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Language Arts: Writing Practice Test - The HiSET Exam
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?Should There be a Salary Cap in Football Did you know that Manchester City FC are paying two hundred and two million pounds in tests, . Writing A Thesis? player wages this season. Do you the reader think this is fair on practice essay tests other clubs who don’t have the same resources? Do you think this is a shocking amount of bible and quran in scriptural, money for the services of just twenty five men? If one day a salary cap of essay, forty million pounds was introduced would you agree to writing sentence it? I know I would. In this persuasive essay I will try to persuade you into agreeing with. Association football , Manchester City F.C. , Manchester United F.C. 708 Words | 2 Pages.
Salary Caps For Professional Athletes. ? Salary Caps For Professional Athletes There are numerous laws that already exists in tests, witch to prevent similar . business to restrict pays and resume, limit the command for their companies. This allows employees to not be bribed or feel obliged to work for one company over another. The same concept is included in professional sports in the idea of tests, a salary cap . A salary cap is a mechanism that allows owners of of forests and wildlife, companies to practice tests control and quash an athletes wages. Very wealthy owners of writing a thesis sentence worksheet, companies with. A-League , David Beckham , National Basketball Association 925 Words | 3 Pages. The NBA Salary cap is an interesting topic. It is a little different than other sports' salary caps . . A salary cap is a limit on the amount of money that a team can spend on player contracts. Tests? (Coon, 1) Although the NBA has a salary cap , teams can still go over and quran essays the amount of the cap and are allowed. The NBA Salary cap is considered to be a soft cap because of the exceptions teams can use to pay more money for certain players and go over the salary cap . In other sports they may not have a certain. Boston Celtics , Kobe Bryant , Los Angeles Lakers 2443 Words | 6 Pages.
luxury tax was put into essay, effect for admissions resume, teams that go over the spending limit. However, the Yankees are the only team that pays the tax because they are the only . team that exceeds the spending limit. Tests? The players, coaches, fans, and of forests and wildlife, I have argued that a salary cap would be the best possible way to allow teams in the Major Leagues an equal opportunity getting to practice the World Series. For the last 30 years, the New York Yankees have been a dominant force in Major League Baseball. Resume? Other teams do not make as. American League , Atlanta Braves , Boston Red Sox 1806 Words | 5 Pages. of sports, baseball should be thought of as a competitive sport where any team can win day in practice tests, and day out. Resume Callwave? Many people probably want more parity in baseball . and would like a salary cap proposed. Essay Tests? However, baseball has as much, if not more, parity than any sport including basketball and football both of which have salary caps . Conservation Of Forests And Wildlife Essay? In football there is no chance of the Raiders winning the Super Bowl and in basketball the tests, Knicks have no chance of winning an NBA title. The Marlins have a whole roster that. American League , Atlanta Braves , Boston Red Sox 1588 Words | 4 Pages.
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sharing, and the salary cap . The question I will address is, would the institution of a hard salary . Practice Essay? cap in Major League Baseball solve this problem of disparity among teams with high payrolls and low payrolls? A salary cap can be defined as a limit that teams can spend on player contracts. There are two types of thesis full, salary caps a hard cap and a soft cap . A hard cap does not allow a team to practice tests exceed the limit for any reason. An example would be the National Football League. A soft cap has exceptions which. American League , Major League Baseball , National Hockey League 1934 Words | 5 Pages. Persuasive Essay Erica Crawley COMM215 August 10, 2014 University of Phoenix Running head: PERSUASIVE . ESSAY 1 PERSUASIVE ESSAY 2 Persuasive Essay Many people can benefit from joining the Military service for patient resume, a lot of different reasons. Tests? Some joined for the pay, to serve their country and some do it for the experience. There are many reason people join the United States Army. Some other reasons to join the essays, Army could be job security, education benefits, health insurance benefits, life.
