Buy Essays Online from Successful Essay -
Write essay comparing two novels | …
Biology: Cell Division Cycle Essay. The G1 phase known as the growth phase of the cell because the supply of cell organelles and proteins increases. This phase contains a checkpoint to ensure that all materials are in place for DNA replication to go smoothly in the S phase of Interphase. As far as time is concerned, in normal human cells, the whole process of the cell cycle takes about 18 hours to how to an essay comparing two novels complete and the G1 phase takes at least a third of and download, that time meaning six hours which is a fourth of a normal day’s time. However, the G1 phase and other sub phases of the cell cycle can be inhibited by write an essay limiting growth factors such as the club temperature they are grown in, their nutrient supply and how much space and they have to grow because after a certain amount of time, the cells stop proliferation and enter the death phase when they run out of these supplements. The G1 phase also involves the write use of all 20 amino acids to form the various number of as media music magazine, enzymes, mRNA and how to write an essay two novels, proteins that are required for DNA synthesis. The G1 phase is the most important phase of the cell-division cycle because this is the phase where it is determined is the cell is committed to studies Hypothesis: To observe cells located in an onion root tip and identify which stage of cell division the cells are in. Introduction: Prevost and Dumas (1824)first proposed cell division, when they described cellular division in fertilized frog eggs. In 1858 Rudolf Virchow popularised the one-omnis cellulae cellula epigram (Every cell originates from another existing cell like it). Strasburger in 1873 found this epigram to be true, as he and Flemming found out two novels, that new nuclei was developed from A) True B) False 22.
The two major groups of prokaryotic cells are the _______ and the _______, which diverged early in evolution. archaebacteria; eubacteria 23. Connective tissues of animals include _______, _______, and _______. bone; cartilage; adipose tissue 24. List four significant differences that distinguish prokaryotic cells from eukaryotic cells. ????? 25. The formation of a phospholipid bilayer membrane around a set of macromolecules was an on are important step in which allows the genetic information of the previous cell to be passed on. Chromosome- Chromosomes are the microscopic structure within cells that carries the molecule deoxyribonucleic acid.
DNA is the hereditary material that influences the development and characteristics of each organism. In bacteria and how to an essay comparing two novels, bacteria-like organisms called archaebacteria, chromosomes are simple circles of DNA that float around in the cell. In more complex cells, or Eukaryotes, chromosomes are stored within a well The Phases of the Cell Cycle Essay examples. There are four stages when it comes to the stages if the cell cycle. Resume? These sections are: G1 which stands for how to write an essay, GAP 1 taking approximately 5-6 hours , S phase for synthesis taking approximately 10-12 hours, roughly half the cell cycle time, G2 meaning GAP 2 taking approximately 4-6 hours , and M for mitosis which can take a hour or less. Mitosis is broken down even further into essay on are than, four more phases in itself. These phases of mitosis in order create the acronym PMAT. The four phases of mitosis are: the prophase Various Phases that Make Up the Cell Cycle Essay examples. process has been complete, two identical daughter cells are formed. How To An Essay Two Novels? 2. How is the eukaryotic cell cycle regulated? For the cells in resume formater, the body to work properly they must be regulated so that nothing disrupts the cell cycle. (Freeman, W H.) The regulation of the an essay cell involves completing the interphase stages as well as going through the stages of mitosis. For the cell to live it must grow and develop.
It must also be able to reproduce exact DNA. The cell gets regulated with producing the DNA because Essay about The Question of resume italics, Biology is Why? In biology, one only comes to know so much about a subject before one begins to compare it to other things. As humans, we are comparative by how to write an essay nature—always wondering what is the as media coursework best between multiple things (if it even is) and why. That is why we do it, ultimately. How To Write An Essay Two Novels? We feel that we must answer the resume question “Why?” In this biographical paper, I will be analyzing two very different processes: DNA Replication and the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). It is that each of these individual processes carries membrane. (Biology at Aveson , 2007) Figure 2. A semi permeable membrane. (Biology at Aveson , 2007) pass through the membrane and into the cell. Despite its importance osmosis may also damage cells by causing them to; a) shrink from water loss or b) burst from too much water gain. Plant cells [fig 3] have adapted themselves to write an essay comparing ensure that these factors do not affect them, by forming a ridged wall, known as the cell wall, around their cells. The cell wall maintains the as coursework shape of the cell, and write an essay, prevents Essay about Biology: DNA Forensics. first types of cells to evolve were prokaryotic cells.
For approximately 2 billion years, prokaryotic-type cells were the only form of life on Earth. The oldest known sedimentary rocks found in Greenland are about film, 3.8 billion years old. The oldest known fossils are prokaryotic cells, 3.5 billion years in age, found in Western Australia and South Africa. The nature of how to write an essay comparing two novels, these fossils, and the chemical composition of the rocks in which they are found, indicates that these first cells made use of simple The Importance of the Biology/Society Dualism to the Gendered Body. Jordanova (cited in Shilling: 2003: 38) argues that the club essays reproductive are what determine the how to comparing gendered body and what determines the differences between males and females. The conditions of women's embodiment were ruled by club natural cycles, which was concerned and based on an essay comparing, pregnancy, childbirth and film, menstruation.
This is comparing two novels, a big difference to men, as they did not have any of this embodiments, men's embodiment allowed their minds a greater degree of freedom, This identifies consists of as coursework, eight helices arranged to give a precise three-dimensional shape. Describe how the precise three-dimensional shape of a polypeptide is maintained. 9- Starch grains in plant cells contain both amylose and amylopectin. Explain how both of these substances are formed from glucose in write two novels, plant cells. 7 0708-AS Biology Revision Top Priority Questions 8 Chapter 3 1- A student investigated the activity of resume italics, catalase by measuring the an essay comparing two novels release of oxygen from hydrogen peroxide. The reaction occurs as follows
Write My Essays Today -
Write essay comparing two novels | …
lab write up ASA 7 th /8 th grade Scientific Reports Handout. This handout provides a general guide to writing reports about an essay comparing, scientific research you've performed. In addition to describing the conventional rules about the fight club, format and an essay comparing two novels, content of a lab report, we'll also attempt to convey why these rules exist, so you'll get a clearer, more dependable idea of how to approach this writing situation. Why do we write research reports? You did an experiment or study for your science class, and now you have to write it up for your teacher to review. Resume Formater. You feel that you understood the background sufficiently, designed and completed the study effectively, obtained useful data, and can use those data to draw conclusions about a scientific process or principle. But how exactly do you write all that?
What is your teacher expecting to see? To take some of the guesswork out of how to write comparing, answering these questions, try to think beyond the resume formater, classroom setting. In fact, you and your teacher are both part of a scientific community, and how to write comparing, the people who participate in this community tend to fight club, share the same values. As long as you understand and how to comparing, respect these values, your writing will likely meet the studies as coursework, expectations of your audience—including your teacher. So why are you writing this research report?
The practical answer is how to two novels, Because the teacher assigned it, but that's classroom thinking. Generally speaking, people investigating some scientific hypothesis have a responsibility to the rest of the scientific world to and download, report their findings, particularly if these findings add to write an essay comparing, or contradict previous ideas. As you can probably imagine, people reading such reports have two primary goals: They want to studies as coursework, gather the information presented. Write Two Novels. They want to know that the fight, findings are legitimate.
Your job as a writer, then, is to fulfill these two goals. Good question. How To Comparing Two Novels. You're probably familiar with the basic format scientists have designed for research reports: This format, sometimes called IMRAD, may take slightly different shapes depending on as media music coursework the discipline or audience; some ask you to include an abstract or separate section for two novels the hypothesis, or call the club essays, Discussion section Conclusions, or change the write, order of the sections (some professional and academic journals require the Methods section to appear last). Overall, however, the IMRAD format was devised to represent a textual version of the scientific method. The scientific method, you'll probably recall, involves developing a hypothesis, testing it, and deciding whether your findings support the hypothesis. In essence, the format for a research report in the sciences mirrors the resume formater, scientific method but fleshes out the process a little. Below, you'll find a table that shows how each written section fits into the scientific method and what additional information it offers the reader. Scientific method step. states your hypothesis. explains how you derived that hypothesis and how it connects to an essay two novels, previous research; gives the purpose of the experiment/study.
details how you tested your hypothesis. clarifies why you performed your study in resume and download that particular way. provides raw (i.e., uninterpreted) data collected. (perhaps) expresses the data in table form, as an easy-to-read figure, or as percentages/ratios. considers whether the data you obtained support the hypothesis. explores the implications of your finding and judges the potential limitations of your experimental design. Thinking of your research report as based on the scientific method, but elaborated in the ways described above, may help you to how to write an essay two novels, meet your audience's expectations successfully.
Actually, we're going to proceed by on are we happier than our forefather explicitly connecting each section of the lab report to the scientific method, then explaining why and how you need to elaborate that section. It's important to understand that although this handout takes each section in the order in which it should be presented in the final report, you may for practical reasons decide to compose sections in another order. For example, many writers find that composing their Methods and Results before the other sections help to clarify their idea of the experiment or study as a whole. Write. You might consider using each assignment to studies as coursework, practice different approaches to comparing two novels, drafting the essay than our forefather, report, to find the order that works best for write two novels you. What should I do before drafting the lab report? The best way to prepare to write the lab report is to resume italics, make sure that you fully understand everything you need to about the write comparing two novels, experiment.
Obviously, if you don't quite know what went on during the lab, you're going to find it difficult to explain the lab satisfactorily to fight essays, someone else. To make sure you know enough to write the how to an essay, report, complete the following steps: Read your lab manual thoroughly, well before you start to carry out the experiment. Ask yourself the resume italics, following questions: What are we going to do in this lab? (That is, what's the procedure?) Why are we going to do it that way? What are we hoping to an essay comparing two novels, learn from this experiment? Why would we benefit from this knowledge? Answering these questions will lead you to a more complete understanding of the experiment, and this big picture will in turn help you write a successful lab report. Make use of your lab supervisor as you perform the lab.
If you don't know how to answer one of the questions above, for example, your lab supervisor will probably be able to fight, explain it to write, you (or, at least, help you figure it out). Plan the steps of the club, experiment carefully with your lab partners. The less panicky running around you do, the more likely it is that you'll perform the experiment correctly and record your findings accurately. Also, take some time to think about the how to an essay, best way to resume formater, organize the data before you have to start putting numbers down. If you can design a table to account for the data, that will tend to work much better than jotting results down hurriedly on comparing two novels a scrap piece of paper. Record the data carefully so you get them right. You won't be able to trust your conclusions if you have the wrong data, and your readers will know you messed up if the other three people in your group have 97 degrees and you have 87.
Consult with your lab partners about everything you do. Lab groups often make one or two mistakes: two people do all the work while two have a nice chat, or everybody works together until the group finishes gathering the raw data, then scrams outta there. Collaborate with your partners, even when the experiment is over. Resume Italics. What trends did you observe? Was the hypothesis supported? Did you all get the same results? What kind of figure should you use to represent your findings? The whole group can work together to answer these questions. How To An Essay Two Novels. Consider your audience. You may believe that audience is a non-issue: it's your lab TA, right?
Well, yes—but again, think beyond the classroom. If you write with only your lab instructor in mind, you may omit material that is crucial to a complete understanding of essay we happier than, your experiment, because you assume the instructor knows all that stuff already. As a result, you may receive a lower grade, since your TA won't be sure that you understand all the principles at how to write an essay comparing two novels, work. Try to write towards a student in resume italics the same course but a different lab section. That student will have a fair degree of scientific expertise but won't know much about your experiment particularly. Alternatively, you could envision yourself five years from now, after the reading and lectures for this course have faded a bit. What would you remember, and what would you need explained more clearly (as a refresher)? Once you've completed these steps as you perform the write an essay comparing two novels, experiment, you'll be in a good position to draft an as media music coursework effective lab report. How do I write a strong Introduction?
For the purposes of how to write comparing two novels, this handout, we'll consider the club, Introduction to contain four basic elements: the how to comparing two novels, purpose, the scientific literature relevant to studies, the subject, the hypothesis, and the reasons you believed your hypothesis viable. Let's start by going through each element of the Introduction to how to comparing, clarify what it covers and why it's important. Then we can formulate a logical organizational strategy for the section. The inclusion of the purpose (sometimes called the objective) of the experiment often confuses writers. Resume. The biggest misconception is that the purpose is the how to an essay comparing, same as the film studies, hypothesis. Write An Essay. Not quite.
We'll get to hypotheses in and download a minute, but basically they provide some indication of what you expect the two novels, experiment to show. As Media Coursework. The purpose is broader, and deals more with what you expect to gain through the experiment. In a professional setting, the hypothesis might have something to do with how cells react to a certain kind of genetic manipulation, but the how to write an essay comparing, purpose of the experiment is to learn more about resume formater, potential cancer treatments. Comparing. Undergraduate reports don't often have this wide-ranging a goal, but you should still try to maintain the distinction between your hypothesis and your purpose. In a solubility experiment, for example, your hypothesis might talk about the relationship between temperature and the rate of solubility, but the purpose is probably to learn more about some specific scientific principle underlying the process of solubility. For starters, most people say that you should write out your working hypothesis before you perform the experiment or study. Many beginning science students neglect to do so and find themselves struggling to fight essays, remember precisely which variables were involved in the process or in what way the write an essay comparing two novels, researchers felt that they were related. Write your hypothesis down as you develop it—you'll be glad you did. As for the form a hypothesis should take, it's best not to be too fancy or complicated; an inventive style isn't nearly so important as clarity here.
There's nothing wrong with beginning your hypothesis with the phrase, It was hypothesized that . . Resume. . Be as specific as you can about the relationship between the different objects of your study. How To Write Two Novels. In other words, explain that when term A changes, term B changes in this particular way. Readers of scientific writing are rarely content with the idea that a relationship between two terms exists—they want to know what that relationship entails. Not a hypothesis : It was hypothesized that there is a significant relationship between the temperature of a solvent and the rate at which a solute dissolves. Hypothesis : It was hypothesized that as the temperature of a solvent increases, the resume formater, rate at an essay two novels, which a solute will dissolve in that solvent increases. Put more technically, most hypotheses contain both an independent and a dependent variable. The independent variable is what you manipulate to test the reaction; the dependent variable is what changes as a result of essay on are we happier, your manipulation. An Essay Comparing. In the example above, the independent variable is the temperature of the solvent, and the dependent variable is the rate of solubility. Be sure that your hypothesis includes both variables.
Justify your hypothesis. You need to and download, do more than tell your readers what your hypothesis is; you also need to assure them that this hypothesis was reasonable, given the circumstances. In other words, use the Introduction to explain that you didn't just pluck your hypothesis out of thin air. (If you did pluck it out of thin air, your problems with your report will probably extend beyond using the appropriate format.) If you posit that a particular relationship exists between the independent and how to two novels, the dependent variable, what led you to believe your guess might be supported by evidence? Scientists often refer to this type of justification as motivating the hypothesis, in the sense that something propelled them to make that prediction. Often, motivation includes what we already know—or rather, what scientists generally accept as true (see Background/previous research below). But you can also motivate your hypothesis by relying on logic or on resume your own observations.
If you're trying to decide which solutes will dissolve more rapidly in a solvent at increased temperatures, you might remember that some solids are meant to dissolve in hot water (e.g., bouillon cubes) and some are used for a function precisely because they withstand higher temperatures (they make saucepans out of how to write comparing, something). Or you can think about whether you've noticed sugar dissolving more rapidly in your glass of studies, iced tea or in your cup of coffee. Even such basic, outside-the-lab observations can help you justify your hypothesis as reasonable. This part of the Introduction demonstrates to the reader your awareness of how you're building on an essay two novels other scientists' work. Fight. If you think of the scientific community as engaging in a series of conversations about an essay, various topics, then you'll recognize that the relevant background material will alert the reader to which conversation you want to film, enter.
Generally speaking, authors writing journal articles use the background for slightly different purposes than do students completing assignments. Because readers of how to write an essay comparing, academic journals tend to be professionals in the field, authors explain the background in order to permit readers to studies, evaluate the study's pertinence for their own work. Two Novels. You, on the other hand, write toward a much narrower audience—your peers in the course or your lab instructor—and so you must demonstrate that you understand the context for the (presumably assigned) experiment or study you've completed. For example, if your professor has been talking about studies, polarity during lectures, and you're doing a solubility experiment, you might try to connect the polarity of a solid to its relative solubility in certain solvents. In any event, both professional researchers and comparing two novels, undergraduates need to connect the background material overtly to their own work. Organization of this section.
Most of the time, writers begin by stating the purpose or objectives of their own work, which establishes for the reader's benefit the nature and as coursework, scope of the problem investigated (Day 1994). Once you have expressed your purpose, you should then find it easier to move from the general purpose, to relevant material on the subject, to your hypothesis. In abbreviated form, an how to an essay Introduction section might look like this: The purpose of the experiment was to test conventional ideas about solubility in the laboratory [purpose] . . . According to Whitecoat and Labrat (1999), at higher temperatures the molecules of solvents move more quickly . . . We know from the class lecture that molecules moving at higher rates of speed collide with one another more often and thus break down more easily [background material/motivation] . . Coursework. . Thus, it was hypothesized that as the temperature of a solvent increases, the rate at which a solute will dissolve in that solvent increases [hypothesis]. Again—these are guidelines, not commandments. Some writers and readers prefer different structures for the Introduction. The one above merely illustrates a common approach to organizing material. How do I write a strong Materials and Methods section? As with any piece of writing, your Methods section will succeed only if it fulfills its readers' expectations, so you need to how to write an essay, be clear in your own mind about the fight essays, purpose of how to write comparing, this section. Let's review the purpose as we described it above: in this section, you want to describe in as coursework detail how you tested the hypothesis you developed and also to clarify the how to comparing two novels, rationale for your procedure.
In science, it's not sufficient merely to design and carry out an experiment. Ultimately, others must be able to magazine, verify your findings, so your experiment must be reproducible, to how to write an essay, the extent that other researchers can follow the same procedure and obtain the same (or similar) results. Here's a real-world example of the importance of reproducibility. In 1989, physicists Stanley Pons and Martin Fleischman announced that they had discovered cold fusion, a way of producing excess heat and power without the nuclear radiation that accompanies hot fusion. Such a discovery could have great ramifications for the industrial production of energy, so these findings created a great deal of interest. Resume Formater. When other scientists tried to duplicate the experiment, however, they didn't achieve the same results, and as a result many wrote off the write an essay comparing two novels, conclusions as unjustified (or worse, a hoax).
To this day, the viability of cold fusion is debated within the scientific community, even though an increasing number of researchers believe it possible. So when you write your Methods section, keep in mind that you need to describe your experiment well enough to allow others to replicate it exactly. With these goals in mind, let's consider how to write an effective Methods section in terms of content, structure, and style. Sometimes the hardest thing about writing this section isn't what you should talk about, but what you shouldn't talk about. Resume Italics. Writers often want to include the results of their experiment, because they measured and recorded the how to an essay, results during the course of the experiment. But such data should be reserved for the Results section. Resume Italics. In the Methods section, you can write that you recorded the an essay two novels, results, or how you recorded the results (e.g., in a table), but you shouldn't write what the results were—not yet. Here, you're merely stating exactly how you went about testing your hypothesis. How much detail?
Be precise in as media magazine providing details, but stay relevant. Ask yourself, Would it make any difference if this piece were a different size or made from a different material? If not, you probably don't need to get too specific. If so, you should give as many details as necessary to prevent this experiment from how to an essay two novels going awry if someone else tries to carry it out. Probably the most crucial detail is measurement; you should always quantify anything you can, such as time elapsed, temperature, mass, volume, etc. Resume. Rationale: Be sure that as you're relating your actions during the experiment, you explain your rationale for write an essay comparing two novels the protocol you developed. If you capped a test tube immediately after adding a solute to a solvent, why did you do that? (That's really two questions: why did you cap it, and why did you cap it immediately?) In a professional setting, writers provide their rationale as a way to explain their thinking to potential critics. On one hand, of course, that's your motivation for talking about protocol, too.
On the other hand, since in resume italics practical terms you're also writing to your teacher (who's seeking to evaluate how well you comprehend the principles of the experiment), explaining the rationale indicates that you understand the reasons for conducting the experiment in that way, and that you're not just following orders. Critical thinking is crucial—robots don't make good scientists. Control: Most experiments will include a control, which is a means of comparing experimental results. (Sometimes you'll need to have more than one control, depending on the number of how to write an essay comparing two novels, hypotheses you want to test.) The control is exactly the film as coursework, same as the other items you're testing, except that you don't manipulate the independent variable-the condition you're altering to how to an essay two novels, check the effect on the dependent variable. For example, if you're testing solubility rates at resume formater, increased temperatures, your control would be a solution that you didn't heat at all; that way, you'll see how quickly the solute dissolves naturally (i.e., without manipulation), and you'll have a point of reference against which to compare the solutions you did heat. Describe the control in the Methods section. Two things are especially important in writing about the control: identify the control as a control, and explain what you're controlling for. Example: As a control for the temperature change, we placed the same amount of solute in the same amount of how to an essay comparing two novels, solvent, and let the solution stand for five minutes without heating it. Structure and style.
Organization is especially important in resume and download the Methods section of a lab report because readers must understand your experimental procedure completely. Many writers are surprised by write comparing two novels the difficulty of conveying what they did during the experiment, since after all they're only reporting an event, but it's often tricky to present this information in a coherent way. There's a fairly standard structure you can use to guide you, and following the conventions for style can help clarify your points. Subsections: Occasionally, researchers use subsections to report their procedure when the following circumstances apply: 1) if they've used a great many materials; 2) if the procedure is we happier our forefather, unusually complicated; 3) if they've developed a procedure that won't be familiar to many of how to write an essay, their readers. Because these conditions rarely apply to the experiments you'll perform in class, most undergraduate lab reports won't require you to use subsections. In fact, many guides to writing lab reports suggest that you try to limit your Methods section to a single paragraph. Narrative structure: Think of resume italics, this section as telling a story about two novels, a group of people and the experiment they performed. Describe what you did in the order in resume formater which you did it. You may have heard the old joke centered on the line, Disconnect the write an essay comparing two novels, red wire, but only after disconnecting the green wire, where the and download, person reading the directions blows everything to how to an essay comparing two novels, kingdom come because the directions weren't in order. We're used to reading about events chronologically, and so your readers will generally understand what you did if you present that information in the same way. Also, since the resume formater, Methods section does generally appear as a narrative (story), you want to avoid the recipe approach: First, take a clean, dry 100 ml test tube from the rack.
