions into the abstract. The paintings were collected in the art book Hana-Bi Artworks and Kitano is in alaska essays, today considered a prominent painter in Japan and positives of reality tv essay has had many exhibitions. After having been discovered by Tony Rayns and Simon Field, Mr. Field would hold a retrospective of oil drilling in alaska, Kitano?s films at the International Film Festival of Rotterdam (IFFR) in 1992, showing Violent Cop , Boiling Point and A Scene at the Sea , allowing Europeans to resume in toronto see these films for the first time and in alaska would henceforth screen any new film by or with Kitano. By the efforts of these two gentlemen, Kitano became known to Europe. We are forever in writing essay 2010 their debt. One of the many events at the IFFR is the talkshows.

These talkshows are very relaxed, the tone is different from the serious press conferences and oil drilling in alaska essays the audience is mainly fans. Tony Rayns would host the talkshow with Kitano, during which they would share a bottle of wine, Mr. Oil Drilling In Alaska Essays! Rayns would put Kitano on the spot and Kitano would in return crack jokes. Writing Essay! When in Rotterdam with Hana-bi , Mr. Rayns asked Kitano about in alaska essays upcoming projects. Summer Seventeenth Doll! Kitano had said, that he was so tired of foreign journalists and critics asking him about the violence in his films, so he was determined to make a movie without any violence at all. That, and that he intended to make a road movie. Oil Drilling In Alaska! You mean like Wim Wenders used to? , Mr. Rayns had asked. No, Kitano replied, More like The Wizard of positives, Oz.

The reason for Kitano?s seemingly constant change in styles and structures is, as Kitano himself notes upon, that Films are like food. You don?t want to get tired of eating the same thing, so you try something different. In Alaska Essays! Filming began in August 1998 and was shot in and around the Asakusa district of essay, Tokyo, and oil drilling in alaska essays was completed in November 1998, just in time to premiere at the Tokyo Film Festival. The working title was Kitano Opus number 8, continuing the joke, and wade statement got its name, Kikujiro no natsu (literally Kikujiro's Summer) during post production. It has been suggested, that the film is autobiographical because of its title.

Where Kikujiro was the name of oil drilling, Kitano?s father, the story is about what Masao experiences during his summer vacation and Kitano notes, that it is set up like one of those what did you do in your vacation reports. Kikujiro would use the name of his father to get in character, which is the only biographical element. Where it was seen as just was another Kitano film in Japan, it was not considered so in Europe. After Hana-bi , Kitano had become important, so Cahiers du Cinema would fly a reviewer to Tokyo, to the screening of Kikujiro , simply to oil drilling have a review for their next issue. In May 1999, Kitano and court, flew to in toronto Cannes. Kikujiro had been picked to be in the competition at the Cannes International Film Festival in 1999 and everyone was very excited. The reaction was overtly positive and oil drilling essays soon the talk was about Kikujiro winning the Palme d?Or. The tension of Kitano grew and in toronto grew and eventually he had to cancel a press conference due to fatigue and simply withdrew from the public. When president of the Jury, Canadian director David Cronenberg, announced that the winner was Rosetta by the Dardennes Brothers, Kitano was devastated. In Alaska! After the ceremony, Kitano?s publicist told a shocked Japanese press, Thank you for your support.

However, I would ask you to wade thesis statement please leave Kitano Takeshi alone. Please don?t try to follow or to interview him. Kitano?s comments were brief. I was just happy to have been selected for nomination in this competition and I never even thought about winning. While Kitano was busy shooting Kikujiro , Saki had fallen and broken her leg.

Due to her high age, she wouldn?t heal properly and gradually became weaker and weaker. She was hospitalised far from Tokyo, so Kitano could only visit her, when he had the time to afford the travel. Kitano was with her every day, either in oil drilling in alaska essays thought or at of the doll, her bed. It affected him to such a degree, that he would insert a scene for her in Kikujiro , where he would go and see her at the hospital. Essays! When he returned from Cannes, her condition had became worse and on August 22, 1999, Kitano Saki would die peacefully in her sleep. She was 95. Kitano would cancel all his work and for three days he would spend time with her. He arranged, that a special purple coffin was made especially for her and it was placed in a sea of white flowers. Competition! It was a huge funeral, both celebrities and fans would attend, and the Japanese prime minister, Keizo Obuchi, would send flowers.

I always watched my mother working so very hard and crying. I can never thank her enough. I will try my best to oil drilling do better work. In 2001, Kitano's autobiographical account of his childhood, and his parents, Kikujiro to Saki, was published. Resume! In this very personal last memory of his parents, Kitano descripes various episodes involving his parents, like when his oldest brother wants to introduce his girlfriend to his mother only, but the girlfriend insists on meeting his father aswell.

The book was the same year made into a TV-special, introduced by Kitano himself, and then later in 2003 made into a ten episode mini-series. When in Cannes with Kids return , Kitano had met Jeremy Thomas. Being old friends and not having seen each other for thirteen years, they had dinner and talked about old days. During their talk, Kitano mentioned the idea for Brother and that he would like to shoot it in the USA. Thomas liked the idea a lot, but they never got to roe v wade thesis statement talk about it in depth, as Kitano left for Japan the next day, to begin the production of Hana-bi . A year later, when Kitano came to the London International Film Festival with Hana-bi , Thomas and in alaska essays him would get together again. Thomas had thought a lot about the idea and resume wanted to produce it; So he proposed the idea to Kitano, who in turn immediately said yes.

On their return to Japan, Kitano and in alaska Mori began preparing the idea for Brother while making Kikujiro . Making a film in the USA did present both Kitano and Thomas with some problems. For Thomas, he needed to writing essay 2010 create the exact same environment that Kitano was used to on are we happier our forefather in Japan, since, as Thomas said: It was important that he (Kitano) continued to work the way he was used to in the past. For the best results, Kitano needed to be able to essay our forefather work comfortably. For Kitano the problem was to create so much free time, he normally would work ten days on his television production, then ten days writing books, writing scripts or directing / editing, that he could be in the US for in alaska essays the shooting period. Thus, over the next months, Kitano would shot so much television footage, that he could spend seven weeks filming in LA. Originally, Kitano had written the story to take place in New York, but he needed the proximity of suburban communities, so they chose Los Angeles instead. In Alaska Essays! Fearing the worst from the American crew, Kitano was surprised to discover, that all rumours were untrue. The American crew was not lazy, quiet the opposite, once they got moving, they worked faster than the Japanese crew. Oil Drilling! In fact, the only problem while shooting came from working with the actor Kato Masaya.

He had his own ideas and Kitano would get so upset, that he would yell at him. In the film, in competition the scene where Aniki tells Shirase to put out the cigars, its really Kitano yelling at Kato. Kitano originally planned Brother to be the sequel to Sonatine , but something came in the way and the idea was shelved until he met Thomas in Cannes. Oil Drilling! As such, Brother represents the old Kitano, the first period, and stands opposite the recently three Angel films. With Brother , Kitano also ended his period of writing essay competition, contemplation, on which he noted in an interview with Tony Rayns, Brother marks the end of that phase. Perhaps Brother marks the point where my rehab after the accident is finally complete. Oil Drilling Essays! The desire to create something new and completely original was the drive behind Dolls . Tired of having critics comment on his use of blue and of violence, Kitano conceptualised a vision based on the writings of Chikamatsu Monzaemon.

The film was poorly received at seventeenth doll analytical, the time of its premiere, but in recent days, more and more see it as one of oil drilling in alaska, this best films. Essay Literature Thinking! Following up upon Dolls , Kitano was talked into making a Zatoichi film by essays, Mdm. Saito. Reluctant he had accepted and given carte blance, Kitano would deconstruct the entire myth of Zatoichi and inverse it. His next project will most likely be a conceptualisation of essay we happier than, cubism into oil drilling essays, film. Meanwhile, he has turned to acting, feeling insecure about his own ability to act, and of reality has the starring role in Sai Yoichi?s Chi to Hone . He also acted in Miike Takashi's Izo , but only as a bit role. The life of Kitano is very routine by now.

He does his TV shows, he writes, he paints, he directs. But where there was a sense of hectic around him, there now seems to be a sense of calm. He is getting older, which he has reflected upon in his last two books, Growing old and Aging, but also in Dolls and Zatoichi , which has central motifs dealing with where one came from and where one is in alaska essays, now. As such, one can say that his work as gotten more serious. Then again, Beat comes along and destroys any notion of seventeenth analytical, seriousness. In most interviews, Kitano would comment on his accident as a blessing, something to in alaska contemplate, something that matured him. Yet, in his writings, no such thing.

While contemplating his near death experience in Soredemo Onnaga Suki, Beat would say, I was thinking, 'Maybe I should live a more thoughtful life, now that they have repaired me' Then my eyes caught the ass of the nurse, who just made my bed and my dick stood up instantly. Not a chance. This biography has to some extend focussed largely on the serious side of Kitano Takeshi. Roe V! He also has his other side, Beat, who is a two faced clown, one side a clever satirist, one side childish prankster. If anything, the life of Kitano has taught us one thing: never to second guess him about what he is up to. Kitano will always surprise us. This concludes my biography of Kitano Takeshi. I hoped you have enjoyed reading it and that it will give you a new perspective on the art of Kitano Takeshi.

By Henrik Sylow ( February 2005). All rights are reserved by oil drilling essays, Henrik Sylow and The Biography is based on the writings by Imai Takako, Abe Casio, Sato Yuki and Machiyama Tomohiro from the book Beat Takeshi Kitano, the documentary Scenes by the Sea, the interviews with Kitano and the books Takeshi-kun Hai!, Asakusa Kid, Kodoku, Yosei, Comanci! and Soredemo Onnaga Suki by Beat Takeshi. The Biography will periodically be updated, corrected and rewritten, as more sources become available.

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Ironisk idyl. en analyse og fortolkning af Pontoppidans Bondeidyl. 1 Ironisk idyl en analyse og fortolkning af Pontoppidans Bondeidyl. 2 Danskopgave Side 1 af 9 Indholdsfortegnelse Indledning. Oil Drilling In Alaska. 2 Det moderne gennembrud Brandes dagsorden Naturalismen. 3 Bondeidyl (1883) af Henrik Pontoppidan.

4 Et våben i en debat. 7 Konklusion. 8 Litteraturliste. Writing Competition 2010. 9. 3 Danskopgave Side 2 af 9 Indledning Opgaven her omhandler det moderne gennembruds tanker og hvordan disse kommer til udtryk i samtidens litteratur.

Det moderne gennembrud er en af de mest epokegørende perioder i dansk litteratur, hvor Danmark var centrum for in alaska, nye strømninger i hele Norden, og det er derfor oplagt at resume in toronto, arbejde med netop denne periode. In Alaska. I den forbindelse har jeg valgt at essay competition, redegøre for oil drilling in alaska, det moderne gennembrud, samt analysere og fortolke Bondeidyl af Henrik Pontoppidan og dermed vise gennembrudstankerne i brug. Resume In Toronto. Jeg vil samtidig vurdere, hvorledes en tekst kan fungere som et våben i en debat. Det moderne gennembrud Det at in alaska, Litteratur i vore Dage lever, viser sig i, at and negatives of reality, den sætter Problemer under Debat 1 Sådan indledes en af dansk litteraturs storhedsperioder, nemlig det moderne gennembrud, og som et af få tilfælde, har vi et nøjagtigt tidspunkt for periodens begyndelse. 3. Essays. november 1871 betrådte Georg Brandes talerstolen for at holde sin første forelæsning med titlen Hovedstrømninger i det nittende århundredes litteratur 2, hvori han angreb den danske litteraturs hendøen. Summer Of The. 3 Den romantiske periode, der går forud for in alaska essays, det moderne gennembrud, mente Brandes, var gået i stå. On Are. Litteraturen var blevet sødladen og ufarlig 4 og havde dermed mistet sin betydning. Den poetiske Produktion er saagodt som fuldstændigt standset, og intet Problem af almindelig human eller social Natur formaar at vække Interesse eller fremkalde anden Discussion end Dagspressen og Døgnlitteraturens 5 Brandes mente, at essays, folk var holdt op med at skrive noget af interesse, og at resume, folk dermed var holdt op med at oil drilling, lytte. We Happier Than. Danskerne var med andre ord blevet både døve og stumme 1 Falkenstjerne, s Fibiger, s Falkenstjerne, s Fibiger, s Falkenstjerne, s. Oil Drilling In Alaska. 108. 4 Danskopgave Side 3 af 9 Brandes dagsorden I Danmark var vi langt bagefter de andre lande i Europa, hvor revolutioner og revolutionær litteratur i høj grad hang sammen.

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8 Det moderne gennembruds litteratur støttede sig derimod op af naturalismen og beskrev tingene, som forfatterne så dem. In Alaska. Ofte hårdt og kynisk, ofte karikeret og sarkastisk. Drama Essay Exploring Poetry Thinking. Naturalismen ses tydeligt i føljetonen Fra Lighuset af Herman Bang hvor Bangs opleveler i et hospitals lighus beskrives. Oil Drilling In Alaska Essays. 6 Fibiger, s. 197 og s Fibiger, s Falkenstjerne, s. . 109. 5 Danskopgave Side 4 af 9 Den Kiste, som staar her, er aaben, og med den sky Nysgerrighed, hvormed vi altid maale en Døds Former under Lagenet, stirrer jeg hen: Folden fra Foden ned, Knæet, Linien over in alaska essays, Brystet, Sveddugen, der topper sig om Næsen. Wade Thesis Statement. Ud af de udtungede Ærmer stikker et par Hænder, så magre og blaagule, med Huden i sorte Rynker om nogle krogede Fingre. Essays. 9 Bondeidyl (1883) af Henrik Pontoppidan Bondeidyl af Henrik Pontoppidan er skrevet i 1883 og udgivet som en del af novellesamlingen Landsbybilleder.

Den sarkastiske tone og kyniske fremstillingen af klasseskellene og de kønsmæssige forhold i udkants Danmark gør det til en klassisk gennembrudstekst. Writing 2010. Novellen er bygget kronologisk op og begynder i begyndelsen af det danske efterår med en idyllisk beskrivelse af de sidste sommerdage Men fra buske, fra træer og fra de våde pløjemarker glimter og glitrer det så overgivent, så leende blankt, som havde de været skælmske nok til at oil drilling in alaska, gemme på sommerens stråler for exploring fiction writing, nu smilende at in alaska, brede dem ud til almindelig forbavselse., 10 men hurtigt går Pontoppidan over til det modløse løvfald, der får engen til at se bleg og lidende ud. Exploring Poetry Writing. 11 Novellen handler om det lille samfund, hvor bønderne har vokset sig store og rige ved at oil drilling, trække på daglejerne og arbejderne fra Åhusene, som dermed på ingen måde har udviklet sig, og hvor der derfor er sket et lige så stort skel, som det mellem idyllisk sensommer og koldt efterår. Positives. Omdrejningspunktet for oil drilling in alaska, novellen er Ane, en 18årig tyksak fra Åhusene, som er i huset hos den rige bonde Mads Monsen, og Olav, Mads Monsens søn, som halvt om halvt ser Ane som hans lovlige ejendom, 12 og som han mere eller mindre behandler, som han lyster, trods han godt ved, hun er forlovet med den unge Mathias fra Åhusene. Essay On Are We Happier Than Our Forefather. 13 Ham har Olav dog kun hån til overs for. Olavs forhold til Ane er der dog ikke noget nyt ved, for oil drilling, han gentager blot det mønster, hans egen far begyndte for in toronto, mange år siden med Maren An s, en kvinde fra Åhusene, som vi møder på vej tilbage fra Kratterne, hvor hun er på vej tilbage fra brænderov. 14 Her bebrejder Mads Monsen hende at oil drilling, hun er nødt til at we happier than, stjæle, og at hun også er gravid igen, med sit 11. barn.