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Robert Hobson Introduction A universal healthcare . plan would lower the overall healthcare cost and tests, make it affordable for patient, more people. The Obamacare, addresses key issues that are beneficial to the majority and not the rich minority population. Essay? The plan focus on affordable insurance for more people, coverage for children with pre-existing conditions, and requiring business with fifty or more employees to offer health insurance. Health , Health care , Health economics 794 Words | 3 Pages. Persuasive essay to bible and quran in scriptural your Employer Maria Cummings-Pinole Comm. /105 May 22, 2010 Margaret Fletcher Persuasive . essay to your Employer Tuition reimbursement program is practice essay, one thing that every company should consider to offer to their employees. The program will not only benefit employees but the resume callwave, company as well.
Companies who offer this program are usually at an upper hand over a company that does not offer it. Three advantages for a company that offer tuition reimbursement program are, more knowledge. Commerce , Company , Employment 960 Words | 3 Pages. Persuasive Essay Medelin Ocasio COMM/215 Essentials of essay tests, Collage Writing January 29, 2013 Instructor Beverly Raznoff . Persuasive Essay In the future; university education would be free? A few days ago my daughter asked me why people pay for our college education if everyone can help the society. Immediately flowed many questions in reference websites dissertation, my mind and realized that her inquietude was true. Education is the key to success.
At different stages of essay tests, my life I have heard this phrase. Academic degree , College , Education 827 Words | 5 Pages. PERSUASIVE ESSAY COMM/215 ESSENTIALS OF COLLEGE WRITING JANUARY 20TH, 2013 The use of guns is everywhere nationwide. . Conservation Of Forests And Wildlife Essay? Many families and individuals own a gun for their own personal protection. Some families only feel comfortable owning a gun in their home to protect their families, than Sandy Hook happened and the world started turning. All of the sudden guns became dangerous but what people don’t understand is that before that tragedy happened many families and individuals still had ownership. Cannon , Firearm , Gun 812 Words | 3 Pages. ?Lorenzo Escude BBonincontri Ethical decision September / 22 / 2014 Persuasive essay The social network The social . Practice? networks like Facebook actually alienate people instead of bringing them together through the isolation of sitting alone on the computer.
The film The social network, is patient resume, a film that brings the story how does this person create the Facebook. It is a story of practice tests, entrepreneurship and theft, and of friendship and betrayal. More than anything else, it is a study of Mark Zuckerberg, Facebook’s. Dustin Moskovitz , Facebook , Mark Zuckerberg 904 Words | 4 Pages. Persuasive Essay In 1983, Raymond Carver introduced his short story “Cathedral” to the public.
The first-person narrative takes . Worksheet? place within the narrator’s home, where his wife is waiting upon the arrival of her blind friend Robert. The narrator, however, becomes more concerned about how Robert’s visit will affect him rather than enjoy the situation. Once Robert arrives, the practice tests, narrator tries to understand the blind man, but he is unaware of what tasks Robert is and quran essays in scriptural, capable of practice tests, performing due to the narrator’s. Alcohol , Alcoholic beverage , Alcoholism 807 Words | 3 Pages. Chana Mushka Kalmanson Persuasive Essay November 26, 2012 Physical Education is a Necessity Schools are struggling with . the issue of whether physical education classes (“PE”) are a necessity or are an extra-curricular.
However, PE is and must be an absolute necessity. It is integral to the comprehensive school experience, both academically and socially. As such, it is vital that physical education classes be incorporated into patient resume, the curriculum, regardless of grade. High school students. College , Exercise , Grammar school 868 Words | 3 Pages.
Adam A Bentley English Comp. I Professor Singer January 31, 2012 Persuasive Essay , I’d Rather Smoke Than Kiss In times . like today, people have mixed views on practice essay smoking and on the effects it has on width header the human body. Most people who smoke, feel that non-smokers are against practice, them, and believe in the myths that are portrayed by cigarette companies. They do not realize how addictive cigarettes are, and writing sentence, end up stuck with the burden. I feel that her entire article is truly opinionated and biased about.
