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The Essays of Francis Bacon - Saint Mary's College
AP Biology: The Properties of Water Essay. Francis Bacon. Water has many unique properties that make life possible on Earth. One property is cohesion. The cohesion property is properly defined as the binding of water molecules by hydrogen bonds. Water has this property as a result of the chemical bonding between water.
Cohesion of the strong hydrogen bonds allows the water molecules to stick together, almost as a unit of one. A force exerted on one of the molecules will be exerted on all of the adjacent molecules as a result of cohesion. Cohesion, often with the cooperation of adhesion, the clinging of one substance to another, adds to essays on american individualism, the function and ability of water to overcome strong natural forces, such as gravity. When water is in its liquid state of matter, the hydrogen bonds are very frail and bacon essays, weak, about one-twentieth as strong as covalent bonds. The bonds are made, broken, and remade very quickly. Each hydrogen bond lasts only a few trillionths of a second, but the ucc, constant synthesis of new bonds with a succession of partners acquires equilibrium. Therefore, a significant percentage of all the water molecules are bonded to their neighbors, making water a more orderly structured liquid than most other known liquids. A property related to cohesion is surface tension, a measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the francis science, surface of form ucc a liquid.
Water is known to francis bacon science essays, have a greater surface tension than most other liquids. An ordered arrangement of hydrogen-bonded water molecules is present at the boundary between water and air. As a result water behaves as though it is coated with an invisible film along the surface. An example how the cohesion of water affects the functioning of living organisms is critical thinking theory, present in francis bacon science, plants. Evaporation from the leaves in plants pulls water up from the roots. Cohesion due to hydrogen bonding helps hold the column of water molecules together within the xylem vessels located in on american individualism, the stem or trunk of science a plant.
Adhesion helps the compare, process by resisting the pull of gravity against francis science essays, the upward motion of the molecules. Another property of water is book service, its solubility. Water is known as the universal solvent of francis bacon science life. Many substances can be combined with water to form a solution, a homogeneous mixture between two substances. Water, in solutions, is known as the solvent. The substance or substances being dissolved is known as the solute. Compare People. An aqueous solution is when a homogenous mixture where water is the solvent is present.
As found by the medieval alchemists, water is the most soluble liquid. Although water is technically not universal, it is very versatile solvent. Water#8217;s solubility is a result of its polarity. Water is a polar molecule, meaning that the opposite ends of the molecule of opposite charges. In a water molecule, the francis, polar covalent bonds allow the oxygen region of the molecule to have a partial negative charge and the hydrogen regions to of hamlet, have a partial positive charge. When ionic crystals are placed in water, they are ionized. The partially negative ion from the francis bacon science essays, crystal bond to the hydrogen ions in water. The partially positive ion from the crystal bond to the oxygen ions in water. The sphere of of hamlet water molecules around each dissolved ion is called a hydration shell. Water eventually dissolves all the ions. As a result, there is a solution containing two solutes from the francis, salt homogeneously mixed with water, the versatile solvent.
Aside from ionic compounds, water can also be a solvent for many polar molecules. An effect of the versatile solubility can be demonstrated in the functioning of thesis form ucc many liquid substances of living organisms, such as blood, the sap of plants, and the liquid contained in cells. Water#8217;s solubility allows for these liquids to bacon, have a universal concentration throughout the entire liquid, making the distribution of the ions or molecules in the solution equal. Another property of water is its high specific heat. The ability of water to stabilize temperatures in natural ecosystems is a result of its high specific heat. Specific heat is defined as the amount of heat that must be absorbed or lost for compare, one gram of a substance to change its temperature by one degree Celsius. Water#8217;s specific heat is defined as one calorie per gram per degree Celsius. This information comes from the definition of a calorie, the amount of heat that causes one gram of water to change its temperature by francis science, one degree Celsius. Because of water#8217;s high specific heat, water#8217;s temperature will change less when it absorbs or loses a certain amount of heat. Water resists changing its temperature, and when it happens to change it, it absorbs or loses a large quantity of heat for essays on american, each change in temperature. Water#8217;s specific heat is a direct result of francis bacon essays hydrogen bonding.
Large amounts of heat must be absorbed in order to critical thinking and practice, break the hydrogen bonds, and francis essays, large amounts of heat are released when hydrogen bonds form. One calorie doesn#8217;t cause a large change in the temperature primarily because most of the heat energy is used to writers, disrupt the francis, hydrogen bonds before the water molecules can start moving faster. When the temperature drops slightly, many hydrogen bonds form, releasing a large amount of heat energy. Water#8217;s high specific heat is directly related to life on Earth through climate. Bodies of paper water in francis, coastal areas can store large amounts of heat during the day and release heat at night when cooling. The specific heat also stabilizes ocean temperatures, creating a more favorable environment for marine life. Therefore, as a result of water#8217;s high specific heat, the water on Earth keeps temperature changes on land and in water within life-permitting limits. Animals are also mostly made of water, allowing them to resist changes in their own temperatures.
Water is so abundant and present in everyday life that it#8217;s easy to neglect the fact that it is an exceptional substance with many extraordinary qualities. Paper. Following the theme of emergent properties, water#8217;s unique behavior can be traced to the structure and interactions of its molecules. University/College: University of Chicago. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 15 July 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on AP Biology: The Properties of Water. for only $16.38 $13.9/page. Haven't found the Essay You Want? Get your custom essay sample. For Only $13.90/page.
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The Essays of Francis Bacon - Saint Mary's College
resume s3 acpi It is francis bacon essays, important to utilize hardware resources in an efficient manner. Power and resource management allows the critical thinking theory operating system to monitor system limits and to possibly provide an alert if the system temperature increases unexpectedly. Francis Bacon Science? An early specification for providing power management was the Advanced Power Management (APM ) facility. APM controls the power usage of a system based on its activity. However, it was difficult and inflexible for operating systems to manage the power usage and thermal properties of a system. Submission Form? The hardware was managed by the BIOS and the user had limited configurability and visibility into the power management settings. Francis Essays? The APM BIOS is writers, supplied by the vendor and bacon is specific to the hardware platform.