15 Hertil svarer Maren dog, 9 Falkenstjerne, s Pontoppidan, s. In Alaska Essays. 132 l Pontoppidan, s. 132 l Pontoppidan, s. Writing Competition. 134 l Pontoppidan, s. 134 l Pontoppidan, s. Essays. 140 l Pontoppidan, s. Resume In Toronto. 140 l l. Essays. 34. 6 Danskopgave Side 5 af 9 at drama exploring fiction literature writing, hendes ulykkelige situation er hans skyld Ja, du har let ve et, du Mads! Men havde du la t mig være i fred den gang kanske både et og andet vært annerledes det ska du vide du Mads! Dette slår Mads lidt ud af fatning, men den dårlige samvittighed holder ikke længe på ham. In Alaska Essays. Hvert år ved høsttiden afholder alle de rige bønder Mikkelsgildet, en stor fest hvor daglejerne kan få noget tilbage, af alt det arbejde de har lagt hos de store bønder, i form af alt den mad de kan spise.

Og imens dette sker, går bønderne rundt og sørger for at roe v, ingen mangler noget, og sørger for at oil drilling essays, holde daglejernes utilfredshed nede. Tidligere blev gildet holdt hjemme på gårdene, men det blev siden rykket til kroen for at slippe for on are we happier than, det besvær og ustyr, som især konerne ikke længere kunne finde sig i. Oil Drilling In Alaska. 17 Her, til Mikkelsgildet, er Ane det store midtpunkt, og trods hendes mangel på skønhed ønsker alle en dans med hende og alle får det, på nær hendes forlovede, Mathias. Summer Of The Seventeenth Doll Analytical Essay. Han får kun mulighed for at essays, snakke med hende, da han finder hende på vej indenfor igen. And Negatives. Hvor har du været? Du ser så svedt ud?. Oil Drilling In Alaska Essays. 18 Der er ingen tvivl om, at Ane har været udenfor med Olav, og dette ved også Mathias udmærket.

Men han må stiltiende finde sig i disse forhold, og erkende at også hér har gårdejerne førsteret. Sproget i Pontoppidans novelle er lagt meget tæt op ad dagligdagssproget, og især folkene fra Åhusene taler særdeles landligt Jeg tykkes immeran det går såen, at essay we happier our forefather, de, som har no et og gi de bø en, de får itte no en; men stodderen ka itte hænge bøvserne over sengestokken førend hun er fær ig. 19. Dette lægger til den sarkastiske stemning, hvor der veksles mellem kyniske fremstillinger, En varm, vammel os af frisk gødningevand gennemstrømmede nu og da det aflange, halvmørke rum og blandede sig med den skarpe gennemtrængende luge af gulerødder og roeblade, 20 og idylliske scenarier, På bløde, varme filtsko pusler konen stille omkring, sysler med vinterhyggen og rydder op efter den forstyrrende sommer. Essays. Og med det tiltagende mørke sættes pigerne straks efter middag til spinderok og karte inde i stuen, hvor sønnen ligger lad på slagbænken og får den til at we happier our forefather, fnise 21 Den alvidende fortæller svæver over oil drilling essays, hele det lille samfund og skildrer på næsten impressionistisk vis den brudte handlingsudvikling.

16 Pontoppidan, s. In Toronto. 141 l Pontoppidan, s. Essays. 143 l Pontoppidan, s. . 150 l Pontoppidan, s. In Alaska. 141 l Pontoppidan, s. . 135 l Pontoppidan, s. Oil Drilling Essays. 133 l. Wade Statement. 15. 7 Danskopgave Side 6 af 9 Pontoppidan fremstiller dette samfund sarkastisk hele vejen igennem, og fremstiller kun indirekte de forhold, der fører op til skellet mellem de to lag i det lille samfund. Oil Drilling In Alaska Essays. På den ene side har vi bønderne, Og alt som værdierne steg og jordene forbedredes, blev stuehusene bygget op i røde sten med skifertag og små kabinetter, hvor døtrene kunne spille på fortepiano 22, som er blevet rige og endt som Mads Monsen, der fremstilles som en tyk og lettere ulækker mand med et stort kødfuldt ansigt, og en rød, svulmende mund, der altid var ligesom fugtet af fedt 23. Writing Essay Competition. Og på den anden side har vi folkene fra Åhusene Deres værdier var ikke steget. [ ] Rundt omkring dem lå denne fattigmands evige sværm af små, svampede børn, der klækkedes ud inde i de store, brede halmsenge. Oil Drilling Essays. Og mens oppe i gårdene slægt efter slægt bestandigt voksede sig større og rankere, trivedes der frem fra hytterne en stadig mindre og forkrøblet skabning med lange arme og store tomme hoveder nede mellem uformelige skuldre en lavstammet, udmarvet slægt, der kuld på kuld, fra barn til graven, spredte sig omkring for at summer of the seventeenth, lægge sine værdier rundt om i bondens marker og moser, som de forbedrede. Essays. 24 Folkene fra Åhusene er de glemte folk, som fra slægt til slægt er degenereret, så de nu knap er mere end dyr der klækkes. Essay Poetry Thinking. Gennem generationer har disse degenererede slægter så lagt sine egne forsvindende værdier hos bønderne, som på Åhus-folkenes bekostning er blevet rigere og rigere.

Denne forestilling om degenererede arbejdere passede godt ind i 1880erne, hvor daglejernes forhold og undertrykkelse i høj grad fik dem til at ligne dyr, 25 og Darwins tanker om hvordan arten gennem generationer forandres enten til det bedre eller til det værre. Oil Drilling. Og udviklingen er ikke ved at gå den modsatte vej i dette samfund, hvor Olav gennemfører den sociale arv og det sociale hierarki og holder arbejderne nede. Skellet mellem netop den verden Olav repræsenterer, og den Ane tilhører, ses tydeligt i det fine gule silketørklæde Olav forærer hende 26, og det storblomstrede uldtørklæde Mathias aldrig får givet hende 27 Pontoppidan formår også at sætte sig selv ind i fortællingen, som præsten, hvis holdninger er radikale og som det næppe er værd at drama exploring fiction literature thinking writing, lade komme i alt for in alaska essays, nær berøring med arbejderne 28, og 22 Pontoppidan, s. Resume. 142 l Pontoppidan, s. Oil Drilling. 137 l Pontoppidan, s. 142 l Busk-Jensen, s Pontoppidan, s. Roe V Wade Statement. 137 l Pontoppidan, s. In Alaska Essays. 148 l. Roe V Wade. 14. 8 Danskopgave Side 7 af 9 han lader den unødigt fine skolelærer udtrykke lige netop det modsatte med ønsket om at in alaska, dette samfund må forblive urørt af de disse tidens nye oprivende og fordærvelige røster der brølte rundt om efter rov 29, som er de gennembrudstanker, der netop i denne periode gennemstrømmer hele Danmark. On Are We Happier. Oven over det hele finder vi månen, der ser ned på det hele og med et medlidende smil siger den: Ja de mennesker, 30 hvorved hele affæren negligeres og gøres lettere ligegyldig. In Alaska. En ironisering af den romantiske tankegang hvor problemer som disse nedtones og gemmes af idylliske fremstillinger, hvilket netop er hvad det moderne gennembrud gør op med og også Pontoppidan med Bondeidyl, der sætter problemer under debat og gør dem synlige. Essay On Are We Happier Than. Et våben i en debat Da Brandes stillede sig op på talerstolen d. Oil Drilling. 3. november 1871, ønskede han at in toronto, ændre den danske litteratur, så den begyndte at oil drilling in alaska essays, betyde noget, hvilket for , ham betød, at oil drilling in alaska, den skulle sætte problemer under debat, være virkelig og revolutionær. Bondeidyl lever på alle måder op til disse kriterier, alene ved at essay, omhandle reelle problemer og stille skarpt på dem og trække dem frem i lyset, hvor de i samtiden må have virket oprørende og opsigtsvækkende.

Dette var målet, og mange af samtidens forfattere gjorde sig ligeledes bemærkede ved at skrive anderledes og opsigtsvækkende tekster. Oil Drilling. Den gang gjorde de sig bemærket ved rent faktisk at essay than our forefather, omhandle konkrete samfundsrelaterede emner, som den sociale arv, Olav gentagelse af hans fars handlinger, fattigdommen, folkene fra Åhusene, og gårdejernes magt, bøndernes rigdom på bekostning af arbejdernes. Oil Drilling Essays. I dag gør den sig bemærket, ved skildringerne af de kummerlige kår under hvilke arbejderne i Danmark levede i 1800-tallet. Roe V Wade Thesis Statement. Den gang blev denne slags litteratur læst, og ikke mindst diskuteret, af ikke bønderne, men de finere kredse, hvorimod i dag er litteraturen blevet for oil drilling in alaska, mere eller mindre hvem som helst. Den er langt mere tilgængelig, og derved evner den at exploring literature poetry thinking writing, række ud til langt flere for in alaska, på den måde at skabe en bredere debat. For stadig i dag kan litteratur skabe debat. Vi ser dette, gennem eksempler på hvordan bøger rører så meget i folk, at de reagerer på dem. Seventeenth Essay. Dog ses det debatskabende bedst i samfund, hvor 28 Pontoppidan, s. Oil Drilling In Alaska. 144 l Pontoppidan, s. Wade Thesis Statement. 149 l Pontoppidan, s. 151 l. 15. 9 Danskopgave Side 8 af 9 reaktionerne er de største.

For eksempel vakte Harry Potter-bøgerne så stor vrede, at in alaska, bogafbrændingsceremonier blev afholdt starten af 2000erne i USA, eller nyere tilfælde som planlægninger af Koran-afbrænding på d. 11. Positives Tv Essay. september Af mere fredelige tilfælde, som samtidig blev brugt til gode formål, kan nævnes Victor Hugos Klokkeren fra Notre-Dame fra 1831, for oil drilling in alaska essays, hvilken et af de primære mål var at in toronto, vise det arkitektoniske forfald i Paris, og bogen førte til restaureringen af Notre-Dame de Paris. Oil Drilling Essays. 32 I dag bliver litteratur ofte brugt til at skabe debat af både privatpersoner og politikere i form af læserbreve. Thesis Statement. Dette kan altid ses i den bagerste del af de større aviser eller på de selvsamme avisers hjemmesider, hvor enhver, der har noget at sige, kan gøre dette og gør det! Alligevel kan der stilles spørgsmålstegn ved, om det i dag er litteraturen, der har mulighed for at oil drilling, skabe debatten, eller om det skrevne ord må se sig overtaget af andre medier. . Danske gymnasieelever beskyldes bestandig for oil drilling, ikke at essay we happier, kunne koncentrere sig om en tekst gennem længere tid, 33 og det er måske også lettere i dag at fange deres opmærksomhed gennem film og tv. Essays. Dette kunne måske forklare hvorfor avissalget i 2008 gik ned 5,6 %. 34 Konklusion Det moderne gennembrud, som strakte sig fra 1871 til ca. Roe V Wade Statement. 1920, var et brud med romantikkens idealistiske fremstillinger af virkeligheden, og et ønske om at oil drilling in alaska essays, litteraturen skulle sætte problemer under debat. In Toronto. Litteraturen skulle være naturalistisk og skildre virkeligheden, som den var, ikke som man kunne ønske den så ud. Oil Drilling In Alaska. Dette gjorde mange forfattere, i blandt hvilke Henrik Pontoppidan var at essay exploring poetry thinking writing, finde. Essays. Novellen Bondeidyl fra 1883 er en klassisk gennembrudstekst der netop sætter problemer under debat og hårdt viser forholdet mellem de rige bønder og de fattige arbejdere, som gennem generationer er gået i forfald. Roe V. Denne form for oil drilling, litteratur skabte røre i slutningen af 1800-tallet og helt ind i 1900-tallet, hvor gennembruds litteraturen og de oprørende tanker, man lige pludselig blev præsenteret for, blev heftigt diskuteret i hele Danmark.

Også i dag har litteratur magten til at of reality tv essay, frembringe reaktioner i folk, trods det at oil drilling in alaska, især unge måske er ved at competition 2010, miste interessen for in alaska, de skrevne ord til fordel for film og tv Jyllandsposten 34. 10 Danskopgave Side 9 af 9 Litteraturliste Primær litteratur: Pontoppidan, Henrik: Bondeidyl (1883), fra Lassen, Sten og Lars Jensen: Dansk Læsebog (3. In Toronto. udgave 2003, Systime A/S) Sekundær litteratur: Busk-Jensen, Lise m.fl.: Dansk Litteraturhistorie 6: Dannelse, folkelighed, individualitet (1985, Gyldendal) Falkenstjerne, Dansk Litteratur 2: Fra H.C. Oil Drilling. Andersen til Johannes V. Jensen (3. udgave 1994, G.E.C. Roe V Wade Statement. Gads Forlag ) Fibiger, Johannes og Gerd Lütken: Litteraturens Veje (2. udgave , Systime A/S) (4. In Alaska Essays. maj 2011) (4. Writing Competition. maj 2011) (4. Oil Drilling. maj 2011) Jyllandsposten, 2. Essay Competition 2010. sektion, 24. Oil Drilling In Alaska Essays. april 2011 af Morten Vestergaard. Sadan la landet LETTE KLASSIKERE. Roe V Thesis. For du l?ser de tre noveller. OPGAVER TIL Sadan la landet NAVN: For du l?ser de tre noveller OPGAVE 1 Instruktion: Hvad kommer du til at oil drilling in alaska, t?nke pa, nar du l?ser novellernes f?lles titel Sadan la landet? OPGAVE 2 Instruktion: Orienter.

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Eksempel pa en god litter?r artikel, 3g. In Alaska Essays. To Verdener. Eksempel pa en god litter?r artikel, 3g To Verdener Den 3. november 1871 tager Georg Brandes med sin forel?sning, omkring hovedstromninger i det nittende arhundredes litteratur, forste skridt pa vejen. De gode gamle dage, eller? Maden verden og samfundet ser ud pa i dag, ligger meget langt v?k fra den made verden og samfundet sa ud pa i gamle dage. Writing Competition 2010. Nu er gamle dage jo et enormt vidt begreb, sa jeg vil. Frederikke, Sezer og Jasmin 29. Oil Drilling In Alaska. april 2010.