Cigarette , Lung cancer , Nicotine 889 Words | 3 Pages. Evan Bennett November 4, 2010 Persuasive Essay Gay discrimination is a major problem that affects individuals all across the . country. The Defense of Marriage Act needs to be repealed. First, the Defense against practice tests, Marriage Act will be explained and then why it needs to be repealed, then the effects the law has on society. The federal government needs to give same sex couples the same health benefits that heterosexual couples receive. Currently, the government offers employees benefits such as health. Bisexuality , Bullying , Discrimination 881 Words | 3 Pages.
?Iomy Estevez April 8, 2013 Persuasive essay Mandaory School Uniform Have you thought about how your family, your . home, music and even television have influenced you on the way you behave or even dress? While I was in middle school it was mandatory for all students to wear uniform and I loved it, i felt welcome into reference websites, the school and since every one had to wear the practice, same thing no one was bullied and i became a straight A student sice i would only focuse in school. Then high school came. Clothing , College , Dress code 802 Words | 3 Pages. Gabby Nelson Mr.
Telles English 2; Period 4 6 March 2013 Persuasive Essay Although many countries use nuclear weapons, it . is thesis width header, a struggle for them to realize that it is essay, very destructive and harmful to websites the people and land. One nuclear bomb can kill a many as an practice entire city, and can cause many long-lasting effects on resume callwave peoples lives. The use of nuclear weapons is never justified, it is practice essay, destructive to the country and can kill many innocent people. Many people say that nuclear weapons should be used. Atomic bombings of patient, Hiroshima and Nagasaki , Hiroshima , Little Boy 905 Words | 3 Pages. Persuasive Essay Communications The housing . market or the housing bubble, which burst did affect everyone nationally and local has been hit by tests the economy .My opinion I do not think that the housing market contributed to what the economy is today. Reference Websites Dissertation? But he housing market did hit the peak for practice essay, what houses were worth in the San Diego area.( And this was all caused by the actions of lenders are directly attributable. Debt , Fannie Mae , Mortgage 856 Words | 3 Pages.
? Persuasive Essay Many movies, television shows, music songs, and video games are filled with violence: murder scenes, nonstop . profanity, rape and torture scenarios. Resume Callwave? By placing scenes like these in the movies for the children and teenagers to see, the practice essay tests, media is causing them to become more violent than it already is. What has our society come to these days? Everywhere we look, violence is present; in patient, the streets, back alleys, schools, and even at home. Even if one might be a pacifist, violence will. Columbine High School massacre , Media violence research , Seung-Hui Cho 888 Words | 2 Pages. Persuasive Essay COMM/215 Legalize Marijuana This essay will be about the legal issues of marijuana.
The . California government chooses to have a vote in California and essay, other states and width header, it passed the essay tests, vote, now the bible essays in scriptural, federal government is trying to shut down dispensaries in the state. Practice Tests? Even though California passed the vote in and quran intertextuality, 1996 to practice essay tests allow the of forests, use of medical marijuana for medical use, the drug is still illegal under federal law. According to federal law, any amount found on a person is a misdemeanor. Cannabis , Domestic violence , Global Marijuana March 963 Words | 3 Pages. ? bcom/215 Persuasive Essay At least 11% of women smoke during pregnancy. Many of these . women smoke without knowing the significant negative effects smoking has on practice essay their babies before, during, and after the pregnancy. Admissions Resume? When a woman smokes during pregnancy, she exposes her baby to dangerous chemicals such as tar, carbon monoxide, nicotine, and other poisonous chemicals that travels through the practice, bloodstream and goes directly to the baby. Width Header? Nicotine restricts the essay, oxygen. Acute respiratory distress syndrome , Breastfeeding , Childbirth 788 Words | 3 Pages. ? Sydia Smith December 17, 2013 ENGL 101 Persuasive Essay Assignment: For generations people . of conservation of forests and wildlife essay, color have been put into a system caste of injustice. Practice? From slavery, to the Jim Crow era, and resume callwave, now in today’s society.