Next, add 50 ml of write two novels, distilled water. You should be reporting what did happen, not telling the essay than, reader how to perform the experiment: 50 ml of distilled water was poured into how to an essay two novels a clean, dry 100 ml test tube. Hint: most of the essay we happier than, time, the recipe approach comes from comparing copying down the music coursework, steps of the procedure from your lab manual, so you may want to draft the Methods section initially without consulting your manual. Later, of course, you can go back and fill in write comparing any part of the resume italics, procedure you inadvertently overlooked. Past tense: Remember that you're describing what happened, so you should use past tense to write an essay, refer to everything you did during the resume formater, experiment. Writers are often tempted to use the imperative (Add 5 g of the write an essay comparing two novels, solid to the solution) because that's how their lab manuals are worded; less frequently, they use present tense (5 g of the solid are added to the solution). Instead, remember that you're talking about an event which happened at a particular time in the past, and which has already ended by the time you start writing, so simple past tense will be appropriate in this section (5 g of the solid were added to the solution or We added 5 g of the solid to the solution). Passive voice vs. first person: In the past, scientific journals encouraged their writers to avoid using the first person (I or we), because the researchers themselves weren't personally important to the procedure in the experiment. Remember that other researchers should ideally be able to reproduce experiments exactly, based on the lab report; using first person indicates (to some readers) that the experiment cannot be duplicated without the original researchers present. To help keep personal references out of lab reports, scientific conventions also dictated that researchers should use passive voice, in which the subject of a sentence or clause doesn't perform the action described by the verb.
You can learn more in as media music magazine coursework our handout on passive voice , but these examples might explain the distinction between active and passive voice: Active: We heated the solution to 80°C. How To An Essay Comparing. (The subject, we, performs the action, heating.) Passive: The solution was heated to 80°C. (The subject, solution, doesn't do the resume and download, heating--it is acted upon, not acting.) Increasingly, especially in the social sciences, using first person and active voice is write comparing, acceptable in scientific reports. Most readers find that this style of writing conveys information more directly and therefore more clearly and concisely. This rhetorical choice thus brings two scientific values into conflict: objectivity versus clarity. Since the scientific community hasn't reached a consensus about which style it prefers, you may want to ask your lab instructor. How do I write a strong Results section? Here's a paradox for you.
The Results section is resume italics, often both the how to write comparing, shortest (yay!) and most important (uh-oh!) part of your report. Your Materials and Methods section shows how you obtained the results, and your Discussion section explores the significance of the resume and download, results, so clearly the an essay comparing two novels, Results section forms the backbone of the lab report. This section provides the resume italics, most critical information about your experiment: the data that allow you to discuss how your hypothesis was or wasn't supported. But it doesn't provide anything else, which explains why this section is generally shorter than the others. Before you write this section, look at all the data you collected to figure out write an essay two novels what relates significantly to your hypothesis. You'll want to highlight this material in your Results section. Than. Resist the urge to include every bit of data you collected, since perhaps not all are relevant. Also, don't try to draw conclusions about the results—save them for the Discussion section. Write Comparing Two Novels. In this section, you're reporting facts. Nothing your readers can dispute should appear in the Results section.
Most Results sections feature three distinct parts: text, tables, and figures. Fight. Let's consider each part one at a time. This should be a short paragraph, generally just a few lines, that describes the results you obtained from your experiment. In a relatively simple experiment, one that doesn't produce a lot of how to comparing, data for you to repeat, the text can represent the entire Results section. Don't feel that you need to include lots of extraneous detail to compensate for a short (but effective) text; your readers appreciate discrimination more than your ability to recite facts. Film Studies. In a more complex experiment, you may want to use tables and/or figures to help guide your readers toward the most important information you gathered. In that event, you'll need to an essay comparing two novels, refer to each table or figure directly, where appropriate: Table 1 lists the rates of solubility for each substance or Solubility increased as the temperature of the solution increased (see Figure 1). If you do use tables or figures, make sure that you don't present the same material in both the text and the tables/figures, since in essence you'll just repeat yourself, probably annoying your readers with the redundancy of your statements.
Feel free to describe trends that emerge as you examine the data. Although identifying trends requires some judgment on your part and so may not feel like factual reporting, no one can deny that these trends do exist, and so they properly belong in resume italics the Results section. Example: Heating the write comparing, solution increased the rate of solubility of polar solids by 45% but had no effect on the rate of solubility in solutions containing non-polar solids. This point isn't debatable—you're just pointing out resume formater what the data show. As in the Materials and how to write an essay comparing two novels, Methods section, you want to as media music coursework, refer to how to write an essay two novels, your data in the past tense, because the events you recorded have already occurred and have finished occurring. In the example above, note the use of studies, increased and had, rather than increases and has. (You don't know from your experiment that heating always increases the solubility of polar solids, but it did that time.) You shouldn't put information in the table that also appears in the text or use a table to present irrelevant data, just to show you did collect these data during the experiment. Tables are good for some purposes and an essay comparing two novels, situations, but not others, so whether and how you'll use tables depends upon what you need them to accomplish.
Tables are useful ways to resume formater, show variation in data, but not to present a great deal of unchanging measurements. If you're dealing with a scientific phenomenon that occurs only within a certain range of how to write an essay comparing two novels, temperatures, for example, you don't need to use a table to as media music, show that the phenomenon didn't occur at any of the other temperatures. How useful is how to an essay comparing two novels, this table? As you can probably see, no solubility was observed until the resume, trial temperature reached 50°C, a fact that the text part of the Results section could easily convey. How To Write An Essay Comparing Two Novels. The table could then be limited to what happened at 50°C and higher, thus better illustrating the differences in solubility rates when solubility did occur. As a rule, try not to use a table to describe any experimental event you can cover in one sentence of text.
Here's an example of an unnecessary table from How to Write and Publish a Scientific Paper, by Robert A. Day: As Day notes, all the resume italics, information in how to an essay two novels this table can be summarized in resume italics one sentence: S. griseus, S. coelicolor, S. everycolor, and S. rainbowenski grew under aerobic conditions, whereas S. nocolor and S. greenicus required anaerobic conditions. Most readers won't find the table clearer than that one sentence. When you do have reason to tabulate material, pay attention to the clarity and readability of the how to write an essay comparing two novels, format you use. Here are a few tips: Number your table. Then, when you refer to the table in the text, use that number to tell your readers which table they can review to clarify the material. Give your table a title.
This title should be descriptive enough to essay than our forefather, communicate the contents of the how to write comparing two novels, table, but not so long that it becomes difficult to follow. The titles in the sample tables above are acceptable. Arrange your table so that readers read vertically, not horizontally. Fight. For the most part, this rule means that you should construct your table so that like elements read down, not across. Think about an essay comparing two novels, what you want your readers to compare, and essay than our forefather, put that information in the column (up and down) rather than in the row (across). Comparing Two Novels. Usually, the point of comparison will be the numerical data you collect, so especially make sure you have columns of numbers, not rows. Here's an magazine example of how drastically this decision affects the readability of your table (from A Short Guide to Writing about write an essay, Chemistry, by resume italics Herbert Beall and John Trimbur). Look at this table, which presents the relevant data in horizontal rows:
It's a little tough to an essay two novels, see the trends that the author presumably wants to present in fight club this table. Compare this table, in write an essay which the data appear vertically: The second table shows how putting like elements in a vertical column makes for on are our forefather easier reading. In this case, the write an essay comparing, like elements are the measurements of resume and download, length and height, over five trials--not, as in the first table, the length and height measurements for each trial. Make sure to include units of measurement in the tables. Readers might be able to guess that you measured something in millimeters, but don't make them try. Line up numbers on the right, like this: or on the decimal point. It may help to pretend that you're going to add the numbers together and align them accordingly. Write An Essay. Don't use vertical lines as part of the resume formater, format for your table. This convention exists because journals prefer not to have to reproduce these lines because the an essay comparing two novels, tables then become more expensive to print. Even though it's fairly unlikely that you'll be sending your Biology 11 lab report to as media music, Science for publication, your readers still have this expectation.
Consequently, if you use the table-drawing option in your word-processing software, choose the an essay comparing, option that doesn't rely on a grid format (which includes vertical lines). How do I include figures in my report? Although tables can be useful ways of resume italics, showing trends in the results you obtained, figures (i.e., illustrations) can do an even better job of how to write comparing two novels, emphasizing such trends. Film Studies As Coursework. Lab report writers often use graphic representations of the data they collected to provide their readers with a literal picture of how the two novels, experiment went. When should you use a figure? Remember the circumstances under which you don't need a table: when you don't have a great deal of data, or when the data you have don't vary a lot. Under the same conditions, you would probably forgo the figure as well, since the figure would be unlikely to provide your readers with an additional perspective. Scientists really don't like their time wasted, so they tend not to on are, respond favorably to redundancy. If you're trying to decide between using a table and how to two novels, creating a figure to present your material, consider the following a rule of thumb. The strength of and download, a table lies in its ability to supply large amounts of exact data, whereas the strength of a figure is write two novels, its dramatic illustration of important trends within the as media coursework, experiment.
If you feel that your readers won't get the full impact of the results you obtained just by looking at the numbers, then a figure might be appropriate. Of course, an undergraduate class may expect you to create a figure for your lab experiment, if only to make sure that you can do so effectively. If this is the case, then don't worry about whether to use figures or not—concentrate instead on how best to accomplish your task. Figures can include maps, photographs, pen-and-ink drawings, flow charts, bar graphs, and section graphs (pie charts). But the most common figure by far, especially for undergraduates, is the line graph, so we'll focus on that type in this handout. At the undergraduate level, you can often draw and label your graphs by hand, provided that the result is clear, legible, and drawn to scale. Write An Essay Comparing Two Novels. Computer technology has, however, made creating line graphs a lot easier. Most word-processing software has a number of functions for transferring data into graph form; many scientists have found Microsoft Excel, for than our forefather example, a helpful tool in graphing results. If you plan on pursuing a career in the sciences, it may be well worth your while to learn to use a similar program. Computers can't, however, decide for you how your graph really works; you have to write two novels, know how to design your graph to meet your readers' expectations.
Some of these expectations follow: Keep it as simple as possible. You may be tempted to signal the complexity of the resume formater, information you gathered by trying to design a graph that accounts for write an essay that complexity. But remember the purpose of your graph: to dramatize your results in a manner that's easy to see and grasp. Try not to make the reader stare at resume italics, the graph for two novels a half hour to find the important line among the mass of other lines. For maximum effectiveness, limit yourself to three to resume italics, five lines per graph; if you have more data to how to write, demonstrate, use a set of graphs to account for studies them, rather than trying to cram it all into a single figure. Plot the independent variable on write an essay comparing the horizontal (x) axis and on are, the dependent variable on how to write comparing two novels the vertical (y) axis. Remember that the studies as coursework, independent variable is the condition that you manipulated during the experiment and the dependent variable is the condition that you measured to see if it changed along with the how to write comparing, independent variable. Placing the variables along their respective axes is mostly just a convention, but since your readers are accustomed to resume, viewing graphs in write an essay this way, you're better off not challenging the studies as coursework, convention in your report. Label each axis carefully, and be especially careful to include units of measure. How To An Essay Two Novels. You need to make sure that your readers understand perfectly well what your graph indicates.
Number and title your graphs. As with tables, the title of the graph should be informative but concise, and you should refer to your graph by number in the text (e.g., Figure 1 shows the increase in the solubility rate as a function of temperature). Resume Italics. Many editors of professional scientific journals prefer that writers distinguish the how to an essay comparing two novels, lines in their graphs by attaching a symbol to them, usually a geometric shape (triangle, square, etc.), and resume, using that symbol throughout the curve of the line. How To. Generally, readers have a hard time distinguishing dotted lines from dot-dash lines from straight lines, so you should consider staying away from this system. Editors don't usually like different-colored lines within a graph, because colors are difficult and expensive to reproduce; colors may, however, be great for your purposes, as long as you're not planning to submit your paper to on are we happier than, Nature. Write An Essay Two Novels. Use your discretion—try to employ whichever technique dramatizes the results most effectively. Try to gather data at resume and download, regular intervals, so the plot points on your graph aren't too far apart. You can't be sure of the arc you should draw between the plot points if the points are located at how to write comparing, the far corners of the graph; over a fifteen-minute interval, perhaps the change occurred in resume formater the first or last thirty seconds of that period (in which case your straight-line connection between the write an essay comparing two novels, points is misleading). If you're worried that you didn't collect data at sufficiently regular intervals during your experiment, go ahead and connect the points with a straight line, but you may want to examine this problem as part of your Discussion section. Make your graph large enough so that everything is legible and clearly demarcated, but not so large that it either overwhelms the resume formater, rest of the Results section or provides a far greater range than you need to illustrate your point.
If, for example, the seedlings of your plant grew only how to write two novels, 15 mm during the trial, you don't need to construct a graph that accounts for fight 100 mm of growth. The lines in your graph should more or less fill the write an essay comparing two novels, space created by the axes; if you see that your data is confined to the lower left portion of the graph, you should probably re-adjust your scale. If you create a set of graphs, make them the same size and format, including all the verbal and visual codes (captions, symbols, scale, etc.). You want to and download, be as consistent as possible in your illustrations, so that your readers can easily make the how to an essay comparing, comparisons you're trying to get them to see. How do I write a strong Discussion section? The discussion section is probably the least formalized part of the report, in that you can't really apply the same structure to fight club essays, every type of how to, experiment.
In simple terms, here you tell your readers what to as media music magazine, make of the Results you obtained. Comparing Two Novels. If you have done the Results part well, your readers should already recognize the fight essays, trends in the data and how to an essay comparing, have a fairly clear idea of whether your hypothesis was supported. Resume Italics. Because the Results can seem so self-explanatory, many students find it difficult to know what material to add in this last section. Basically, the Discussion contains several parts, in no particular order, but roughly moving from specific (i.e., related to your experiment only) to general (how your findings fit in the larger scientific community). In this section, you will, as a rule, need to: Explain whether the write two novels, data support your hypothesis Acknowledge any anomalous data or deviations from what you expected Derive conclusions, based on your findings, about the process you're studying Relate your findings to earlier work in the same area (if you can) Explore the resume, theoretical and/or practical implications of your findings. Let's look at some dos and don'ts for each of these objectives. Explain whether the data support your hypothesis. This statement is write, usually a good way to film, begin the Discussion, since you can't effectively speak about the larger scientific value of your study until you've figured out the how to write two novels, particulars of as coursework, this experiment.
You might begin this part of the Discussion by explicitly stating the relationships or correlations your data indicate between the independent and dependent variables. Then you can show more clearly why you believe your hypothesis was or was not supported. For example, if you tested solubility at various temperatures, you could start this section by noting that the rates of solubility increased as the temperature increased. If your initial hypothesis surmised that temperature change would not affect solubility, you would then say something like, The hypothesis that temperature change would not affect solubility was not supported by the data. Note: Students tend to view labs as practical tests of how to write an essay comparing two novels, undeniable scientific truths. As a result, you may want to resume formater, say that the hypothesis was proved or disproved or that it was correct or incorrect. These terms, however, reflect a degree of certainty that you as a scientist aren't supposed to have. Remember, you're testing a theory with a procedure that lasts only how to write an essay comparing, a few hours and coursework, relies on only a few trials, which severely compromises your ability to be sure about the truth you see.
Words like supported, indicated, and suggested are more acceptable ways to evaluate your hypothesis. Also, recognize that saying whether the data supported your hypothesis or not involves making a claim to be defended. As such, you need to show the readers that this claim is warranted by the evidence. Make sure that you're very explicit about the relationship between the evidence and the conclusions you draw from it. Write An Essay Comparing. This process is difficult for many writers because we don't often justify conclusions in resume formater our regular lives. Write An Essay Comparing. For example, you might nudge your friend at resume italics, a party and whisper, That guy's drunk, and once your friend lays eyes on the person in question, she might readily agree. In a scientific paper, by contrast, you would need to defend your claim more thoroughly by pointing to data such as slurred words, unsteady gait, and the lampshade-as-hat.
In addition to pointing out these details, you would also need to write an essay, show how (according to previous studies) these signs are consistent with inebriation, especially if they occur in as media conjunction with one another. To put it another way, tell your readers exactly how you got from point A (was the hypothesis supported?) to point B (yes/no). Acknowledge any anomalous data, or deviations from what you expected. You need to take these exceptions and divergences into write an essay account, so that you qualify your conclusions sufficiently. Resume Formater. For obvious reasons, your readers will doubt your authority if you (deliberately or inadvertently) overlook a key piece of data that doesn't square with your perspective on what occurred. In a more philosophical sense, once you've ignored evidence that contradicts your claims, you've departed from the scientific method. The urge to tidy up the experiment is write an essay comparing two novels, often strong, but if you give in to film as coursework, it you're no longer performing good science. Sometimes after you've performed a study or experiment, you realize that some part of the methods you used to write an essay, test your hypothesis was flawed. In that case, it's OK to suggest that if you had the chance to conduct your test again, you might change the design in this or that specific way in order to avoid such and such a problem. The key to making this approach work, though, is to be very precise about the weakness in resume formater your experiment, why and how you think that weakness might have affected your data, and how you would alter your protocol to eliminate—or limit the effects of—that weakness.
Often, inexperienced researchers and writers feel the need to account for wrong data (remember, there's no such animal), and so they speculate wildly about what might have screwed things up. These speculations include such factors as the unusually hot temperature in the room, or the possibility that their lab partners read the meters wrong, or the potentially defective equipment. These explanations are what scientists call cop-outs, or lame; don't indicate that the how to write an essay comparing, experiment had a weakness unless you're fairly certain that a) it really occurred and b) you can explain reasonably well how that weakness affected your results. Derive conclusions, based on your findings, about the process you're studying. If, for example, your hypothesis dealt with the changes in solubility at different temperatures, then try to figure out resume formater what you can rationally say about the process of solubility more generally. If you're doing an undergraduate lab, chances are that the how to an essay comparing, lab will connect in some way to the material you've been covering either in lecture or in your reading, so you might choose to return to these resources as a way to resume italics, help you think clearly about the process as a whole.
This part of the Discussion section is another place where you need to make sure that you're not overreaching. Again, nothing you've found in how to write an essay two novels one study would remotely allow you to claim that you now know something, or that something isn't true, or that your experiment confirmed some principle or other. Hesitate before you go out on a limb—it's dangerous! Use less absolutely conclusive language, including such words as suggest, indicate, correspond, possibly, challenge, etc. Relate your findings to previous work in the field (if possible)
We've been talking about how to show that you belong in a particular community (such as biologists or anthropologists) by writing within conventions that they recognize and accept. Another is to resume, try to write an essay two novels, identify a conversation going on among members of that community, and essays, use your work to contribute to that conversation. In a larger philosophical sense, scientists can't fully understand the value of their research unless they have some sense of the context that provoked and nourished it. That is, you have to recognize what's new about your project (potentially, anyway) and how it benefits the how to an essay comparing two novels, wider body of scientific knowledge. On a more pragmatic level, especially for undergraduates, connecting your lab work to previous research will demonstrate to the TA that you see the fight club, big picture. You have an how to an essay two novels opportunity, in the Discussion section, to distinguish yourself from the students in your class who aren't thinking beyond the barest facts of the as media music, study. Capitalize on this opportunity by putting your own work in context. If you're just beginning to work in the natural sciences (as a first-year biology or chemistry student, say), most likely the work you'll be doing has already been performed and re-performed to an essay, a satisfactory degree.
Hence, you could probably point to a similar experiment or study and as media music, compare/contrast your results and conclusions. More advanced work may deal with an issue that is somewhat less resolved, and so previous research may take the form of an ongoing debate, and you can use your own work to two novels, weigh in on that debate. If, for example, researchers are hotly disputing the value of herbal remedies for the common cold, and the results of your study suggest that Echinacea diminishes the symptoms but not the actual presence of the cold, then you might want to take some time in the Discussion section to recapitulate the specifics of the dispute as it relates to Echinacea as an herbal remedy. (Consider that you have probably already written in the Introduction about resume italics, this debate as background research.) Explore the theoretical and/or practical implications of your findings. This information is often the best way to end your Discussion (and, for all intents and purposes, the report). In argumentative writing generally, you want to use your closing words to convey the main point of your writing.
This main point can be primarily theoretical (Now that you understand this information, you're in an essay comparing two novels a better position to understand this larger issue) or primarily practical (You can use this information to take such and such an as media coursework action). In either case, the an essay comparing two novels, concluding statements help the as media magazine coursework, reader to comprehend the significance of your project and your decision to write about it. Since a lab report is an essay two novels, argumentative—after all, you're investigating a claim, and judging the legitimacy of that claim by generating and collecting evidence—it's often a good idea to resume italics, end your report with the same technique for establishing your main point. If you want to write an essay comparing, go the theoretical route, you might talk about the consequences your study has for the field or phenomenon you're investigating. To return to music coursework, the examples regarding solubility, you could end by reflecting on what your work on solubility as a function of temperature tells us (potentially) about comparing two novels, solubility in general. Resume Italics. (Some folks consider this type of exploration pure as opposed to applied science, although these labels can be problematic.) If you want to how to an essay, go the as media coursework, practical route, you could end by speculating about the medical, institutional, or commercial implications of an essay comparing two novels, your findings—in other words, answer the resume and download, question, What can this study help people to do?
In either case, you're going to make your readers' experience more satisfying, by helping them see why they spent their time learning what you had to teach them.
Custom Essay Order -
How to Analyze Two Books in an …
100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for how to write an essay over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. Struggling to club, find a great topic? Scan the how to write an essay two novels, lists below to find questions my students have generated to find something you want to and download, write about. Topics are divided into: 2. Social Issues. Write Two Novels. 7. Driving and Transportation. We Happier Than Our Forefather. Remember you can adapt these general ideas to how to write an essay comparing, fit your own school, town, or situation. After you have chosen your topic, you can find instructions about how to develop your ideas, find a unique solution to the problem and organize your essay in How to Write Your Problem Solution Paper. How can social media bullying be prevented?
What is the best way to help someone who is depressed? What's the on are we happier than our forefather, best way to deal with manipulative and domineering people? How can you help a friend or roommate who is making poor life choices? How can you get out of a bad relationship? How can you move out of the friend zone? What is the best way for a woman to show a man she is interested? Should she ask him out? How has texting affected face-to-face relationships? What can be done to how to an essay, make sure that people today actually know how to have real relationships?
How can we get away from resume formater stereotypes and racism? What steps can we take as individuals and as a society? How can we learn to understand people who are different from us culturally, racially, or socioeconomically? How can we break down barriers between groups? Describe a problem vividly. How To An Essay Two Novels. Propose a solution.
Argue that the solution is practical, feasible, cost-effective, and workable. Explain why it is music magazine coursework better than other solutions. How can we help homeless people in our community? How can we prevent people from dropping out of high school? What is the how to an essay comparing, best way to prevent teen pregnancy? How can kids be persuaded not to experiment with illegal drugs? What is the best way to prevent deaths from drunk driving? How can teenagers be convinced to drive more safely? What can be done to music coursework, prevent divorce? How can kids with divorced parents be helped to do well in school, have strong relationships, and build successful lives and marriages? What can be done to eliminate or prevent racism?
What is the best way to help people who are victims of family violence? How can we change the welfare system to write two novels, help people escape generational poverty? How can we deal with illegal immigration? What should we do about the film as coursework, increase in gun violence? How can we best rehabilitate prisoners so that they can be productive members of how to an essay, society?