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Hor mig! Et manus af 8.a, Henriette Horlucks Skole (7. Udkast) SCENE 1. INT. In Alaska Essays. I KOKKENET HOS DAG/MORGEN Louise (14) kommer svedende ind i kokkenet, torrer sig om munden som om hun har kastet op. Wade Thesis. Hun s?tter. Kursusmappe. Oil Drilling Essays. HippHopp. Positives Tv Essay. Uge 13. Oil Drilling In Alaska. Emne: Min krop HIPPY. In Toronto. Baseret pa forskoleprogrammet HippHopp Uge 13 Emne: Min krop side 1. Kursusmappe Uge 13 Emne: Min krop Baseret pa forskoleprogrammet HippHopp Uge 13 Emne: Min krop side 1 HIPPY HippHopp Uge13_minkrop.indd 1 06/07/10 12.03 Uge 13 l Min krop Hipp og Hopp modes stadig hver.

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10.00. Oil Drilling. Salmer: 108/434/138/161//164/439/561/59. Essay We Happier Our Forefather. Abningshilsen Med denne sondag er vi kommet til den sidste sondag efter helligtrekonger. Ikke kun mennesket bygger veje Stefan Jarnik Novelle 2 Stefan Jarnik, 2014 Alle rettigheder forbeholdes 3 Ikke kun mennesket bygger veje En gang for oil drilling in alaska, l?nge siden, flere arhundreder tilbage i tiden, la der. Lindvig Osmundsen. Side 1 01-05-2015 Pr?diken til Bededag 2015.docx. Pr?diken til Bededag 2015. On Are We Happier Than Our Forefather. Tekst: Matt. 3,1-10. Lindvig Osmundsen. Oil Drilling In Alaska. Side 1 01-05-2015 Pr?diken til Bededag 2015.

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Essay on Rural Development in India. Read this essay to learn about Rural Development in India. After reading this essay you will learn about:- 1. Introduction to Rural Development 2. Activities and Experiments Undertaken for Rural Development 3. The Rural Development Programmes 4. Institutions 5. Observations and Problems 6. Suggestions. Essay on the Introduction to Rural Development Essay on the Activities and Experiments Undertaken for Rural Development Essay on oil drilling essays, the Rural Development Programmes Essay on the Institutions for Rural Development in India Essay on the Observations and Problems of Rural Development Essay on the Suggestions for Rural Development in India. 1. Essay on the Introduction to Rural Development: The definition of Rural is residuary become all over the world that is defined as an urban area and whatever is not urban known as rural. In India a settlement is defined as urban if it fulfils either of the following conditions, were adopted in the 1991 census: (i) All statutory towns, i.e.; all places with a municipality corporation, municipality board, cantonment board or notified town area etc.

(ii) A minimum population of essays, 5,000. (iii) At least 75 per cent of the Male working population engaged in resume non-agricultural and allied activity, (iv) A density of population of at least 400 persons per in alaska, square kilometres. Thus, the term ‘Rural’ essentially means an area, which is characterised as non-urban style of life, occupational structure and settlement pattern. ‘Development’ in general refers to the process of a general improvement in levels of in toronto, living together, decreasing inequality in incomes and the capacity to sustain continuous improvements overtime. Thus the term Rural Development is oil drilling in alaska essays viewed as an activity of a series of activities or a process, which either improves the immediate living conditions-economic, social, political, cultural and environmental or increases the seventeenth analytical essay potential for oil drilling, future living or both of the seventeenth doll analytical essay rural people. The Royal commission on Agriculture defined Rural Development as: “We cannot too strongly state our conviction that the directorship of agriculture is oil drilling in alaska essays one of the key posts in of the doll analytical Rural Development and that agricultural advance must in a very great degree depend upon the stability of the officer.” The taskforce appointed by the Planning Commission on Integrated Rural Development in 1972 defined Rural Development as: “After a careful consideration we have belatedly decided to take what might be considered a rather restricted view of the expression. ‘Rural Development’ we have chose to equate it with agricultural development in the widest sense so as to embrace besides crop husbandry, all the allied activities.” According to the view of oil drilling in alaska essays, World Bank “Rural Development as a strategy design to improve the economic and social life of a specific group of people – The rural (people) poor. It involves extending the benefits of development to the poorer among those who seek a livelihood in rural areas. The group includes small-scale farmers, tenants and the landless.” Rural Development means a strategy to improve the economic and social life of the rural poor and the rural weak in the overall spectrum of development and growth.

It is not only important to raise the agricultural productivity and the rate of overall economic growth in the rural areas, but also it is to ensure that the poor and weaker sections share the benefit. “Rural Development as a process in complex and involves the interaction of economic, social, political, technological and other situational factors. These have to be integrated with Government policies and plans with the objective of improving the quality of life of the people in the villages”. Rural Development encompasses: (i) Improvement in levels of living, including employment, education, health and nutrition housing and a variety of we happier than, social services. (ii) Decreasing inequality in distribution of rural incomes and in rural-urban balances in incomes and economic opportunities and. (iii) The capacity of the rural sector to sustain and accelerate the pace of in alaska, these improvements. The critical element in the Rural Development is improvement living standards of the poor through opportunities for better utilisation of on are, their physical and human resources in the absence of this utilisation of rural resources has no functional significance.

Making the process of rural development self-sustaining of capital and use of technology for the benefit of the poor but their active involvement in oil drilling in alaska essays the building up of institutions as well as functioning of roe v wade thesis, these. There are a number of definitions of rural development. But that varies according to time, priority and nature of rural activities. Despite of differences, the academicians, planners and policy makers have always laid emphasis for the all-round development of the rural activities. However, Rural Development as a concept and as series of oil drilling in alaska, experiments in alternative methods of on are we happier than our forefather, organising production, welfare and exchange in rural activities has a long history and is not the monopoly of any single system or country. Its recent popularity however is mainly symptomatic of the essay we happier than our forefather failure of technocratic and growth strategies pursued by most developing countries in the 1950s and 1960s. Academics, nationals and international policy makers are carrying out the search for solution to the twin problems of rural poverty and unemployment. The noted Western economists like, Kuznets, Gerschenkron, Floud and Mccloskey provide useful insights into the history of economic development of the present day developed countries. The growth of in alaska, output and productivity in essay these countries during last 10 to 15 decades has been qualitatively different from that observed in earlier periods.

Modern Economic growth since the late 18th century is different from periods of growth in earlier times in three specific respects. Firstly, the ownership and use of economic surplus were 34 Rural Development in India separated for oil drilling in alaska essays, the first time. Those who used this surplus as capital in the production process did not necessarily own it as they did in the land-based feudal pre-industrial system. Secondly, extensive use of an essay exploring poetry writing acceptable unit of exchange called money helped in expansion of market, which made specialization and mobility possible. Lastly, mobility of both capital and labour in pursuit of higher gains to urban areas and distant lands occurred on an unprecedented scale. The consequent increase in output and productivity were substantial and sustained over a long period of time. These impressive increases were also accompanied by in alaska essays, growth of population and large-scale migration from not only rural to oil drilling in alaska urban areas but from nation to on are we happier than our forefather nation and from continent to continent. Historically experience suggests that, when seen in long-term perspective, economic growth has been accompanied by specialisation centralization, maximization, urbanization and industrialization. History shows that, poverty has been diminished by the growth of oil drilling, labour increased productivity in the agricultural sector and migration of labour to urban non-agricultural activities. The population movement occurred mainly because industry could offer the incentive of higher wages and better employment opportunities. The role of the State has been changing significantly since the Eighteenth Century.

Traditionally the Government’s activities could be divided into three departments namely, defense, Public works and internal administration. A healthy balance among the three ensured stable regimes with the advent of modern economic development; the “Public works” component has been an expanding area of seventeenth, State activity. Modern development policy makers while, recognising the importance of infrastructure have been rather ambiguous about the contents of infrastructure is one of the very few illuminating contributions on the subject. Infrastructure includes all things provided by the State, which promote directly or indirectly productive activities. Transport, irrigation, power, water supply, health, education and urban services are considered important elements of infrastructure.

In a mixed economy, with a relatively important public sector, provision of oil drilling in alaska, infrastructure has to be carefully planned and provided by the State. The State playing an competition 2010 important role in in alaska essays development. Policy makers and planners have started devoting more to “rural development’ in their declarations and documents on national planning policies. In various ways and for various motives they have attempted to relate to the problems of their own rural poor. Despite, substantial and impressive increase in growth of agricultural and food outputs in oil drilling in alaska essays some regions of roe v wade, a number of developing countries the plight of small and marginal farmers, agricultural and landless labourers, artisans and small retailers has not been improved significantly.

In India the term ‘Rural Development’ is not a very old phenomenon. Early in in alaska the century their exist the British rule. In that time, rural development was a minor symphony in the governmental orchestra. The functions of the Government were limited and even the spread of each function was narrowly restricted. Thus, Development cannot but be of minor meaning and significance in the structure of the priorities of colonialism, which was also reflected in essays the rural areas. The decade 1920-30 was very significant from the view of early pioneering efforts at rural development in India. The noted social Thinkers, Educationists, Politicians started such efforts in our country; in early 20s. 2. Essay on the Activities and Experiments Undertaken for , Rural Development: Programmes and Projects in Pre-Independence Periods: The important activities and experiments undertaken for rural development in Pre-Independence periods are: (i) Sriniketan Experiments: This programme was pioneered by noted scholar of the oil drilling in alaska country Rabindranath Tagore.

The important objective of the experiment was Economic and Moral rehabilitation of the rural community. (ii) Martandum Project: One Rural Reconstruction Programme was initiated by Spancer Hatch at Martandum (South Travancore) in 1921. Martandum rural reconstruction Centre was opened with a five- sided programme popularly called as “The Five Sided Triangle” Comprising Spirit, Mind, Body, Economic and Social side. The philosophy of rural reconstruction embraced principles known as “Pillars of Policy”. The principle of , ‘Self Help’ was maintained. The project became the oil drilling centre of comprehensive programmes of rural development. (iii) The Gurugaon Experiment: The important village uplift movement was initiated by resume, I.L.Brayne the Deputy Commissioner of Gurugaon district in 1920.

This village development programme called as the “Gurugaon Scheme”. The Gurugaon Scheme claimed to deal with the whole life and the activity of the peasant and his family and to present a complete remedy from the terrible conditions in with they lived. (iv) Rural Reconstruction Movement in Baroda: The important rural reconstruction centre was set up in 1932 and the work commenced in a group of villages round Kosamba (Navasri district). The movement aimed at roe v, improvement in all aspect of rural life, changing the outlook of the agriculturists, the oil drilling in alaska essays attainment of higher standard of living.

(v) Sarvodaya Scheme of Bombay: This scheme was based on the Gandhiji’s idea of in toronto, Sarvodaya. The important aim of the project is to stop migration of youths to nearest towns and cities. The supply of food for all, adequate medical facilities, free education, local self-Government, self-employment through cottage industries were highlighted in the programme. (vi) Firka Development Scheme: The Firka Development Scheme aimed at the attainment of the resume in toronto Gandhian ideal of “Village Swaraj” by brining about not only the oil drilling in alaska essays education, economic, sanitary and other improvements of essay on are than, village along with the revitalisation of the spirit if people and to make them self-confident and self-reliant. The schemes involved close coordination with the various Government services like, agriculture, veterinary, irrigation, industries, medical and communication departments. The scheme was later merged with the National Extension Services in 1953-54. Programmes and Projects in Post-Independence Period:

Programmes and projects were also launched in post-independence and pre-planning periods. The important among them are: (1) The Pilot Development Project of literature poetry writing, Etawah: The Project began under the sponsorships of the provincial Governments of Uttar Pradesh in late 1948. The important objectives of the project were to in alaska increase the degree of productivity, social improvements, promotion of self-confidence and cooperation. The pilot project at Etawah treated as one of the most successful rural development project of the World. The project also exhibited the exemplary Cooperation and Coordination of Government, volunteers and others. (2) The Nilokheri Experiment : India divided in 1947.

The Rehabilitation of displaced persons coming from Pakistan gathered importance. In order to provide them gainful employment a new township was developed at wade thesis statement, Nilokheri in 1948 with the efforts of Sri S.K.Dey. Sri Dey evolved a faith were to activate and support a triple charter of oil drilling essays, rights such as: (i) Right to live, (ii) Right to work for living and. (iii) Right to receive what is earned. To give a practical shape to this charter or rights a new scheme known as the “Mazdoor Manzil” was drawn up. The basic concept of the Mazdoor Manzil was to stop the one-way traffic of labour, material, skill and culture from villages to town. The township was intended to include institutions for medical relief and sanitation, Higher Education, Technical and Vocational Training, Veterinary aid and agricultural extension embracing agriculture, horticulture, poultry, piggery, fishery, sheep breeding and other forms of animal husbandry. The project was highly appreciated by the then Prime Minister Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru.

The Planning for Rural Development have been received utmost attention by the planners and policy makers along with the National Plan for Economic Development. The rural development strategies were also adopted by resume, planners as per the methods and strategies adopted for the economic development of the country. India adopted both the centralised and decentralised planning models in the process of its planned economic development. The First Five Year Plan (1950-51 to 1955-56) adopted the Harrod-Domar model of capital accumulation and saving mobilisation as its methodological approach towards planning. Under this approach, the process of economic development must start from the villages. In this context, the mobilization of peoples participation was required. In order to implement this ideology the Community Development Programme (CDP) was conceived. The Block administration was created as a centre of Rural Development activities. This programme failed as blocks were quite big and left the weaker section untouched. The programme was also implemented in Orissa.

The State planning machinery followed the objectives and guidelines fixed by positives of reality tv essay, Central Government. The Second Five Year Plan (1955-56 to 1960-61) based on Feldman-Mahalnobis model of essays, sectoral growth. This strategy emphasised investment in heavy industry to achieve industrialization, which was assumed to be the basic condition for rapid economic development. A good deal of reliance was placed on cottage and small industries with the aim of reducing rural under employment, unemployment. As against this background no important specialised rural development programme was launched during the second plan period. However, steps were taken to strengthen the ongoing community development programme.

In this respect the, need for viable institutional base was felt and the Panchayati Raj System was introduced during the plan period. Besides, specialised rural economic development programmes like, Intensive Agricultural District Programme (IADP), Khadi and Village Industries Programme (KVI), Multi-purpose Tribal Development, Village Housing Projects/Schemes were also introduced in rural areas of the country. As a part of the Union, the specialised sectoral development programmes were also introduced in Orissa. In the Third Five Year Plan (1960-61-to-1965-66) all round agricultural development was envisaged. Increased agricultural production in the farm sector and activities allied to agriculture received topmost priority during the plan period.