Today in the United States the incarceration rate has nearly tripled over the years. With the significant increase in the incarceration rates, it leads you to wonder what the cause may be. Tests? The government has found a way to resume callwave indirectly create another system. African American , Drug addiction , Incarceration 1013 Words | 3 Pages. Final: Persuasive Essay “Home Sweet Home” COM/156 Why spend money that is really needed for other things? Why live . uncomfortably?
Why be trapped in this hole called a home that belongs to another person? Why not live free and peacefully? When a person rents he or she usually throws away money that could be used to purchase something that belongs to them. Money is not easy to come by so why pay out practice essay hundreds toward something that is not benefit to and quran essays intertextuality the person paying it out. Practice? There is no good explanation. Apartment , English-language films , Landlord 1195 Words | 3 Pages. ? ENG 121.201 14 July 2014 Persuasive Essay : It's not just a game, to many athletes this statement rings . true. Reference Dissertation? Sports fuel the practice, drive and determination within people, and conservation and wildlife, provide them an essential learning tool from practice essay, which they can grow. Patient Resume? Competitive is defined as, of or relating to a situation in practice, which people or groups are trying to thesis full width header win a contest or be more successful than other : relating to or involving competition .(merriam-webster.com) This concept of competitiveness is.
Child , Game , Health 1173 Words | 3 Pages. Persuasive Essay Laziness in America By Greg Hill Comp 2 America today is a very lazy place; people have become too . accustomed to their ways and will not even consider what it is doing to them. Everyone constantly praises our wonderful technology; what they don’t realize is what our tech has done to us. As we depend more and more on gadgets to tests do things for us we lose ourselves to apathy and of forests, our personal interests completely forgetting the essay tests, common good. When it becomes so easy to satisfy our. Adipose tissue , Body mass index , Body shape 1046 Words | 3 Pages. ?Hannah Gillespie Mr. Shoupe Period 7 Persuasive Essay 6 October 2014 Don’t Protect Marriage, Expand It Everyone has rights.
In . America, we have the Bill of Rights, telling the American people that they have the right to bear arms, freedom of speech, etc. And Wildlife? A human, in any circumstance, has the right to love, and to practice essay tests get married. Why is it that men and women are expected to get married, have a family, and resume callwave, grow old together, but the practice essay, right to be in a relationship with someone of the same gender is unspeakable. Civil union , Heterosexism , Homophobia 990 Words | 4 Pages. A. Write a persuasive essay on: People depend too much on computers. B. Audience: Your college professor C. Position: For or . against it? D. Composing your three page persuasive essay : 1. And Quran Intertextuality? Introduction A. Practice? Hook B. Thesis 2. Body (several paragraphs) A. Topic sentence B. Supporting Details C. Of Forests And Wildlife? Transitions 3. Conclusion (a paragraph) A. Restate your main point B. Practice Essay Tests? Leave the reader with something to think about essays in scriptural Nowadays people use computers in business, public services, education and. Computer , Docent , Lecturer 321 Words | 3 Pages. Carolyn Gaudioso 2-13-12 Dr. Vericker: English 211 Persuasive Essay School Budget Cuts Do More Harm Than Good Due to the . financial crisis there have been many changes made to government programs to reduce costs and help with debt. Many of these cuts are happening statewide, in America’s public schools.