How can healthcare be ensured for resume formater everyone around the world? How can we improve literacy? What can be done to prevent human trafficking? How can we prevent children from being negatively influenced by violence and pornography in media such as video games, movies, and write an essay, the Internet? How can we persuade people to make healthy lifestyle choices like not smoking, exercising, and maintaining a healthy BMI? How can we balance the right for and download free speech with the right to not be insulted or abused? Choose a city you know. How can that city be made more bicycle and pedestrian-friendly?
How can we best reduce the problem of terrorism? Should there be controls in how to an essay comparing the way the media portrays celebrities? How can we handle the resume formater, problem of how to write an essay comparing, online data mining or the fact that data brokers are selling our information to advertisers, employers, health insurers, and music, credit rating agencies? What should we do to help people get jobs? Video to how to write an essay two novels, Help You Generate a Unique Solution. How can steroid use be limited in resume formater all sports (or one in how to particular)? Should college athletes be paid? How can colleges better handle the combination of education, athletics, and business? Do kids train too hard in resume italics athletics at how to write comparing two novels young ages? What is the best way for as media music magazine coursework a young athlete to learn a sport? (You might want to talk about a particular sport you know well). How To Write Comparing. How can coaches best encourage their athletes to do their best?
Think about your local sports team. What can be done to make that team more effective? How can the fans be made to support the fight club essays, team more? Pick your favorite sport. How can someone best prepare themselves to be excellent at how to comparing that sport? How can sports media be more effective at covering a sport you like to watch?
Should the announcers be biased or not? Which games should be covered by essay than sports networks? What types of interviews and special features make the sport more interesting to write two novels, watch? What can be done to increase attendance at your favorite sporting event? How should a coach or player handle media interviews when they lose a big game? How can players prepare themselves for fight the (inevitable) loss? What should professional players do to prepare themselves for retirement or injury? Pick your favorite sport. An Essay Comparing Two Novels. How much should players get paid? Should there be salary caps?
How should money made from sports be divided between players and owners? Think about your favorite venue to watch sports live. What could be done to improve that venue? How can injuries in sports (especially football) be prevented? How can coaching be improved in film as coursework the sport you participated in during high school or your favorite professional team? How can players prevent injuries that take them out of write an essay comparing, competitive sports? What can be done about parents or coaches that push kids too much in club sports? How Can Students Pay for Private College? How can college be made more affordable?
How can college students study effectively and comparing, earn better grades? How can a student avoid procrastinating? How can college students avoid the Freshman 15 and eat healthily in college? How can college students stay in resume formater shape when they aren't in an essay two novels sports like they were in high school? What is the best way for college students to balance work, studying, classes, and magazine, social life? How can college students handle problems with roommates? How can college students ask parents for more money effectively? How can parents of college students let go? What is the best way for an essay comparing college students to convince their parents to let them be independent?
What should you do about loud neighbors in your dorm or apartment? How can you handle a long distance relationship in college? What should college students do when they have a suicidal friend? How can college students decide on a major? How should you decide what college to resume, attend?
What should you do if you don't get something you expected and hoped for (like a scholarship, college admission, or acceptance into a special program)? How can students learn to be better test-takers? How should college instructors handle attendance in class? What can be done to make college students more active participants in politics and elections? How can colleges be made safer? What should be done to prevent sexual assault on write comparing, college campuses?
Should parents be allowed to know the grades of their college students? How can colleges help students who are failing get back on track? What can be done to help relieve stress in college? How can students pay more attention in class? How can college students overcome homesickness? How can college students manage their money effectively? What can be done to make college more affordable? Should the government offer more support for a college education? How should a student decide whether to rush a sorority or fraternity?
If you choose a problem solution essay about education, you can narrow your paper's topic to talk just about your own state, or even your own school. Resume. How can we make education better for write an essay kids who have trouble in school? How can schools help the resume italics, problem of childhood obesity? How can schools best serve special education students? How can schools allocate more money and resources for how to an essay comparing two novels sports, fine arts, and other special programs?
What should be done about misbehaving and disruptive students? What should be done to make gifted and talented education programs effective? How can we help kids who are in failing schools? How can homeschooled kids be prepared for college? What can be done to on are we happier than, stop bullying, teasing, and violence in schools? How can we be sure that students are learning what they need to know? Is a nationalized test the answer? How should testing in write an essay comparing two novels schools be handled?
How can cheating in school be best handled? What should teachers and students do to prevent cheating? Should all students be required to learn a foreign language? Should schools offer other languages like Chinese or Arabic? Should schools move to digital textbooks? Is it a good idea to film studies as coursework, give every child an iPad or laptop?
How can schools adapt to changing technology? Should schools have a common core curriculum? If so, what should it include? What does every student need to know? Would the U.S. benefit from changing to a more European-style education system? Should schools require more physical education? How can schools help develop a healthier society? How can schools attract and keep outstanding teachers? Should high schools offer a technical track for students to an essay two novels, get job-ready rather than force everyone to take college prep courses? Should online high school courses be offered to students who want a flexible schedule? What should be done for students who get pregnant in high school?
Should school uniforms or strict dress codes be used in and download schools? What sort of dress code is appropriate and how to an essay comparing two novels, helpful? Should teachers and resume italics, administrators who are appropriately trained and how to an essay two novels, licensed be allowed to resume formater, carry concealed weapons in comparing schools? Should policemen be undercover in essay on are classrooms? How can parents handle their child's cell phone and social media use appropriately?
Should parents be held responsible for the obesity of their children? What should be done to help families with obese children? How can parents help their children have a positive body image and avoid eating disorders? What can be done about parents who push too hard for their children to achieve in sports, academics, fine arts, or another area? What can be done to increase the number of children who are adopted?
How can we prevent young people from aging out of the child welfare system without ever finding a family? What is the best way to help families who have a child with mental illness? How can parents teach their children about money management? What is the best way for parents to discipline their children? How can parents encourage their child to write an essay comparing two novels, be honest? What is the importance of essay we happier our forefather, a religious education? How should parents handle teaching faith to their children? What should be done about the problem of how to write comparing two novels, texting while driving? How can parking be handled better on your college campus (or other busy area you know where it is difficult to park)? What is the best way for students to be trained to be good drivers?
Should there be any changes to resume italics, the current laws of your state? How can traffic around your town be changed so that driving is easier and less stressful? How can people be encouraged to take public transportation? What needs to be done to make public transportation an effective option for more people in your town? How should we encourage people to how to write comparing, be better drivers?
What changes could be made to resume italics, the traffic laws that would make driving better? What should the speed limits be? What is the write an essay, best way to find the route to and download, a place you've never been before? (GPS, Google Maps, directions from a friend?) What are the worst traffic violations? How can these be prevented? Is the how to write, current driver's education in essay we happier than our forefather your state effective?
What can be done to improve it? What is the best way to prevent DUI and deaths due to drunk driving? What type of problem are you most interested in solving? How to Write an Evaluation Paper with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 15. How to Write a Summary, Analysis, and Response Essay Paper With Examples. by Virginia Kearney 56. Problem Solving Paper Writing Steps with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 4. 50 Critical Analysis Paper Topics. by Virginia Kearney 4. How To An Essay Comparing Two Novels. Easy Words to Use as Sentence Starters to Write Better Essays. by on are we happier than our forefather Virginia Kearney 129. 100 Cause and Effect Essay Topics. by Virginia Kearney 37. How do one respond to new challenges and adapting to a different environment, living without familiar amenities, interacting with new and an essay, different types of people and studying intensively among others.
Virginia Kearney 3 weeks ago from United States. Hi Kashymawoh--I'm glad you've decided on a topic for your essay. You can find everything you need to know about writing it by film studies looking at my other articles on writing problem solution essays and writing argument essays. If you don't see the link for that, search in an essay comparing two novels my profile, which you can find on resume italics, the top right of the comparing two novels, page. hi Virginia, i am writing an essay on resume formater, solving unemployment issues in Nigeria, kindly assist me. How To An Essay. Virginia Kearney 2 months ago from United States. Hi Cassandra!
After you choose your topic, be sure to look at my article about how to write a solution essay. Coursework. I give all the instructions you should need. If you want help revising or with punctuation, you can find articles on how to write an essay comparing, those topic too. Cassandra Pines 2 months ago. Fight Essays. I need to write a 6-7 page essay about a social movement.
I don't know how to how to write two novels, start. Virginia Kearney 4 months ago from United States. Hi, Sparsh, Your best help would be to look at resume formater my other articles about how to write problem solution essays and argument essays. How To Write Comparing Two Novels. You might also like to look at my articles on as media music magazine coursework, Toulmin, Rogerian and Classical argument strategies. An Essay. These articles include specific instruction on how to organize and outline your essay as well as how to argue effectively for your solution. Resume. In addition, they provide samples with commentary on why these work. Finally, you ought to look at my articles on write an essay two novels, how to write a great thesis and and download, topic sentences. You can find these by searching for my name on Letterpile, or by looking on my profile page. I have over write comparing two novels 100 articles on resume italics, writing to help you out. SPARSH AGARWAL 4 months ago.
I am preparing for writing section of PCAT exam. In the writing section, there are generally problem solution essays. It is my humble request if you could provide me with a source where there are more of problem solution sample essays, so that I can prepare accordingly and practice writing on write comparing two novels, the problems mentioned above. Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States. Resume Formater. Problems with health can be related to how to write, disease or preventative measures like diet and exercise. Here are some easy health-related topics: How can a person with Celiac disease best manage their diet? How can students best exercise and fight, eat to be healthy? What are the best strategies to avoid illness? How can people avoid heart disease? What is the best way to stay healthy if you have diabetes? i want a health related topic. like people should be concerned about their health. but what problem can i state? Stevie Glenn 7 months ago from Minneapolis.
Great topics on education! Good sources for quick education articles. Thank you for all the an essay, topics to resume formater, write on; I would read one section thinking that I couldn't write anything only to discover a few points I had to make into a quick essay. How To Write. Virginia Kearney 9 months ago from United States. Hi Colleen--I'd suggest you look at my Non-Profit Research Paper article for help.https://hubpages.com/literature/Research-Paper-on-. I have a Critical Analysis Research Writing paper due the assignment is essay A Good for A Community: A Research Based-Solution Essay I am having the most difficult time with this. Can you help? Virginia Kearney 9 months ago from United States. KyLie--That is an interesting idea.
The departmental final exam for my students included a question about this topic. I will see if I can add some to the list. I would like some topics on write an essay comparing two novels, the death of Harambe the studies, gorilla. Should have a topic about animal abuse or cruelty! Bangladesh Page 19 months ago. Here is a lot of topics to write on. It really makes me think to write something on comparing, the topics. Resume And Download. There are some topics here I never thought that an essay can be written! Thanks for sharing. Virginia Kearney 21 months ago from United States.
Hi Zero, I don't exactly understand what you want. Perhaps you mean you want to write an essay about How to comparing, find a good job? or Solving the difficult problem of finding a good job? Virginia Kearney 22 months ago from United States. Hi mtariqsattar--I actually have also written articles about how to write essays of resume formater, many types. Write An Essay Two Novels. You can search for this on Hubpages or just look for the links next to my topic ideas articles. Tariq Sattar 22 months ago from Karachi. Hi there VirginiaLynne, I don't know how to start but you nailed it and you seem to possess command over topics. You do justify what you have said in your profile.
Anyway, I enjoyed reading your hub - it is helpful to than, those who are seeking to write an essay comparing, teach essay at the college or university level, and those who want to writer such a genre of essay. Resume Italics. That is problem-solution essay. I would ask though about the tips to writing an essay quickly and accurately at write the same time. How should you as an essay writer achieve both ends? Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Thanks for film the ideas Jaime--I may think about putting some solution ideas into another article. Wow!! What a great topics. Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States.
So glad Symphony Dunbar that you are using my site to get good ideas. You must be doing a good job writing those essays too! Symphony Dunbar 2 years ago. I love this site. I come on comparing two novels, here, get a topic, write an essay, get an A+, just like that! Thanks it helped so much. Maria Cuevas 2 years ago. I would really like environment issues.
It is film studies very passionate among many. Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from an essay two novels United States. Hi Justin--Glad this helped you. I have a 5th grade daughter and two daughters in 7th. I used to teach 6th grade myself and resume italics, know that you are learning a lot about writing! I really like the how to an essay, questions for as media magazine coursework the problem and solution it makes me want to improve some mistakes I made.P.S. I'm a 6th grader. Awesome website! I'm definitely going to use one of these topics.
Helped a lot. Thanks. How Education is comparing two novels solution all our problem I want to write essay this topic anyone help me. I would like a topic on counselling a teenage who thinks is resume having a sexually transmitted disease or HIV. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Thanks Ashley--I will write some topics about that! Military life topics would be great! Great topics!
Thank you so much. Thank you! This was so helpful! This website is perfect! Helped me a lot, thanks! Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. So glad I helped you Kaiya! I know that getting the right topic and finding some good information can really help someone overcome that writer's block that makes starting an essay so hard! This helped a ton!
Anyone of these topics could easily be well written, being that there is so much information about each topic. How To Two Novels. I seriously couldn't have thought of any of these topics, and club essays, this definitely helped my essay. There was many topics to choose from, depending on the area you are interested in. It made me think about how to an essay two novels what I really wanted to write about! Thanks so much. :) Maria Jordan 3 years ago from Jeffersonville PA.
A meaty and resume formater, worthwhile list of subjects for anyone to pursue. How To Two Novels. most thought provoking and as media, interesting topics. Excellent job. How To. Voted UP and UAI. On Are Than. Hugs, Maria. This HELPED a lot! Thanks! Pamela Oglesby 4 years ago from United States. Write An Essay Comparing. You really thought of so many valid topic that are all worthy of discussion. Essay Our Forefather. Anyone of this topic could easily be written about and really there are so many problems, it is a bit overwhelming, but then we must start somewhere. How To Comparing. This is a great idea for resume formater a hub and no one should have to have writer's block anymore. Voted up and useful.
Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and write, respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and essay, advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.
Pay for Essay and Get the Best Paper You Need -
How Do You Write A Comparison …
cobra law essay This guide is written for students who are following GCE Advanced level (AS and A2) syllabuses in write an essay two novels, English Language. Essay On Are? This resource may also be of general interest to language students on university degree courses, trainee teachers and anyone with a general interest in how to an essay comparing two novels, language science. On this page I use red type for emphasis. Resume Formater? Brown type is used where italics would appear in print (in this screen font, italic looks like this , and is unkind on most readers). Headings have their own hierarchical logic, too: Main section headings look like this. Sub-section headings look like this. Minor headings within sub-sections look like this. What do the examiners say about this subject? In preparing this topic area candidates should study: conversational analysis; stylistic analysis of texts; historical and contemporary changes, as appropriate.
In particular they should examine: influential power (e.g. advertising, politics, media, culture) instrumental power (e.g. How To An Essay? law, education, business, management).. One obvious feature of how language operates in social interactions is its relationship with power, both influential and instrumental. Neither rule nor law, neither discipline nor hierarchy sanctions influential power. It inclines us or makes us want to behave in certain ways or adopt opinions or attitudes, without obvious force. It operates in fight club essays, such social phenomena as advertising, culture and the media. (Strictly, we are not coerced into buying what the advertiser shows us, nor will we suffer any penalty for our sales resistance.) Instrumental power is explicit power of the sort imposed by the state, by its laws and how to write an essay comparing conventions or by the organizations for which we work. It operates in business, education and various kinds of management. (In many, but not all cases, if we resist instrumental power, we will be subject to resume italics, some penalty or in trouble.) Note: instrumental here does comes from the same root as the instrument we play to make music - they are related etymologically. But it has a quite different meaning today from instrumental as used to describe music. In your studying instrumental power, please do not for a moment think it has anything to do with the how to write an essay comparing power of music.
In some spheres of social activity, such as politics or law, both kinds of power may be present at the same time: we are subject to laws (enforced by penalties), but some legal processes, such as trial by jury, rely on attempts to persuade. Politicians impose laws, taxes, and bureaucratic systems (instrumental power) but seek to influence us to endorse their policies or turn out to vote for resume formater, them (influential power). They may wish to an essay, influence us to fight essays, use our collective power to return them to office, where they will use their executive power to direct some aspects of our lives - a curious paradox of our system of parliamentary democratic representation. (That is they get us to give them the power to tell us what to do and how to how to write an essay comparing two novels, live. Essay Than? And we really do have the choice, collectively, as we show when we vote for a change of how to write two novels government.) In looking at how power is exercised through language, you should be able to refer to real examples you have found, and explain these texts. But you should also have a theoretical approach that will enable you to interpret language data you are presented with in an exam. Among other things, you should look at pragmatics and speech act theory, lexis and semantics (forms and meanings), forms that include or exclude (insiders or outsiders), structures (at phrase, clause and discourse level), forms of address, phatic tokens , as well as structural features of speech, which may be used to exercise or establish power.
And in some contexts, you will need to be able to show how rhetorical devices are used to influence an audience. Consider, for example, how conversational maxims may be adapted for reasons of expedience, rather than integrity. Film Studies? Does all power corrupt in how to write, language, as (according to Lord Acton) it does generally? Persuasive techniques in language. This guide looks at essay, the different subjects that examiners specify, but there are many techniques that are common to various contexts.
In this section you will find some guidance on these. Two Novels? As well as looking for them in texts that you study, you may try to essay we happier, use them in how to write an essay comparing two novels, texts that you produce - for example in original writing or editorial writing tasks. You may think of we happier than these primarily as devices in poetry, but they abound, consciously or unintended, in almost all spoken and how to two novels many written texts, as when political reporters talk of a raft of measures. Satan (Andy Hamilton) in an episode (from 2001) of resume formater Old Harry's Game (a radio sitcom set in Hell) remarks of one of the characters that he is shaking like a Millennium Bridge and of another that he has the willpower of Bill Clinton at write two novels, a cheerleaders' convention. The first is a simile, the second a metaphor. Fight? Both were topical in 2000, and exploit assumed attitudes in the audience - that we know (and are amused by) the engineering problems of the Millennium Bridge (good to look at, perilous to how to write an essay comparing two novels, walk on) and the reputation of resume President Clinton. George W. Bush uses it for more serious effect when (in a State of the Union address) he describes the American faith in freedom and democracy as a seed upon the wind, taking root in many nations. Write An Essay Comparing? You will find these techniques not only in grand and serious contexts.
If you want to as media music magazine, collect metaphors, listen to soccer reports on an essay comparing two novels Radio 5 #45; some of the summarizers even have their own favourite stock of images. Resume Italics? Stuart Hall can be relied on for these, whether he is using the dead metaphor School of Science for Everton FC or likening the soccer player Emile Heskey to a wildebeest. Careless speakers or writers may mix metaphors inadvertently, but some authors do it intentionally. Even Shakespeare does this, as when Hamlet proposes to take arms against how to write comparing two novels, a sea of troubles #45; presumably both the playwright and the Prince realize that this is a strange action. The audience sees it as a metaphor of an fight club essays, impossible struggle. (W.B. Yeats used this idea in how to an essay two novels, a poem called Cuchulain's Fight With the film studies as coursework Sea ) Mixing metaphors can have comic effects, as when a character in Mel Smith's 1989 film, The Tall Guy , remarks of an attractive woman that: She's like a hungry leopard in full bloom.
In fiction, mixing metaphors in dialogue is how to write, a stock way to make the reader question the intelligence of a character. In other contexts it may come from the attempt to compare or relate things others have said. Resume Formater? Many years ago, the late Enoch Powell, warning about the future effects of large#45;scale immigration referred to rivers of write an essay two novels blood running in the UK. In January 2003 the UK Home Secretary David Blunkett referred to essay we happier, Britain as a coiled spring. In Any Questions (a radio programme in which various experts answer questions from the audience), Jonathan Dimbleby, the host, first said, (summarizing others' comments), the country's like a coiled spring and how to two novels this could spill over. then asked, [is] David Blunkett's coiled spring a tributary of resume formater Enoch Powell's river of blood? Mr. Dimbleby appears to have seen that this is an inelegant mixing of how to comparing two novels metaphor, but his main purpose was, in posing the question, to relate the statements of others, who chose the original images. In rhetoric, a speaker may return to or develop a metaphor, to make an argument seem more compelling.
In John F. Kennedy's 1961 Inaugural Address to the American people, we find an essay on are we happier, extended metaphor of lighting a fire to how to an essay two novels, give light to resume and download, the world: The energy, the faith, the devotion which we bring to this endeavour will light our country and all who serve it, and the glow from that fire can truly light the world. Another powerful technique is to refer to, or even quote, a powerful phrase that the audience may already know. There is some risk in this, as the comparing two novels author needs to be sure that enough of the audience will be aware of the allusion or reference, unless the quoted phrase works well even if its origin is essays, not known. How To Write An Essay Comparing Two Novels? In the fight club lines quoted above, Kennedy seems to allude to the image, in St. John's gospel, of Jesus as the light of the two novels world. Ronald Reagan's speechwriter, Peggy Noonan, borrowed an image from John Gillespie Magee's poem High Flight to explain the disaster in 1986 when the Challenger space shuttle exploded:
We will never forget them (the crew), nor the last time we saw them this morning, as they prepared for their journey and waved goodbye, and slipped the surly bonds of earth, to touch the face of God. (Magee's poem begins: Oh, I have slipped the surly bonds of earth and ends . I've. Put out my hand and touched the face of God.) In commenting on as media magazine language data, you may find it hard to detect allusion #45; in how to write an essay comparing, a way it is almost impossible unless you know what it is to which the speaker or writer alludes. On the other hand, there are many contemporary texts in which a young person has more chance of detecting a reference than an older one. A good example is a short feature (in the Guardian newspaper's tabloid supplement) that purports to than, be an extract from a chat forum, but is really a spoof.
In a January 2003 edition, one of the chatroom guests was supposed to be Kim Howells, a junior minister who has been in the news for attacking modern art. Write? He rebukes the other users of the chatroom for their non#45;standard spelling, adding: I blame Mrs. As Media Music Magazine Coursework? Dynamite. The author intends the reader to write an essay, be amused by the way Kim Howells tries to show an awareness of fight youth culture, yet reveals his ignorance in how to an essay, changing the title from Ms to Mrs (Ms Dynamite, as younger readers will know, is the stage name of the resume formater rap singer Niomi McLean#45;Daley.) Three#45;part structures and lists are memorable and resonant in many kinds of text. Here are some examples:
And now abideth faith, hope, charity, these three. St Paul, 1 Corinthians 13.13 (King James Version, 1611) The grandest of an essay comparing two novels these ideals is an unfolding American promise that everyone belongs, that everyone deserves a chance, that no insignificant person was ever born. George W. Essay On Are We Happier Than Our Forefather? Bush, Inaugural Address, 2001 If you're a daring designer, a budding botanist or simply green#45;fingered, we want to hear from you. Alan Titchmarsh, Gardeners' World Live , BBC TV, June 2001. Lists of three are not so common in unprepared speaking, but you should look out for how to write, them in any language data you have to study. A useful rhetorical device is to repeat a key idea or phrase #45; this may seem crude, but it may lodge in studies as coursework, the minds of the audience. Two Novels? We see it in a speech made by Harold Wilson, during the fight club essays 1974 UK General Election campaign: This election is not about the miners; not about the militants; not about the power of the unions. Many writers, especially those who write for public speaking, will divide a sentence or clause into two balanced parts.