The important agricultural development programmes bringing green revolution strategy like Intensive Agricultural Area Programme (IAAP) and High Yield Varieties Programme (HYVP) were implemented in essay competition 2010 the country. It is observed that, the benefits accrued only to rich and progressive peasants. Once again, landless and agricultural labourers were left untouched. Besides, rural industries project for the promotion of village industries was also launched during the said plan period. Health and Nutrition is oil drilling in alaska essays regarded as important inputs required for improvement in the quality of life. To ensure appropriate and adequate nutrition to the children, for in alaska, their growth Applied Nutrition Programme was introduced during the Third Five Year Plan. The Fourth Five Year Plan (1969-74) in the name of “Growth with social justice” initiated efforts towards uplifting the vulnerable sections of rural society.

In this connection a number of ‘area development oriented’ and ‘Target Oriented’ programmes were introduced. Programmes such as Small Farmers Development Agency (SFDA), Small Farmers and Agricultural Labourers Development Agency (MFAL), Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP), Tribal Area Development Programme (TADP) were introduced as the important rural development programmes. These rural development programmes did succeed, but only in limited areas and numbers. This plan paved the in toronto path for a number of rural development and poverty alleviation programmes in the country. These programmes were implemented through the existing administrative apparatus at block and village levels. Employment generation programmes like, Crash Scheme for Rural Employment and Pilot Intensive Rural Employment Programme were also launched during the plan period.

The Fifth Plan (1974-79) based on the Inter-sectoral transactions model of Leontief which emphasised on strengthening the oil drilling in alaska essays inter-sectoral linkages for balanced growth in sectors. The most important objectives of the Fifth Plan Period was: (i) Removal of poverty and. (ii) Achievement of self-reliance. In order to attain these objectives. The Programmes like, Command Area Development Programme (CADP), Hill Area Development Programme (HADP), Minimum Needs Programme (MNP), Food for Work Programme (FFW) were introduced, during the writing essay competition 2010 plan period. Besides, in order to promote small-scale, village and cottage industries the District Industries Centres (DICs) were set up in all districts of the country. The 20-point Economic Programme was also introduced during the said plan period. The Sixth Five Year Plan (1980-85) aimed at the removal of oil drilling, poverty, growth, modernisation, self-reliance and social justice. In order to attain all-round development in rural areas, one single integrated programme called Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP) was conceived.

IRDP is regarded as a multi-level, multi-sector and multi-section concept of rural development. As a multi-level concept it encompasses rural development at various levels such as viable cluster of in alaska, village communities, districts and blocks. As a multi- sector concept, it embraces development in various sectors and sub-sectors of the rural areas such as agriculture, industry, education, health and transportation etc. As a multi-section concept, it encompasses socio-economic development of various sections and sub-sections of rural population such as Small farmers, Marginal farmers, Landless and agricultural labourers, Artisans, Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. Besides IRDP, the employment generation programmes like, National Rural Employment Programme (NREP), Rural Landless Employment Guarantee Programme (RLEGP), Economic Rehabilitation or Rural Poor (ERRP), Training of Rural Youth for Self-Employment (TRYSEM), Self Employment for the Educated Unemployed Youths (SEEUY). Development of Women and Children in Rural Areas (DWCRA) etc. were also introduced during the said plan period. The important objectives of the Seventh Five Year Plan (1985-90) were; building an independent self-reliant economy, establishment of social system based on equity and justice, reduction of regional imbalance and adoption of advanced technologies. The plan intended; to continue the oil drilling essays rural development programmes launched/implemented during the in toronto Sixth Five Year Plans. Besides, some rural infrastructural development programmes like, Indira Awas Yojana (IAY) Integrated Rural Energy Planning Programme (IREP), Jawahar Rozgar Yojana (JRY), Million Wells Scheme (MWS), etc. were implemented as the special rural development programmes during the plan period.

The Eighth Five Year Plan (1992-97) aimed at in alaska essays, generation of adequate employment opportunities, Universalisation of elementary education, provision of safe drinking water and primary health care facilities, and strengthening the infrastructure. The special rural development and poverty alleviation programmes implemented in in toronto earlier plans were also intended to continue during the Eighth Five Year Plan. In order to boost earlier infrastructure and employment generation programmes the new and culmination programmes like, Intensified Jawahar Rozgar Yojana (IJRY), Employment Assurance Scheme (EAS), Operation Black Board (OBB), and District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) were introduced. The Ninth Five Year Plan (1997-2002) aimed at generating employment opportunities in the secondary sector, all-round development of agricultural sector, strengthening the rural economy through development of agro-based industries, small- scale village and cottage industries and elimination of poverty. As against these objectives, the programmes for wade, self- employment, and supplementary wage employment and other programmes intended to continue during the Ninth Plan with some modifications.

These important antipoverty programmes include the IRDP, TRYSEM, JRY, IAY, IJRY, SFPP, DPAP and EAS etc. The IRDP, DWCRA, TRYSEM, MWS were in operation till the end of 1998-99. It was felt that; this fragmented approach with a multiplicity of in alaska essays, schemes was not able to of the doll analytical focus on the needs of the rural poor in a coherent manner. Hence these schemes were amalgamated by Government of India and merged into a single new scheme called Swarnajayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojana (SGSY) with effect from oil drilling essays, 1.4.1999. In order to create adequate infrastructural development the Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojana (JGSY) was also implemented on the same date. All the plan strategies for rural development based on writing essay, various approaches like, growth-based approach in first Three Five Year Plans (First Five Year Plan, Second Five Year Plan, Third Five Year Plan), which was popularly known as trickle down approach. The Fourth Five Year Plan based on Target group approach. The Fifth Five Year Plan highlights the target group approach with equal importance to essays Minimum Needs approach to rural development.

The Sixth, Seventh, Eighth and Ninth Five Year Plan in our country adopt the target group approach for roe v wade statement, rural development. The important elements of oil drilling in alaska, rural development strategies are: (1) Appropriate Institutional Arrangements. (2) Labour – Intensive agriculture and Minor development works. (3) A hierarchy of development centres to bridge the wide gap between rural and urban areas and self- reliance. (4) An active policy for oil drilling in alaska, social development, and. (5) Appropriate Organisational arrangements. The Rural Development Programmes based on various approaches and strategies. These are varies according to plan and the Nature of the programme. However, all the Rural Development Programmes have its own feature, objectives finance system, implementation and monitoring as well as success and failure. The discussion on some of the important rural development programme will throw light in this respect. 3. Essay on the Rural Development Programmes in summer seventeenth essay India:

India started her planned economic development through Five Year Plans in the year 1950-51. The economy of the Country has been dominated by oil drilling in alaska, the rural and traditional economic sectors. The productivity of these sectors has not changed significantly over the period of 50 years. The existence of massive unemployment and poverty is the common feature of Indian economy in general and rural economy in resume in toronto particular. The infrastructure of the country has not developed up to the world standard. It is proper to mention here that, we have achieved little over the period of 50 years of planned economic development. The planners and policy makers have been laid best possible efforts for in alaska essays, the development of the economy and rural development.

Due to a number of factors, desired success has not been achieved so far. However, we would like to oil drilling essays discuss some of the wade thesis important rural development programmes implemented in our country as well as the states and Union Territories from time to time. The aims and objectives of these programmes are national in nature and the progress and achievements are based on the secondary data available. As one of the oil drilling under developed state, the wade thesis statement progress and achievements of rural development programmes of Orissa. Some comparative analysis of the R.D. Programmes implemented in oil drilling in alaska the country and the State Orissa is also made. Since 1951 a number of rural development programmes have been implemented in oil drilling essays our Country. Among such programmes/schemes, twenty five important rural development programmes considered for analysis. These programmes covers all plan periods i.e.; First Five Year Plan (1950-51 to in alaska 1955-56) to Eighth Five Year Plan (1992-97). (i) Community Development Programme (CDP): India as an independent Country started its planned economic development process in the year 1950-51.

The First Five Year Plan 1950-51 to 1955-56 based on methodical approach. The noted Harrod-Domar Model of development was adopted in the said plan. The model emphasised on capital accumulation and saving. The process of economic development must start from the village was also emphasised in the first plan. In this context, the mobilisation of people’s participation is essential and to implement this ideology, the Community Development Programme (CDP) was conceived. The Community Development Programme was launched on roe v wade statement, 2nd October 1952. A general village community in India can be divided into six main groups as follows: (i) The owners of land and those who have hereditary rights of tenancy.

(ii) The sub-tenants or tenants at oil drilling essays, will. (iii) Landless Agricultural labourers. (iv) Village Artisans. (v) Money lenders and Shopkeepers. (vi) Persons in we happier than the professions or in personal services, e.g. doctors, lawyers, barbers, village officials. Taking all into oil drilling, consideration the objectives of Community Development Programme was framed. The important objective of Community Development Programme is to create an urge among the rural people for a better life and to show the of reality tv essay way to satisfying this urge predominantly by means of self-help. This objective is to be attained by revitalising the existing village institutions and creating new ones where ever necessary.

The programme emphasized to give effects to an intensive and comprehensive programme covering all aspects of rural life; i.e.; agriculture, rural industries, education, housing, health, recreation and services etc. and aimed at utilizing under a democratic set up the surplus labour force in rural areas for development purpose. It also aims at the largest possible extension of the principle of cooperation and every effort to made to make rural families credit worthy. The Community Development Programme as a people’s programmes introduced and implemented through Local-self Government and the rural people. The Local Self Government get further boost after the oil drilling in alaska essays recommendation of roe v wade thesis statement, Balwantrai Mehta’s formulation of Democratic decentralisation in the forms of village Panchayats, Panchayat Samities and Zilla Parishads. The Finance for the Community Development Programme is drawn both from the people and the Government. Being a people’s programme prescribes a qualifying scale of voluntary contribution from the people in the form of labour as well as money. The State Government and the Central Government with due sharing basis meet the balance expenditure in a block.

The Community Development Programme was launched in selected blocks of the State Orissa, as pilot programme. The Community Development Programme received its momentum during Second Five Year Plan. The total expenditure of Rs. 822.91 lakhs was incurred during the in alaska Second Plan period for writing competition, the said programme. By the end of the Third Five Year Plan (1965-66) period there were 147 Stage I blocks, 139 Stage II blocks bringing the total number of blocks to 314. Thus, all the blocks were covered under Community Development Programme. The total expenditure under this programme was Rs 1767 lakhs. The Community Development Programme has attained its pick during the Fourth Five Year Plan (1969-1974).

During the said period all the Stage I block converted to Stage II and large number of stage II block to post-stage II blocks. It is observed that there were 43 CD blocks in stage II and the remaining 271 blocks in the post stage II or in stage III. Total Fund of Rs 850 lakhs were earmarked for the programme. Besides, special development schemes on irrigation, Agriculture extension, animal husbandry, horticulture, drinking water and communication were also implemented in seven backward districts of the we happier than our forefather State. In this respect a total sum of in alaska, Rs 225 lakh has been earmarked. The contribution of Community Development Programme to positives and negatives the rural development are: (1) The setting up of a network of community development blocks covering the length and breadth of the country, thus enabling the essays government to reach the rural population in almost any aspect of their life, (2) The transfer of powers and functions for implementing the programme to the elected representatives at the village, block and district levels, thereby paving the way for democratic decentralisation through a three-tier Panchayati Raj System. The National Institute of Community Development conducted a survey to roe v wade assess the impact of CDP They concluded that “the process of modernisation has reached all strata, and going to do so at a faster pace in future, but this has not resulted in any violent reaction on the part of the lower classes”. The ideology of people’s participation through Panchayati Raj System, in absence of proper education and discipline resulted in conspicuous alienation of the weaker sections of the rural communities by the privileged classes. The latter could secure the benefits of the programme because their contribution was not free but charged with consideration.

It is observed that the oil drilling whole programme suffered from lack of vitality, and was tending to generate only into a number of material benefits for a limited few. The official agencies responsibility for implementation of development activities lacked in understanding the new climate because they were manned by those officials who were trained in the particular framework. Besides, their bureaucratic approach also appeared to be a hindrance in initiating the programmes. The critics complained that the Community Development Programme has given a ‘new look’ but not the ‘food’ to the rural poor. It is no denying a fact that the expenditure on building the institutions for social change was larger than the expenditure incurred on productive purposes. Thus, its social contents superseded the economic contents though it was assumed to the instrument of economic transformation.

(ii) Intensive Agricultural District Programme (IADP): The Intensive Agricultural District Programme (IADP) as a package programme was very strongly recommended by and negatives of reality, Agricultural Production Team of the Ford Foundation (USA) on essays, 1959. This programme was put into action during 1960-61. The important objective of the programme was to improve the agricultural production in a integrated and intensified manner. This programme was introduced in selected districts of the country. The selection of these districts was made on the basis of: (a) The district should as far as possible have assured water supply. (b) It should have a minimum of roe v wade thesis statement, natural hazards, (c) It should have well developed village Institutions like Cooperatives and Panchayats.

(d) It should have maximum potentialities of increasing agricultural production within a comparatively short-time. Taking the criteria into oil drilling essays, consideration Sambalpur district was selected in Orissa. It was decided to implement for the development of Rabi Crops in 1962-63. This programme was introduced in all the 29 blocks of the district. In the second phase of the programme main thrust was given on the increase of , higher yielding paddy in the Khariff extending the area under various commercial and horticulture crops and on in alaska essays, promoting efficient soil and water management practices. Required inputs, know how and financial provisions are made for writing competition 2010, the success of the programme. Sambalpur district not only in alaska, self-reliant in drama poetry thinking writing Rice Production but also treated as a main rice-producing district of the State. The IADP has been a ‘Path finder’ for successful programme. (iii) Intensive Agricultural Area Programme (IAAP): The Third Five Year Plan (1960-65) aimed to achieve self- sufficiency in food grains and increase agricultural production to meet the requirements of industry and exports. Besides, the in alaska mid-term appraisal of the Third Five Year Plan observed that “Much greater emphasis should be given to the development of scientific and progressive agriculture in an intensive manner in areas where a high agricultural production potentialities”.

The Government of India formulated the resume in toronto Intensive Agricultural Area Programme (IAAP) with a view to cover at least 20 per cent to 25 per cent of the oil drilling essays cultivated area of the country and this area should be selected for the intensive development of import crops such as wheat, paddy, millets, cotton, sugarcane, potato, pulses etc. The programme was launched in 1964-65. The aim of in alaska essays, IAAP was to bring about we happier than our forefather, a progressive increase in the production of main crops in selected areas by an intensive package approach i.e.; the use of inter-related factors – physical, social and institutional-in-strategic combination which were likely to exert an impact on agricultural production. It was decided to implement such programme in the selected blocks of the country as well as the state. The selection criteria were the oil drilling blocks having a minimum irrigated area of 5 thousand acres. In Orissa a total of 86 blocks were covered under the Intensive Agricultural Area Programme during the period of Fourth Five Year Plan an additional 46 blocks were brought under the programme, taking total coverage of blocks up to 132.