An APM driver in the operating system mediates access to the APM Software Interface, which allows management of power levels. There are four major problems in review, APM . First, power management is done by the vendor-specific BIOS , separate from the francis bacon essays operating system. For example, the user can set idle-time values for analysis of hamlet essay, a hard drive in the APM BIOS so that, when exceeded, the BIOS spins down the hard drive without the consent of the operating system. Second, the APM logic is bacon science, embedded in the BIOS , and it operates outside the scope of the operating system. This means that users can only submission, fix problems in francis bacon essays, the APM BIOS by flashing a new one into critical theory and practice the ROM , which is a dangerous procedure with the potential to leave the system in an unrecoverable state if it fails. Third, APM is a vendor-specific technology, meaning that there is a lot of duplication of efforts and bugs found in one vendor's BIOS may not be solved in others. Lastly, the francis essays APM BIOS did not have enough room to implement a sophisticated power policy or one that can adapt well to the purpose of the machine.
The successor to APM is the Advanced Configuration and critical of hamlet Power Interface (ACPI ). Essays? ACPI is a standard written by an alliance of vendors to provide an interface for hardware resources and power management. It is a key element in critical, Operating System-directed configuration and Power Management as it provides more control and flexibility to the operating system. This chapter demonstrates how to bacon science configure ACPI on FreeBSD. It then offers some tips on how to debug ACPI and essays on american how to submit a problem report containing debugging information so that developers can diagnosis and francis bacon science essays fix ACPI issues. In FreeBSD the acpi (4) driver is loaded by default at system boot and should not be compiled into the kernel. This driver cannot be unloaded after boot because the system bus uses it for various hardware interactions. However, if the system is experiencing problems, ACPI can be disabled altogether by rebooting after setting hint.acpi.0.disabled=1 in /boot/loader.conf or by setting this variable at the loader prompt, as described in Section 12.2.3, “Stage Three”. ACPI and APM cannot coexist and should be used separately.
The last one to load will terminate if the driver notices the other is running. ACPI can be used to put the system into a sleep mode with acpiconf , the -s flag, and thesis ucc a number from 1 to 5 . Most users only need 1 (quick suspend to RAM ) or 3 (suspend to RAM ). Option 5 performs a soft-off which is the same as running halt -p . Other options are available using sysctl . Refer to francis bacon essays acpi (4) and acpiconf (8) for more information. ACPI is compare and contrast two famous people, present in bacon science, all modern computers that conform to the ia32 (x86), ia64 (Itanium), and amd64 (AMD ) architectures. The full standard has many features including CPU performance management, power planes control, thermal zones, various battery systems, embedded controllers, and bus enumeration. Most systems implement less than the full standard.
For instance, a desktop system usually only implements bus enumeration while a laptop might have cooling and battery management support as well. Laptops also have suspend and critical essay resume, with their own associated complexity. An ACPI -compliant system has various components. The BIOS and chipset vendors provide various fixed tables, such as FADT , in memory that specify things like the APIC map (used for SMP ), config registers, and simple configuration values. Additionally, a bytecode table, the Differentiated System Description Table DSDT , specifies a tree-like name space of bacon devices and methods.
The ACPI driver must parse the fixed tables, implement an doody's interpreter for francis bacon essays, the bytecode, and modify device drivers and the kernel to accept information from the ACPI subsystem. For FreeBSD, Intel ® has provided an paper interpreter (ACPI-CA ) that is shared with Linux ® and bacon science essays NetBSD. The path to the ACPI-CA source code is src/sys/contrib/dev/acpica . Thesis Submission Ucc? The glue code that allows ACPI-CA to work on FreeBSD is in francis bacon science essays, src/sys/dev/acpica/Osd . Finally, drivers that implement various ACPI devices are found in analysis of hamlet, src/sys/dev/acpica . In some cases, resuming from bacon, a suspend operation will cause the mouse to fail. A known work around is to add hint.psm.0.flags=0x3000 to critical theory and practice /boot/loader.conf . ACPI has three suspend to RAM (STR ) states, S1 - S3 , and one suspend to disk state (STD ), called S4 . STD can be implemented in two separate ways. Essays? The S4 BIOS is a BIOS -assisted suspend to disk and S4 OS is implemented entirely by the operating system. The normal state the system is in critical of hamlet essay, when plugged in francis bacon science essays, but not powered up is “ soft off ” ( S5 ).
Use sysctl hw.acpi to check for the suspend-related items. These example results are from a Thinkpad: Use acpiconf -s to test S3 , S4 , and S5 . An s4bios of one ( 1 ) indicates S4 BIOS support instead of S4 operating system support. When testing suspend/resume, start with S1 , if supported. This state is most likely to work since it does not require much driver support. No one has implemented S2 , which is similar to S1 . Next, try S3 . This is the deepest STR state and requires a lot of driver support to properly reinitialize the hardware. A common problem with suspend/resume is that many device drivers do not save, restore, or reinitialize their firmware, registers, or device memory properly. As a first attempt at debugging the problem, try:
This test emulates the thinking suspend/resume cycle of francis essays all device drivers without actually going into S3 state. In some cases, problems such as losing firmware state, device watchdog time out, and retrying forever, can be captured with this method. Note that the book system will not really enter S3 state, which means devices may not lose power, and many will work fine even if suspend/resume methods are totally missing, unlike real S3 state. Harder cases require additional hardware, such as a serial port and cable for debugging through a serial console, a Firewire port and bacon science essays cable for using dcons (4) , and kernel debugging skills. To help isolate the thinking theory problem, unload as many drivers as possible. If it works, narrow down which driver is the problem by loading drivers until it fails again. Typically, binary drivers like nvidia.ko , display drivers, and USB will have the most problems while Ethernet interfaces usually work fine. If drivers can be properly loaded and bacon essays unloaded, automate this by putting the appropriate commands in /etc/rc.suspend and /etc/rc.resume . Try setting hw.acpi.reset_video to 1 if the display is messed up after resume.
Try setting longer or shorter values for hw.acpi.sleep_delay to see if that helps. Try loading a recent Linux ® distribution to see if suspend/resume works on the same hardware. If it works on Linux ®, it is likely a FreeBSD driver problem. Narrowing down which driver causes the problem will assist developers in submission, fixing the problem. Since the francis bacon ACPI maintainers rarely maintain other drivers, such as sound or ATA , any driver problems should also be posted to the freebsd-current list and two famous people essay mailed to the driver maintainer. Bacon Science? Advanced users can include debugging printf (3) s in a problematic driver to track down where in its resume function it hangs. Finally, try disabling ACPI and enabling APM instead. If suspend/resume works with APM , stick with APM , especially on older hardware (pre-2000). It took vendors a while to get ACPI support correct and older hardware is more likely to have BIOS problems with ACPI . Most system hangs are a result of lost interrupts or an interrupt storm.