This was the basic principle of poetry in much of the ancient world. There are almost limitless examples in the pages of the King James Bible, which was translated to be a version for how to write, public reading. Sometimes the film as coursework second half echoes or develops the first half #45; this is synonymous parallelism . Sometimes the two halves are opposed or contradictory, and this is antithetic parallelism or simply antithesis . We see this in write, some lines from George W. Bush's Inaugural Address, where he refers to as coursework, US history as: . the story of how to an essay two novels a power that went into the world to protect but not possess, | to on are than our forefather, defend but not to conquer. In this example the thought of to protect but not possess, is carried further by to defend but not to conquer. In speaking these lines, there will be a pause after possess. For a more familiar example, look at the British National Anthem: God save our gracious queen, | long live our noble queen.
Antithetic parallelism or antithesis. The first example comes from a speech of Winston Churchill, in which he challenges the Luftwaffe (the German air force): You do your worst #45; and we will do our best. A celebrated example comes from Kennedy's Inaugural Address (quoted above): And so, my fellow Americans, ask not, what your country can do for write comparing, you. | Ask what you can do for your country. And we can see antithesis in George W. Bush's images of fight America's faith in freedom and how to write democracy, first as a rock, then, by contrast, as a seed:
Through much of the last century, America's faith in freedom and democracy was a rock in a raging sea. | Now it is a seed upon the wind, taking root in many nations. If you wish to make a statement, it may be a good idea to ask a question or series of questions to resume and download, introduce it. This is a common technique in information leaflets, which often pose the question from the reader's viewpoint #45; How can I protect my baby from common infections? and so on. It can also be powerful in political rhetoric #45; How can a Labour government raise standards in education? leading to an exposition of the write an essay two novels party's policy. For example, Welcome to the Labour Party , a booklet which gives information to club, new members, contains pages where statements are introduced by questions, each set out as a section heading, such as: How can I get involved?, What happens at local policy forums?, Do I have to how to comparing two novels, go along to a local policy forum to have my say? and What is the future?
Using the as media coursework same initial consonant is a common ploy of how to poets and advertisers. Film? It can be irritating if it's overdone, but makes lines quotable or memorable. In George W. Bush's inaugural speech we note f aith in how to write, f reedom and essay on are than our forefather r ock in a r aging sea. Winston Churchill, in his speech about the Luftwaffe addresses the Nazi leaders and refers to the Nazi party as the g risly g ang who w ork your w icked w ill. You can create some good effects by using similar words but with slight differences of form and meaning. Andy Bodle in a listings article for the film Rancid Aluminium does this by comparing, describing the film as part arthouse, part shithouse. Here are a couple of examples.
The first comes from Dorothy L. Sayers' Introduction to and download, her translation of Dante's great narrative poem, Purgatory : Between the how to write bishops who assure us that the family is the one and only seedbed of all the virtues, and the psychiatrists who warn us that it is on are than our forefather, a hotbed of all the vices, we hardly know how to advise any child to enter upon the hazard of existence. The second comes from Vladimir Nabokov's essay On a book Entitled Lolita . This is an appendix to his novel of the same name. An Essay Comparing? In the essay, Nabokov claims (or pretends) that he can admire but cannot emulate: . the accuracy of judgment of magazine coursework those who pose the fair young mammals photographed in magazines where the general neckline is just low enough to provoke a past master's chuckle and just high enough not to how to comparing two novels, make a post#45;master frown. Broadly speaking, advertisers persuade their audience to studies, adopt attitudes to how to an essay, lifestyle, products and resume italics services. How To Comparing? It is rare to find advertising that seeks to film studies, influence explicitly or directly. Write An Essay? Less rare are advertisements in which the link to a product or service is implicit or ambiguous. Consider a TV advertisement (May 2000) which depicts Aimee Mullins a model (who is also a paralympic athlete, sprinter, and double below#45;the#45;knee amputee) preparing for resume italics, the finale of an essay comparing a fashion show for Alexander McQueen #45; the advertisement was made for an Internet service provider, FreeServe, but did no more directly to advertise FreeServe than show the company name and as media logo. There is an oblique link to the name of the company in the idea of the how to an essay two novels model's freedom to run with the wild animals depicted in the fashion show. At the same time the advertiser skilfully links a possibly un#45;sexy technical service with ideas of beauty, fashion and positive discrimination. Advertising has a lexicon, which may change over time, but is fairly stable #45; new, improved, proven and other qualifiers are seen as reliable.
David Ogilvy in Confessions of an Advertising Man (quoted by resume italics, Shirley Russell; Grammar, Structure and Style , Oxford, 1994, p. 177) identifies a basic lexicon of qualifiers such as: new, good, crisp, better, fresh, natural, fine, free , and of verbs such as: buy, give, taste, go, look, feel and how to two novels use . Special registers (technical, scientific or pseudo#45;scientific) may be used for appropriate products. Torque, BHP, valve, ABS for cars or keramides, pro#45;B, hypoallergenic in personal hygiene products. Look out for special lexical uses according to product, image and target market. Pot Noodle #45; everything else is resume and download, just pants. Pants is an essay comparing, (or was in 2000) fashionable as a mild term of disapproval among young people (especially young men) who may be supposed to want food which is resume formater, inexpensive, quick to how to two novels, make, and needs no special preparation or utensils. Advertising borrows and adapts structures and forms from resume italics texts of all kinds. Many broadcast advertisements are dramatic, with a narrative conducted through dialogue. Others may show a narrative by comparing, images alone, to as media magazine, the accompaniment of how to write an essay two novels music and/or a voiceover. Can you think of examples? Puns, alliteration, assonance, onomatopoeia, rhyme and resume italics other kinds of write an essay comparing two novels comic or poetic wordplay are common in advertising. Ambiguity, irony and allusion (reference) are also powerful techniques.
Advertising often makes use of short texts #45; whether in print or broadcast media #45; where every word has to work hard (in this respect very much like poetry). It is very common for the advertiser to use words that belong to some other special lexicon, as if to establish a rapport with the target audience. So a 2002 television advertisement for John Smith's Bitter (beer) opens as if it were a broadcast of an international diving event (the advertisement appeared shortly after the 2002 Commonwealth Games). After divers from other countries execute technically perfect dives, the resume italics British diver jumps in, making a great splash and almost losing his trunks, to write an essay comparing, rapturous applause and perfect marks from the judges. The commentator utters the phrase, which is the slogan of the music magazine coursework campaign: top bombing. The non#45;standard noun, bombing , suggests something which is typically male, fun and demotic #45; it is unpretentious, aimed at people who have traditional ideas of bitter as a down#45;to#45;earth and blokeish drink, in contrast to continental lagers or drinks with other social pretensions. It is very easy to find special lexis in any advertisement. But in explaining how it works, you will need to think about how far the copywriter is using a particular register, or feature of style, which in turn is how to write comparing, related to the product brand and image, and the attitudes or values of the audience. Look at as media music coursework, the following examples of extracts of how to write comparing text from adverts, culled from a quick look through a selection of resume formater newspapers and magazines (the product and an essay comparing the producer appear in parenthesis after the advertisement text): The British Airways Sale. Essay On Are Than? Go on.
Take off. (Reduced#45;price flights/British Airways) Imagine a healthier fitter you. (Tanita body fat monitor) Move Mountains. (Sim City 4 PC/Dixons) Not so much a price as an write an essay, invitation. (Flights to Spain/Iberia Airways) Every year 39,200 women are newly diagnosed with breast cancer. (Medical insurance/AXA PPP healthcare) Go Mobile. (Voyager laptop computer/Evesham Technology) A win, win, win, win, win, win situation. And Download? (6 months' free business banking/Barclays) Demon slashes all broadband set#45;up fees. How To An Essay Two Novels? (Broadband Internet service/Demon) Not even the taxman can catch it. (Saab 95 saloon) We don't need your tears we need teachers urgently (Voluntary Service Overseas) Lose weight, the healthy herbal way. (Weight Loss Aid/Herbal Concepts) Great tasting nutritious supplements. (Build#45;Up Nutrition/Nestle) Helps reduce and overcome smoking at your own pace. (NicoBloc) Always on call. (Day Night Nurse) Technology with style. (DWF614SS dishwasher/Smeg) It only takes a few seconds to club essays, realize a diesel can have Va Va Voom. (Renault Clio) Kurt Geiger for her. Paul Smith for him. Tax#45;free prices for write an essay, you. (Airport shopping/BAA) Authentically French mellow cheese. (Cheese/Port Salut) Having your own ringtone saves you answering someone else's call. (Call Sign/BT) Look for the lexical words ( nouns, verbs, adjectives and music magazine adverbs ). What ideas do they suggest? Does the text suggest the ideas of good value (low price), of style, status, sophistication, convenience, fitness and so on? The Iberian Airways advertisement repeats the idea found in many airline ads of write an essay good value, while at the same time suggesting something personal about visiting Spain, through the resume italics noun invitation #45; which we associate with parties and celebrations. The advertisement for BAA's Airport shopping works in a similar way: it refers to the low (tax#45;free) prices, yet targets its audience very precisely by naming the fashionable brands on sale #45; if we do not know what Kurt Geiger or Paul Smith makes, then the advert will pass us by. There is also an write comparing two novels, assumption that the brands appeal to the different sexes, which works in that the writer of this guide recognizes Paul Smith as a designer of formal clothes, but does not know Kurt Geiger. (The advertisement also has a three#45;part structure to point up the special lexis .) The advertisement for BT's Call Sign service will appeal to a wide audience, but until we know what a ringtone is, we are not likely to wish to have our own.
The meaning of the noun is self#45;explanatory #45; but here it moves from resume formater its original context of use (mobile phones) to how to, the related context of fixed telephones #45; so the advertisement targets householders rather than predominantly young people with spending money. The Barclays advertisement uses a phrase that is a cliché or buzzword among business people: a win#45;win situation implies an essay our forefather, arrangement that benefits people at either end, and challenges the received wisdom that if X gains then Y loses. So in using the phrase, the advertiser keeps to a register familiar to the business customer, while printing the adjective six times to how to comparing two novels, indicate the number of months for which the free offer runs. Technology with style is one example of resume formater a pattern familiar here #45; that suggests that the product has two things that the audience may think to be normally contradictory or oxymoronic (the idea of having your cake and write an essay comparing eating it). Sometimes the opposition is fight, of price and quality (as in the claim that good food costs less at Sainsburys). How To Write Comparing Two Novels? Here the advertiser contrasts functionality and aesthetic appeal, and claims that the brand in question (Smeg) has both of these at once. Similarly the advertisement for NicoBloc combines the and download idea of efficaciousness (it works) with that of how to write its not being too difficult for the would#45;be non#45;smoker to stop smoking. This appears in we happier than, the suggestion of reducing (consumption) before stopping altogether. The verb overcome has connotations of victory in battle, rather than the breaking of write comparing a habit or a simple change in behaviour. These is probably very apt, since the target audience for this advertisement may well have an extreme view, and resume formater see the attempt to how to, stop smoking as akin to a great military action. (The advertisement comes from Healthy Times a magazine distributed, free to essay on are we happier our forefather, readers, by the retail chemists UniChem #45; so the audience has already been targeted.
Advertisements for products that help people stop smoking do of course appear in more general contexts, as in TV advertising.) This same contrast also appears in the Renault Clio advertisement #45; but here the lexis is more explicitly making the distinction, in diesel and Va Va Voom . The adjective diesel has immediate denotations of the known properties of this engine type #45; the engine has a longer life, is more dependable and gives better fuel economy, but takes longer to an essay comparing two novels, reach high speeds. The advertiser wants to suggest that the car nonetheless has a combination of style, flair, power and youth appeal (not normally associated with diesel engines). Rather than use any of these words, Renault has invented its own compound abstract noun #45; Va Va Voom . As Media Magazine? This is an essay two novels, alliterative, and has an interesting sound #45; being quite memorable. The advertisers develop the image by association with, for example, the soccer player Thierry Henry #45; who is French, but lives and works in and download, England, and how to write an essay comparing is exceptionally talented and athletic. At the same time, M. Henry is shown in situations that suggest a caring and we happier than our forefather feminine side #45; with pets, sitting at how to write an essay comparing, home among soft furnishings, for instance. In this way the advertisements appeal to potential drivers of both sexes, and are highly specific to one make and model of car. By inventing the word, the studies as coursework advertisers are able to write two novels, adapt it so that it carries exactly the essay we happier our forefather suggestion they wish to make to the audience #45; it should have no prior negative connotations . Write An Essay Comparing? One of the advertisements playfully suggests that the new term is resume formater, part of the standard English lexicon by asking what is the French for Va Va Voom ? Does advertising have distinctive grammar ? Yes #45; in several ways. How To An Essay? First, advertising, like poetry, often allows the author more licence to studies, depart from standard forms than in other kinds of text. And second, it makes use of how to write comparing short forms, of studies as coursework what Professor Crystal calls minor sentences . There is a connection with pragmatics , therefore, in that the how to write comparing advertiser makes very great assumptions about the audience.
It is acceptable to as media music magazine, puzzle or intrigue in ways that would not be at write an essay, all appropriate if the audience really depended on the advertisers' information. One very common technique is for and download, the author to set nouns and how to write comparing noun phrases or verbs on their own, where the reader or listener supplies the resume italics missing elements by conjecture #45; rather as in write an essay two novels, interpreting notes, so that, for instance, does what it says on on are our forefather the tin is understood as this product meets the claims that are printed on the side of the tin. How To Write An Essay Comparing Two Novels? This form may sometimes but not always resemble the forms used in headlines, so that it is especially suitable for music coursework, adverts in write an essay two novels, newspapers. Here are some examples taken more or less at random from a trawl through some daily newspapers (January 2003): Happy New Rate Deals to studies as coursework, remember Currys sale/Free delivery plus Buy now pay 2004 EMAIL, INTERNET TEXT MESSAGES Winter welcome Free servicing for 3 years Summer seats on sale new year new fares The confidence to succeed Precious metal for precious little. On their own, these do not tell you how typical they are.
A casual mental count suggests that, in these newspapers, the advertisements in which the write first line (or text nearest the resume italics top of the display box) is not a grammatically complete structure (sentence or main clause) outnumber those that are complete in comparing two novels, a proportion of at least three to one. But a more complete survey from a bigger sample would be a suitable task for research. Among the few complete structures are: i want extra MONEY Apply now How do you see yourself? Look at the clues Travel with Eurotunnel from just £5. In the 1960s advertisers would often use grammatical conversion , taking a brand name (a noun) and using it as adjective, adverb or verb . This tendency has recently returned as in these examples: There is resume formater, no attempt to alter the form of the how to write an essay word to correspond to its grammatical category, such as by adding an affix like #45;ish, #45;ic or #45;esque , nor of resume formater using an extra word: that's so like Suzuki how like Heineken. In the UK, there are some state controls on what advertisers may or may not claim about their products.
Advertisers, therefore, often exploit the possibilities of connotation (suggested meaning) rather than strict denotation (stated meaning) and imply that products have various merits, without saying so explicitly. One common way of doing so is to use pseudo#45;technical lexis or scientific names for how to write comparing two novels, everyday things. However, this is not desirable in all contexts. In cosmetic and pharmacological products, most advertisers will use scientific lexis to suggest efficacy, as in these examples: Perle de Caviar draws the essential elements of fight club essays long#45;lasting beauty and write an essay comparing a youthful complexion from the depths of the fight club essays ocean. trace elements, amino acids, mineral salts, iodine and plankton. Combining a perfect balance of these precious elements, each Perle de Caviar product provides an intense thalassotherapy treatment designed to hydrate and regenerate. Regime elevates the use of cosmetics to something complex, while the ® symbol suggests that there is something technically sophisticated in the product. It may really simply denote the comparing registration of the trade name to protect against misuse. This pseudo science is not simply found in the advertisements proper but in the joined#45;up marketing, so that people who apply and demonstrate the products are beauty therapists #45; which may imply similar learning, academic qualifications and status to, for example, speech therapists or physiotherapists.
The beauty therapist wears a white garment like a lab coat, implying some kind of likeness to a pharmacist. Resume Formater? Compare the examples above with one designed for a scientifically qualified readership. This is an advertisement for Xalatan a 0.00#37;5 eye drop solution of write an essay two novels latanoprost, licensed for use in March 2002, and advertised in The Pharmaceutical Journal of November 2002. The advertisement includes details of nine references to the product in essay we happier than, published scientific sources, followed by detailed prescribing information, divided under standard headings such as Presentation, Indication, Dosage and Administration, Contra#45;indications, Precautions, Side Effects, Interactions, and how to write two novels information about the drug's effects in Pregnancy, Lactation and for Driving, Overdosage, Pharmaceutical Precautions, Legal Category, Packaging Quantities and Basic NHS price and details of the Product Licence Number and on are we happier our forefather Holder . This degree of information distinguishes licensed pharmaceutical products from beauty treatments. In the how to write an essay two novels latter case, the advertisers might wish us to believe that Laboratoires Garnier and resume formater the Ponds Institute are comparable to medical research institutions. In the west, Ponds appears to have dropped references to the fictitious institute #45; a search on the Web leads to some amusing spoofs, though the Ponds Institute is an essay, still used in advertisements in the developing world. A register of pharmaceutical laboratories in France (at www.pharmaxie.com) does not show Laboratoires Garnier under entries for the letter g. In relation to food and drink, however, advertisers are usually keen to stress its naturalness. So while the product packaging will list all additives, flavourings and resume formater colourings, advertisements will identify the brand and basic food content, as in how to write an essay two novels, Filippo Berio/The World's Finest Olive Oil/Filippo Berio/Olive Oil/Pure Genius #45; the brand name and the principal ingredient appear twice, along with the resume formater adjective pure, to suggest the write an essay comparing two novels idea that there is resume italics, nothing but the natural oil in the bottle that the advertisement depicts.
A full#45;page advertisement for Cobra beer, in Sainsburys Magazine for January 2003, shows lots of blank space, a small photograph of two bottles of Cobra, the an essay two novels Web site address, and this text: If you like Cobra,/drink Cobra and The less gassy bottled beer that puts you under no pressure. There are some exceptions to film as coursework, this rule of thumb, however #45; vitamins and how to write an essay comparing two novels mono#45;unsaturated fats, for example #45; which advertisers do sometimes mention. Advertisers occupy the spaces where we are typically attending to other things #45; watching television, reading or browsing a magazine on the way to resume formater, work, looking at posters on an underground train, platform or escalator, or from a car, bus or bicycle. They will try to appeal to all our senses and different language processing faculties at the same time. It is quite common for a TV advertisement to feature any or all of these at the same time: musical track, sound FX, voiceover, dialogue spoken by character or celebrity in or out of role, static text, moving text or text spelling out letter by letter on screen, with or without extra graphic embellishment . What we do, if anything with these, may vary from person to person #45; but is something one can research. You can do this, for how to an essay, example, by showing advertisements to resume, people (categorizing the people by whether they have seen the advertisement before, and how often, as well as by other things like sex and age), then asking them whether they think the advert contains an example of each of the kinds of text that the researcher has identified. (It is possible to add some that are not there, as distractor questions, to eliminate some kinds of respondent.) A very good pragmatic approach is to consider the position and viewpoint that the how to an essay comparing two novels audience is being asked to essay on are we happier than, adopt. Write An Essay Comparing? This can be something very simple, as in an assumption that we all want to on are our forefather, save money. This assumption is very widespread among advertisers and marketers.
Regularly someone telephones me to ask if I would like to save a given figure on my utility bills. My stock response is to say that I do not wish to save this amount (or even a lot more) to how to write an essay comparing two novels, change something with which I am currently content, thinking it a fair price for a reliable service. Resume Italics? This often leads the caller to an essay two novels, question whether I really mean what I say, and to revert to music magazine, a script that stresses this potential saving. By no means all advertisements make this assumption. How To Write An Essay Comparing? Others assume that the reader or listener has anxieties about his or her self#45;image, and that he or she can become more attractive by wearing the watch or clothes advertised, or driving a different car. An extreme (and offensive) example was a TV advert that featured a young man mounting a supermarket trolley and resume formater racing it around a supermarket. A female voiceover spoke the phrase: Inadequate car. (The advert is offensive in suggesting that the choice or ownership of a marque of car is the measure of a human being.) Various advertisers of an essay two novels mobile phones try to persuade existing owners that they need to replace a model that is not stylish and a likely cause of resume italics ridicule, as in an advertisement series (shown on UK television) for Phones4U. Write An Essay? In these adverts the comedian Paul Merton speaks a voiceover: We'll find the fight essays right phone for you. Does the advertiser consider how far the audience may resist the notion that there is a right phone for us? A more objective approach to pragmatics might be to consider what grammatical person or form of address advertisers use, if they try to speak directly to us.
Do they use imperatives (Look at an essay, the clues), do they make statements (We don't serve lobster in studies as coursework, the directors' dining room) or do they plant noun#45;phrases (Free servicing for an essay comparing, 3 years) and leave us to work out what to resume italics, do about these? Discourse structures in advertising. Advertising is how to write two novels, highly derivative and imitative (if not parasitic or plagiarizing) in the genres, text types and structures it uses. In effect, any kind of text that exists for any other purpose may be the resume formater blueprint for an advertisement. (This is not a one#45;way relationship: dramatic narratives and comparing two novels comic animations often borrow structures and techniques that first appeared in advertising. And there are many examples of television or print fiction that started life as advertisements #45; the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles in the 1990s or Torchie the Battery Boy in the 1960s.) A very common general approach (for any broadcast medium and cinema) is to create narratives #45; which may be self#45;contained or episodic. Resume Italics? While the advertiser may not wish to how to write an essay two novels, point out that these are narratives, this is not always the case.
A series of advertisements for the BMW Mini car uses the format of stories with a plot consisting of three or four statements, read as voiceover with accompanying action #45; the film subject of each sentence is usually New Mini, and each example ends with: The end. It's a Mini adventure. At the opposite extreme would be a series of advertisements produced by the agency McCann Erickson for Nescafe's Gold Blend brand of instant coffee. This campaign ran from November 1987 to 1993, containing twelve episodes released at the rate of one or two a year. The agency produced a compilation of the first eleven episodes before screening the conclusion. The story was adapted as a romantic novel, entitled Love Over Gold . An even longer#45;running series featured the OXO couple Katie and Philip, in how to write comparing two novels, a series of domestic scenes. Resume Formater? The Gold Blend series may have prompted the advertisers of the how to comparing Renault Clio to make a series of advertisements featuring a French father and daughter (Papa and Nicole) into a more coherent narrative, ending with a wedding, which sends up the classic film The Graduate . In this advertisement, two entertainers, then at resume italics, the height of how to write comparing their popularity (Vic Reeves and Bob Mortimer) played the our forefather jilted groom and the successful old flame who runs off with the girl. How To An Essay Two Novels? A Channel 4 poll showed this series to be the most popular of all UK TV adverts, while other studies have claimed that the series was the most successful in terms of the audience's ability to identify the and download product advertised. As styles of two novels TV broadcast have developed (say lifestyle programmes or reality shows), so advertisements have moved to emulate them. So we see the fight essays home makeover and DIY show mirrored by advertisements for Homebase, in which Neil Morrissey and Lesley Ash appear as a couple (loosely resembling the characters they played in the sitcom Men Behaving Badly ) while post#45;watershed documentaries about sexual behaviour clearly have inspired the campaign (starting in 2002) for Pot Noodle (It's dirty but you want it) in which a young man visits various clubs and how to write an essay comparing two novels asks young women in underwear or bondage gear whether they do Pot Noodle, or in which a young woman (seemingly a girlfriend) accuses the film studies young man of how to comparing two novels indulging in film studies, his Pot Noodle habit. You can find many advertisements by going to how to, the Web sites of the on are we happier than our forefather various agencies, or looking for named directors of two novels commercials.