The required funds for the programme were met from the oil drilling in alaska essays plan and non-plan expenditure of the Agriculture and allied activities. The programme paved the way for the introduction of Green Revolution in India. The Introduction of High Yielding Varieties Programme (HYVP) reduced the importance of IAA Programme in the State as well in the country. (iv) High Yielding Varieties Programme (HYVP): The High Yielding Varieties Programme (HYVP) was launched in the country from the kharif seasons of 1966-67 as a major plank of new agricultural strategy under the economic planning system. The important objective of the programme was to attain self-sufficiency in food by the end of on are than, 1970-71.

The programme envisages the oil drilling introduction and spread over fairly large areas of the newly identified and evolved high yielding variety of paddy, wheat, maize, jowar and bajra. The HYVP proposes to make a technological break-through in Indian agriculture which consists of the introduction of new and high-yielding varieties of improved seeds, increased application of the resume right amount of fertilizers and extension of the use of pesticides so that the crop produced is not destroyed by insects. To enable the farmers to undertake this agricultural practice, the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) agreed to relax the usual terms and conditions in respect of Central Cooperative Banks (CCBs) for the purpose of financing such cultivators. During the Fourth Five Year Plan about 742.6 thousand hectares of drama essay exploring fiction literature thinking writing, land was brought under the essays HYV programme in Orissa. This has increased to about 1860 thousand hectares of land during Fifth Five Year Plan with an investment of writing 2010, about Rs. 2 Crores. This programme mainly confined to good land and to those farmers who have the resources and the adaptability to embrace the progress of technology. This programme became successful in the states like Punjab, Haryana and a part of Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu in general and Punjab, and Haryana in particular, where wheat is the main food crop. The rice and other commercial crops reported insignificant improvement in their production. Orissa as non-wheat producing state received insignificant growth in roe v wade thesis food production. (v) Small Farmers Development Agency (SFDA):

The Reserve Bank of India appointed All-India Rural Credit Review Committee on 1969, under the Chairmanship of Sri B.Venkatappiah. The committee in its-interim report recommended for the establishment of Small Farmers Development Agency (SFDA) in following words: “The special efforts proposed are to essays be restricted to those cultivators who can be developed into surplus farmers if they adopt improved techniques on the basis of support in terms of supplies, irrigation, services of machinery etc. Appropriate schemes have to on are we happier than be drawn up by technical experts with reference to local resources and requirements, so that such cultivators can undertake specific lines of roe v wade statement, investment (e.g. sinking of wells) adopt a suitable crop pattern, use modern inputs and so on. It is to deal with this limited problem that in institutional setup in the form a Small Farmers Development Agency may be established in certain selected districts.” The important functions of the Agency was to: (i) Investigate and identify the competition problems of oil drilling in alaska essays, small farmers and endeavour to see that the provision of various services and supplies to small farmers is in alaska ensured, (ii) Help small farmer to thesis statement secure loans from co-operative banks and other assistance like obtain improved seeds, fertilizers and other inputs, (iii) The agency is to provide various services such as spraying of insecticides, hiring out of tractors and land leveling to small farmers through the agro-industries corporations or other appropriate bodies and institutions including cooperatives and local authorities such as Zilla Parishad and extension services, (iv) To draw up plans for investment and production activities to be undertaken by the cultivators participating in in alaska essays the programme, (v) To explore the possibility of adding to the income of the small farmers by writing competition, assisting them in essays taking up animal husbandry activities such as dairy and poultry, (vi) It should endeavour to promote the flow of short-term, medium- term and long-term co-operative credit to small cultivators for appropriate purposes from the Agricultural Credit Societies and Central Cooperative banks on the one hand and the land development banks on the other. The scheme was included in the Fourth Five Year Plan.

However, the scheme actually started functioning on a significance scale in the year 1971-72. The schemes were implemented in selected districts by a separate agency constituted under the Societies Registration Act. The scheme was financed by oil drilling essays, the State and Central Government on matching basis. The provision of subsidy was also made by resume, the agency at oil drilling in alaska essays, the rate of 25 per cent to non-tribal small farmers, 33.3 per cent to non-tribal marginal farmers and 50 per cent to Tribal farmers in capital investments and inputs subject to maximum of Rs 3000 and Rs 5000 respectively for any farmers. In Orissa, the Small Farmers Development Agency was implemented in three districts. They were Bolangir, Dhenkanal and Ganjam. During first two years of the programme, could not make much headway because of a number of initial difficulties. The loans were advanced to the farmers under this scheme were utilised mostly for productive purposes. Orissa stand second in utilisation of in alaska essays, loans in all-India basis after Kerala.

The State utilised about 83.6 per cent of the loans sanctioned under the scheme. During the period between 1971-72 and 1980, about 272 lakh families in 115 blocks less than seven SFDA were benefitted. The total loans mobilised stood at fiction literature poetry thinking, Rs. 38.4 crores. A total expenditure incurred towards subsidies and agency staff was Rs. 14.8 crores. The SFDA was the first rural development programme in the country where the Central Government, State Government and Financial Institutions maintained proper linkage for the success of the programme. However, the positives of reality tv essay programme had been merged with the Integrated Rural Development Programme since 2nd October 1980. (vi) Marginal Farmers and Agricultural Labourers Development Agency (MFALDA):

The Marginal Farmers and Agricultural Labourers Development Agencies were set up along with SFDA on the recommendation made by Rural Credit Review Committee (1969). The principal objective of the programme is to assist the marginal farmers and agricultural labourers in maximum productive use of essays, their small holding and skills by undertaking horticulture, animal husbandry and other economic activities, like rural industries etc. The important functions of the programme were to: (i) Identify eligible beneficiaries and their problems. (ii) To formulate economic programmes for providing gainful employment to the participants, (iii) To promote infrastructural facilities for production, processing, storage and marketing of products. (iv) To promote rural industries.

The necessary credit for productive investment was provided by Institutional Financing Agencies like, Cooperatives and Commercial banks. Besides provision of matching subsidies were also provided to the beneficiaries. The non-Tribal Marginal farmers and Agricultural labourers were eligible to receive subsidies worth 33.3 per cent on the capital investments and inputs, whereas this was 50 per cent for oil drilling in alaska essays, tribal beneficiaries, subject to maximum of , Rs 3000/- and Rs 5000/- respectively. The Marginal Farmers and Agricultural Labourers Development Agency was launched during the year 1971-72 in oil drilling in alaska the districts of drama essay exploring fiction literature poetry writing, Cuttack and Keonjhar. During first two years both short and medium-term loans amounted to Rs 61.32 lakhs and Rs 45.97 lakhs respectively were advanced to about 9 thousands and 8 thousand Farmers respectively. A total sum of Rs 1.6 cores was earmarked in the year 1974-75. This amount has increased to Rs 4.2 crores in the year 1975-76.

Under the project 2.6 lakh Marginal farmers and 0.3 lakh Agricultural Labourers were identified and benefitted under the oil drilling in alaska essays programme. Among them about 70 per cent of the beneficiaries were enrolled as members of cooperative societies. (vii) Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP): A Rural works programme was initiated in 1970-71 with the objective of providing development investment in drought prone areas. During the Fourth Five Year Plan the main emphasis of the programme was on labour intensive works such as medium and minor irrigation, road construction, afforestation, soil conservation and provision of drinking water. In the Fifth Plan, this scheme was re-oriented as an area development programme.

The strategy of this programme was to improve the economy of the areas covered, through a package of infrastructural and on-farm development activities with the objective of optimum utilisation of , land, water, human and livestock resources. This programme was also targeted the weaker sections of the society like, Small and Marginal farmers, Agricultural Labourers and other rural poor, who have no assured source of income. Co-operative societies were organised to in alaska essays act accordingly. This programme implemented in the areas where the monsoon is most unpredictable vis-a-vis it also laid emphasis for the inclusion of target group people. Thus, this programme was the first in seventeenth analytical essay its category, which included both the oil drilling in alaska essays area approach and target group approach. The DPAP was implemented in the chronically drought affected districts of Orissa. Considering the concentration of weaker sections as well as drought prone area the programme was implemented in 11 blocks of Kalahandi and 14 blocks of Phulbani district in Orissa. During the Fourth Plan the roe v wade thesis statement scheme was fully financed by the Government of India.

The Government of India revised the programme during Fifth Five Year Plan. As per the revision the programme was financed by Central State Governments on 50:50 matching basis. In Fourth Five Year Plan the Central Government sanctioned an amount of Rs 3.4 Crores to Orissa for the programme. During the years 1974-80 expenditure on the programme was stood at Rs 14.2 Crores on different schemes. The programme has been extended to 14 more blocks of Bolangir and Sambalpur districts (8 blocks in Bolangir and 6 blocks in Sambalpur) bringing total blocks to essays 39 in 4 districts of the State. The State Plan allocation for the Sixth Plan was Rs 7 Crores against the anticipated expenditure of Rs 7.1 Crores. The total plan expenditure for DPA Programme during the Seventh Five Year Plan (1985-90) was Rs 26.5 Crores. The launching of Eighth Plan was delayed by two years due to political instability in the country. However the literature poetry thinking writing programme received Rs 12.7 Crores in in alaska essays 1990-91 and 1991-92. The Drought Prone Area Development Programme is being operated in 47 blocks (2 blocks each in resume Boudh, Sonepur, Dhenkanal, 12 blocks in essays Phulbani, 10 blocks in Kalahandi, 8 blocks in Bolangir, 6 blocks in Bargarh and 5 blocks in Nuapada districts) Spread over to 8 districts of the State during the essay exploring poetry writing Eighth Five Year Plan (1992-97). The Total expenditure incurred under the plan was Rs 36.9 Crores.

The total Funds available during 1997-98 at; the all-India level was about Rs 913 lakhs. The total Expenditure incurred during the year was Rs 436 lakhs. The expenditure was thus 47.8 per cent of the total funds available under the programme. The percentage share of total expenditure to total funds available was about 48.6 per cent. (viii) Integrated Tribal Development Agencies (ITDA): Next to Africa, India has the largest concentration of the tribal population in the World.

Though all the states have tribal population in oil drilling in alaska essays various degrees of concentration, majority of them is found in Bihar, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Rajasthan and West Bengal. Economic backwardness of the tribal population has undoubtedly occupied considerable interest among our planners. The First Five Year Plan laid down its priorities for tribal development in three broad categories namely education, economic uplift and health, housing and other schemes. Since then each five year plan has chartered new strategies for achieving these basic objectives. During the Second Five Year Plan, multi-purpose tribal blocks were set up which were later re-named as Tribal development blocks in the Third Five Year Plan. Expenditure on tribal development too, increased several fold over the plan periods. However, these efforts did not bring about any substantive change among the majority of the tribal population. It is noticed that, in the first three plans emphasis was placed on sectorial plans under various subjects such as agriculture, industry, transportation, health and education etc. Most of these were conceived at the National or at in alaska, the State level.

The Fourth Five Year Plan gave importance to planning at the district level and to experimental studies on positives of reality tv essay, growth centres for evolving a planning strategy at the grass-root level. In this context, the Government of India has sanctioned pilot projects for tribal development in the central agricultural sector. Among the oil drilling in alaska essays Six projects sanctioned in essay on are our forefather All-India level, Ganjam and Koraput districts were selected in Orissa. The outlay on each of these projects was Rs 2 Crores. Under the Tribal Development Agencies (1972-73) the Tibetan Re-settlement scheme at Chandragiri of roe v wade, Ganjam district and a Saura Development Scheme in Koraput district were brought out. A new strategy has been evolved for oil drilling, planning the development of the 2010 tribal communities during the Fifth Plan period. The new strategy envisages the preparation of a sub- plan for the tribal areas. The first exercise in this regard is to demarcate the tribal areas based on the tribal population. (i) Areas, where the tribal concentration of 50 per cent or above. (ii) Areas of dispersed tribal population below 50 per cent.

(iii) Extremely backward and isolated little communities. In order to implement the sub-plan programmes 21 ITDA’s were constituted covering 118 out of 314 blocks in the state. Each ITDA has a project level committee under the oil drilling in alaska essays Chairmanship of Collector with official and non-official and Tribal women as members. They have to draw up the plan and programmes at ITDA level and review and monitor the developmental activities of oil drilling in alaska essays, different Department. Each ITDA is essay 2010 headed by a Class I officer with supporting staff like Special Officer, Assistant Engineer, Junior Engineer, Statistical Assistant, Soil Conservation/Agricultural Extension Officer and other clerical staff. 15 Project Administrators have been declared as Additional District Magistrates for exercising powers under different regulatory laws. There were about 47 thousand villages in Orissa; out of that 18.7 thousand villages were in Tribal sub plan of which 14 villages were declared as ITDP villages.

They were spread over to on are we happier than our forefather about 98 blocks of the State up to 1977-78. A total financial outlay of in alaska, Rs 189 crore was earmarked for the programme in 1979-80 with a view to cover about 2 thousand families. The total estimated flow of statement, resources during the sixth plan period was Rs 700 Crores. It is oil drilling essays observed that 36 per resume in toronto, cent of the oil drilling in alaska total outlay of the State during Sixth Plan Period was earmarked for investment as against 23 per cent during fifth plan period. About 5.0 lakh tribal families were assisted under various anti- poverty programmes (including IRDP ERRP) during Sixth Plan Period. During the Seventh Plan period, about 7.6 lakh families were covered under the doll plan with the plan expenditure of Rs 1440 Crores. The plan allocation for the sub-plan during the year 1990-91 and 91-92 was estimated at Rs 391 crores and Rs 590 crores respectively. The proposed flow of in alaska essays, funds for the Eighth Plan Period (1992-97) was estimated at Rs 3885 Crores. The Flow of funds during 1992-93 was of the order of Rs 459 Crores. This covered about 34 families.

The total funds for the year 1993-94 have increased to Rs 466 crores. Further more the plan expenditure under the programme was Rs 568 Crores. Under the plan 43 thousand families were benefitted in the year 1993-94. Where as this stood at 41 thousand during 1994-95. During 1995-96 about 96 thousand tribal families were benefitted with a total financial investment of Rs 626 Crores. The total plan out lay for the year 1996-97 and 1997-98 was Rs 862 Crores and Rs 749 Crores respectively. (ix) Modified Area Development Approach (MADA): Article 46 of the constitution enjoins up on roe v wade statement, the State to promote with special care the educational and economic interest of the weaker sections and in particular Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes and to protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation. The approach for development of Scheduled Tribes was first laid down by the first Prime Minister of India, Late Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru in his “Tribal Panchseel” more particularly emphasised on the preservation of tribal culture. The Tribal Sub-plan approach was operated in mid seventies.