Chipsets may have problems based on boot, how the BIOS configures interrupts before correctness of the nursing writers APIC (MADT ) table, and routing of the francis science System Control Interrupt (SCI ). Interrupt storms can be distinguished from lost interrupts by checking the output of vmstat -i and looking at the line that has acpi0 . If the thesis submission form counter is francis bacon science essays, increasing at more than a couple per second, there is an interrupt storm. If the system appears hung, try breaking to DDB ( CTRL + ALT + ESC on console) and type show interrupts . When dealing with interrupt problems, try disabling APIC support with hint.apic.0.disabled=1 in /boot/loader.conf . 184.108.40.206. System Powers Up After Suspend or Shutdown. First, try setting hw.acpi.disable_on_poweroff=0 in /boot/loader.conf . This keeps ACPI from disabling various events during the shutdown process. Some systems need this value set to thinking theory 1 (the default) for science, the same reason. Of Hamlet? This usually fixes the problem of a system powering up spontaneously after a suspend or poweroff.
220.127.116.11. BIOS Contains Buggy Bytecode. Some BIOS vendors provide incorrect or buggy bytecode. This is usually manifested by kernel console messages like this: Often, these problems may be resolved by updating the BIOS to the latest revision. Most console messages are harmless, but if there are other problems, like the battery status is not working, these messages are a good place to start looking for problems.
The BIOS bytecode, known as ACPI Machine Language (AML ), is francis bacon essays, compiled from a source language called ACPI Source Language (ASL ). On American Individualism? The AML is found in the table known as the Differentiated System Description Table (DSDT ). The goal of bacon FreeBSD is for book review, everyone to have working ACPI without any user intervention. Workarounds are still being developed for essays, common mistakes made by BIOS vendors. The Microsoft ® interpreter ( acpi.sys and acpiec.sys ) does not strictly check for adherence to the standard, and thus many BIOS vendors who only test ACPI under Windows ® never fix their ASL . FreeBSD developers continue to identify and document which non-standard behavior is book, allowed by Microsoft ®'s interpreter and bacon science replicate it so that FreeBSD can work without forcing users to essays fix the ASL . To help identify buggy behavior and possibly fix it manually, a copy can be made of the francis bacon system's ASL . To copy the system's ASL to a specified file name, use acpidump with -t , to show the contents of the essays individualism fixed tables, and -d , to disassemble the AML : Some AML versions assume the user is running Windows ®. To override this, set hw.acpi.osname= Windows 2009 in /boot/loader.conf , using the bacon most recent Windows ® version listed in the ASL . Other workarounds may require my.asl to be customized. Writers? If this file is francis, edited, compile the new ASL using the thinking following command. Warnings can usually be ignored, but errors are bugs that will usually prevent ACPI from working correctly. Including -f forces creation of the AML , even if there are errors during compilation. Some errors, such as missing return statements, are automatically worked around by the FreeBSD interpreter. The default output filename for iasl is francis bacon, DSDT.aml . Load this file instead of the BIOS 's buggy copy, which is analysis of hamlet essay, still present in flash memory, by editing /boot/loader.conf as follows:
Be sure to copy DSDT.aml to bacon /boot , then reboot the system. If this fixes the problem, send a diff (1) of the old and new ASL to freebsd-acpi so that developers can work around the buggy behavior in acpica . 11.13.4. Getting and Submitting Debugging Info. Debugging output is not enabled by default. To enable it, add options ACPI_DEBUG to the custom kernel configuration file if ACPI is compiled into the kernel. Add ACPI_DEBUG=1 to /etc/make.conf to enable it globally.
If a module is used instead of a custom kernel, recompile just the acpi.ko module as follows: Copy the compiled acpi.ko to doody's /boot/kernel and add the desired level and layer to /boot/loader.conf . Francis Bacon? The entries in this example enable debug messages for all ACPI components and hardware drivers and output error messages at the least verbose level: If the required information is critical analysis of hamlet, triggered by a specific event, such as a suspend and then resume, do not modify /boot/loader.conf . Instead, use sysctl to specify the layer and essays level after booting and preparing the system for the specific event. The variables which can be set using sysctl are named the same as the tunables in /boot/loader.conf . Once the debugging information is gathered, it can be sent to freebsd-acpi so that it can be used by the FreeBSD ACPI maintainers to identify the root cause of the problem and to develop a solution. Before submitting debugging information to this mailing list, ensure the latest BIOS version is installed and, if available, the compare people embedded controller firmware version. When submitting a problem report, include the following information: Description of the buggy behavior, including system type, model, and anything that causes the bug to science essays appear. Paper Writers? Note as accurately as possible when the bug began occurring if it is new. The output of dmesg after running boot -v , including any error messages generated by the bug. The dmesg output from francis science, boot -v with ACPI disabled, if disabling ACPI helps to fix the problem. Output from sysctl hw.acpi . This lists which features the compare two famous system offers.
The URL to a pasted version of the system's ASL . Do not send the ASL directly to the list as it can be very large. Bacon Science Essays? Generate a copy of the critical theory ASL by running this command: Substitute the francis essays login name for book review, name and manufacturer/model for system . For example, use njl-FooCo6000.asl . Most FreeBSD developers watch the essays FreeBSD-CURRENT mailing list, but one should submit problems to freebsd-acpi to be sure it is seen. Be patient when waiting for a response. If the thesis submission form ucc bug is not immediately apparent, submit a PR using send-pr (1) . When entering a PR , include the same information as requested above.
This helps developers to track the problem and resolve it. Do not send a PR without emailing freebsd-acpi first as it is likely that the francis essays problem has been reported before. More information about ACPI may be found in the following locations:
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Americanization in bacon Denmark Essay Sample. The American language is today one of the most popular spoken language worldwide. With only Chinese being superior to the American language, it is no wonder why the language, culture and fashion has rapidly sneaked up on Denmark, and has started to doody's book affect the native languages of the science essays, country. We hear or read words and songs from America every day. It could be a song playing in thinking and practice the radio, or a label on a dishwasher, and we don’t even think about it being American. A Danish writer called Dan Turell once said when he was talking about his youth and the changes in bacon the Danish community, “USA was like the big brother of Denmark”. Globalization is also a hot subject when talking about the Americanization.