But two big portals worth visiting are: As a critique of advertising, you should look at Adbusters , at adbusters.org/home. The features of political language vary, as do its purposes. Where politicians interact with society generally, their purposes may be, to persuade voters with a party loyalty to turn out to vote; to move a floating voter's party allegiance, or to essay on are than, make us adopt general political or social attitudes, so we support a given policy. How To Write? Politicians may also use particular language forms when answering journalists' questions. Where politicians engage in language interactions with other politicians, they may use other particular forms #45; either loosely or under the rule of an arbiter, such as the Speakers in the UK House of Commons and the US House of Representatives. Resume Italics? And finally, a contemporary feature of political language use is what is known as spin #45; providing information to the media in such a way as to favour a desired interpretation, not explicitly stated. Persuasive language techniques, especially in speech, take their name from the Greek noun for a professional speaker, rhetor (the Latin equivalent is orator ). Many of these techniques are found in written records of speeches in the ancient world #45; such as Jesus' use, in Matthew's and Luke's gospels of parable, antithesis and how to comparing two novels patterned speech which even survive translation into resume formater, English: Blessed are those who mourn, | for they shall be comforted.
Blessed are the pure in write an essay, heart, | for they shall see God. We have similarly ancient records of political speeches, such as those of Demosthenes, that show the resume italics use of techniques that are as effective today, as they were in the past. Max Atkinson, of how to an essay two novels Oxford University, suggests that political speechwriters consistently rely on resume italics a range of powerful techniques: alliteration, allusion, antithesis (inversion), asking questions and suggesting answers, lists (especially of how to write an essay comparing two novels three items), metaphor (especially extended metaphor), parallelism, parenthesis, repetition and redundant questioning. To see these in film studies, action, you should look at an essay comparing two novels, examples of speeches written for politicians, and find out how these work. Obtaining example data for this purpose is very easy. You can use the official record of the UK House of Commons. (This is called Hansard after Thomas Curson Hansard, who began producing reports unofficially, and put his name to resume formater, the record in 1829.
Hansard's reports were so accurate that they became the standard record on merit. At the start of the 20th century the UK government established an Official Report. It dropped the Hansard name, but popular usage preserved it, and in write an essay comparing two novels, 1943 the name was officially reinstated, even though the resume italics report now has no connection with the two novels Hansard family.) Hansard 's reports are available in and download, print and on how to write an essay comparing the World Wide Web, as are records of proceedings in the parliaments of many other countries (which also use the name Hansard ). Resume And Download? In the write comparing two novels UK, the BBC has a digital television channel ( BBC Parliament ) that broadcasts debates and meetings of select committees #45; from which you can make recordings and resume formater transcripts. The federal government and write an essay state governments in resume formater, the USA also publish the text of speeches, such as the President's Inaugural Address and State of the Union speeches. Once you have found your transcript, what can you do with it? One exercise is to look for how to an essay, rhetorical techniques in action. Consider this extract from essay on are than our forefather a speech made by the late Harold Wilson, the Labour leader, before the 1974 UK General Election: This election is not about the two novels miners; not about the militants; not about the power of the resume formater unions: it's about the disastrous failure of write an essay comparing three and a half years of Conservative government which has turned Britain from the path of fight club essays prosperity to the road of ruin. What is Mr.
Wilson doing here? We find. repetition of the formula not about, and antithesis between is not about and it's about. Path of prosperity and road of ruin repeat the same form, use alliteration and are related metaphors. In John F. Kennedy's Inaugural Address from how to January 20, 1961, we find an extended metaphor (of lighting a fire to give light to the world) and a concluding antithesis: The energy, the faith, the devotion which we bring to this endeavour will light our country and all who serve it, and the glow from that fire can truly light the world. And so, my fellow Americans, ask not, what your country can do for you. Ask what you can do for on are we happier than, your country.
The last two sentences use many of the same lexemes , but transpose (switch) the subject and the indirect object. (You can find the whole text of the speech and an audio recording [Real Audio] to download at an essay two novels, the JFK Library and Museum, hosted by the University of Massachusetts Department of Computer Science at: For a humorous allusion, consider Margaret Thatcher's: To those waiting with bated breath for that favourite modern catchphrase the 'U#45; turn', I have only one thing to say: You turn, if you like; the lady's not for turning! There is wordplay on the homophones U#45;turn/you turn, and a reference to Mrs. Thatcher's Iron Lady nickname, while the final phrase is a painful pun on the title of essay than Christopher Fry's play (about a witch): The Lady's Not for Burning . Ronald Reagan's speechwriter, Peggy Noonan, borrowed an image from John Gillespie Magee's poem High Flight to explain the disaster in 1986 when the Challenger space shuttle exploded: We will never forget them (the crew), nor the last time we saw them this morning, as they prepared for their journey and waved goodbye, and slipped the surly bonds of earth, to touch the face of God. Now look at these longer extracts (from which some of the write comparing examples above come), and resume italics see if you can find other ways in which the writer (not the same person as the how to write speaker, usually) uses specific techniques to achieve particular effects. In the long history of the world only a few generations have been granted the rle of defending freedom in its hour of maximum danger. I do not shrink from this responsibility; I welcome it.
I do not believe that any of us would exchange places with any other people or any other generation. The energy, the and download faith, the comparing devotion which we bring to this endeavour will light our country and all who serve it, and fight the glow from that fire can truly light the world. And so, my fellow Americans, ask not, what your country can do for you. How To Write An Essay Comparing Two Novels? Ask what you can do for your country. I'll tell you what happens with impossible promises: you start with far#45;fetched resolutions; they are then pickled into a rigid dogma cold. And you go through the years, sticking to that: outdated, misplaced, irrelevant to the real needs. Resume? And you end in the grotesque chaos of a Labour council #45; a Labour council #45; hiring taxis to scuttle round a city, handing out redundancy notices to its own workers. I'm telling you now: no matter how entertaining, how fulfilling to short#45;term egos #45; I'll tell you and you'll listen #45; I'm telling you, I'm telling you #45; you can't play politics with people's jobs and people's services. Parliamentary and unparliamentary language. In the UK Parliament, a range of special language features marks proceedings.
These include: a special lexicon and forms of address, disallowing personally abusive epithets use of special structures Parliamentary privilege #45; freedom from liability for slander rules for taking and holding turns procedures for write an essay comparing two novels, supportive and and download explicatory interventions submission to the arbitration of the how to an essay comparing chairman or woman, the film as coursework Speaker and write an essay two novels Deputy Speakers. David Crystal ( Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language , p. We Happier Our Forefather? 378) suggests also that maxims of conversational theory do not apply to parliamentary dialogue. An Essay Comparing Two Novels? Other participants or commentators do not assume that speakers are telling the truth, are speaking clearly or with relevance. This may need some clarification. In some ways, debate is like social conversation #45; people speak in sequence, respond to each other and resume italics develop ideas. And outside of occasions when MPs adopt ritual enmities (Prime Minister's Question Time or the presenting of a new draft bill, say), the comparing speakers may follow cooperative rules and observe conversational maxims. But they have other motivations than the success of the conversation #45; and (in pragmatic terms) may want the exchange not to be successful, that is in coming to an accommodation. For an exhaustive discussion of how different theoretical models usefully explain parliamentary discourse, have a look at Chris Christie's Politeness and the Linguistic Construction of Gender in Parliament: An Analysis of Transgressions and Apology Behaviour at www.shu.ac.uk/wpw/politeness. In this article, Chris Christie effectively qualifies Professor Crystal's assertion, as she does see what happens if one uses models from Pragmatics (specifically politeness theory) to explain Parliamentary exchanges. The UK parliament has a s pecial lexicon #45; something you will find in the political systems of many states. This includes terms denoting the institutions, practices and officials of the parliament #45; things like bench (back bench, cross bench, front bench), Black Rod, speaker, under#45;secretary, whip (noun and verb).
This lexicon is very extensive (there are many guides available to explain the meanings of terms). Some are descriptive and more or less self#45;explanatory, such as: Committee of Selection, Disclaiming a Peerage and Prime Minister's Questions (though here we need to know that the questions are asked of or to, but not by, the Prime Minister, who gives the answers). Others are opaque #45; we need to know more information in order to understand the and download meaning, as with: 1922 Committee, Another Place, Chiltern Hundreds, Hansard and how to an essay comparing I Spy Strangers . You can find explanations of these and resume italics other terms on various A to Z guides, but if you want to know the meaning of these particular terms they are as follows ( Hansard is explained above): Below is how to comparing, a list of further words and phrases which have a special meaning in the context of Parliament. Music Magazine Coursework? How many do you know? Check the BBC's, or Parliament's own, A to Z guide to find out what they mean. Go to: Any hours motion. Below the how to write comparing two novels gangway.
Cabinet Office Secretariat. Chairman of Ways and Means. Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. Chancellor of the exchequer. Chief whip (government) Clerk of the Parliaments. Contempt of Parliament. Crossing the Floor.
Disclaiming a peerage. Early Day Motion. Father of the House. I Spy Strangers. Journal of the Commons. Leader of the House. Early Day Motion. Father of the House. I Spy Strangers. Journal of the Commons.
Leader of the House. Lord Privy Seal. Orders in as media music magazine coursework, Council. Orders of the Day. Parliamentary Private Secretaries (PPSs) Points Of Order. Prime Minister's Questions. Printed Paper Office. Private Bill Office. Private Member's Bills. Private Notice Question.
Public Accounts Committee. Public Bill Office. Readings of how to write two novels Bills. Recesses and Recalls. Serjeant at Arms. Ten Minute Rule Bill. Forms of address may confuse the outsider. Simple forms include my honourable Friend, the honourable Gentleman/Lady or the honourable Member for Finchley . These denote an MP simply #45; other members are supposed to know who represents each constituency (electoral area). A friend is usually of the same parliamentary party as the person who uses this epithet.
If the fight MP is a Privy Councillor (usually a former minister), then he or she is the right honourable Lady or Gentleman . If the MP is write, a barrister (as many are) he or she may be a learned Lady or Gentleman . The Speaker and Deputy Speaker chair debates. Remarks should be primarily addressed to them, using the formula Madam/Mr. Speaker or Madam/Mr. Deputy Speaker. For example, here is a comment from Hansard for 21 January 2003, in which Mike O'Brien (Parliamentary Under#45;Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs) refers to Ann Clwyd: I pay tribute to the work of my hon. Friend the Member for Cynon Valley. (In Hansard hon. is the as media music magazine coursework standard abbreviation for honourable.) Directly addressing another person with the comparing second person pronoun (You) is disallowed and studies as coursework may earn a rebuke from the how to an essay comparing Speaker, as in this exchange: Mr. Prescott: You might be #45; perhaps that is resume, new new Conservatism #45; but you should have a chat to your mate on how to comparing the Front Bench. Mr.
Deputy Speaker: Order. I am sorry to stop the Secretary of State's speech, but I would be grateful if he would use the correct parliamentary language. In this case the Speaker signals his disapproval and calls Mr. Prescott to attention with the call: Order. Our Forefather? This is technically a command , even though on how to write an essay comparing two novels occasions a rowdy House ignores it initially. Interestingly, he says nothing about the mate on the Front Bench #45; so Mr. Resume Formater? Prescott might have escaped rebuke, had he said, the write an essay two novels honourable member for North Wiltshire should have a chat with his mate on the Front Bench, the resume italics [right] honourable member for X. Mr. Prescott's error is to two novels, use second person you, and speak directly to Mr.
Gray. However, in choosing among possible alternative forms in a given context, speakers may illustrate pragmatic rules or principles #45; perhaps using a polite formula to cover hostility or aggression, while in resume, a naturally friendly exchange a less explicitly courteous form may be acceptable. Also, even when a speaker refers to his or her honourable friend, he or she is technically addressing the Speaker, while the honourable friend is in the third person. In the House of Commons speakers may assert things which elsewhere would allow others to sue them for libel #45; this is Parliamentary Privilege . How To? On the other hand swearing (of almost any degree) and calling other speakers liars are formally disallowed. The Speaker asks any Member who breaches these rules to withdraw the fight remark. If he or she persists, the Speaker may ban the offender from the House for how to write comparing two novels, a given period. Resume Formater? The Commons has other rules defining contempts, such as giving false evidence to a Select Committee, threatening MPs about how they vote , and offering bribes . To vote, members go through a lobby. If they support a motion, they go through the Aye (yes) lobby ; to oppose it, they enter the how to write No lobby . To give the result, the Speaker states the resume italics number of votes for Aye and how to No , and says that either the Ayes or the Noes have it. In a debate, the Speaker of the House calls MPs to take a turn . The holder of the turn may allow another speaker to interrupt his or her speaking. Coursework? The new would#45;be speaker may ask, Will you give way? The MP who is speaking may agree to an essay comparing, this, using the form: I will give way.
Etiquette dictates that the resume italics new speaker should make a brief contribution before allowing the first speaker back. This is a highly formalized version of turn taking. Of course, on many occasions, the how to write two novels person who has the floor will refuse to allow the interruption, for reasons of time or policy. MPs may not read aloud written speeches during debate, though they may use notes. They are not allowed to read newspapers, magazines and letters.
They may not make use of resume formater visual aids, such as diagrams and maps. Short slogans, like those in advertisements, often mark the how to write speech of politicians answering questions from journalists (or their opponents). These are repeated in such a way as to persuade the listener of their truth or reason. For example, in defending policies which apparently increased unemployment in the UK but raised the value of the currency, Mrs. Essay On Are We Happier? Thatcher coined the phrase: There is comparing, no alternative. There obviously were alternative suggested policies but denying their existence made them seem impractical.
Whether or not they were really impractical is not the linguist's concern: we are interested in the linguistic means by which Mrs. Thatcher justified her dismissal of them. A very simple but effective sound bite is the resume italics name New Labour . New is well known as an effective qualifier in how to write, advertising, and the UK Labour Party in the 1990s was keen to distance itself from the (supposedly unelectable) Labour Party of the on are we happier than 1980s. Constant repetition of the name made it stick. The Conservative Party, then in government, attacked New Labour in the 1997 election campaign with the slogan New Labour, New Danger. Arguably, this reinforced the how to write idea that Labour had changed and helped the party win the election. (broadcast, print, new technologies) While any text may be influenced by resume italics, the maker's preconceptions and world view, many media texts arise from an explicit intention of promoting given values or attitudes, whether sincerely, because the author believes in them, or cynically, to attract an audience. Write An Essay Comparing? As students of language, you have no interest in this #45; your concern is the film language features in which these attitudes are embodied or expressed . How To An Essay Comparing? It may be helpful not to think of these preconceptions as bias, since this implies disapproval. They are, rather, the speaker's or writer's outlook, assumptions or editorial stance . You should be aware that certain media texts proclaim and essay we happier than admit these underlying attitudes #45; opinion columns or current affairs broadcasts explicitly adopt such a stance.
But others, such as reporting, may aspire to neutrality, yet display the author's value systems by choices of lexis or current metaphors . For example: Do we read of refugees, economic migrants or asylum seekers ? Are they bogus , and are they passing through open (or about#45;to#45;be#45;open) floodgates ? (How often do you meet floodgates in a literal, rather than metaphorical sense?) Are those who resist the state guerrillas, freedom fighters or terrorists ? Does a writer introduce ideas of legality to confer (dis)approval, so legal intoxicants (alcohol, tobacco) are distinguished from those that are illegal, and so referred to as drugs . New media texts may reveal very different attitudes, but in similar ways #45; they, too, have distinctive lexis and metaphors. Individual expression rather than central editorial control may permit greater language diversity. Perhaps influential power is less monolithic, but appears in trends and fashions. There is plenty of how to space for critics #45; the World Wide Web abounds with sites that proclaim why X sucks , where X is a powerful business corporation.
Lexical choices reflect shifts in subjective meaning or connotation or contemporary attitudes, so that they carry a sense of approval (approbation) or disapproval (pejoration). They may also be euphemistic , appearing as an acceptable substitute for some word or phrase that the writer or speaker thinks too strong or direct #45; as when the inadvertent killing of soldiers by their own allies or compatriots is friendly fire, and the killing of civilians is collateral damage. Political correctness (as a linguistic rather than social attitude) represents an attempt to find neutral terms. While PC language is often a subject for ridicule, it arises from a sensitivity to the connotations or implications of more common forms. It is film as coursework, worth paying attention to recurring forms #45; how often does anyone talk about addressing the issues (in the loose sense of talking about things or sorting them out). Context is how to an essay comparing two novels, very important #45; some areas of the media will use traditional and resume and download quite literary forms to suggest seriousness and an essay dignity, as, say, on resume italics Alistair Cooke's Letter from America , broadcast on an essay comparing BBC Radio 4. Essay We Happier? Presenters of write an essay comparing two novels children's programmes on as media music magazine coursework BBC1, BBC2 and CBBC will use forms closer to how to write an essay two novels, those of on are we happier than our forefather everyday speech among young people #45; or will they? Perhaps this is generally true, but they will have their own taboos #45; so they will not normally refer to sex, violence, gambling and write two novels alcohol, or swear and blaspheme. We can apply the theories of pragmatics to language use in fight club essays, the media #45; but should note some special features of how to write an essay comparing two novels how they work. And Download? A simple example might be a political interview, broadcast on radio or television.
What the comparing listener or viewer might miss is an understanding of how far the speakers are aware of the wider audience , and how far the studies questions and answers are, or are not, spontaneous, as the interviewee may have seen them before the how to interview is recorded. Another complicating factor is the effect of editing , where an interview is recorded for later broadcast #45; this can remove the sense of two or more people observing the cooperative principle or exhibiting politeness . In the case of broadcast texts generally, one should consider the relationship between the author or the publisher and resume italics the audience. Take news broadcasts, for example. We are familiar with the convention of how to an essay comparing two novels a newsreader's sitting down at and download, or behind a desk, but not all newsreaders do this. Some newsreaders greet the audience: Good evening, here is the news, while others say This is write two novels, [name of news organization] news or simply: The six o'clock news from the BBC. Even things like the newsreaders' clothes may be important #45; suits and ties are common (for men) in the west and in the developing world, but in some countries newsreaders wear traditional or culturally significant clothes. Resume Formater? This is comparing, something very easy to study: record a series of club essays broadcasts on radio and TV over a day or two #45; if you have digital TV and how to write an essay comparing radio, you can record bulletins from a much wider range. Then study each and note down how they do certain things.
For example: How many are there #45; one, two, more and of what sex? What do they wear? Do they sit, stand, move, stay still and so on? Do they acknowledge each other? How do they introduce reports from other correspondents? How do they address the unseen audience? Do we see filmed footage (on TV news)?
Do we see any graphic images or captions? Do we see text giving people's names? These are just a few ideas #45; you should be able to think of many more. Resume And Download? Once you have noted down the two novels information, you might like to arrange it, say in a table. Resume Italics? Now you can consider what, if anything, this tells you about the kinds of interaction going on. To take one example Channel 4's seven o'clock (p.m.) news bulletin on Saturday February 8th, 2003 carried a report on the pay rise awarded to the Lord Chancellor, Derry Irvine. How To An Essay? To show the as media music magazine value of an essay two novels this rise (£22,000), the broadcaster used on#45;screen graphics showing what this amount would buy (a teacher's salary, so many bottles of claret and other things), while displaying an animated image of a fruit#45;machine bearing the name: Derry's Jackpot. Leaving aside the question of how the viewer may feel about the news story here, we may consider how the use of these techniques affects that view.
The image of the fruit machine may be significant to some parts of the audience, but may give offence to fight club, others, who disapprove of gambling. We may ask whether the broadcaster should use any images or animations to suggest the idea of an unmerited benefit and whether the fruit machine animation makes the story clearer. Should the story be left to speak for how to comparing, itself? Or is some kind of editorial slant inevitable? We can apply similar considerations to other spoken media texts #45; say the way in which a programme host talks to a guest on a phone#45;in quiz or similar activity. On a TV game show, for example, we may see the host's supporting the participants to avoid their being unduly humiliated or, worse, not keeping to the programme's format and structure. Recent broadcasts, of the so#45;called Reality TV genre, are quite different #45; in many of these, there is fight, no such protection or nurturing of the participants. Instead they are subject to insult by the hosts or other participants. It is relatively easy to study grammar , by looking at very specific features of language data such as verb tenses and pronoun choices #45; these can become conventional in write an essay, certain forms or genres, and harden into on are than, a kind of style.
So, with broadcast news, we will be familiar with the forms in: Fifty#45;three people died when their bus collided with a train in central China early this morning. The clause structure is subject + verb (past imperfect tense) + adverbial . This is an effective model or structure because the grammatical subject also signals the subject of the story (the victims of the crash), then says what happened, then gives information about write two novels how and why it happened, or further information about the circumstances of the essay we happier than our forefather event. Write? If we look at. The Prime Minister flew to studies, France this afternoon for how to write an essay, a meeting with President Chirac. we can see that this is resume formater, more or less the an essay two novels same structure. Some kinds of as media text, like reportage, use formulas like this, because the writers work at how to an essay two novels, speed and are meant to publish the fight story rather than create literary work. Do persuasive media texts have distinctive grammatical forms that reinforce their tendency to persuade? Perhaps.
What might these be? Well, I have just used one in the two previous sentences #45; taking what might be declarative sentences and recasting them as questions and answers . Qualifiers can be used, as their name implies to how to comparing, qualify the meaning of verbs and resume italics nouns #45; so that our view is affected #45; which really takes us back into how to an essay comparing, semantics and stylistics . Are there distinctive structures for persuasive texts in the media? First, we may want to identify what such persuasive media texts might be. Some are easy to essay on are we happier, name, as they are explicitly intended to alter our view #45; as with party election or political broadcasts, editorials in newspapers and campaigns, such as the campaign in 2001 by the News of the how to an essay World (a UK Sunday newspaper) to introduce Sarah's Law (the equivalent of the US Megan's Law, here named after murder victim Sarah Payne), such that families could know the film studies as coursework identities of convicted paedophiles living near them. Other texts may have less obviously persuasive qualities #45; such as a documentary broadcast that leads the audience to some kind of position or view. Sometimes the text will seek to persuade through ridicule, using the how to write an essay structure and style of some other kind of text, but subverting it. What are the resume formater structures for these texts?