The objectives of the Tribal sub-plan strategy have basically remained two fold: (i) Socio-Economic Development of oil drilling essays, S.Ts. and. (ii) Protection of tribals against , exploitation. Integrated Tribal Development Programmes in the form of Integrated Tribal Development Agencies (I T D A) were implemented in the areas where the concentration of tribal population is oil drilling in alaska more than 50 per cent, and they live in extremely backward areas. For the all-round development of the wade statement Tribals outside the Sub-plan areas a new programme called Modified Area Development Approach (MADA) was launched in 1978- 79. The criteria for selection of oil drilling in alaska essays, this area was areas having a population of ten thousand or more with at least 50 per cent tribal concentration. The identified areas called as MADA Pockets. In these pockets individual family-oriented schemes as well as community benefit oriented programmes are to be implemented. There is writing a MADA level Advisory Committee for each MADA Sub-Collector concerned with officials and non- officials like peoples representatives as members.

This Advisory Committee is responsible for in alaska, drawn up programmes and overseas the implementation. During Fifth Plan Period 30 Modified Area Development Approach Pockets were identified and Rs 1.2 Crores was earmarked for the development of Tribal people living in those areas. The number of pocket has increased to in alaska 37 during Six Plan period. A Total sum of Rs 5.5 Crores was allocated for the programme, where about 10 thousand Tribal families were received assistance. There are, 45 MADA Pockets covering about 47 blocks of the on are we happier our forefather State, during Seventh Plan Period. The total amount of Rs 7.2 Crores was earmarked for the implementation of different schemes. Under different schemes about 13 thousand Scheduled Tribe families were benefitted during the said plan period. In two annual plans i.e.; 1990-91, and 1991-92 about Five thousand families benefitted under the programme.

The total investment of Rs 2.2 crores and Rs 2.5 crores were made for oil drilling in alaska, the year 1990-91 and 1991-92 respectively. The number of MADA pockets increased to 46 during the Eighth Plan (1992-97) period. A total Fund of Rs 16.4 crores was utilities for implementation of different programmes in oil drilling in alaska the MADA Pockets. During the plan period about 20 thousand tribal families were covered in different programmes. (x) Command Area Development Programme (CADP): The Command Area Development Programme was introduced in the Country in 1974-75 with a view to in alaska essays realising a fast and optimum utilisation of the irrigation potential created in essay we happier than the major irrigation projects.

In Orissa, the oil drilling in alaska essays programme was launched in 1976-77 covering 52 blocks in the districts of Cuttack, Puri, Balasore, Sambalpur and Bolangir. It was spread over to oil drilling essays about 5.3 lakh hectares of land of three major Irrigation Projects of essay, Mahanadi, Salandi and Hirakud. The basic concept of the oil drilling essays Programme was to step up agricultural production by optimum utilisation of water by controlled irrigation and adoption of multi-cropping pattern on drama essay exploring fiction literature poetry thinking, an extensive scale. The components of C A D Project which are given highest priority in realising these objectives are: (i) Construction of field channels. (ii) Warabandi i.e; regulated and assured water supply to the farmers. (iii) Consolidation and. (iv) Adoption of Multi-cropping pattern. As against this background four Command Area Development Authorities have been registered as Societies under the Societies Registration Act 1860. Funds sanctioned for the various schemes by oil drilling in alaska essays, State and Central Government are placed at drama exploring fiction poetry writing, their disposal in shape of grant-in-aid. A special loan account was also set up by the ARDC with 50% contribution from Central Government and 25% each by the State Government and ARDC to finance on-farm development works for the ineligible and unwilling beneficiaries.

During the Fifth Plan the major achievement was, conducting of a large number of multi-crop demonstrations to make the farmers aware of the oil drilling essays needs for having three cropping patterns. Small and Marginal farmers were also involved themselves in the programme and became members of Co­operative Societies. A modest beginning was also made in demonstration of proper water Management by Construction of field channels to serve about 3 thousand hectares of land. A total financial provision of Rs 12.5 Crores was made for the programme. The principle components of the Command Area Development Programme during the oil drilling essays Sixth Five Year Plan (SO­BS) have been: (i) Construction of field channels including field drains. (ii) Topographical Survey. (iii) Soil Conservation and Survey. (iv) Rotational water supply to the beneficiary farmers. (v) Multiple Crop Demonstration, including mini-kits and farmers training. During the said plan period about 1.5 lakh hectares field channel was constructed with the total expenditure of summer seventeenth doll analytical, Rs 6.9 Crores. The Command Area Development Programme expanded to in alaska 58 blocks in the districts of Cuttack, Puri, Balasore, Sambalpur, Bolangir and Koraput.

An area of 2.7 lakh hectare Culturable Command Area has been covered under field channels at the end of summer doll analytical essay, Seventh Five Year Plan. The Principal Component of CAD Programme during the Eighth Five Year Plan (1992-97) was: (i) Survey Planning and Design. (ii) Construction of field channels, drains and land leveling. (iii) Rotational water supply. (iv) Adaptive Trails. (v) Farmers participation. (vii) Conjunctive use of surface and ground water. (viii) Marketing and Communication and.

(ix) Monitoring and evaluation. The programme has been extended to 83 blocks in 17 districts with a Culturable Command Area of 7.4 lakh hectares during Eighth Plan Period. A total sum of and negatives tv essay, Rs 18.4 Crores was spending under the programme during said plan period. It is observed from the available data that, during the Seventh Five Year Plan about 11.14 million hectares field channels were constructed. About 1.93 million hectare of land leveling activities and 4.96 million hectare Warabandi work was also completed during the oil drilling in alaska essays said plan period.

The total achievement during the Eighth Plan Period on construction of field channels, land leveling and Warabandi was about in toronto, 1.75 M.ha, 0.14 M.ha, and 2.75 M.ha respectively. The achievement of Eighth Plan reduced due to of the seventeenth analytical other alike rural development programmes introduced in the country. The introduction of specialized watershed scheme was one of the same programmes. 4. Essay on the Institutions for Rural Development: The Rural Development in in alaska essays India is a very old phenomenon. Social scientists and organisations had experimented this noble attempt in oil drilling in alaska essays pre-Independence period. Those programmes were not highlighting a unique problem of the resume in toronto rural poor and the necessary solution therein. However, the attempts so undertaken were focused mostly to oil drilling in alaska the social, economic and cultural aspects of human well-being. The noble attempts made by great and intellectual sons of the soil could not spread over to all part of the country due to lack of government attitude and patronage. The British Government had never felt the importance of rural development in the country.

The rulers felt that, rural development was a part of resume, social welfare, which is perhaps contradictory to the British ideology and policies. India became an essays independent nation in August 1947, from political point of summer seventeenth analytical essay, view but attend its economic independence only on January 1950. After attaining the economic independence, India started its planned Economic Development Programmes with the adoption of Five Year Plan. During the process of planned economic development, Rural Development received utmost attention by the rulers, planners and policy makers. Since 1952, a number of rural development programmes were introduced, implemented and discontinued in the country.

The programmes are varied in nature and approach. Some of the programmes proved to be successful and some failures. The success and failure of the programmes governed by oil drilling, a number of factors important among them are: (i) Nature of the programme, (ii) Approach of the programme, (iii) Finance for resume in toronto, the programme, (iv) Implementation of the programme. Good nature, right approach, adequate finance and proper implementation may bring success to the programme. In this connection, the last factor, proper implementation gathers top most importance as it co-ordinates other factors of success. This can be achieved through good and right institutions. As against this background, we would like to discuss the structure and functions of the institutions established exclusively for Rural Development from time to time. These institutions can be classified into two such as: (i) Main institutions and. (ii) Ancillary institutions. The main institutions are those, which are directly responsible for the planning, implementing, monitoring and evaluation of the rural development programmes and permanent statutory in nature.

The ancillary institutions are those, which are indirectly responsible for planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation and temporary in in alaska nature. In India, a structure of policy formulating and implementing institutions has been built up in the country for Rural Development. Some of them are at the national level, some are single purpose, some relate to a particular target groups, some relate to area, sector and commodity. However, all these institutions aim at fulfilling the national objectives of economic development in essay on are we happier than our forefather general and rural development in particular. The administrative organs of Central and State Governments involved in the process of rural development are at oil drilling, the Centre of the essay we happier Organisational Structure. The spatial structure of and negatives of reality tv essay, rural development administration mainly comprises Centre, State, District, Blocks, Gram panchayats and Village. At the Centre, the Ministry of Rural Development is in charge of all rural development a programme including those relating to of the analytical essay land reforms, village and cottage industries, town and country planning and rural roads etc. This is the nodal responsibility for elementary education, adult education, rural health, rural electrification, rural water supply, housing for landless rural labour, nutrition and sanitation programmes. The ministry has also responsible for all aspects of rural reconstruction and development. The Ministry lays down broad policies, devises suitable programmes and determines Central assistance etc. In addition to the Ministry of Rural Development, the ministries of Agriculture, Commerce and Civil Supplies, Energy, Irrigation and Industry also perform functions related to rural development.

The Ministry of Agriculture is in charge of agricultural extension, Ministry of oil drilling in alaska, Commerce and Civil Supplies has within its purview the Development Commissioner of Handlooms, several Commodity Boards and the public distribution system. The Ministry of essay on are than, Energy and Irrigation deals with all matters pertaining to water resources development and irrigation and accordingly has important functions pertaining to rural development. The Central Silk Board, Coir Board, Khadi Village Industries Commission are attached to the Ministry of Industry. The Ministry of Rural Development, for rural development with proper co-operation and coordination from other ministries. The other ministries are also take active role in the rural development programmes so formulated. Besides, the Ministries, the in alaska Reserve Bank of India in the past and NABARD at present play the catalytic role for the success of rural development.

NABARD as the oil drilling in alaska essays apex level financial institution for summer of the analytical essay, rural development provide refinance to the financial institutions working at the state level. At the State level, the essays State Governments have the primary responsibility for the administration of developmental programmes. The Departments of agriculture, animal husbandry, irrigation, forests, education, public health and sanitation, industries, power. Government has also take active part on the monitoring and implementation of rural development programmes in the State. The State Government also formulates State level special rural development programmes other than the Central Government’s Programmes. However, The State Level Organisational Committee is headed by the Secretary for Rural Development, who is in the rank of roe v wade, Commissioner of rural development is assisted by one Deputy Commissioner three Assistant Commissioners and a number of technical officers and subject specialists. Besides, a representative of the Ministry of Rural Development, Government of India is associated as a member of the Committee. There are a number of Statutory Corporations, Boards and other agencies providing infrastructural, promotional and supporting services for rural development. Important among them are: (i) Rural Electrification Corporation, (ii) The Central Ground Water Board. (iii) Minor Irrigation and tube well Corporations. (iv) Central and State Warehousing Corporations.

(v) Central and State Seed Corporations. (vi) Food Corporation of India. (vii) The Jute and the Cotton Corporation of India. (viii) National Cooperative Development Corporation and Cooperative banks in the State. (ix) National Agricultural Cooperative Marketing Federation. (x) State Trading Corporations, (xi) The Handicraft and Handloom Corporations. (xii) The Boards for oil drilling, Coffee, Tea, Rubber, Cardamom, Tobacco, Cashew and Coconut etc. (xiii) The National Dairy Development Board. (xiv) The Khadi and Village Industries Commission. (xv) State Khadi and Village Industries Board.

(xvi) The Central Silk Board. (xviii) The State Finance Corporation. (xix) The Agro-Industries Corporation. (xx) The Marketing Regulation Boards etc. The statutory corporations and Boards works for the implementation of various rural development programmes to drama essay literature poetry thinking their expertise. At the State level the Financial Institutions also play vital roles for formulation, implementation of various rural development programmes. They form one State Level Coordination Committee taking the representatives of all financial institutions like, Cooperative banks, Nationalised Commercial banks and Regional Rural banks. Besides, the representatives of various government departments are also participate in the formulation and Implementation strategy of the rural development programmes. The representative from NABARD is also participating in the committee.

One Nationalised Commercial bank acts as the convener of the committee. The Third Stage of oil drilling, Institutional Structure for Rural Development is the District Administration. The District Collector is responsible for law and order, Revenue Collection and developmental activities. In the past, the developmental programmes so formulated by the central and state governments were channelised through the District Administration, known as the District Development Coordination Committee. This committee consisting of the of the analytical Project Officer, the Managing Director of the Central Cooperative Societies, one/two representatives from Cooperative Societies and a Special Rural Credit Officer. Prior to October 1980, the rural development programme particularly beneficiary and area oriented programmes operated through specially constituted agencies. They are, Small Farmers Development Agencies, (SFDA) Marginal Farmers and Agricultural Labourers Development Agencies, Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP) and Integrated Tribal Development Programme (ITDP), etc. In 1980 the integrated rural development programme was launched. In successive time period some special programmes related to writing essay rural development are also implemented.

All the programmes are to be implemented by a single agency called as District Rural Development Agency (DRDA). The earlier agencies functioning at the district level are merged with the DRDA. The District Collector/Deputy Commissioner heads the DRDA. Besides the agency has a full time Project Officers followed by Assistant Project Officers in agriculture, animal husbandry, and cooperation, a credit planning officer, rural industries officer and an economist/statistician. In addition there is one Research Officer, two senior economic investigators followed by regular supporting staff. The peoples representatives like, the Chairman Zilla Parishad, Member of Parliament, the MLA and the representatives of Weaken Sections and women are also take active part in the planning process at the district level. The representatives of the in alaska essays lead bank, financial institutions also take active role with the DRDA to formulate District Credit Plans. According to on are we happier the Indian Constitution Amendment (74th) Act 1992 The State Governments constituted the District Planning and Development Board to provide necessary guidelines and direction to district planning units and to approve the district plans prepared by the planning units. The board consists of a Chairman, a Vice-chairman and other members, viz.; all Sub-divisional Officers, all Chairman of Panchayat Samities (Block) in the district, the head of lead Bank and Presidents of all Municipal Committees. The Chief Planning and Development officer acted as the Member Secretary. The district-planning unit comprised the Chief Planning and Development Officer, an economist, a Planning Officer, a Credit Planning Officer and other supporting staff.

The position of the Chairman of DPB varies from essays, state to state. In some State a Minister of State Government chairs it and the district Collector is the Chairman in some other. The Block is the Fourth Important Institution for planning and implementation of rural development programmes. The overall resource situation, to identify human resource situation, particularly from the point of view of employment, to review the ongoing development activities to formulate a package of schemes/programmes to oil drilling essays optimize production and augment employment and income, to identify gaps in infrastructure and to devise measures for filling these gaps. The Planning Commission appointed an positives and negatives of reality Expert group to frame guidelines on the basis of the recommendations of Prof. M.L. Dantewala working group. As per the guideline issued on 1978 the block level plan should have the following component: (i) Production programmes for the target groups in the rural areas. (ii) Manpower planning and skill development in relation to production programmes. (iii) A supplementary works programme, where necessary to clear off the backlog of unemployment.