The first programs that are being cut are the art programs, and the excuse is practice, that the core classes are more important. The argument is that children need to be more focused on test scores. Art , Arts , Education 1386 Words | 4 Pages. Persuasive Essay : Many people would be happy and satisfied if they were in reference, a relationship with money and fame. Doesn't that seem . like the perfect life? Everyone begins to think that in essay, life that's all that matters, and that's all they need, nothing could be better. Society dictates our morals, feelings, the way we do things and worksheet, try's to tell us certain things we do are wrong and we need to do them the essay, way they feel necessary. Our generations to come will have no clue what the admissions resume, meaning of a true. Celebrity , Civil disobedience , Concord, Massachusetts 2066 Words | 5 Pages. Persuasive Essay The Return of the Rams: The Rams will make their long anticipated . return to Los Angeles Table of Contents Introduction Page: 1 Why St.
Louis? Why not expand? Page: 1, 2 Can Los Angeles Support a team Page: 3, 4 Farmers Field Page: 4, 5 Summary Page: 5 Introduction The NFL and AEG Financial Services have come to terms of an essay agreement to move the St. American football , California , Football 2331 Words | 7 Pages. Argumentative (Persuasive) Essay Guidelines. Writing Handout E-5: Argumentative ( Persuasive ) Essay Guidelines Structuring a Argumentative ( Persuasive ) . Essay A persuasive essay is simply a writer’s attempt to convince readers of the validity of a particular opinion on a controversial issue. The following steps should help you write a persuasive essay . 1. Carefully select a topic Choose a topic that interests you. An argument does not have to be a burning issue, but it must be a debatable topic. It can be anything you feel strongly about.
Artery , Boxing , Brain 857 Words | 4 Pages. read a persuasive essay and then write one of bible, your own. Practice Essay Tests? The essay you write will use persuasive . techniques and evidence to argue for bible and quran in scriptural, adopting a good habit. Practice? You will evaluate a peer’s work and conservation and wildlife, get peer feedback on your own essay using the provided evaluation rubric. __________________________________________________________________________ ! Directions and essay tests, Analysis Task 1: Persuasive Writing Using Evidence Forming good study habits is a great way to improve your grades. Read this persuasive essay. Eating , Essay , Habit 1003 Words | 4 Pages. ? Essay 3, Rough Draft March 26, 2012 Should voters be required to patient resume show a photo ID in order to vote? The laws that require voters to practice show . Websites? identifications have been around since 1970, but they are becoming stricter in today’s polls.
In the past, all that was required was a voter registration card, but now the new laws are requiring voters to show picture IDs. Just recently there have been many states that have been including the voter ID law in their voting system, including eight states: Alabama. Democracy , Election , Elections 816 Words | 3 Pages. the college graduate is $158,000 in the hole. Practice Tests? Add in bible essays, student loans the practice essay, deficit can top $200,000” (L.A. Times). The reason for tuition costs raising is so . that post-secondary institutions can further develop their institution and pay a good amount salary to the professors and teachers.
Is going to college really one’s choice or is it that one is pressured into thesis full header, having to attend college? Marty Nemko, a Californian career counselor has stated that “too many students are going to college not because. Academic degree , College , Education 1334 Words | 4 Pages. Typography and Political Persuasive Essay. Political Persuasive Essay Overview: The political persuasive essay is an opportunity for you . to take a stand on a political issue which concerns you. You will research a controversial issue and defend your position on it using the practice essay, evidence you have discovered.
Attach important research articles which contributed to your essay (1-2 page selections). Topic Suggestions: |Abortion | |Pledge of Allegiance . Law , Political philosophy , Political science 554 Words | 3 Pages. Final Persuasive Paper Imagine a country where a woman is depicted as only websites dissertation, being used for sex and a as slave for their husband. Imagine a . country in essay tests, which women are denied an education. Full Header? Imagine a country where women are sent to jail, beaten, and practice tests, left to die a long painful death for disobeying an order. And Quran In Scriptural Intertextuality? There happens to be a country in practice, which all this is resume callwave, true. Women are being persecuted physically, psychologically, and sexually on a routine and daily basis. The government in Afghanistan is likely. Afghanistan , Hamid Karzai , Human rights 2232 Words | 6 Pages. I’ve super sized this paragraph to tests mimic what McDonalds has been doing to the world’s waistbands for the past 60 odd years.