Editorials may be a few hundred words in length #45; a headline, a simple introduction, an elaboration of argument with examples, leading to a simple conclusion. Write Comparing Two Novels? While the club lexicon and style may vary according to the target readership of the an essay comparing two novels newspaper, the structure is more or less the same for different kinds of newspaper. The party election or political broadcast in the UK is limited in time to a few minutes #45; so the writers have developed structures like extended advertisements. As Media Magazine? The extract below comes from a 1994 party political broadcast for the Labour Party, which had a running time of how to write an essay 4 minutes 40 seconds: [Opening shot: Time#45;lapse photography of the sun rising over the Palace of Westminster] TONY BLAIR: [voice#45;over] It is an resume and download, honour to lead this party. I accept it with excitement.. [cut to shots of Blair reviewing papers in the back seat of a car] .. but also with humility, and with a profound sense of the responsibility that is placed upon me. [cut to someone adjusting the rear#45;view mirror to show Blair] [Cut to Radio Two studio] VOICE#45;OVER: [station identifier] Radio Two #45; Jimmy Young.
JIMMY YOUNG: And in how to comparing two novels, the studio with me now, the new Leader of the Labour Party, Tony Blair. Good Morning Tony. TONY BLAIR: Good Morning Jim. [Cut to vox pops] VOX POP 1: Tony Blair has a sense of vision. VOX POP 2: You know what they say about politicians, they never look you in the eye. He certainly does. VOX POP 3: I feel I can trust him. [Cut to magazine, Blair talking to camera; caption The Rt.Hon. Tony Blair MP Leader of the Labour Party]
This is more complex than a newspaper editorial. The editorial has a common theme, but also may have a reasonably clear argument, using examples to illustrate it. In the broadcast, there is write comparing two novels, still the common theme, but there is not a simple or clear line of argument, rather a series of elements that are assembled loosely. The writer relies on the audience to supply the connections, so that we do not have an obvious sense of someone's telling us what to think. The image of the fight sunrise and the recording of Tony Blair's accepting the an essay comparing leadership of the as media music magazine coursework party both suggest the idea of change #45; in 1994 the Labour Party was trying to persuade the an essay British electorate to return Labour to power.
We can see how the writer first shows Tony Blair or has him speaking on a voice#45;over, but does not have him speaking straight to camera until some way into the broadcast. The party political broadcast must have quite a distinctive style, since it lends itself to comic treatment. Resume? A search on the World Wide Web will turn up many spoof broadcasts, including several Monty Python Sketches. The extract below comes from a broadcast (November 2001) of the ruling People's Action Party of Singapore and published on the party's Web site at www.pap.org.sg. It is an essay, far simpler than the Labour broadcast above: In two days' time, you will be casting your votes. Before you vote, ask yourself this question: in this economic downturn, who can help you find jobs? Nobody can say when our economy will recover. Club? The US is fighting a war against terrorism #45; in Afghanistan and in the US itself.
If the war goes badly, the global recession could drag on. Singapore could then take one and a half to two years to recover. This is why I have called for elections now, as I want your strong mandate for an essay, our programme to save and create jobs for you. JOBS TODAY, JOBS TOMORROW. I am especially concerned for older Singaporeans. They have families to and download, look after. They find it harder to find and fit into new jobs. This is true of most older workers, factory workers, office workers, professionals too. How do we help you? First, let us try to save existing jobs.
Next, let us help retrenched workers find new jobs. Thirdly, for the longer term, we must create more jobs. This broadcast is no more than a speech #45; we do not (on the an essay comparing two novels Web document) have an indication of resume italics what might be shown on TV or if it is a radio broadcast only, but it seems to be the text of a speech by the leader. In the an essay Labour broadcast, Tony Blair eventually speaks about the economy and jobs #45; but here the speaker moves straight to these subjects, without any real preliminaries. As Media Music? There is no suggestion of how to create jobs, but the noun is repeated many times. The notion of a canon of classic works of art has not gone away, but is in creative tension with alternative contemporary visions. We cannot readily call these modern since this label has been appropriated for works from the an essay two novels early 20th century, and post#45;modern smacks of the 1980s. Some works, hailed in the moment of resume and download publication or exhibition as masterpieces, are quickly forgotten. Nevertheless, most developed societies allow space for vigorous public debate about art and culture.
And we are comfortable with a distinction between popular, lowbrow or commercial music, writing and so on, and serious, classical or highbrow art. Culture, especially popular culture, exerts a massive influence on how people think and how to an essay comparing see the world. And this is reflected in resume, a range of language forms. When we need comfort, our friends tell us that they are or will be there for us. Unless we are pedantic we do not ask where there is. Soap operas and advertisements present us with tidy versions of real life scenarios and the language forms we need to understand or endure them: a lexicon for our troubles and problems, helpful phrases and even extended discourse structures or paradigms for coping. Have a good cry we are told, because we have to grieve (a metaphor of pressure which must be released before it does harm, often appears). You owe it to yourself or because I'm worth it express positively attitudes that seem far less attractive when called selfish or narcissistic. The fictional trial of a character for a topical crime (rape, wife beating, road rage) may provoke intelligent reflection leading to comparing two novels, greater understanding. But it may be so plausible and convincing that it replaces proper public debate. What kinds of persuasive texts might there be in the general category of culture?
These would include satire, polemical writing, poetry and resume and download theatre . While some legal processes are used to enact power, others are devised to allow lawyers to persuade a judge or a jury, within an adversarial system of persuasion. This has its own distinctive language forms, and is much more constrained by rules than other kinds of how to write comparing persuasion #45; so much so that failure to obey the rules can overturn the decisions of a court. David Crystal ( Cambridge Encyclopedia of the essays English Language , p. 374) distinguishes between the language of the legislature (Parliament) which institutes a legal text (sets down the law in an essay comparing, written form) and the language of the judiciary (law courts and judges) which interprets and applies it. The law also has its own lexicon: this preserves archaic terms, perhaps to promote respect for its processes or intimidate. While this continues to be acceptable in criminal law, in April 1999 civil courts saw a change in their lexicon.
A Mareva injunction (which prevents the sale of assets during litigation) became a freezing injunction , in camera became in private , a minor or infant became a child , a plaintiff became a claimant , inter partes became with notice , ex parte became without notice , while pleading was replaced by statement of case . These changes were made on the recommendation of and download Lord Woolf, the Master of the Rolls , whose own title reflects the archaic origin of much legal lexis. The Norman Conquest established French (which included many Latin loanwords) as the language of how to write law and politics. Later, Latin was used, and English only replaced Latin as the language of English law in the 17th century. Essay Than Our Forefather? For this reason Latin phrases abound ( mens rea, ab initio, certiorari, ex parte ) as do French loanwords ( lien, plaintiff, tort ). To show the difference between areas where one is under obligation and those where one has some room to choose, the law makes use of how to write comparing modal verbs such as may, must, shall . To establish its general applicability the law uses pronouns such as all and whoever or generic nouns such as vehicle or person . To simplify or modernize the language of the law seems desirable, but may be problematic. Resume Formater? Ordinary people may have a better sense of understanding and therefore more respect for laws expressed simply and plainly. But some apparently obscure terms may have been coined precisely to express subtle or unusual meanings or distinctions. And if the how to an essay two novels law uses the common register, then an updated term may itself become obsolete, as its common meaning misleads people about its legal sense. Fiona Kerr, who used to resume, practise law, gives this example of what she calls the difference between lawyer#45;speak and how to write an essay comparing two novels normal language: The general public use murdered interchangeably with killed, no#45;one ever says he manslaughtered him.
Consider also what most people mean when they refer to personal property as compared with my understanding of it as everything which isn't land (roughly speaking). When Mrs Bloggins does her own will and leaves her personal property to the nice lady who looked after her cat whilst she was in hospital, she may intend to leave her collection of tin ornaments and a few skirts, but is she intending to also bequeath her savings to said nice lady or did she intend to leave them to resume, her son, along with the house? Only a Judge can decide and by the time he has, there won't be any savings left for the winning litigant to spend #45; and the loser could be in debt. Law is often expressed in lengthy sentences marked by lists of items to an essay comparing, ensure that nothing is missed out which the law should cover, so we know later whether or not it applies in a certain case. Parentheses or subordinate clauses appear frequently to clarify a preceding clause. Alternatively a number may refer to a footnote, where a phrase is more extensively or unambiguously defined. Legal documents are notorious for hyper#45;complex syntax , with several degrees of subordination of clauses . They also allow, often without clarifying punctuation, lengthy adverbial phrases , such as: And any such release settlement discharge shall as between you and the undersigned be deemed to have been given or made upon the express condition that it shall become and be wholly void and of no effect if the assurance security or payment on the faith of which it was made or given shall be void. While literary texts (such as Dickens' or Hardy's novels) suggest that in earlier times ordinary readers could process complex syntactic structures, and understand their meaning, modern readers or listeners may find this troublesome.
Shorter and less complex syntax is easier to understand, while some features of punctuation, typography and layout can all aid comprehension. It is not so much that lawyers in as media music, the past did not know how to make themselves understood. They perhaps never intended to do so. Advocacy , as practised by barristers in criminal courts, can be contrasted with advertising. In one case, there are no rules, while approaches change and how to comparing two novels are expedient #45; advertisers do whatever works. Resume Formater? Advertisers are constrained by some standards and a code of practice. But advocates in the law courts are subject to very precise rules about evidence, kinds of argument and turn taking, among other things, in write comparing two novels, a forum (the court) over which a judge presides. As regards sequence, barristers must outline a case and then present it, with the counsel (advocate) for the prosecution going before the film as coursework defence counsel. The prosecution must prove its case beyond reasonable doubt; the defence, as barristers and judges often remind juries, does not have to prove anything #45; it is enough to an essay, discredit the prosecution or show that the as media prosecution has not proved the case beyond reasonable doubt. Each side may question its own witnesses, but the other side may subsequently cross#45;examine (question) them. An Essay Two Novels? Each side must sum up its case, and the judge must also sum up the whole proceedings and advise the jury about how to resume formater, arrive at its verdict.
In asking a question of how to write comparing a witness, an essay on are than, advocate is not normally allowed to invite the witness to how to an essay, agree with a version of events the advocate has described #45; that is, by asking leading questions. In some state court systems of the USA the opposing counsel may call out Objection and the judge may direct the jury to disregard what they have heard. Resume Italics? In the UK, judges make such rulings directly without the protest of Objection. In order to make the trial fair to the accused, the prosecution may not refer to any crimes of which he or she has been convicted in the past, though the defendant may voluntarily disclose this information. (This is how to write an essay comparing two novels, changing in English law.) And each side must disclose to the other, before the trial begins, the evidence it intends to use in the trial. Unlike everyday argument or conversational disputes, each side makes its case largely without interruptions from the other side.
Each may take as long as the evidence it presents allows #45; it is resume formater, up to the judge to decide if something is comparing two novels, not relevant and stop a line of questioning or argument. The closest thing to interruption is the chance to challenge a witness's testimony in cross#45;examination. The advocates do not at any point interrupt each other. But both sides may, in resume italics, examining a witness, interrupt the witness where an how to write an essay, answer is not forthcoming or seems open to challenge. The witness may be intimidated, but is not obliged to respond instantaneously. The judge may restrain an advocate who uses an inappropriate manner or asks questions that seem not relevant to a line of questioning. The fundamental principle of resume italics advocacy is so familiar that its strangeness is often overlooked #45; that is, that experts in argument (advocates) compete, under known rules, to secure conviction or acquittal for another person. On occasions, in both criminal and civil trials, people do represent themselves #45; but this is very rare. Thus David Irving (2000) presented his own (civil) case in suing another historian who had called him a Holocaust denier. (He lost the case, so anyone may now describe Mr.
Irving as a Holocaust denier, without risk of libel.) A jury has a difficult task, in attending both to the detail of a witness's evidence or an advocate's interpretation, as well as to how to write two novels, the whole case presented by either side. Although the jury ultimately decides on matters of fact, the judge will help them by explaining matters of law. Thus, a verdict may depend not only on what the accused did or did not do, but also on the offence of as media magazine coursework which he or she is accused. In England and write comparing two novels Wales, for most criminal offences, a verdict of on are guilty is represented as beyond reasonable doubt. How To Write Comparing Two Novels? The presiding judge may help the magazine coursework jury with the meaning of reasonable. In Scotland, as well as verdicts of guilty or not guilty, a jury may bring in a verdict of not proven. This allows them to indicate their uncertainty #45; the how to write an essay comparing accused is not convicted, but does not walk away clear of suspicion. According to Fiona Kerr: A guilty verdict means that the on are we happier than our forefather conduct complained of how to two novels must have matched the resume and download conduct covered by write comparing, the charge and that the conduct must be proved beyond reasonable doubt. In studying the language of the law, you may think primarily of resume and download those who speak and write it, but be aware also of listeners or readers.
In the case of a jury, a very unusual kind of listening (and reading) is required. The jury is able to make requests of the judge, for write comparing, example, to look again at a record of resume italics some part of write an essay comparing a trial, but its discretion is limited by what the judge allows or thinks appropriate. Jurors may make notes, and keep these with them for club essays, the duration of how to write an essay comparing two novels a trial #45; these notes stay in court or the jury retiring room (a special room where jurors meet to consider a verdict, or in some kinds of break during a trial). Once the as media magazine coursework jury reaches a verdict, these notes are destroyed. One interesting expression of courtesy is the legal fiction that every judge knows all the write an essay law. A barrister who wishes to correct a judge on a point where his or her knowledge is not complete may use a form such as, As your lordship well remembers.
Fiona Kerr notes that: the Barrister may well be supplying the resume italics Judge's ignorance but everyone pretends that every Judge has an encyclopaedic knowledge which is frankly unrealistic. Their Lordships have to deal with every aspect of Law and there's no way they know that much, so Counsel tells them the arguments and the law as if they know it already, even if they don't. The barrister supplies the relevant information but effectively offers it to the judge for endorsement in a manner that signals deference. This may be the origin of write comparing two novels with respect. Resume Formater? At some point in the past it may have been necessary for a speaker to exhibit real deference while correcting a superior - since discourtesy would have led to a loss of honour or reputation, as well, perhaps, as advancement that would be in the gift of the how to an essay person to whom the respect in question was due. Nowadays the function of with respect (an implied correction by and download, one with better information) remains, but its literal denotation (showing respect to one who deserves it) may be lost. Beneath the explicit or official rules that govern the way barristers present a case, are some common tactics (some of which you may have observed in fictional representations as well as any real trials that you have attended). Write An Essay Comparing Two Novels? Fiona Kerr observes:
There's the resume italics day#45;to#45;day code of an essay insults with which you are probably familiar, such as with respect (i.e. you're wrong), with great respect (i.e. you are completely wrong) and, ultimately with the greatest respect (i.e. you are an utter fool). There are power structures in education, from nurseries to universities, but these are often concealed from those who are subject to them. Schools often produce codes or summaries or lists of rules, but these may have only a local or relative force, since the school itself is subject to essay we happier our forefather, laws that protect the interests of different groups. We can perhaps helpfully distinguish educational institutions (other than officer training colleges for the police and armed forces) from the armed services, which have explicit published regulations, a clear hierarchy of command, and tribunals to resolve the few disputed cases that defy this system. In recent times some UK schools and universities may have required parents or students to give assent to a code of rules or home#45;school agreement, but there is write an essay, no universal model for these, and few parents or students would accept that attending a school has the resume formater same force in imposing rules, as joining the army or police service. Educational establishments have some powers of last resort, such as temporary or permanent exclusion but otherwise have very much to how to write an essay comparing two novels, derive their power from the consent of those who are governed. Traditionally, schools have exerted power on their students, but we can also see how power lies with the pupils in many situations #45; at the least because most of what teachers and parents expect to happen can do so only with some assent from the studies students. What happens if one adult (usually one, though in classrooms today there may be several adults present) spends an two novels, hour #45; or several hours in a primary classroom #45; in the company of between twenty and thirty young people? Experience suggests that there is a massive variety of film as coursework results. In one case, the adult imposes his or her will by various means on the students, who comply with the adult's lead or, if they defy it, find themselves excluded or subject to some kind of an essay comparing two novels sanction. In another case, the resume children react to the adult in subversive and confrontational ways (sometimes more actively than the an essay comparing same children would be if left unattended in as media magazine, a classroom).
In yet another case, the adult and children achieve a kind of equilibrium, where each takes turns, gives way or takes the write an essay two novels lead, and all work productively towards an agreed set of goals, or give outward assent to film, the majority who wish to do so. There will be other situations, and maybe the same group will at different times approximate more to one position than another #45; so a class that meets a new teacher for the first time may do things to test his or her character; while over time, a class may come to like and respect a teacher, so that he or she can, on occasion, appeal to a perceived obligation. Students can be very effective in nurturing and supporting an adult, where they judge that this is appropriate. Many of the causes of these relationships are found in the personalities of the teachers and the learners #45; but they also lie clearly in the nature of the write an essay language interactions that occur between adult and pupil. We Happier Our Forefather? And we can study these objectively. How To An Essay Comparing? For example, we can investigate. the frequency with which a request takes a given form #45; direct imperative (do X) or question (would you do X?), whether the person making the request uses a name or other form of magazine address , whether there is a please and thank you and so on. We could also measure objectively whether use of direct commands is more or less efficient (in the time it takes) than use of requests. We might wish to relate these things to how to write, the age, ability, prior social experience and on are than our forefather so on, of the write comparing learners. Another thing we might like to film, observe, and possibly quantify, is the ability of a student, by speaking in certain ways, to provoke a given response from the teacher. Comparing? That is, how far each (student or teacher) is ready to adopt ritualised or predictable and resume italics practised rôles in how to an essay comparing, an interchange: the student presses a particular button, and the teacher reacts in the expected way.
Of course, such ritual exchanges need not be confrontational or hostile. They may be playful in tone, but serious in an underlying dialogue. Or they may be very friendly interchanges, in which all parties are reinforcing an existing social relationship #45; the teacher tells a weak joke, the pupils tell him how unfunny he is, then ask about his sick cat or whether the resume italics new baby is still keeping him awake. Study of classroom discourse may differ from conversational analysis, in that one person is trying to establish a rapport with a complete group at some points, with sub#45;groups at other points, and individuals at write comparing two novels, other times. In any one lesson it is almost impossible to achieve this, but over a series of lessons it is possible #45; though without any objective method, even the best#45;intentioned teacher may not give a fair allocation of resume italics time to all. Are there devices that, addressed to a group, can make individuals feel that the comment is for them in particular? Almost any of the methods of analysis of spoken utterances that come under the an essay comparing two novels general heading of resume formater pragmatics may be fruitful when used to study language exchanges in the classroom. Instrumental power #45; business and management. There are useful general approaches that we can take in analysing and explaining language interchanges in various social contexts, but some features are relevant to one social context more than another. Private enterprise (in much of the English#45;speaking world) is regulated by some laws that, for how to, example, describe and defend the human rights and welfare of employees, but it is not organized into resume italics, a universal system, so that language use can emerge rather as a fashion #45; and power may come partly from using the current or the most novel special forms. Like any social context, business and management have their own distinctive lexis . This includes both useful and necessary names for comparing two novels, things that are peculiar to the way business works, as well as buzzwords . These are neologisms and phrases that disguise more familiar things or give them a temporary sense of novelty or mystique.
In time they may become seen as cliches or otherwise ridiculous. Let's look at some real examples. Guru , which denotes a religious teacher famed for great wisdom, has become compounded into other forms such as Internet#45;guru, management#45;guru, business#45;guru and so on. Resume Italics? One such management guru is Charles Handy, who has invented a special set of names for management structures, derived from the how to an essay two novels gods and studies as coursework goddesses of write classical Greece. He describes four cultures: the Zeus Culture , the Athena Culture , the studies as coursework Apollo Culture and the Dionysian Culture . (It is not clear why he uses the noun form as attributive adjective for three of these, but uses an established adjectival form in Dionysian.) So what do the how to an essay names mean?
Zeus Culture: an organization dominated by the personality and power of one person, often the founder or owner, after the ruler of the gods. Apollo Culture: an organization dominated by essay on are our forefather, rules and procedures, after Apollo the God of harmony and order. Athena Culture: the project organization that dominates consultancies, advertising agencies and, increasingly, all innovative businesses, after Athena, the warrior goddess. Dionysian Culture: an organization in which the individual has the freedom to an essay, develop his or her own ideas in the way they want #45; an artists' studio, perhaps, or a university. They are hard to manage, these Dionysian places, but increasingly necessary if you want to employ really creative people. In an interview with the BBC, Charles Handy continues: What interested me, however, was not the downsizing or the re#45;engineering itself, as others began to call it, but the consequences for our individual working lives.
Organizations, it seemed to me, would increasingly dispense with our services in our mid#45;lives as they concentrated on fewer and younger people in their cores, with only a few wise heads to keep the show on essay on are we happier our forefather track. You can find the interview at. In this short extract we see the business#45;specific terms: downsizing, re#45;engineering and an essay two novels keep the show on fight track. Downsizing is now quite well established as a verb that means reducing the number of how to write an essay comparing employees, and film perhaps other features of the organization (physical premises, costs and so on). It is self#45;explanatory but has rather odd morphology, being a compound of how to write comparing two novels adverb, and resume formater noun (size) converted to verb. How To An Essay Comparing? Re#45;engineering is a metaphor whereby the reorganization of people is likened to a change in a mechanized process #45; it is therefore rather impersonal. Keep the show on and download track is how to write, not confined to studies as coursework, business, but used in many kinds of human activity #45; it is write two novels, a metaphor derived from travelling stage shows.
More commonly people say they try to keep the resume formater show on the road. Comparing Two Novels? Charles Handy's use of track may come from club essays mixing the how to write an essay comparing two novels phrase with the ending of back on track. Business terms may be more or less well assimilated into the common lexicon. You can test this by looking for them in different dictionaries and seeing whether or not they appear as an entry, as with blue chip (a common stock that has consistently paid dividends over a long period of time); bundling (the grouping of club several products and/or services into how to two novels, one package. It benefits buyers by condensing several purchases into one. Companies benefit by reducing the ability of consumers to compare individual product prices with those of competing companies.) The term is very common in relation to computer software, bundled with a machine for consumers to buy; cherry picking (purchasing products individually from a variety of companies rather than as a bundle from one company)
At a series of presentations from bidders to supply products to than our forefather, the Yorkshire and how to write Humberside Regional Broadband Project (October 2000), each presenter in music coursework, turn referred to his or her product as best of breed and most described a mutually advantageous arrangement as a win#45;win situation. The former metaphor is taken from the Crufts annual dog show, but none of the presenters gave any hint of knowing this provenance, of how to write an essay comparing relating their presentations to it, or even that breed is a biological term, which they were applying to computer networks, hardware and software products. More recently, at a conference (February 2003, East Riding of Yorkshire), I heard almost every speaker refer to important things as key. A frequent collocation was key drivers #45; where drivers are influences or causes (key drivers of change and resume formater so on). Write An Essay Two Novels? Later I heard reference to key players which mixes metaphors from music (or locks) and sport: The early involvement of key players has enriched the curriculum. Speakers several times mentioned routeways in a metaphorical sense: All the routeways that they [learners] want and magazine open up the routeways. Another image to suggest the write an essay comparing idea of essay on are we happier than our forefather causing things to happen is how to write an essay, trigger, so we heard of something that would be a trigger for partners collectively.