What are the threats and possibilities that globalization holds for us and the rest of the world? Easy communication all over the world is one aspect of globalization. This appears to be a good thing but many bad things can come out of it. Doody's Book Review Service! Of course global trading and negotiating is a good thing. China can share their knowledge and science with USA and vice versa. But terrorists can also exploit the global communication for francis bacon science, example the nowadays pirates in two famous Somalia. They can kidnap some Danes and contact the Danish police or government and ask for a ransom. Globalization also leads to the world “shrinking”.
Cultures will be more alike because it is so easy to francis travel to the other side of the compare two famous essay, world and learn from other cultures, buy their food or items and adopt it in to your own culture. This can in worst case scenario end up with having a world that is the same no matter where you go. It doesn’t matter if you are in francis bacon China or in Mexico. American words and sentences has for a long time, been adopted into the Danish language. Submission Ucc! At a young age the Danes learn English at elementary school. Therefore the language is bacon science, accepted and known by a lot of Danes. The Danes use a lot of American words like fuck, download, Walkman and other words they don’t consider American because they have been in the Danish vocabulary for so long. Nursing Paper! The Danish culture is being Americanized not only by words and sentences but with songs too. As an example of this I have chosen the Danish pop-band Nephew’s song “Va Fangool!” – Which is an American slang for “fuck you” They start the song by singing in Danish, but with a few grammatical mistakes. In the middle of the first verse they sing “you know what I mean” which isn’t Danish, but American.
They also sing the chorus and the whole second verse in American before they switch back to Danish in the last chorus, only to finish it off with some more American singing. When you hear the francis bacon essays, music you know that the critical thinking theory and practice, American part is in another language, but you don’t think about because you know the language and you understand the phrases. In the music video, they show a fish called “Big Mouth Billy Bass” who is a fish that sings when you pass by it. It was very popular in Denmark in the late 1990s and early 2000s. The fish sang a few American songs like “Don’t worry, be happy” by Bobby McFerrin. The Danes started buying this “singing fish” and francis bacon, placed it in their living rooms.
The song, along with the fish, shows clear signs of Americanization. And the directors making the videos all know too well what they are doing. And it’s no coincidence why they place the doody's book review service, fish in science the video. American music video makers are teaming up with makeup artist and a lot of other professionals to make their music videos appealing to the whole world. And the Danes pick up inspiration, fashion, and cultures from rap-artists, models and sports stars. This also distributes to the Americanization in Denmark. The Danes start wearing “bling bling” (expensive shiny jewellery and watches) like the rap stars 50cent and Snoop Dogg do. They talk the of hamlet essay, same slang and they look up to the stars. The Americanization has just started and we will begin to see a lot more of this in the future. Already now it can be hard to tell the difference between an American teenager and a Danish teenager by looking at their clothes and jewelry. The Americanization has been successful because USA working hard on expanding globally by francis essays, promoting themselves.
Globalization is an odd thing, it fascinates me how there can be so big of a difference between the wealth and misery of different countries. Many people are afraid of critical globalization but I think we should embrace it and share the wealth all over francis bacon essays the world to make it equal, to form peace and to distinguish poverty and misery. Doody's Book Review! I don’t think any continent should have the ability, financial wise to dominate the world. Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Americanization in Denmark. essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Americanization in Denmark. Even though the science, delegation of Denmark often poses without notice, it is undoubtedly a wellestablished and wealthy country with unparalleled promise. In this summit dedicated to the militarization of outer#8230; The Americanization of Benjamin Franklin. When trying to book review service read about history, sometimes it is easy to misinterpret information and not realize certain motives or reasons that are behind historical events.
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Food Security or Food Sovereignty: the Case of Land Grabs Essay. The last decade has witnessed a serious change in the distribution and accessibility of food. Bacon. In 2010 Ethiopia was home to 2.8 million people in need of emergency food aid; yet this country had concurrently sold more than 600,000 hectares of agricultural land to nursing paper writers, transnational companies that export the majority of their produce (Reuters, 2011; Economist, 2009; Green, 2011). Ethiopia remains a country facing great food insecurity, which is a lack of access to sufficient, safe and bacon essays, nutritious food (WHO, 2011); a paradigm that focuses upon the financial and distributive aspects of providing food. Although Ethiopia is just one of many countries facing this dilemma, it illustrates how the issue of essays on american individualism food sovereignty is becoming increasingly as important as that of food security. This paper will address the role that sovereignty plays in essays light of analysis essay mass foreign acquisition of land in countries which face high levels of food insecurity. The importance of food security and food sovereignty will be exemplified within the context of ‘land grabbing’ in a demonstrative case study of francis essays Ethiopia. Security or Sovereignty? The difference between food security and food sovereignty may seem like mere semantics, but in the hyper-globalized world wherein transnational companies may privately own significant portions of arable land in book countries facing food insecurity, it is not just a matter of word play. When these companies choose to francis science, export the doody's review entire crop grown on such lands and when the farmland has been taken from uncompensated smallholder farmers.
Disparity of wealth and land ownership is not a new phenomenon. However, the degree to which agricultural lands are owned within areas of food insecurity makes food sovereignty as vital a factor as food security. An analysis of these concepts and science, their global implications is pressing, as over 963 million people do not have enough to book service, eat. Most of them live in developing countries, and sixty-five percent of them live in only seven countries: China, India, Bangladesh, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Indonesia, Pakistan and Ethiopia (FAO, 2011). Furthermore, each year more people die due to hunger and malnutrition than to AIDS, tuberculosis, and science essays, malaria combined (Global Food Security, 2011a). The World Food Summit, held in 1996, declared that ideal food security includes the global population, whereby all people have access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food, encompassing both the physical availability and the economic access (WHO, 2011). The United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the Convention on the Rights of the Child both stipulate that it is the intrinsic right of all people to have access to of hamlet essay, food (United Nations, 1948; United Nations, 1990). However, the responsibility to enact these rights rests mostly on the nation-state, not the international community. On the other hand, some argue that repeated affirmations of human rights within the international realm do imply some global responsibility (Riddell, 2007).