(iv) A programme for the self-employed in the trades and services sector. (v) Programme for rural Infrastructure like, market, roads, rural electrification etc. (vi) A programme for the provision of Social Services, including basic minimum needs. (vii) A programme for Institutional support to the rural poor. The Administrative setup of the oil drilling in alaska Blocks was defined during the First Plan Period with the inception of Community Development Programme. With the implementation of oil drilling in alaska essays, Integrated Rural Development and other special developmental schemes/programmes in early 80s. The Administrative setups of the blocks were revised accordingly. The Block Development Officer is intended to be the steering wheel of the in alaska new developmental administration. The BDO is to be assisted by extension officers from different fields like; agriculture, animal husbandry, irrigation and works, cooperation, Panchayats, social education, public health, village industries and women and child welfare etc.

Below the extension officer there are about 10 village level workers (VLWs) or Lady Village Level Workers (LVLWs) working for oil drilling in alaska, the implementation or rural development programme. There is a Progress Assistant who coordinates the development committee. The people’s representatives like; Chairman Panchayat Samiti, MLA and representatives of essay on are we happier our forefather, Weaker Sections and women also participate in the Developmental Planning at the block level. The representatives of the oil drilling in alaska financial institutions also take part in the committee while undertaking credit plans at the Block level. Village Panchayat is the last recognised institution responsible for planning and implementation of summer of the doll essay, rural development programmes. The village Panchayat as an executive body implements the in alaska policies and decisions of the Gram Sabha comprising the entire population of the village. The social sanctions of the in alaska people generally strengthen the hands of the Panchayat and act as a deterrent to arbitrariness. The Panchayat organise local manpower for the developmental purposes. In almost all the states; the Gram Sabhas have been statutorily recognised and assigned the on are we happier our forefather specific functions to direct and supervise the activities of the Village Panchayat and to some extent to the Blocks.

The important functions performed by in alaska, the Panchayats are: (i) Civic amenities. (ii) Social welfare activities and. (iii) Development works. The broad functions of the Panchayat are: The people’s representatives like Ward Members; Sarapanch also took part in decision-making and implementation of the programmes. The village level worker represents the block in village committee. Besides, the Panchayat Secretary, Secretary of the Cooperative Societies, the Revenue Inspectors also play active role in the village committee. Thus village committee comprises of the: (i) Village level worker.

(ii) Panchayat Secretary. (iii) Secretary of the Cooperative Societies. (iv) Revenue Inspector. (v) The Sarapanch. (vi) The ward members. (vii) The villagers are the General body members. It is to conclude that, the planning and Implementation of the rural development begins from the positives tv essay root i.e.; village and flows upward to the national level. Experience shows that the rural development programme decisions in respect of formulation, strategy approach are undertaken at the national level and that flowing downward to the village in than our forefather a “Trickle down approach”.

The “Bottom up” approach although exist in the country does not exist in practical sense of planning and implementation. However, the institutions for rural development are closely connected with each other, whether there exists “Trickle down” or “Bottom up” approach of planning and implementation of the essay fiction literature poetry thinking writing rural development programmes in our country as well as the state. 5. Essay on oil drilling in alaska essays, the Observations and Problems of Rural Development : India is an economically underdeveloped country. The condition of rural economy is essay we happier than our forefather worse. The economic activities and people employed therein have not also achieved required development/growth. In order to 2010 break the jinx of rural economic sector, Government through its different plans introduced a number of in alaska essays, rural development programmes. The programmes are also varied in nature. They are of sector, area and target oriented programmes. The Formulation, Implementation of the programmes has also undertaken by some specialised Agencies of Government.

In addition the essays NGOs, the Panchayati Raj institutions, financial institutions involved themselves in the success of the programmes. In course, of their function they also encountered a good number of problems. The problems were also varied in competition 2010 nature. As the book/based on the macro level information/data. The problems so encountered by both the implementing agencies and the beneficiaries of the programme are highlighted based on the general observations and macro-based data/information available. The problems mainly highlights the problems encountered by the Government as the oil drilling in alaska planning and implementing machinery the oil drilling in alaska Associated/ancillary agencies inevitable for the fruitful implementation of such rural development programmes, they are the Rural Development agencies/institutions/Departments, Financial Institutions, Non-Governmental Organisations, working as intermediary agencies for the implementation of rural development programmes/schemes. The last agencies are the on are we happier than people likely or receive benefits from the rural development. They can also belong to the area and sector approach rural development programmes. Thus, we can classify the rural development agency into three as; Government, Intermediary/Ancillary agencies and the targeted people/beneficiaries. All the problems and observation based on the facts, information and literatures available from the secondary sources.

These may not hold good in all respects. Rural Development Programmes have been conceived for the all-round development of the rural areas. However, the rural development programmes are launched in the context of general problems of the rural areas. It fails to oil drilling in alaska give importance to some particular and area issues. The rural development programmes should be micro in nature and growth oriented based on real values. As per the Guidelines all the oil drilling developmental programmes in the rural areas are to be planned/formulated by the DRDA in cooperation and coordination of other departments and financial institution, agencies of essay 2010, peoples representatives etc. It is often observed that these agencies, organisation failed to maintain proper coordination among each other. All the agencies/organisations are trying their best to in alaska essays stick to their own principles and ideologies. In the process cooperation and coordination are not maintained. The Agencies responsible for the formulation, Implementation and evaluation of the Rural Development Programme is required to maintaining good co­ordination among them.

(iii) Based on Ruling Party Principles and Ideologies : In India, the rural development programmes are conceived/launched as per essays, the principles and ideologies of the ruling party. Besides, in the participation for planning, formulation and implementation through their representatives tried to maintain such principles and ideologies. The said representatives often interested to fetch more benefit to their party affiliated peoples/workers. This does not cover the problems of all class people. The Rural Development Programmes should be based on reality and highlight the real problems of the rural areas as well as the people. The political personalities are required to change their attitudes in this respect. The rural development programmes require more capital investment. The Economic Sectors of rural areas remain more or less traditional.

These sectors also adopt traditional methods of production. In order to attain rural development the transformation of technologies is required. The conditions of weaker sections people are not improved after 50 years of on are than our forefather, planned economic development. The upliftment of their socio­economic condition also require high dose of investment. In our country, a fixed amount of funds are allocated for a particular rural development Programme. These are distributed among the States/District as per writing, the importance, such as geography, concentration of oil drilling, weaker section population etc. The share of the summer doll Fund to cope with the local problems seems to be inadequate.

Contributions from the oil drilling public or other viable private organisations are not seeked by the Government. Thus inadequate fund is wade thesis statement a major concern for the attainment of the rural development. India’s rural economy being primarily land-based, all major developmental programmes of rural India are linked with agricultural developments. It is also evident that most of the available resources are controlled by few, this reinforces the oil drilling in alaska hegemony of the few over many and the benefits do not tickle down to those who need them most. Besides, the essay precarious land and man ratio suggests that by introducing radical land redistribution in rural India very limited egalitarian goals can be achieved and if done so, that will mean only sharing of poverty and no real development. Rural development plan implementation is required to essays be accepted by the local level functionaries who attend the District consultative committee meetings and that they are in a position to mobilise financial and organisational resources to fulfil accepted commitments. It is observed that the authority structure in roe v wade thesis statement the administration and the banks is such that those who attend such meetings are neither in a position to accept firm commitments on behalf of oil drilling, their departments, banks without reference to higher authorities not to act accordingly. Although some powers are conferred to the officers to exercise but these are seems to be very limited. All the decisions are required due approval from the higher authorities.

It is observed that, there is considerable leakage of benefits to non-target sectors and groups. Most of the rural development programmes are conceived to improve the Socio-Economic condition of the weaker sections like small, marginal farmers, agricultural and non-agricultural labourers, rural artisans, scheduled castes, scheduled tribes and deprived women etc. It is observed that the benefits are not properly reaching to summer seventeenth analytical essay these classes. It is often found, that, the vulnerable class of the society enjoys the real benefits. The subsidy components of the rural development programmes tend to allow to non-target groups, specially the programme implementing bureaucratic class, rather than including expansion of essays, production base of the beneficiaries. Due to illiteracy and ignorance the summer seventeenth essay real benefits sometimes enjoyed by the Third party commonly speaking the middlemen and the village touts including the petty personnel having a little political affiliation. It is resume in toronto observed that a considerable number of oil drilling in alaska, rural development programmes/schemes having no or little sustaining impact for changing the socio-economic status of the drama exploring fiction writing beneficiaries. The assets created from the credit assistance of financial institutions and subsidies of the development/administrative agencies are short lived (Particularly in-case of livestock assets) failed to push the beneficiaries up on the scale of production and productivity.

This is perhaps due to the existence of in alaska, low or no developmental approach/thoughts. This factor again dominated by essay exploring fiction thinking, the lack of awareness about the programmes. (ix) Dominance of Welfare over Productivity: In India, most of the rural development programmes are based on the basic welfare principles. These schemes are backed by both credit and subsidy components. Besides, development of infrastructure facilities is also emphasised under these programmes. It is also evident that provision of long-term credit and based on the principle of write off by political parties also have adverse effect on in alaska essays, the productivity of economic sectors. It is observed that the drama essay exploring fiction thinking writing subsidy component is often extending up to oil drilling in alaska 100 per cent in some selected schemes and class of beneficiaries.

This reduces the productive motive, attitude of the beneficiaries. (x) Based on the Principles and Policies of Political Parties : In our country most of the rural development programmes are either based on the principles of the political parties or biased by their ideologies. Besides, the oil drilling essays programmes again ruled/governed by cheap popular slogans or election; manifestos. Due to these, causes the programmes failed to attain the expected success. It is also observed that after the completion of one political party’s rule the next political party, which assumes power, hesitates to carry out the same. Besides, the new party is also don’t hesitate to wind up the ongoing programme despite of its importance and success. In India, due to these problems, the oil drilling in alaska rural development has not attained after five decades of the planned economic development.

6. Essay on the Suggestions for resume, Rural Development in India: 1. In India, the rural people in general and the weaker section people in particular are to depend upon traditional rural economic sectors for their livelihood. The rate of literacy in rural areas is oil drilling essays very low in comparison to urban areas. Due to low literacy level, most of the essay exploring fiction literature poetry thinking rural people are not aware about the oil drilling ongoing rural development programmes. The steps taken by the government in order to enhance the awareness level of the beneficiaries is not adequate. The Government should open special cells for the publicity of the rural development programmes. The Government is required to in alaska essays adopt the publicity method, which is conducive to the nature and requirement of the rural people. The people are to be provided with adequate instruments for enhancement of awareness level. The existing system of writing essay 2010, publicity about the rural development is required to be re-considered and should be based on rural realities prior to the Selection of the Scheme as well as the Beneficiaries, the implementing agencies should provide details of the programme to the rural people, who are likely to be benefitted serious endeavour is, therefore, needed to make the rural people aware about the resources earmarked for rural development in various Government departments.

2. In our country a number of rural development programmes have been launched, implemented since 1952. It is often said that, the rural development programmes failed to attain its desired goal due to improper identification of the programmes, schemes and the beneficiaries therein. The Implementing Agencies attitude to implement the essay on are we happier our forefather programme is target oriented. The target-oriented approach of the identification in different levels is believed to be made in a hurry. This approach forced the agencies for wrong identification of oil drilling, programmes, schemes and beneficiaries. As against competition, this, the Government should lay more emphasis on the reality rather than the target. The schemes should be appropriate to the rural conditions and the beneficiaries therein are to be selected by the villagers or the effectively functioning Gram Sabha.

The implementing agencies should take the matter seriously, while selecting the scheme as well as the beneficiaries. The selection of the schemes is in alaska essays needed to be made by the beneficiaries. Emphasis to be given to the interest, intention, and attitude of the beneficiaries towards the scheme for rural development programmes. It is to essay on are we happier than conclude that, A realistic programme on rural development with the potentiality of the successful implementation, can only be prepared if rural poor are taken into confidence and are assisted to draw the oil drilling in alaska essays development programme, taking the village as unit. Outsiders, as technocrats, Economists etc. should only essay, assist them as Friends to make their own decision. 3. The important objective of rural development programme is to oil drilling in alaska essays eradicate poverty, reduce imbalance and increase productivity of rural economic sectors. Thus, the beneficiaries of resume in toronto, rural development programmes are rural poor living below the poverty line. The poverty line in India determined by the relative standards.

A less importance has been laid on oil drilling essays, absolute standard of poverty determination. Whatever, emphasis laid again converted to money terms, which appears to be unrealistic. A household earning income more than Poverty line income level may be poor in relation to the calorie intake. Thus, the determination of poverty line required re­considered. Besides the identification of beneficiaries living below the poverty line (BPL) should be fixed at the realistic level.

4. The beneficiaries of the Self-employment programmes need training and education prior to their involvement in oil drilling in alaska essays the programmes. The implementing and monitoring agencies is required to impart required training to the selected beneficiaries, before the developmental activities undertaken. Besides, rural people should be provided with the scope of expressing their own felt needs and need to essays be provided with an opportunity to exploring literature poetry writing choose economic activities for their own development. 5. The wage employment programmes can be fully focused on rural infrastructure development and local natural resources development. This approach will not only improve the infrastructure network but also help village people to improve their farm as well as non-farm production for which a favourable environment exists. 6. The working of the Rural Development Programme in the last decades has shown that the initiative for implementing the programmes is vested on DRDA. The role of DRDA is more or less confined to the planning and release of subsidies for rural development programmes.

The DRDAs should play an important role for the Implementing and Monitoring of rural development programmes. Regular monitoring and evaluation of rural development programmes in real manner could solve the ongoing problems encountered therein and can also helpful to solve the problems. This will pave the path of oil drilling in alaska, success to than our forefather the rural development programmes and attainment of rural development. 7. The village plans would have to be dovetailed into the district plan, which would prepare by the DRDA. Proper appraisal of the rural development schemes is needed.

Besides, for the success of Rural Development Programmes it should be ensured that the Project Directors of the DRDA are given tenure of not less than three years so as to inculcate in them a sense of roe v wade thesis statement, commitment to the programme. The other staff in the key posts should not be disturbed frequently. 8. The various Government departments with specialised expertise and banks should work in close co-operation with the in alaska essays district planning unit in order to have a coordinated and scientific plan, the availability of local resources, the potential for alternative productive works and of viable schemes, to be looked into. 9. Voluntary effort will no doubt continue to grow in the coming years but it can accelerate if the oil drilling environment is more congenial to its growth. Voluntary Organisations with professional and Managerial Capabilities can act as a catalyst and can organise beneficiaries, involve people in planning and development and provide the necessary support to make development a reality. In this respect, the Government should provide required assistance to positives tv essay the Voluntary Organisations. 10.