Deliver is resume formater, a verb that has become fashionable to express the idea of making something happen or simply doing something #45; so one speaker referred to those who are actively engaged with delivering the concept. Since the write comparing two novels late 1990s issues has become an all#45;purpose noun for abstract things, in on are we happier than, contexts where earlier we might have seen matters. It is frequently joined by the verb address so that people address the write an essay comparing issues #45; which usually means to talk, think or do something about some other things. Now issues has come also to denote things that concern one or call for special attention, in and download, the simple phrase have issues, as in I have or she has issues around that. Less common but no less interesting are event horizon and hedgehog concept.
As we sit on the brink of how to write an essay two novels this 'event horizon' for resume formater, equity markets, you should ask whether this 'black hole' we are entering will deliver us to how to write comparing, a new dimension where bulls run freely, or will it tear the resume formater market, destroying what we've built up? The term comes from astrophysics, but entered popular use after the publication of how to write an essay Professor Stephen Hawking's A Brief History of Time . In the example above Don Wellenreiter continues the astrophysical theme with black hole and new dimension, then mixes it with the traditional bull image (as contrasted with a bear market) and finally a third idea of tearing something up. Hedgehog concept appears to resume formater, be derived from Isaiah Berlin's essay The Hedgehog and the Fox (1953). Berlin writes: There is a line among the fragments of the Greek poet Archilochus which says: 'The fox knows many things, but the hedgehog knows one big thing'. The hedgehog concept is one that, if done extremely well and to an essay comparing, the exclusion of almost everything else, can help a person's career or a company's business achieve its full potential. Here's an example:
Walgreens' hedgehog concept is to run the fight essays best, most convenient drug stores with high profit per customer visit, Jorndt continued. We know who we are and what we are all about #45; running drug stores. We work like crazy to execute it in our stores. The notion of buzzwords arises from a wish to subvert or ridicule the pretentiousness and write inelegance of much special lexis in business and management: . drones and peons are slyly mocking the new corporate culture #45; and their cliche#45;spouting bosses. One of their weapons is an underground game called buzzword bingo, which works like a surreptitious form of regular bingo. Buzzwords #45; 'incent,' 'proactive, 'impactfulness,' for example #45; are preselected and placed on a bingo#45;like card in random boxes.
Players sit in meetings and conferences and silently check off buzzwords as their bosses spout them; the first to fill in a complete line wins. But, in deference to essay on are we happier than, the setting, the winner typically coughs instead of shouting out comparing two novels, 'bingo.' Buzzwords are particularly opaque when combined into phrases or longer structures #45; as in these examples from a satirical Web site. These use a basic structure and a range of metaphors: filter it though the cappuccino machine and see if it comes out frothy; run it up the resume italics flag pole and see who salutes it; throw a crumb in the cage and see if the budgie bites; let's put that in the lift and see which floor it stops at. It is hard to imagine anyone's using these phrases without a sense of their playfulness #45; and it is possible for people to invent new versions, following this basic formula: do X and see if/who/what/which etc. Here are some more words and phrases: assets#45;based assessment or approach best practices model democratising of information grass roots initiated if you'd like to climb into your helicopters so we can look at two novels, that from above inclusiveness infrastructure leave it up to the man on than our forefather the coalface management bandwidth measurable outcomes multi#45;sector need based or deficit assessment or approach non#45;duplicative/reduces duplication one stop shops outsourcing quality of life reflects cultural diversity/culturally sensitive scuba in your think#45;tank singing from the same hymn#45;sheet systems change awareness window of opportunity.
Are these words or phrases useful? Can you think of how to write an essay comparing two novels simpler or more direct alternatives? Why might people use these buzzwords in preference to more basic forms? In the armed services and some other organizations there may be defined rules for addressing someone by rank, title or name. In business, the practice may vary according to the organization's culture and the relative status of two speakers. Two modes of address that may be distinctive to club, business and management is the use of descriptive titles and of initials.
In some cases the title may reflect some kind of deference by the speaker, or recognition that the write comparing two novels holder of the office is somehow dignified by it. Thus we speak of the Director or the Chairman and our forefather address them directly as Director or [Mr./Madam] Chairman. Some people like to use their initials rather than name or title, as with M. Gerbeau, the comparing two novels chief executive of the Millennium Dome, who liked to be known as P#45;Y: Pierre#45;Yves (he is fight essays, always called P#45;Y) Gerbeau is a remarkable man. BBC profile, December 2000. We can also think of the fictitious oil baron J.R. in the TV series Dallas or CJ, the communications officer in The West Wing . The implication is that people in the organization know who he or she is, so that use of the initials is a form of comparing respect or recognition. If one speaker uses title and last name (TLN), and fight essays the other first name (FN) only, we infer difference in status. How To? The social superior (the FN speaker) may invite the inferior to use FN in response. In some occupations holders of essay on are we happier than our forefather particular offices may use their job title: coach (in the USA), chairman and how to an essay comparing two novels so on. Club Essays? Generic titles to write, indicate status are not as common as they were, especially in music, business, where we may speak about the boss but are less likely to address him or her directly as boss (chief and guv are even less common). Business does not have a series of honorary titles in write two novels, the way that the courts and political institutions to, or ranks as in the armed services #45; sir may still be used, but does not have a very specific reference.
The guidance below is music magazine, summarized from an article in the Guardian's Rise jobs supplement and a Web site (www.speakfirst.co.uk), which gives guidance on effective presentations: Fiddling with your tie is distracting and this, along with the stuttered 'ums' and 'ers', 'you knows 'and 'I means', will devalue your message and make you seem less confident.. When you're making a point, keep to it and don't digress. If you're a newcomer in write comparing, a meeting do not become too cosy. Deal with interruptions. Resume Italics? For example, say: Let me just finish this section, then I'll come back to that point. Ask questions How often have you. Can you remember a time when. Use bridge words and write comparing phrases as well as; consequently; in closing.
Reiterate #45; repeat and go over important points. Resume? You can preface this with a rhetorical question: So what have I covered so far? Pausing can be very effective. It gives the audience a chance to think about what is write an essay two novels, being said. It also gives the speaker an opportunity to breathe and think ahead. Michael Begeman, an anthropologist and computer scientist of the 3M Meeting Network, suggests that meetings should follow different structures, according to their purpose.
He suggests that meetings can be built around three kinds of conversation: for possibility, opportunity and for resume italics, action . Conversations for possibility: The group acknowledges that it has come together to how to an essay comparing two novels, generate ideas, not to make decisions. Its goal is to maximize creativity. Conversations for opportunity: The goal is not to reach a final decision but to narrow down a range of options. As Media Coursework? People gather information, do some analysis, and how to an essay comparing take positions. Conversations for action: The goal is to decide, to commit: We want to fight club essays, leave this room with our four development priorities for write comparing, 2004. Begeman suggests that the meeting should have what he calls rules of engagement #45; and translate implicit expectations into explicit agreements, about timing, and progress. You can even create rules of club engagement about individual behavior. How To Write An Essay Two Novels? For example: Before anyone makes a point, that person has to find merit in the point made by our forefather, the previous speaker. Or, the senior people in the meeting can speak only after the junior people have had a chance to how to write an essay, express themselves. It's a pretty simple idea, really.
All you are trying to do is to make the invisible visible, to make the automatic deliberate. These. rules of engagement give people a chance to design how they treat one another in essay on are we happier our forefather, meetings. Michael Begeman suggests, too, that though social talk may seem inefficient or a distraction, it can be fruitful in helping people relax or think creatively when the meeting proceeds to serious business. How To Write Comparing? You can find his article at: According to fight club essays, Mr. Comparing? Nik at www.btinternet.com/ mr.nik/business, corporate language is fundamental to business communication principles. These principles include: Stating things in a way that makes them hard to argue with. Fight Club Essays? Stating things in a way that makes you seem important and knowledgeable. Making sure what you say can't come back to haunt you. Repeating what your boss said, but trying to disguise it. nventing as many phrases for very good as possible.
Using warm, fluffy words to fool employees into being happy and fulfilled. This rather facetious description includes ideas familiar from pragmatics #45; such as conversational maxims and politeness or mirroring other people's speech. What Mr. Nik does not make clear #45; but pragmatic analysis does #45; is how one does these things. In fact, one need not try to disguise a repetition of what another says, either in content or manner #45; since this often is very effective in write comparing two novels, securing other people's cooperation.
It is possible to make some employees more contented at work, without any extra expense to the organization, by a change of job title #45; ideally one that suggests a more elevated status, without significant extra workload. Stating things in a way that makes you seem important and knowledgeable is more problematic. Novel lexis can intimidate those who assume that their ignorance of the special forms or buzzwords is a mark of weakness. But it can easily excite ridicule among those who see it as pretentious, and are ready to resume formater, cut through the vagueness or to challenge the speaker to use plain or direct forms #45; or who play buzzword bingo. Write Two Novels? As a technique for establishing some temporary advantage by confusing others, verbal inflation may work. But it does not help real understanding and magazine collaboration, and impedes exchanges where people are trying to agree on a course of action to follow. Specimen exam questions from past papers.
I have not shown the how to texts used in some of the example questions #45; for two reasons: they come from sources which are protected by copyright, and teachers may want to use the questions (from real past papers) for practice exams in club essays, school - so they won't want me to have shown them here. Text D is a transcript of part of a lesson at a primary school. The teacher is discussing a visit made by an animal expert to write an essay, the class on essay on are the previous day. Show by detailed reference to the transcript how both teacher and how to write two novels pupils demonstrate power in this discourse. The following text is resume formater, a transcript of the first part of a BBC Radio 4 interview by how to two novels, John Humphrys on our forefather 5 May 2000. He is questioning Margaret Beckett MP about the local by#45;election results. Show by detailed reference to the transcript how both interviewer and how to an essay interviewee demonstrate power and we happier control in their discourse.
Note: JH = John Humphrys; MB = Margaret Beckett; () indicates a brief pause; underlining indicates emphasis in speech; italicised words between vertical lines indicate simultaneous speech; [laughs] in square brackets indicates that speaker laughs. The text printed on pages 6 and 7 is the first two pages from Our Children's Education #45; The Updated Parent's Charter , issued by the Department for Education and sent to every home in how to write comparing, England. Show by detailed reference to resume italics, the text how it demonstrates power and authority in its use of language. In your answer you should refer to any relevant research and to any frameworks you consider appropriate. The following text is how to, a page from and download a leaflet published by Plan International UK, providing information about how to sponsor a child. Show by detailed reference to the text how it tries to make the reader feel powerful. In your answer you should refer to relevant ideas from language study and to any frameworks you consider appropriate. Example texts with interpretation. Transcript of an how to write two novels, advertisement for on are our forefather, Head and Shoulders shampoo, broadcast on television in the early 1990s. WOMAN: Richard! (She is expressing surprise at his arrival #45; perhaps he is late #45; and his appearance.)
RICHARD: (Explaining both at once) The car! Richard goes to bathroom to wash oil from hands. He turns the tap with his elbow and write an essay looks in film studies as coursework, the mirror, noticing the how to two novels Head and Shoulders shampoo bottle on the shelf beneath it. RICHARD: Head and Shoulders? (Half turns to address her over his shoulder) But you don't have dandruff! WOMAN: (Shakes hair to let it hang down; smiles to we happier, the camera) No #45; but I do have great looking hair! This advertisement has the discourse structure of TV dramatic narrative #45; it resembles a scene from an essay a soap opera (appropriate, given the product).
The advertisement must be brief, so the narrative is compressed, and carried by the images as much as the club essays dialogue. We can look at pragmatics within the narrative (how the characters speak to each other) and between us as the audience and the advertiser. In the write former case, we see that Richard suggests surprise and mild disapproval. We Happier Than? His going into the bathroom without asking suggests that he is on friendly terms with the woman, though his surprise at the bottle of Head and Shoulders shows that he does not live with her. The car alone means nothing, but as a response to Richard, and coupled with the oily hands, it suggests some unspecified mechanical problem which Richard has put right, since he has now arrived. Moving out how to write, of the advert and looking at its relationship with the audience, we see that the fight club essays writer expects us to know the conventions of write an essay naturalistic television drama, so we know how to read the scene. The writer uses the common lexicon of resume and download everyday speech #45; with the exception of the proper noun for how to write, the brand name, Head and Shoulders. The last line of dialogue, however, includes the three#45;word slogan (great looking hair) that runs through the whole campaign #45; which included similar stories featuring other characters.
This is not a transcript of natural speech, and thus avoids irrelevant or incomplete utterances #45; if these were real people, then their conversation would be exemplary in essay we happier than, observing the cooperative principle . It is, of course, scripted dramatic dialogue. Write Two Novels? The grammar is marked by minor sentences #45; one of one word and another of two, though with more implied #45; so Richard may suggest Richard, you're late and and download your hands are covered in oil while The car suggests I'm sorry I'm late, the write an essay two novels car had a problem but I've fixed it now. Resume Italics? The last two lines of dialogue are more literary #45; especially the but before you don't have dandruff where Richard is write comparing two novels, effectively responding to the idea that the woman might have suffered from dandruff, since she is using Head and Shoulders. Second example - political rhetoric. From President John F. Kennedy's Inaugural Address, Friday, January 20, 1961. We dare not forget today that we are the heirs of that first revolution. Let the word go forth from this time and resume italics place, to friend and foe alike, that the torch has been passed to a new generation of Americans #45; born in this century, tempered by war, disciplined by a hard and bitter peace, proud of our ancient heritage #45; and unwilling to witness or permit the write an essay comparing slow undoing of those human rights to which this Nation has always been committed, and to which we are committed today at home and around the world. Let every nation know, whether it wishes us well or ill, that we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe, in order to as media, assure the survival and the success of liberty.
To those old allies whose cultural and write comparing two novels spiritual origins we share, we pledge the loyalty of faithful friends. United, there is resume formater, little we cannot do in a host of cooperative ventures. Divided, there is little we can do #45; for we dare not meet a powerful challenge at odds and split asunder. To our sister republics south of our border, we offer a special pledge #45; to convert our good words into good deeds #45; in a new alliance for progress #45; to write an essay comparing, assist free men and free governments in casting off the chains of poverty. But this peaceful revolution of hope cannot become the prey of hostile powers. Let all our neighbors know that we shall join with them to oppose aggression or subversion anywhere in the Americas. And let every other power know that this Hemisphere intends to studies as coursework, remain the master of its own house.
Many familiar rhetorical devices mark this text: antithetic and synonymous parallelism , lists of an essay three and resume formater complex patterning (structures within structures). There are metaphors, imperative verbs and parentheses . The speech opens with a direct address to some special guests and the audience more generally #45; both locally present and listening to the broadcast #45; it will end by write an essay, including all of resume formater these together as my fellow Americans. So the President first shows respect for the status of the how to write distinguished guests, then cleverly reduces them all to the common level of citizens of the resume italics great republic #45; making them seem all equal, as they are before God. Write Comparing Two Novels? At once we see uses of antithetic parallelism. The first antithesis is in a not. but structure. (There are several in and download, this extract: can you find them all?) . we observe today not a victory of party, but a celebration of freedom.
while the next comes in write an essay two novels, two pairs (end and beginning; renewal and resume and download change) . symbolizing an end, as well as a beginning #45; signifying renewal, as well as change. Conjunctive for is used almost adverbially . How To Write An Essay Comparing? The written text gives an club essays, indication of the pauses in speech #45; and President Kennedy completes sentences (twice) before starting others with for, that serves as comment on what precedes it: For I have sworn. and For man holds in his mortal hands. We see how the President begins a series of sentences with the object of the main verb, where the subject is always we (as in the American people) #45; so each sentence follows the pattern: To X we say or do A, B and C . In this section we find a list of six groups of people whom the President apostrophises: old allies, new (friendly) states, people in huts and villages (the developing world), sister republics (in Central and South America) and the United Nations . Write Two Novels? But the sixth group differs #45; these are the potential enemies to whom the President offers a warning. It appears that he is essay we happier than our forefather, speaking to these various groups, but this is only a secondary concern (insofar as his speech will be reported in these places). In reality he is speaking to the people of the an essay comparing USA here #45; and letting them know his view of these other places in the world.
The language has a stately allusive quality that comes from as media echoing the style of the English bible #45; so we read four times imperative verb clauses beginning let #45; reminding us of how God said Let there be light, while the word has an echo of the opening of Saint John's Gospel. (Later in the speech, Kennedy uses the gospel image of the light of the world.) Let the how to comparing word go forth and let every nation know could almost (though they do not) come from the we happier than Bible #45; the lexis is timeless here, and both forth and nation are words we meet throughout the Old Testament in versions in the King James tradition, such as the American Revised Standard Version of the how to an essay two novels Bible. As well as the Bible, the as media music President alludes to how to an essay comparing two novels, the Declaration of resume italics Independence in referring to how to comparing, the rights of man that come from the hand of God. Studies As Coursework? (Note how he speaks of God without hesitation, in write an essay two novels, vivid Old Testament terms, as having a hand #45; whether this is a metaphor or meant literally.) And he alludes to Rousseau's famous statement (that man is born free but everywhere in chains), and slightly alters its application so that the resume italics chains do not come from simple political or legal oppression, but from being poor. He promises: . to assist free men and free governments in casting off the chains of poverty. An Essay? The President uses simple verbal embellishment in the repetition of sound ( alliteration ) in essay we happier than, lines like: writ may run and dark powers of comparing destruction. Frequently the lines have a metrical scansion : For man holds in his mortal hands the power. and . have far outpaced the instruments of peace. are both true iambic pentameters. We find other metres in . And Download? born in this century, tempered by war. and . to strengthen its shield of the new and the weak. The lexis of the speech comes from everyday speech #45; there are no specialist or obscure terms. And most are simple structurally #45; like a good poet he uses monosyllabic and two#45;syllable words: Let the word go forth. opens a sequence of twenty monosyllables and a solitary two#45;syllable word (alike). His images are vivid and concrete #45; the hand of God, riding the tiger, handing on a torch, casting off chains and an essay comparing two novels strengthening a shield. Third example - courtroom dialogue. Extract from the transcript of David Irving's High Court action against Penguin Books and Deborah Lipstadt.
MR JUSTICE GRAY: I saw the report. I did not read it. What about it are you concerned? MR IRVING: Very well, my Lord. Clearly, it would be improper for any of the parties in this case to fight club, start putting hand outs to the press in the way I appreciate the law is on contempt which would disadvantage the other party.
MR IRVING: #45; for the next hour, shall we say? Firstly, there will be no more traps being sprung. I am sure that the Professor will appreciate advance notification. There are no more hidden booby#45;traps or mines, but I am going to be dwelling briefly on an essay comparing crematorium No. II still for a while because I believe the Professor wishes to make certain comments on than what I said yesterday. In this part of the trial before Mr. Justice Gray, David Irving attends to two kinds of business: first, to write an essay comparing, question the reporting of the trial in newspapers, to music coursework, ask the judge to consider the possibility that this may influence the outcome of the how to an essay two novels process, and second, to outline the part of his case that he will present next.
The exchange is marked by formal expressions of courtesy #45; and, on music coursework David Irving's part, deference to the judge, yet these do not really interfere with an efficient taking of turns, and how to write comparing two novels a high degree of relevance in the way the exchanges proceed. If we can call this a conversation, then it observes the maxims of film quality, quantity and relevance very well. (Usually, if an exchange in court does not observe one or more of these, the judge will intervene. Relevance is perhaps most important; quality and quantity may depend more on the judge's discretion and write an essay comparing two novels attitude to the speaker.) Beneath this, we can see a struggle for power. David Irving invites Mr. Resume? Justice Gray to how to write comparing, make some allowance for reporting of the case (which Irving believes to be hostile to him) #45; in effect, he attempts to direct the judge in resume, his conduct of the write comparing two novels trial. Mr. Justice Gray, firmly but courteously, tells David Irving that his particular plea is of no account, but in doing so also reasserts his own direction of the legal process.
How does this work? Irving identifies a connection between mischievous and film as coursework inaccurate reporting and public hostility to himself. An Essay? (This is plausible: he may be a Holocaust denier or a racist, but it is possible for the reporters to exaggerate or distort the true account of his racism.) From this premise he moves to as media music, the conclusion: This clearly disadvantages me. But at once he contradicts this apparently firm statement with the recognition that the judge is trying the case without a jury, so the only public opinion that affects the outcome is his (the judge's) own. Mr. Justice Gray's reply is, on write two novels the surface, a firm rebuttal of the possibility of his being influenced by the reporting: Really, what matters here for my purposes is resume italics, whether I am going to be influenced by it and, as I have not read it, I will not be.
There is a hint of ridicule or sarcasm here #45; as the an essay comparing two novels judge points out what appears to as media music, be a truism or statement of the obvious: he cannot be affected by what he has not read. In saying this, he is saying rather more #45; that it is not for David Irving to alert him (the judge) to possible abuses or contempts of the court. It is precisely the comparing judge's rôle (among other things) to decide such matters, with the studies as coursework benefit of his expert knowledge of the legal process. In saying . that really is a sort of how to write an essay fact of life that you just have to put up with. And Download? Mr. Justice Gray is write an essay, drawing a distinction between a kind of club essays rough treatment that anyone in such a case can expect to suffer from the press and a serious contempt or indiscretion in how to write, the reporting that might in some way interfere with the process of the law. Essays? (This has happened notoriously in many high#45;profile jury trials.) The judge is effectively telling David Irving to be a bit tougher, and making clear that it is for him (the judge) to say when any unfair play may affect the trial. Perhaps he is aware of his robustness in how to an essay, dealing with David Irving's expression of worry, as he attempts some mitigation #45; inviting Irving, should anything appear that really does disturb him, to mention this. This is formally polite #45; but seems insincere, as he has just dismissed Irving's existing account of what really disturbs him. It allows the judge to and download, move onto the real business of the trial.
When David Irving offers to outline the next part of how to his case, Mr. Justice Gray responds very differently from what has gone before. Studies? I would find that very helpful is formally polite and write an essay comparing two novels may really be so (it seems sincere). Now that David Irving is falling into his appointed rôle in the trial, then the judge is happy #45; not least because the whole process moves on, whereas the protests about the as coursework reporting have threatened to delay the trial proper. Given the how to nature of this trial and the excited reporting of which David Irving has earlier complained we may be struck by the formal politeness of the fight outline, in which Irving expresses a concern to treat his opponent in the case (the defendant, Professor Deborah Lipstadt) with fairness. How To Write An Essay? There seems, however, to be some history implied in what he says. In mentioning no more traps being sprung, he evidently appeals to shared knowledge at least between himself and the judge (but probably also by the defendant) of some earlier traps. Since he gives the judge this reassurance, we may ask why? Why deprive himself of a potential stratagem? One possible reason is resume italics, that the judge has rebuked him previously for presenting evidence without giving the defendant's counsel notice of how to an essay this.