The theoretical ideal is, therefore, that food security exists when all people in science all places have access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food. Thesis Submission Form. Clearly that theoretical aim has not been met. Furthermore, if current mechanisms are not facilitating the francis science essays aim it may require consideration of entirely new models of how countries engage with one another (Pogge, 2002). Typical measurement of food security is limited to a specific place, such as a nation, city or household. USAID (USAID, 2011) uses the household as a measurement, whereas the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) programs are nationally operated, thus limiting the global goals and human rights to nursing paper writers, the nation-state. Food insecurity also exists in differing levels.
One person may be facing a temporary bout of food insecurity, called “transitory”, while another may be consistently facing it, known as “chronic” food insecurity. Chronic food insecurity leads to high levels of vulnerability to hunger and famine. The achievement of food security does not necessitate that a country produce sufficient food supplies; but rather that a country is able to provide sufficient safe and francis science, nutritious food for its population. Thus, arises the question of food sovereignty: in of hamlet essay a world of great economic disparity, will the food supplies of francis essays one region be given to another, even in the case where the local population faces chronic food insecurity? Food security means the availability and thesis form ucc, access to sufficient safe food, whereas food sovereignty involves both ownership and the rights of local people to define local food systems, without first being subject to bacon science, international market concerns. An important distinction must be made between food sovereignty as a theoretical construct and food sovereignty as a movement. The food sovereignty movement considers that the practices of essay multi-national corporations are akin to colonization, as such companies buy up large tracts of bacon science essays land and turn local agricultural resources into export cash-crops. As a movement, food sovereignty lacks direction and involves a great diversity of opinion and idea. As a model to re-consider and re-evaluate food, it highlights important challenges and offers potential remedies to critical essay, current challenges. Food sovereignty as a theoretical construct, which is the definition that will be used throughout this paper, relates to bacon, the ownership and rights of on american food growers and local communities. Food security and food sovereignty are increasingly of francis science essays global importance, with concerns not limited just to the developing world.
In the 2008 price spike, consumers in Great Britain saw a fifteen-percent rise in average food items, while the essays on american BBC tracked some items increasing in cost by more than forty-percent (Global Food Security, 2011a). In the twelve month period before the price spike, the cost of wheat increased by 130% and rice by 74% (ibid). The pinch of paying more for francis essays, food in developed countries was expressed differently in many developing countries, such as the mass rioting in Yemen, Somalia, Senegal, Pakistan, Mozambique, Indonesia, India, Egypt, Ivory Coast, Cameroon, Haiti, Burkina Faso, the Philippines and Bangladesh. At the same time, the World Resources Institute records sustainable and on american individualism, consistent increases in per capita food production over the last several decades (World Resources Institute, 2011). USAID argues that food insecurity is often a result of poverty (USAID, 2011), while ownership, land rights and sovereignty are not mentioned as causal factors. While it is true that a direct relationship can be found between those who face food insecurity and those who are impoverished, that does not exclude other causes; such as, a lack of sovereignty or oppressive external factors. Francis Bacon Science Essays. However, USAID does not take poverty alleviation and/or human rights as its prime reasons for nursing, engagement; rather its prime interests are to protect America and to create opportunities for Americans (Riddell, 2007).
The European Union community has sought the improvement of bacon science food security for the least-developed countries through a plethora of national and international development bodies, while also engaging in massive export-based land acquisitions in those same regions (Graham, Aubry, Kunnemann and paper writers, Suarez, 2011). Ironically, the aim of reaching the Millennium Development Goals (MGDs) with funding and francis science, support from the European Union is countered by European Union businesses as they engage in activities that displace and dispossess locals of essay their land and livelihood. Francis Bacon. Increasing commercial production does not mean an service, increase of local or national food security, in bacon particular when these foreign companies are exporting entire crops. This may in fact, lead to increased food insecurity and doody's book, higher levels of malnutrition and bacon, poverty (Ansoms, 2011). Surprisingly, even Harvard University has used its investments in land-acquisition deals (Vidal and Provost, 2011).
A “land grab” refers to those land acquisitions that have caused displacement, dispossession and disenfranchisement; or, according to the Institute of Development Studies, it may also more broadly refer to the mass purchasing of agricultural lands by transnational companies (Scoones, 2009). Land grabbing is occurring on a scale and at a rate faster than ever known before (Food First, 2011). When over one-hundred papers were presented at nursing the International Conference on Global Land Grabbing in 2011, not one positive outcome could be found for local communities; such as, food security, employment and environmental sustainability (ibid). When such acquisitions occur in bacon places of conflict, post-conflict and/or weak governance there is less monitoring and control and even greater negative impacts (Mabikke, 2011). Compare Two Famous People. Furthermore, large-scale land deals increase local food insecurity, as arable land produce is exported rather than reaching the local market; and smallholder farmers must purchase foods as opposed to harvesting it on their lands (Food First, 2011). Lester Brown (2011) argues that land purchasing is a part of the global struggle to ensure food security. Food-importing countries are securing overseas supplies by attempting to control the entire supply-chain of food-stuffs, and thus avoid any potential problems that may arise in the process. Bacon Science Essays. Furthermore, he notes, that these deals are not only about food security but also water security. Countries such as Saudi Arabia used to produce much higher levels of wheat internally; however, due to declines in available fresh water these land deals have secured required sources of thinking and practice both food and water (Bunting, 2011).
Woodhouse and francis science essays, Ganho (2011) argue that the essays on american role played by water access in land grabs cannot be under-estimated, including the competition between local and francis bacon science essays, investor in acquiring access to thinking theory and practice, water resources and to sustainable water usage, as well as coping with the problems of creating pollution and chemical run-off. Case studies in Ethiopia demonstrate that access to, and bacon science, rights of, water sources disproportionately favor investors over local smallholder farmers (Bues, 2011). The United Nations director of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) called these land-lease deals ‘neo-colonialist’ (Economist, 2011b). Critical Theory. This statement was echoed by US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, who warned of a new wave of colonialism (Associated Press, 2011). Madeleine Bunting (2011, p. 1) envisions a “dystopian future in which millions of the hungry are excluded from the francis bacon science land of essays individualism their forefathers by bacon essays, barbed wire fences and security guards as food is on american exported to feed the bacon essays rich world.” The wider view must, however, include the role of local/national government in facilitating, and in some cases encouraging, the sale of arable land and compare two famous essay, displacement of peoples. Other analysts have more cautiously labeled the francis bacon science essays vast selling of agricultural lands to investors as the third wave of outsourcing.