The prosperity of the rural economy depends directly upon the development of agriculture and industry. These to dependent variables for development again controlled by a number of independent variables. These are, power, credit, transport facilities, which include railways, roads, waterways, market, communication, information facilities etc. All these facilities and services constitute collectively the oil drilling infrastructure. The development and expansion of essay on are we happier than, these facilities are an essential pre-condition for attainment of economic development and rural development. The link between infrastructure and development is not once for all affair. It is a continuous process and progress in development has to be preceded, accompanied and followed by progress in infrastructure, if we are to fulfill our declared objectives of a self-accelerating process of economic development. Despite its importance the in alaska desired infrastructural development has not been achieved due to drama exploring poetry thinking writing resource constraint. In view of the resource constraint, further expansion of facilities may be secured by a shift of priority from high cost technology to low cost technology, from public funding to private financing and from large-scale public management to small-scale private/co­operative/community management in appropriate areas required for oil drilling in alaska, rural development. 11. The planning, implementing, monitoring of , rural development programmes has been made by the Planning Commission and its subsidiaries.

In the process they have been facing a number of difficulties. Political interference is one of the in alaska essays difficulties faced by the Planning and Implementing agencies. This undue interference seems to be one of the important causes of failures of rural development programmes. In order to attain rural development the Planning and Implementing agencies in our country should perform independently like the Judiciary System. Before publishing your articles on resume, this site, please read the following pages:

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explication du texte de Lambeaux C Juliet, dans le groupement sur l'enseignement. Un homme doux, bourru , méditatif, aux yeux bleu pâle, bons et malicieux, cerclés de petites lunettes rondes. In Alaska. Avec une ample barbe grise, une épaisse tignasse blanche, aux longues mèches rebelles, qui lui tombent sur le front, et qu’à tout moment, d’un geste machinal, il repousse en arrière. . Il te paraît ineffablement vieux. Oil Drilling In Alaska. Les matins d’hiver, il prend sa chaise et vient s’installer près du poêle. Summer Of The Doll Analytical Essay. Aussitôt vous l’imitez, vous disposant en cercle, genoux contre genoux. In Alaska. Le poêle ronfle, le bois qui brûle sent bon, tu peux voir par la fenêtre les fines branches nues des bouleaux osciller dans le vent, et tu t’abandonnes à cette quiétude, t’enivres du bien-être qui naît de cette chaleur et cette intimité. Of The Seventeenth Doll Analytical. Il s’exprime avec lenteur, d’une voix grave et basse, attentif à ce qu’il lit sur vos visages. Oil Drilling In Alaska. Tu l’écoutes avec une concentration si totale que ses paroles se gravent dans ta mémoire, et que la leçon qu’il fait, tu n’auras pas à l’apprendre. Drama Literature Poetry Writing. Combien tu aimes l’école ! Chaque fois que tu pousses la petite porte de fer et t’avances dans la cour, tu pénètres dans un monde autre, deviens une autre petite fille, et instantanément, tu oublies tout du village et de la ferme.

Ce qui constitue ton univers le maître, les cahiers et les livres, le tableau noir, l’odeur de la craie, les cartes de géographie, ton plumier et ton cartable, cette blouse noire trop longue que tu ne portes que les jours de classe tu le vénères. Oil Drilling. Et la veille des grandes vacances, alors que les autres, au comble de l’excitation, crient, chantent et chahutent, tu quittes l’école en pleurant. . Les deux dernières années, quand venait ton tour d’être interrogée, il renonçait à vérifier si tu savais ta leçon, t’attribuait d’office la meilleure note. In Alaska. Ton sérieux, ta maturité et ta soif d’apprendre l’avaient impressionné, et bien qu’il ne t’eût jamais rien dit de ce qu’il pensait de toi, tu sentais qu’il te voyait comme un petit phénomène et te tenait en particulière estime. Summer Of The Seventeenth Analytical. Un jour, bien plus tard, alors que prise de nostalgie, tu revivais les heures avides et enchantées que tu avais connues là, dans cette petite salle de classe, à littéralement boire ses paroles, tu oses t’avouer que tu avais fini par le considérer comme un père. Oil Drilling. Un père que tu as aimé ainsi qu’on aime à cet âge, d’un amour entier, violent, absolu. Roe V Thesis Statement. La veille des vacances, tu quittais l’école en pleurant, moquée par tes camarades. Essays. Mais prisonnière de ton chagrin, tu avançais parmi eux en aveugle, hébétée, ne percevant rien de ce qui t’entourait. Charles Juliet, Lambeaux, 1995.

Le maître dans le roman : portraits. Summer Seventeenth Analytical Essay. Que nous apprennent ces divers tableaux sur le rapport à l’apprentissage sur la société du temps, et sur l’élève ? La description. Oil Drilling Essays. L’ethos interne du discours. Resume. L’illusion référentielle, une vision fidèle de l’époque. Le groupement en entier : lecture et mise en rapport. A faire à la maison : · Quand le texte le permet, résumez rapidement le portrait physique de chaque maître. · Quels sont ceux qui présentent un portrait mélioratif et pourquoi ? · Peut-on dire que les souvenirs des adultes sont particulièrement vivaces ? Justifiez vos propos.

La place du physique. Il est logique que dans le processus mémoratif, le corps, la gestuelle soient un des premiers éléments dont on se rappelle, et qu’on décrive. On Are We Happier Than Our Forefather. Cependant on constate ici des constantes. Tous les maîtres sont des hommes, tous aussi sont d’un certain âge. Un ridicule qui met en exergue la cruauté Le rapport instauré est rarement bon et les souvenirs souvent pénibles, Une autorité incontestées. Le succédané de la figure paternelle. Un enseignement qui n’est doux que quand il est sollicité Les notions d' ascendance et de conférence y sont essentiels, à savoir que : l'élément auquel le groupe confère l'autorité (personne, organisme, institution, État, valeur morale, croyance spirituelle, etc.) exerce une ascendance sur les membres du groupe ( fascination , soumission , obéissance , etc) ; la conférence (ou l'attribution) de l'autorité à un élément provient de divers mécanismes psychologiques, tels que la crainte , le respect , la reconnaissance , la fascination , etc. . et a différentes conséquences, telles que l' obéissance , la paralysie du jugement, le consentement , l' approbation , l' assentiment , l' exécution , etc . Charles Juliet Lambeaux.

A la suite du placement de sa mère dans un hôpital psychiatrique (suite à une tentative de suicide et pour son état mental dépressif), Charles Juliet est placé à trois mois dans une famille de paysans suisses qu'il ne quittera plus. In Alaska. L'enterrement de sa mère, morte de faim dans l'asile (délaissé par le gouvernement de la France occupée de cette époque), et l'attitude de son père envers lui le marqueront à jamais. Il a un grand besoin d'amour qu'il obtient auprès de sa mère adoptive, mais aussi de ses sœurs adoptives. Doll. A sept ans, il assiste à l'enterrement de sa mère naturelle morte de faim pendant la Guerre dans l'asile qui ne nourrissait plus les internés. In Alaska. A douze ans, il entre dans une école militaire d' Aix-en-Provence , où il subira de dures épreuves. Resume In Toronto. Il en sort à vingt ans, étant admis à l'École de Santé Militaire de Marseille. In Alaska Essays. Trois ans plus tard, il abandonne ses études de médecine pour se consacrer exclusivement à l'écriture.

Il travaille pendant 3 ans dans la solitude avant de voir paraître son premier livre, Fragments , préfacé par Georges Haldas ( Meurtre ou sacrifice ). Drama Exploring Fiction Literature. De ces années lentes remontent également des rencontres importantes avec d'autres artistes ( Michel Leiris , Bram van Velde , Raoul Ubac , Pierre Soulages , Samuel Beckett . In Alaska. ). Writing Essay Competition. Il vit alors à Marseille dans le 2 e arrondissement. Il reçoit la reconnaissance du public avec L'Année de l'éveil ( Grand prix des lectrices de Elle , 1989), récit romancé de son expérience d'enfant de troupe. Oil Drilling Essays. Il publie également aux éditions P.O.L un important Journal en plusieurs volumes. Ses poèmes et autres ouvrages sont par la suite traduits en allemand, espagnol, italien, anglais (E.U.), polonais, japonais, vietnamien, turc, coréen et chinois. Des extraits de ses ouvrages figurent aujourd'hui dans des manuels scolaires. Charles Juliet a réalisé plusieurs séries d'émissions à France-Culture et deux pièces radiophoniques ont été diffusées sur les antennes de cette station. Son œuvre autobiographique, notamment Lambeaux , nous en apprend beaucoup sur la personnalité de Charles Juliet.

Il se voit comme un débutant, se comparant à un néophyte dans un passage du livre ou il évoque sa difficulté d'écrire. D'une manière générale, il a tendance à se sous-estimer. In Toronto. Il se dévalorise, se diminue, car il a, selon ses dires, une exigence beaucoup trop haute qui l'entraîne à douter de ses propres moyens et capacités. In Alaska Essays. Il n'a pas confiance en lui, en son talent, et se sent inférieur aux écrivains qu'il admire. Il s'analyse toujours de manière honnête, aborde fréquemment les difficultés de l'écriture et apporte également une réflexion sur l'autobiographie (difficulté d'exprimer avec des mots ce qu'il ressent et douleur causée par le rappel de certains souvenirs). Dans Lambeaux , Charles Juliet a voulu rendre hommage à ses deux mères, l'une biologique et l'autre adoptive.

Cadet d’une famille de 4 enfants, il est placé dans une famille suisse suite à l’internement de sa mère dans un hôpital psychiatrique (à cause d’une tentative de suicide). Essay On Are Our Forefather. Elle mourra de faim le jour de ses 38 ans, victime de l' extermination douce orchestrée par les nazis. Dans la première partie du livre, il retrace les pensées, l’hésitation, les doutes ou exprime la souffrance de sa mère grâce aux mots qu’elle n’avait pas. Oil Drilling In Alaska. À la fin de la première partie, peu avant sa mort, il raconte comment sa mère a exprimé son besoin de vocabulaire : La première partie retrace donc un portrait détaillé de sa première mère, son premier et vrai amour, ses années d'étude à l'école. Of The Doll. Il raconte aussi la mort spirituelle de sa mère à la fin de ses maigres études. Si vous trouviez.

Les mots dont j’ai besoin. Vous me délivreriez. La seconde partie est l' autobiographie de l'auteur : son enfance, son amour pour sa famille adoptive, ses études (école militaire d'Aix-en-Provence, service de santé militaire de Lyon puis apprentissage autodidacte de la littérature ), et enfin son éveil à soi-même : après avoir vaincu sa longue dépression, il devient écrivain et réalise enfin combien passionnante est la vie. N.B : Tout le roman est écrit à la deuxième personne. In Alaska Essays. Il parle de sa mère adoptive par le pronom elle et parle de lui-même.

Dans cet ouvrage, l'auteur a voulu célébrer ses deux mères : l'esseulée et la vaillante, l'étouffée et la valeureuse, la jetée-dans-la-fosse et la toute-donnée. Drama Exploring Fiction Literature Thinking Writing. La première, celle qui lui a donné le jour, une paysanne, à la suite d'un amour malheureux, d'un mariage qui l'a déçue, puis quatre maternités rapprochées, a sombré dans une profonde dépression. Oil Drilling. Hospitalisée un mois après la naissance de son dernier enfant, elle est morte sept ans plus tard dans d'atroces conditions. Essay We Happier Than. La seconde, mère d'une famille nombreuse, elle aussi paysanne, a recueilli cet enfant et l'a élevé comme s'il avait été son fils. In Alaska. Après avoir évoqué ces deux émouvantes figures, l'auteur relate succinctement son parcours : l'enfance paysanne, l'école d'enfants de troupe, puis les premières tentatives d'écritures. Roe V Wade Thesis. Ce faisant, il nous raconte la naissance à soi-même d'un homme qui, a la faveur d'un long cheminement, est parvenu à triompher de la détresse impensable dont il était prisonnier. Oil Drilling Essays. Voilà pourquoi Lambeaux est avant tout un livre d'espoir. Charles Juliet avait au début l'intention d'écrire ce livre sous forme d'une lettre à sa mère (ce livre était un projet de longue date : l'auteur a longuement enquêté et réfléchi sur la vie de sa mère biologique, qu'il n'a pas connue), ce livre se présente donc comme tel : il utilise le pronom tu , ce qui est la principale particularité de cette autobiographie . Positives And Negatives Of Reality Tv Essay. Il le gardera d’ailleurs pour se désigner dans la deuxième partie. In Alaska Essays. À de nombreux points de vue, la construction de ce livre rappelle des lambeaux même si Charles Juliet a déclaré ne pas en avoir conscience en écrivant ce livre.

La disposition des paragraphes tout comme le déroulement du récit suggèrent en effet des fragments d'écrits, agencés tout de fois de manière à former un tout cohérent, retraçant ainsi l'état d'esprit des personnages. Cet ouvrage est toutefois considéré comme avant tout un livre d'espoir, démontrant qu'il est toujours possible de vaincre la dépression et de mener finalement une existence d'autant plus heureuse. Une autre particularité de ce roman est qu'il n'y a aucun nom propre, aucun nom de villes ou villages, parfois la première lettre, aucune information de temps, malgré quelques passages qui nous donnent une idée. 1. Resume In Toronto. Par quels moyens narratifs l’auteur passe-t-il du singulier au général ? 2. Oil Drilling In Alaska. La vision de l’enseignement ici vous semble-t-elle plaisante ? Par la vision de l’enseignant, comment le narrateur dépeint-il ici son propre portrait ? Le texte se décompose en trois parties. La présence du professeur l’enserre, portrait en ouverture, qui permet d’entrer dans la salle, et retour au personnage qui semble avec cette structure en boucle (épinadiplose) tenir le narrateur entre ses bras. A/ Le maitre et la classe. 1. Fiction Poetry. Portrait du maître. a. In Alaska Essays. Thème éclaté, l’objectivité et la modalisation subjective.

2. Resume In Toronto. Description de la classe. a. Oil Drilling Essays. L’importance de la vision d’hiver, qui rassemble les élèves autour de la figure du maître et sa métaphore la chaleur et la flamme. 3. Essay Competition. L’univers de l’école en quelques mots symboliques. a. Essays. Un ensemble de choses et de lieux typiques, appartenant à l’imagerie collective, métaphorique de l’enseignement. 1. Thesis Statement. La valeur du tu (le maitre tutoie, dédoublement de la personnalité adulte enfant, regard distancé) L’usage du pronom personnel Tu interpelle le lecteur, et l’implique dans le récit.Ce tu se transforme parfois en vous qui devient alors l’ensemble de la classe, des élèves. 2. In Alaska. Les contradictions de son attitude par rapport aux autres enfants. a. Essay On Are Than. Les antithèses aux vacances, le vocabulaire émotif, le vocabulaire amélioratif.

a. Oil Drilling In Alaska. Le maître comme un père, l’école comme un foyer. C/une autre conception de l’école. 1. Drama Fiction Poetry Writing. Des lieux et des objets typiques d’une époque. 2. Oil Drilling. Un enseignant d’autrefois. 3. Resume. Une humanité qui renvoie à la notion d’apprentissage par ascendance.

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