So now he is really reassuring the judge that he will follow the proper procedures and etiquette #45; or asking the and download judge for an endorsement of the way he proposes to present the next part of his case. The judge's approval is how to comparing two novels, not, of course, in any sense an approval of David Irving's case. It is an approval of his complying with the expected procedure in as media music magazine, presenting his case. Irving moves to a very specific outline of points of detail, identifying particular people whose testimony forms part of the accepted record of the Holocaust. Finally (in this extract) he refers to alleged gassing facilities at Auschwitz. How To Write? Given that part of his case relies on questioning the historic accuracy of accounts of genocide at Auschwitz, this seems logical, if shocking to resume italics, the ears of people who do not question the Holocaust.
But it may not help influence the judge's opinion in his favour, as it is likely to excite a strong emotional reaction. That is, here his argument is not there was a Holocaust and Professor Lipstadt is write an essay two novels, wrong in resume italics, saying I denied it but I cannot have denied what never happened #45; in effect, he is repeating the denial in how to an essay two novels, court. We refer to an alleged crime or misdemeanour while a defendant is on trial, because we presume him or her to be innocent until proved otherwise. And if he or she is found not guilty, then, had we referred to the crime (without any alleged) we would have slandered the innocent suspect. But the fight essays gassing of Jews at how to an essay comparing, Auschwitz is not something that we attribute to anyone on trial now. (There were historic trials, and people were found guilty of war crimes.) So Irving's use of alleged here is intended to challenge the common belief that gassing really happened in film as coursework, Auschwitz. It may be enough, of course, for David Irving to how to write two novels, show merely that it is not absolutely certain that the Holocaust happened #45; as this would make Professor Lipstadt's accusation seem libellous, as if she has called him a denier whereas he is film as coursework, really a doubter, only. So the surface courtesy may conceal the momentous nature of the trial. Professor Lipstadt has called him a Holocaust denier because she wants people to be aware of denial as a technique of historical interpretation, and, in a real sense, pass a moral judgement or condemn those who do it. David Irving, meanwhile, intends to submit statements about history to write two novels, the same kind of legal scrutiny which applies in trials where the witness statements are made in court and refer to the conduct of those being tried. In representing himself, David Irving does not (apparently) understand how to conduct his case in all respects. He has a rather shallow sense of how to do so, by aping the formal address he has noticed from counsel in observing trials #45; so we note how he calls Mr.
Justice Gray my lord rather easily, and twice in successive answers uses the formula very well, my lord. Fourth example - parliamentary exchanges. This is an extract from Hansard. It is a report of Oral Answers to Questions on Foreign and Commonwealth affairs. Resume Formater? The questions are put to Mr. How To? Jack Straw (Secretary of resume formater State) and Mr. Write Comparing? Mike O'Brien (Parliamentary Under#45;Secretary) Richard Ottaway (Croydon, South): Does the Foreign Secretary agree that dialogue is the best way to combat terrorism?
Bearing that in mind, why did he decline to meet Mr. Netanyahu when he was in London? 21 Jan 2003 : Column 151. Mr. O'Brien: I will pass on studies as coursework my hon. How To? Friend's thanks to the high commissioner.
We are following closely the fight club circumstances in Bangladesh and particularly the write an essay two novels arrests of essay on are than some journalists and opposition leaders. How To Comparing Two Novels? We welcome the essays release of Hussein Chaudry and others. Democracy means allowing disagreement and debate, and in Bangladesh that means that the Awami league as well as the Bangladesh Nationalist party must have the right to how to, voice their opinions. We have raised our concerns informally with the Bangladesh authorities, and will continue to resume formater, do so. I will write to my hon. Friend on the issue of the indemnity Bill.
Surat Miah, who was killed at Dhaka airport, was a British resident but not a British national. We have let the write an essay comparing Bangladesh authorities know that there is resume italics, widespread concern about the case in this country, and we have made representations in write an essay, that regard. The transcript here uses some conventions, such as hon. where the speaker says honourable. As Media Magazine Coursework? All the participants observe the convention of indirect speech among themselves, mediated through the Speaker #45; so they always use the third person pronouns or a title : not Do you agree that. but Does the Foreign Secretary agree that. An Essay Comparing? Where there is a choice of a pronoun (he/him) or a title, we find the speakers mostly use the latter. You can check this for yourself. How often does anyone say he/she/him/her?
How often does anyone use a descriptive title in referring to another #45; Foreign Secretary, (right) hon. Friend, Minister and so on? We note that the questioners often open their questions with a subordinate clause , expressing some condition or qualification of the we happier question: Given that the how to write an essay two novels military wing of the Palestinian Authority. Resume? claims responsibility . Write An Essay Comparing Two Novels? and Following the reported human rights abuses. We note, too, how some of the questions are not really requests for new information, but an invitation to endorse a statement that the questioner makes: does X accept that/agree that. Mr. Ottaway asks two questions.
But the second presupposes that Mr. Straw has answered the first by agreeing with the music coursework suggested statement #45; which Mr. Straw plainly has not done. So in Mr. An Essay Comparing? Ottway's Bearing that in mind, that refers to the suggested maxim that dialogue is the best way to combat terrorism. Mr. Straw does not endorse the suggestion, nor does he refute it.
Instead he evades both questions by saying that he did not meet Mr. Netanyahu (on the later occasion) because he had done so already on an earlier occasion. In doing this, Mr. Straw mitigates the film studies suggestion of discourtesy to write comparing two novels, the Israeli Minister (Mr. Netanyahu), by producing evidence of club earlier courtesy.
At the same time, he avoids giving any recent or continued indication of approval of Mr. Netanyahu. Write An Essay Two Novels? In this respect, the mention of the very good lunch becomes relevant. Resume Italics? We do not need to know that there was a lunch (of whatever quality) to establish whether Mr. Straw did or did not meet him. But the mention of the lunch will appear as a tangible proof that the meeting happened, and that Mr. Straw recalls this circumstantial detail #45; whereas he cannot, or will not, say anything about the content of the meeting in terms of who said what to whom. The junior minister supports this account by recalling the lunch. He appears to be giving evidence to write, the House that this is what indeed happened.
But, once more, they do not need someone's recollection of a meal to prove it. Mr. O'Brien is not so much telling the House about what happened, but signalling solidarity with his boss, the Secretary of State. Mrs. King initially asks an open question about the Minister's assessment. of the situation in Bangladesh. She does not (as earlier questioners do with Mr.
Straw) immediately invite Mr. O'Brien to resume italics, agree with some statement of comparing two novels hers. In allowing him to give an answer that she has not suggested to him, she may be establishing trust in the conversation #45; he can see that he is not having words put into his mouth. Next Mrs. King secures even more cooperation, in expressing gratitude to the servant of the crown, the film British Ambassador. This is in question form , but is really a statement (to the how to two novels question, May I thank. no answer of yes or no is possible, except as a comic non#45;sequitur).
Having secured, Mr. O'Brien's cooperation, Mrs. King moves to a series of resume three questions #45; of which the first is open, but which she effectively reduces to the two specific requests that follow. That is, she may seem to ask what (which may be anything at all) the Government is doing about democracy in Bangladesh. But really she is asking whether Mr.
O'Brien will do two very specific things: to ask the Bangladesh government about the killing of how to comparing a British resident, and whether he will write to her on a particular bill (a proposed piece of new legislation). Fight Club? Mr. O'Brien answers both questions clearly and how to write comparing two novels fully #45; observing conversational maxims of quality, quantity and relevance . He changes the order, as the second question needs only a yes or no (he says yes #45; he will write to Mrs. King). There is more to say about Surat Miah #45; and Mr. O'Brien appears to be well informed about the details of essay on are than Mr. Miah's death.
This extract does not support a common view of Parliamentary exchanges. It does not appear to be aggressive or confrontational, and an essay two novels we find Mr. Straw and Mr. O'Brien agreeing with some things, and not adopting a position on party lines. On the other hand, there is a huge difference between the very serious and informed answer to Louise Ellman and film studies the seemingly facetious response to Richard Ottaway.
Does Mr. How To? Straw do this because he is speaking to a man, who can take this kind of humour? Or is it a device to evade Mr. Ottaway's trap #45; which is to give Mr. Straw two choices, neither of which he can accept: If he says that he did not want to meet Mr. Netanyahu, he may offend the resume formater Israeli state.
If he expresses approval of Mr. Netanyahu, he may appear to support Israel's policy in Palestine and offend Arab and Muslim opinion. When the subject of the questions changes from Palestine to Bangladesh, the Secretary of State hands the speaking turn to his Minister #45; but Mr. O'Brien establishes some continuity with Mr. Straw in that, before answering Mrs. Write? King's question, he backs up Mr. Straw's story about the good lunch. The exchanges are marked by resume formater, frequent use of modal verbs may and will. Generally, the write an essay comparing speech is quite expansive #45; whoever holds a turn is able to resume, speak at some length without interruption. The comment on the good lunch is therefore rather untypical in its brevity.
Either Mr. Straw has a gift for witty improvisation, or he has anticipated the question and prepared the answer, whereas elsewhere he and Mr. How To Write An Essay? O'Brien are developing their responses as he makes them #45; the component phrases are sometimes elegant, often familiar collocations , and they are arranged loosely without elaborate rhetorical patterns. We can see a string of on are we happier than our forefather such collocations in horror and repulsion. unnecessary and gratuitous. How To Write Two Novels? effective control. Film? terrorist organizations. Mr.
O'Brien's made representations in that regard is an how to an essay comparing two novels, example of a diplomatic or bureaucratic register #45; in more demotic speech this equates simply to a statement that the UK government has asked the Bangladesh government about Mr. Miah's death. In fact, since it follows the fight club statement We have let the Bangladesh authorities know that there is widespread concern about the case in this country, it appears to be a repetition of the initial clause #45; how much difference is there between letting someone know a thing and how to comparing two novels making representations about it? Perhaps there is a slight distinction between informing Bangladesh that people in the UK are bothered about fight Mr. Miah's death and their asking the how to write comparing Bangladesh authorities to take some action. Ultimately, in that regard is ambiguous #45; since it may mean either that the UK government has made representations about Mr.
Miah's death in itself or about the widespread concern in the UK over on are than the killing. Can I print this guide and how to write two novels photocopy it? This guide is free for individual users - for example, teachers or students working from home - in resume italics, any part of the world. You can print out the guide, but it is not ideal for printing and how to an essay comparing two novels photocopying, and may run to many more pages than you expect. If you are working in a school or college, you may purchase a high-quality printed version optimized for multiple photocopying. The cost of the printed version includes permission for unlimited reproduction within your institution - if you expect to make multiple copies, this will probably save on your bulk photocopying and printing costs. To obtain the printed guide, contact: ZigZag Education and Computing Centre Publications Greenway Business Centre Doncaster Road Bristol BS10 5PY Tel: +44 (0)117 950 3199. Click on the link to go to the ZigZag Education Web site:
Please acknowledge my authorship by fight club, giving the URL of any pages you use, and/or include the copyright symbol. Suggestions for improvement are welcome. Write Comparing? Thank you.
Buy Essay Papers Here -
How To Write an Essay Comparing …
essays on christabel The world history of the 20 th century was characterized by how to write an essay numerous conflicts which resulted in essay the bloodthirsty wars that involved a lot of countries. In this respect, World War II was beyond a doubt the most serious military conflict the mankind had ever faced in how to write two novels its history and the effect of this humanitarian tragedy is resume italics, still relevant since the enormous casualties still affect the how to an essay comparing two novels, demographic situation in music coursework Europe and many other countries of the world, while the destructive effect of the war, crimes against humanity committed by the Nazis in the epoch became probably the how to write an essay two novels, most important lesson the mankind had to learn after the war. At the same time, it should be said that World War II should be viewed as the most serious conflict and as the global tragedy. On the other hand, this global tragedy consisted of millions of smaller but not less significant tragedies, which affected the life of resume many individuals. Basically, it is hardly possible to write comparing imagine that the war remained unnoticed or that it failed to affect each individual that lived in resume italics a country involved in the war. In this regard, the situation in Germany was particularly difficult because people living in this country lived in a permanent fear for their own life and life of their relatives and friends. The reason of this fear was not only the risk of being sent to war in terms of the national mobilization, but there was probably even greater threat of write comparing two novels political repressions which had swept away many lives, including lives of absolutely innocent people. In such a situation, it is very important to club essays receive information about this war directly from eyewitnesses of this tragedy.
In this respect, it is possible to how to write comparing refer to the novel “The Past is Myself”¯ by Christabel Bielenberg, since it is an as coursework autobiographic novel depicting the life of the author in the Nazi Germany in the period of World War II. In such a way, her work helps better understand the actual problems people living in Germany had faced during the war. At the same time, this book uncovers the essence of the Nazi regime based on oppression and fear of its own people. On analyzing the an essay comparing, book “The Past is Myself”¯ by Christabel Bielenberg, it is important to underline that the author does not just depict her personal experience and the fate of people she knew pretty well, but it is also the book that depicts the panorama of the German society of the period of World War II from its beginning in 1939 to the last days of the war as the story end in the spring of 1945, when the German army had already been practically smashed by the allies and the final defeat of Germany and its surrender were just questions of time. In fact, the book depicts the life of the main character in details. At the resume formater, same time, the author avoids the unnecessary personalization of the story. What is meant here is the fact that Christabel Bielenberg does not attempt to present her story and write an essay comparing the story of her family as the unique story that occurred in fight club essays the epoch. In stark contrast, she attempts to place her own story in the context of the epoch and show the extent to which her personal tragedy and sufferings she and her family had to pass through during the how to, war were common in the Nazi Germany. Basically, it is possible to estimate that the author shows her epoch through the life of as media music her family and the audience learns what actually happened in Germany through the how to an essay, personal experience of the author. In fact, the resume and download, use of such a technique apparently has multiple goals.
First of all, the author attempts to affect the emotional sphere and perception of readers because her sufferings were really dramatic and too real to be ignored by the audience. It is hardly possible to imagine that a reader could remain indifferent to the fate of those people who were oppressed by the regime to the extent that they could not even help each other, for instance, when Christabel cannot help a Jewish couple seeking for how to write shelter just because of the fear and the high risk of being imprisoned and on are sent to the concentration camp for the assistance to Jews, or when close friends of her family are hanged and even her husband cannot avoid the arrest and gets into the concentration camp for comparing nothing. At the same time, along with a significant impact on the emotions and feelings of the audience, the author uncovers the club essays, extent to which the Nazi regime was criminal and the life of how to an essay two novels ordinary people was unbearable. In this respect, it should be said that the book perfectly depicts the crimes of the essay on are than our forefather, regime through the story of the life of the write an essay comparing two novels, main characters of the autobiographical novel. It is worth mentioning the fact that the depiction of film such crimes of Nazis in Germany is practically a kind of documentary and they look like a common thing, which did not even surprise the main characters. At any rate, the main characters of the novel does not seem to be really surprised, even when they get the most terrible news about the death or arrest of people they knew well and who were their friends or family members.
Basically, the an essay, book seems to be very logical and coursework rational in the depiction of how to comparing two novels actual conditions of life and the permanent fear of people living in the Nazi Germany during World War II. This is fight essays, why it is possible to estimate that the author’s appeal to write an essay two novels emotions and feelings of the audience is strongly supported by the logic and resume rationalism of the author in the depiction of the how to an essay, most tragic events. She develops the resume italics, event of the story chronologically from the very beginning of the war practically until its end. In this respect, it is worth mentioning the structure of the novel, which is also well-organized and two novels very logical and, what is more, this structure seems to be chosen by the author intentionally. To put it more precisely, the events of the novel mainly unfolds in two locations: at first in Berlin and lately in Rohrbach, the countryside in the Black Forest. Such a shift from as coursework Berlin to the countryside is not occasion and it is important to underline that the shift of the location occurs practically in the middle of the war, when the war turns into its crucial stage, namely, the stage when the defeat of Germany begins. In actuality, such a choice of how to comparing two novels location seems to be intentional because, in such a way, the author manages to show two different sides of Germany. On the one hand, there is a heart of the Nazi regime and the entire country, Berlin, which seems to be the most secure, safe, and best place where all Germans could only dream of.
On the other hand, there is a rural area, which seems to be distant from the military actions, politics and intrigues, but, in resume and download actuality, the how to write an essay comparing, life in the countryside turns to be as tension or even more tensions than the life in Berlin. Consequently, with the help of such of the location the author manages to show that the war has penetrated into all parts of the country, including the most remote ones such as Rohrbach in the Black Forest. Naturally, this technique helps readers to better understand the extent to which the war influenced the entire German society and there was not a single person left aside. As it has been already mentioned above, “The Past is Myself”¯ is an autobiographical novel which depicts the life of the main character, which is the life of the author as the and download, matter of fact, in the period of World War II. The novel begins in 1939, when the war has just begun. At this time, Christabel Bielenberg, a British woman, and her family move to Germany which was the motherland of how to write an essay comparing her husband, Peter Bielenberg. Resume And Download? Her husband, Peter Bielenberg is a lawyer, whom she married in write comparing 1934. In the opening of the novel, the author focuses the attention of readers on events that preceded the war and, in actuality, she apparently attempts to resume italics explain why the war has actually broken out.
To put it more precisely, she depicts the growing anti-Jewish sentiments that grew stronger in society and contributed consistently to how to write an essay comparing two novels the development of anti-Semitism and racism in the society. In such a context, the success of the political party that had chosen racism the backbone of its ideology was quite predictable. Moreover, the author also shows the dissolution of trade unions and political parties, which grew weaker and weaker, while the new power, the Nazi Party headed by the new leader of Germany, A. Hitler, in contrast, grew stronger as if it took power of other political parties that could compete with it. At the as media, same time, it should be said that the author basically lays emphasis on the political aspect of the strengthening of the Nazi Party and Hitler coming to power. On analyzing her book, the major conclusion that may be made is the idea that the victory of the Nazi Party headed by Hitler was mainly determined by its ideology and the major political and social trends typical for German society of that epoch. For instance, the write two novels, ideology of anti-Semitism was widely supported by many Germans, while communists had lost their positions in Germany in face of the nationalist party headed by resume and download Hitler. However, it seems that the author does not pay a lot of attention to the economic background and socioeconomic causes of the establishment of the Nazi regime in Germany, which actually involved the country and the entire world into World War II. How To Write An Essay Comparing? In this respect, it should be said that socioeconomic factors played an extremely important role in the breaking out the war. Specialists (Junger, 213) underline that the growing poverty and rapid deterioration of the economic situation in Germany became major factors that bring Hitler and his clique to power. It should be said that before the establishment of the Nazi regime in Germany, the resume italics, national economy was really in a very poor position.
To a significant extent, the deterioration of economic situation in Germany contributed to the growing popularity of extremist and radical ideas of Hitler who used the idea of an essay two novels racial inequality to inspire Germans and resume formater enforce his regime. This is actually why, using ideas of anti-Semitism, he attempted to distract people from their economic problems and how to write find the enemy within the country. In such a situation, it was consistently easier to take the power and gain the wide public support. At the same time, it should be said that the beginning of the on are than, war and the reality of the Nazi Germany depicted by the author in her book basically indicate to the internal causes of the war , which mainly lie in social and political domain. However, specialists (Borchert, 156) underline that the rapid deterioration of the economic situation did not only bring Hitler to power, but also stimulated the development of his extremely aggressive, revanchist foreign policy. In fact, Hitler attempted to improve the situation in the country through the militarization of the national economy. On the how to write an essay comparing, one hand, such militarization facilitated consistently to the improvement of socioeconomic situation as the as media music, level of unemployment decreased substantially, the economy started to grow and the material well-being of ordinary Germans started to grow too. On the how to an essay comparing, other hand, the militarization of the as media coursework, country, in spite of its positive economic effect, could not be unlimited and purposeless. As a result, the idea of military expansion of Germany became extremely popular to the extent that starting from the collection of how to “German lands”¯ Hitler finished up with the occupation of a large part of Europe and aggression against its opponents in the West and East (Peukert, 163). In this respect, it is also worth mentioning the fact that the British origin of Christabel Bienelberg influenced her novel consistently. To put it more precisely, she depicts the horrors of the Nazi regime and tends to accuse this regime in the oppression of its own people and in the beginning of the war.
However, at this point, it is necessary to remind about the impact of external factors, which, to a significant extent, defined the further development of international relations and contributed to the beginning of World War II. What is meant here is the fact that the author practically ignores the fact that Great Britain and its allies, namely France, did not undertake any preventive measures to stop Hitler (Peukert, 178). As Media Magazine Coursework? Moreover, the policy of how to write comparing appeasing Hitler only increased his aggressiveness in the foreign policy. In this respect, it should be said that the development of the novel and the tragedy of German people and resume the personal tragedy of the author, her family and her friends, depicted in the novel, was not only the problem of the Nazi regime, but it was also the problem of how to an essay two novels unwillingness of film as coursework other countries to stop Hitler, when Germany was too weak to oppose to Great Britain and an essay two novels France (Browning, 175). On the other hand, it is hardly possible to disagree with the resume formater, author in her attitude to the Nazi regime and details of the life of ordinary people in the period of World War II are very important and valuable in regard to understanding the essence of this regime and its criminal nature. At the same time, the author shows that it was a very controversial epoch. For instance, being in Berlin, she witnessed her gardener being hanged by the war resistance fighters. This fact is very important because it indicates to the presence of the resistance within Germany and specialists (Peukert, 204) basically agree with Christabel Bielenberg that the opposition to Nazi regime existed, but it was too weak to overthrow Hitler and his party. However, along with the how to an essay, war resistance fighters there were a lot of people who supported Hitler.
For instance, the author tells about resume and download, a woman, who was a Nazi spy, from how to which she had learned that her husband was a Hitler’s lawyer. In general, her husband and essays the friends of their family turn to be quite controversial figures because they do not resist to the regime and it is even possible to estimate that they are loyal to write comparing two novels this regime, even though it is unbearable for resume italics the author. In this respect, it is how to write comparing two novels, worth reminding the story of the Jewish couple who looked for shelter but Carl, a friend of Peter, talked out Christabel to hide them because of the risk of arrest. On the other hand, such a loyalty was not rewarded by the regime, since Peter, the husband of Christabel, was arrested and sent to the concentration camp, while his friends Carl and Adam were arrested and executed for speaking openly about the war in a negative way. Thus, in resume formater such a way, the ending of the book really looks like a kind of the how to write an essay, liberation of the main character and her family, including her husband who was saved from the concentration camp and sending to the front, from the oppression of the Nazi regime, which was about to fall down.
At the same time, it was the liberation of the entire Germany. In conclusion, it should be said that the book convey a very interesting experience of the author, but, on the other hand, it does not fully reflect the real picture of Germany in World War II. In fact, the position of the author depicts the tragedy of all people living in Germany in that epoch, but the author fails to overcome the national borders of Germany and look at the war from a larger point of view, which could reveal the international character and cause of the essays, war and its tragic effects. THANK YOU, THIS HELPED A LOT IN MY RESEARCH, SCHOOL PROJECT.