The first wave consisted of investors looking for locations with cheaper labour. The second wave was the out-sourcing of middle-class jobs to places such as India because of its advances in information technology. This may be the third wave: the out-sourcing of ucc growing and harvesting of food supplies to locations where there is cheap fertile land. Case Study: Ethiopia. Ethiopia is an francis, important case study as it has been claimed to be the epicenter of land deals (Vidal, 2011), and it has also been well known since 1984 as a place where extreme food insecurity exists. The nation is largely agricultural-based. Agricultural products account for 46% of its Gross Domestic Product (GDP), 90% of its exports and 83% of its employment (USAID, 2010). Eight of essays individualism every ten Ethiopians live in rural areas, a majority of its nearly eighty-million citizens. Average local land holdings are 0.93 hectare (USAID, 2010), which respectively contribute to household food security. Bacon Science Essays. Smallholder agriculture provides the most common livelihood for the vast majority of Ethiopians.
In 2010 ten percent of book review Ethiopia’s citizens relied on bacon science, food aid (Reuters, 2011). Thinking Theory And Practice. In the 2011 appeal for emergency food aid, the United Nations explained that emergency was caused by a shortage of rain in the Somali and francis science, Oromiya regions. Doody's Book Service. In response, the Ethiopian Prime Minister Meles Zenawi said that within five-years the country will no longer need food aid, projecting above 10-percent annual economic growth rates. The Economist confirms impressive growth rates, although not as high as the government-published results. Between 2001 and 2010 the annual GDP growth rate was an impressive 8.4%, making it the world’s fifth fastest growing economy during that period (Economist, 2011a). Projections for 2011-2015 suggest average growth at 8.1%, the third fastest in science essays the world (ibid). In contrast to these rosy predictions, USAID, which is critical one of Ethiopia’s largest donors ($600 million of food aid in 2009-10), outlines that successful agricultural development and food security requires “100% ownership and buy-in by the Ethiopian people” (USAID, 2010, p. 5). And yet, the Ethiopian government and francis bacon science, transnational corporations are doing exactly the opposite, in displacing and dispossessing Ethiopians and handing over control and ownership to and practice, non-local corporations and governments. The Economist (2009) highlighted an interesting parallel in the $100-million Saudi investment to grow and bacon science essays, export rice, wheat and barley on a 99-year land-lease in Ethiopia, while the United Nations World Food Program plans to spend $116-million, over on american, a five-year period, providing emergency food aid to Ethiopia. In 2008 the Ethiopian famine was compounded as food continued to be exported and did not reach the local market (Dominguez, 2010). Yet fertile Ethiopian agricultural land continues to bacon essays, be leased for of hamlet, as little as $1 per acre (Bunting, 2011).
According to Ethiopian government sources, over thirty-six countries have leased land within its borders (Vidal, 2011). Although estimates vary, it is thought that 60—80% of food production in Ethiopia is bacon essays completed by women. Thus the role of essays on american gender is revealed by science essays, analysis of those affected by nursing paper, land sales and dispossessions (USAID, 2010). Of those who face the brunt of food shortages and insecurity in francis bacon science essays Ethiopia, most are women and form, children (USAID, 2010). Furthermore, areas of bacon essays large-scale plantations are more likely to be poverty-affected than prosperous in respect to the local populations (Da Via, E. 2011). As a parallel example, case studies from Cambodia show that land grabs do not benefit local residents, and over critical essay, time resulted in francis essays collective action by the local population against political and commercial interests (Schneider, 2011). The massive land-lease deals are not without their supporters, however. The technology transfer, increase in number of essays jobs and foreign investment are usually cited as having positive effects for the overall benefit of Ethiopia and its citizens. Ethiopian Ambassador to the UK, Berhanu Kabede (2011), published a response arguing that land-leases assist Ethiopia to move towards mechanized agriculture to increase production capability, and as such the government has set aside 7.4 million acres of agricultural land for land-lease deals. The Ambassador further notes that this is only a portion of Ethiopia’s arable land (ibid). The Ambassador highlights some of the positive environmental changes the Ethiopian government has made in recent years, including the planting of 1-billion trees, re-foresting 15-million hectares of land and a national plan to become carbon neutral by 2025 (ibid).
Ambassador Kabede did not mention some of the bacon science negative impacts the thesis submission ucc vast land sales will have; such as, displacement of local farmers, uncompensated dispossession of their land, continued food scarcity as investors export what is grown, unsustainable resource use, and bacon science, environmental damage to lands, atmosphere and water. Furthermore, the critical essay majority of the world’s poor are rural dwellers who engage in francis science some small-scale farming. As a result of the dispossession of land and displacement of people, poverty levels will increase and more people will be forced to migrate away from submission ucc agricultural areas to city-centers. World Bank studies (Riddell, 2007) confirm that the push for macro-economic development via liberalization of markets has detrimental effects on particular groups of society, particularly the poor. Guillozet and Bliss (2011) found that, although investment in the forestry sector is low in francis bacon Ethiopia, the agricultural investments affect natural forests by mass clearing and burning.
As a result, there are long-term negative impacts. Biodiversity is currently being reduced by the cutting and burning of hundreds of hectares of forest, as well as by thesis ucc, the draining of swamps and science, marshlands (Vidal, 2011). Pesticides have also been shown, in theory Ethiopian cases, to kill bees and other unintended flora and fauna. Beyond the investment land itself the clearing of natural forests is affecting livelihoods on a much larger scale, by negatively affecting the wider ecosystems (Guillozet and Bliss, 2011). Such deals are neither agricultural development nor rural development, but simply agribusiness development, according to GRAIN (2008). An unpublished report that interviewed 150 local farm households in Ethiopia found that there is science weak monitoring of critical analysis of hamlet essay investor activities from regional and national government.
It also found that accelerated forest degradation resulted in essays loss of livelihood security for critical theory and practice, community members. Furthermore, in Cameroon, cases of land grabs demonstrate that the transnational investment in agriculture is a major obstacle to bacon science essays, local livelihoods, traditional resource ownership and land rights, as well as to sustainable development (Simo, 2011). In yet another example, Rwandan land grabs have shown the thesis submission ucc move from francis bacon essays traditionally owned and operated farms into large-scale corporate mono-crop cultivation has negatively affected livelihoods through loss of land as well as means of financial security, resulting in increased poverty levels and two famous people, food insecurity despite overall macro-economic gains (Ansoms, 2011). An article in the Indian national newspaper, The Hindu, quotes the Ethiopian Prime Minister encouraging Indian investment who assured the Indian Prime Minister (then trying to encourage Indian investment in Ethiopia) that no land grabbing was occurring in his country (Varadarajan, 2011). However, highly productive agricultural lands are rarely left completely unused, which begs the question how vacant much of this land is. Darryl Vhugen (2011) and John Vidal (2011) both found that most land deals required involuntary displacement of small-scale farmers. Thus, these small-scale farmers in Ethiopia are left with neither land to cultivate nor an alternative source of francis income following their displacement. The Ethiopian government views international investment and land-lease deals as means to achieve economic development.
In Madagascar, when 1.3 million hectares of agricultural lands were going to be sold to Daewod, the submission form international community and local residents reacted in francis bacon opposition, resulting in the government being overthrown (Perrine, Mathidle, Rivo and Raphael. 2011). The Ethiopian economic development model is book review one which seeks export-driven macroeconomic development at the expense of micro-level communities and francis science essays, residents, particularly those in remote regions. Ethiopian officials seem to use interchangeably the terms ‘empty’ and ‘unused’ with the word ‘uncultivated’, with little or no reference at all to the people who currently live on and use those lands. Thus, not only do levels of poverty and analysis of hamlet essay, food insecurity increase but so too may political instability. The World Bank concludes that the risks involved with such land-lease investments are immense, and that land sales “often deprived local people, in particular the francis bacon vulnerable, of their rights… Consultations, if conducted at essays all, were superficial…and environmental and social safeguards were widely neglected” (Economist, 2011b, p.1).
Such land–lease deals are becoming more commonplace, with large sales in Sudan, Egypt, Congo, Zambia, Mali, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, Kenya, Madagascar, Liberia, Ghana, and Mozambique (Economist, 2009; Economist, 2011b; Vhugen, 2011). Although there are land deals taking place outside of bacon essays Africa, over 50% of the submission form ucc estimated 60-80 million hectares of such deals in science the last three years took place there (Economist, 2011b), approximately an area the size of essays individualism France (Vidal and Provost, 2011). The largest land buyers include China, India, South Korea, the United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia; yet some of the largest deals are done with Western funding (Vidal and Provost, 2011). Cases from Sierra Leone show that a lack of knowledge-sharing with locals, along with a plethora of false promises, has led to social, environmental and economic loss. Addax Bioenergy received the use of francis bacon science 40,000 hectares to grow ethanol for export to nursing, the European Union (EU). Francis Bacon Science Essays. Local villagers were in turn promised two-thousand jobs and environmental protection of the swamps. Individualism. However, three years into the project only fifty jobs materialized, while some of the swamps have been drained and science, others damaged by irrigation (Economist, 2011b).
Those jobs that did exist paid USD $2.50 per day on a casual basis (Da Via, E. Compare Two Famous. 2011). Clearly these are not isolated cases and action is required to stem the tsunami of sales of land in food-insecure areas. * Re-evaluate the francis system: Up to twenty-five percent of nursing writers crops are lost due to francis science, pests and diseases and the developing world loses up to an additional thirty-seven percent of harvested foods due to problems in storage and transportation. Every day 4.4 million apples, 5.1 million potatoes, 2.8 million tomatoes and 1.6 million bananas are thrown in the garbage (Global Food Security, 2011b). Systematic shifts that address this loss may focus upon local sustainability and buy local movements, rather than relying upon export commodities and global transport for the sale and supply of food stuffs.
This requires participation that includes local ownership and collective decision making. * Provide Sustainable Solutions: Much of essays on american individualism modern agriculture is bacon science mechanized, using oil-based chemical fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides. This system of agriculture is not sustainable. It needs to be remedied with a more sustainable approach to agriculture – which can be just as agriculturally productive (Barker, 2007). On example of essays individualism how sustainable initiatives can be promoted and supported is the Equator Initiative, which provides financial prizes and knowledge sharing for community-driven efforts that reduce poverty through sustainable use of bacon biodiversity. As many smallholder farmers are engaging in de facto sustainable agriculture encouragement and support, such as the Equator Initiative need to be scaled-up. * Regulate Land Grabbing: The World Bank has proposed guidelines, but does not have the means or authority to enforce them (Bunting, 2011).
In order guidelines to be enforced, such as those developed by the World Bank, national governments must be involved, for this to take place greater coordination on the international level and advocacy from the NGO and public sectors is required. Madagascar demonstrates the power of collective action, as does Sudan and Cambodia, yet long-term and effective change will require governmental enforced regulation. * Establish Good Governance: The purchasing of land and forced displacement of peoples occurs not solely due to transnational pressure, but with government approval. Citizens and the international community must encourage, and work towards, better governance decisions. An international framework for responsible investing could be created. However, such a framework would remain weak and thesis form, ineffective unless adopted and enforced by national governments. In order to ensure that investments are beneficial for both the francis science investor and the community, this framework must ensure that food security and livelihood protection for the local communities (Shete, 2011). Form Ucc. Further encouragement can levied on governance in tying good governance to official development assistance, such systems have been developed and enacted by the World Bank and others. * Monitor and Penalize Environmental Damage: Companies must be more strictly monitored with regard to environmental damage, both by the public and private sectors (Nunow, 2011). Monitoring and essays, evaluation of investments ought to be strengthened with regulation and policy by on american individualism, the relevant national government and by international bodies. NGOs and communities can take inspiration from others who have taken transnational companies to court, and won. National government need to recognize the short-term benefits do not out-weight the long-term environmental damage, and seek compensation to francis science, rectify violations.
The scale of land acquisitions demonstrate that such regulations will likely not significantly deter investments and two famous essay, investors, as efforts to do so in Tanzania demonstrate (Pallangyo, 2007). * Develop Rural Agriculture: Currently less than one percent of smallholder farmers use irrigation techniques in Ethiopia (CSA, 2009). Francis. An improvement in this regard will allow for increased productivity as well as year-round water availability. Facilitation of and contrast two famous people loans for the purchase of pumps (as smallholder farmers often lack financial resources to make such investments), as well as access to internal markets with infrastructural developments can improve community-driven and locally-owned productivity. * Undertake Land Reform: Changes on francis bacon science essays, the national level will require land reforms, ownership reforms and recognition of traditional land rights. Doody's. Such land reforms and rights have been evolving in Madagascar, following the rejection of the Daewod land-grab deal and the installation of a new government. Tanzania has also enacted progressive rights for recognizing traditional land title (Locher, 2011). This can also be done in conjunction with FAO, FIDA, UNCTAD and World Bank recommendations to guarantee and respect local land rights (Perrine, Mathidle, Rivo and Raphael, 2011). Wily (2011) identifies consistent and persisting failures of land rights and ownership caused by the leasing of lands without consent of customary owners. As highlighted by the Ethiopian case study, it becomes readily apparent that the forced relocation of francis bacon rural farmers will likely increase the numbers of people living in poverty. Nursing Writers. Consequently, there will be an increase in the numbers of people in need of emergency food aid.
Aggregate data on food security will not measure the importance of food sovereignty, nor do the data take into account unjust practices and environmental damage. The majority of Ethiopians are subsistence farmers, and depriving them of bacon their land, rights and livelihood neglects the importance of human rights and environmental protection. One means to achieve the goal of national food security, as well as a reduction of critical thinking required emergency food aid, is to increase effectiveness of rural farms. Communities themselves must engage and be active in resisting forced relocation and dispossession of francis bacon science their land and rights. Examples of critical thinking theory and practice such resistance include that of Madagascar and the Southern Sudanese movement, which advocates land belongs to the community and requires its involvement (Deng, 2011), as well as active community resistance to land grabs in Cambodia (Schneider, 2011). Communities must seek to be participants in bacon science the discussion, to be involved in the process and to voice their concerns. Food security of the nursing wealthy at the expense of the impoverished will not work and bacon essays, requires new approaches. The prospect of attaining sovereignty over individualism, land and the food grown on bacon science essays, it encourages smallholder farmers to continue their livelihood while seeking to increase overall food security. “In most poor nations, there are large gaps between actual and potential agricultural yields. But the best route to closing this gap usually is not super-sized farms. In most labour-intensive agricultural settings, small farms are more productive than large farms.
They could become even more productive – and doody's book review service, as a result likely minimise unrest – if developing country governments provide these family farms with secure land rights that allow farmers to invest in their own land and improve their harvests.” (Vhugen, 2011, p.1). The World Bank’s 2010 report found that land grabs ignored proper legal procedures, displaced local peoples without compensation, encroached on areas beyond the francis science essays agreement, had negative impacts on gender disparity, were environmentally destructive, provided far fewer jobs than promised, leased land below market value and routinely excluded pastoralists and doody's book service, displaced peoples from consultations (Da Via, 2011). Furthermore, the World Bank concludes: “many investments…failed to live up to expectations and, instead of generating sustainable benefits, contributed to bacon essays, asset loss and left local people worse off than they would have been without the investment” (World Bank, 2010, p. 51). Adopting food sovereignty as a concept and approach will not solve these problems. However, it does allow for an expanded analysis of the complex issues at hand. No easy solution exists as neoliberal economics and critical theory, structurally-adjusted trade liberalization conflict with human rights; as global food security is confronted by local food and land sovereignty; and, as the francis bacon science essays Washington Consensus is challenged by the Peasants’ Way. “It would be no exaggeration to thesis submission form, suggest that the outcome of francis bacon science essays these convulsive transformations and contestations constitutes one of the greatest moral and political challenges of our times” (Makki and Geisler, 2011, p. 17). Essays Individualism. Challenges, however, are no reason to accept injustice and abuse of human rights.
Actors with roles to play on every level can be a part of the solutions proposed above. Re-evaluating the food system and developing sustainable solutions begin on individual levels and are supported on francis essays, the international marketplace. Regulation of land grabbing, improving governance, undertaking land reform and the monitoring of environmental damage rest more heavily upon national and international actors; yet these process can be driven locally with support from the international community, as demonstrated by the cases of Sudan and nursing writers, Madagascar. This is a call for action lest we find ourselves “academic Cassandras who prophesy the coming plagues, but do little to avert them” (Farmer, 2001, p. xxviii). Ansoms, A. 2011. The ‘bitter fruit’ of science essays a new agrarian model: Large-scale land deals and local livelihoods in Rwanda. Critical Analysis Of Hamlet. International Conference on Global Land Grabbing 6-8 April 2011 University of Sussex, UK.
Associated Press. 2011. Clinton warns Africa of ‘new colonialism’. [online] Available at: http://arabnews.com/economy/article452434.ece [Accessed 12 June 2011]. Barker, D. 2007. The Rise and Predictable Fall of Globalized Industrialized Agriculture. The International Forum on Globalization: San Francisco. Brown, Lester.
2011. World on the Edge. Earth Policy Institute: London. Bues, A. 2011. Agricultural Foreign Direct Investment and Water Rights: An Institutional Analysis from Ethiopia. International Conference on Global Land Grabbing 6-8 April 2011 University of Sussex, UK. Francis Science. Bunting, M. 2011.
How Land Grabs in Africa could herald a new dystopian age of hunger. [online] Available at: http://www.guardian.co.uk/global-development/poverty-matters/2011/jan/28/africa-land-grabs-food-security?INTCMP=SRCH [Accessed 24 May 2011]. Analysis Of Hamlet. CSA. 2009. Francis Science. Large and essays, medium scale commercial farms sample survey 2008/09 (2001 E.C.). Central Statistical Agency Statistical Bulletin 446. Da Via, E. 2011. The Politics of “Win-Win” Narratives: Land Grabs as Development Opportunity. International Conference on Global Land Grabbing 6-8 April 2011 University of Sussex, UK. Deng, D. 2011. ‘Land Belongs to the Community’ Demystifying the ‘global land grab’ in Southern Sudan.
International Conference on Global Land Grabbing 6-8 April 2011 University of Sussex, UK. Dominguez, A. 2010. Why was there still malnutrition in Ethiopia in 2008? Causes and Humanitarian Accountability. Journal of Humanitarian Affairs, 21 February 2010. Bacon. Dwyer. 2011.
Building the Politics Machine: Tools for Resolving the Global Land Grab. International Conference on Global Land Grabbing 6-8 April 2011 University of submission Sussex, UK. Economist 2011b. When others are grabbing their land. [online] Available at: http://www.economist.com/node/18648855 [Accessed 24 May 2011]. University/College: University of California. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 29 December 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on bacon science, Food Security or Food Sovereignty: the Case of Land Grabs. for only $16.38 $13.9/page.
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