There is one story that I . would like to mention if only for the sole purpose of admissions, showing a little objectivity in this essay . Somewhere out in this world there lives a “super man” that has eaten more than 12,000 Big Mac hamburgers in his life. Ok, so this man is actually a salesman and former Vietnam army medic that lives in Salt Lake City, Utah and his name is essay tests, Dennis. Big Mac , Big Mac Index , French fries 1520 Words | 4 Pages. Salary Caps, Luxury Taxes, and patient admissions resume, Revenus Sharing. Salary Caps , Luxury Taxes, and Revenue Sharing Professional sports, as enjoyable as they may be, are plagued with constant . Practice Essay Tests? disagreements over money. Essays In Scriptural? Money, not necessarily in terms the exchange between players and essay, management, but over how money should be distributed throughout the teams. In this disagreement there is talk about revenue sharing, luxury taxes, and salary caps , which all tie into the issue of competitive balance. To come to a conclusion on resume callwave this issue both sides need to be investigated. American League , Baseball , Boston Red Sox 1498 Words | 4 Pages. ------------------------------------------------- How to Write a Persuasive (Argumentative) Essay Rating: 5.0 A . persuasive essay is a form of academic writing that is built around a certain argument.
Persuasive essays are thus also called argumentative essays . In this type of academic paper, the writer aims to persuade the reader to accept the writer’s point of practice, view, using certain persuasive techniques to prove the bible and quran intertextuality, point and convince the reader. Therefore, a successful persuasive essay requires following certain rules. Argument , Essay , Essays 2196 Words | 6 Pages. Does the freedom to own a firearm make you seem more secure? Or does the thought of your neighbors owning firearms make you feel less safe? Gun control is tests, a . subject that has passionate supporters and detractors alike. Writing A Thesis Worksheet? In the following essay , I will give you some facts that support the Pro Second Amendment argument; in hopes to gain your support in efforts to prevent the government from infringing on our constitutional rights. A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free. Crime , Criminology , Firearm 825 Words | 3 Pages.
Persuasive Essay w/o Visual Prompt: For this assignment, you are required to write an argumentative/ persuasive . essay . Topic: Think about practice something that is wrong (as you see it) in America or another country (i.e. your native country). Reference Websites? Whatever you choose to practice tests write about, you have to make sure that you offer solutions to of forests and wildlife essay the problem. This is not a definition essay where you will just define and explain your problem; you have to argue (persuasively) why the problem exists and how the practice essay, problem. Argument , Argument map , Counterargument 672 Words | 3 Pages. Argumentative- Persuasive Essay Argumentative- Persuasive Essay Page 1 Kathleen Rice ENC 1101-12 . Argumentative- Persuasive Essay Argumentative- Persuasive Essay Page 2 List of possible topics: 1. Resume Callwave? Pros and practice essay, Cons of Birth Control 2. Pros and Cons of Adoption 3. Pros and Con of Illegitimate children 4. Why Teenagers should wait to have sex 5. Conservation? Parents need to practice have sex talk with their teenagers Controversial Issues: . Family , Family law , Howard Staunton 1580 Words | 5 Pages. THE WRITING PROCESS – PERSUASIVE ESSAY Prompt: Do you think cell phones should be allowed in school? Compose an . essay to persuade the school community of your opinion. Admissions? STEP 1: ANALYZE THE PROMPT Role: myself as a student Planning: Audience: students, teachers, parents Format: 5-paragraph persuasive essay Topic: cell phones in school STEP 2: PLAN THE PAPER Topic: Three reasons why cell phones should be allowed in school: Reasons: 1- students stay connected with family and friends ________________________. Cellular network , Education , Laptop 927 Words | 8 Pages.
In persuasive writing, a writer takes a position FOR or AGAINST an issue and writes to practice essay convince the and wildlife essay, reader to believe or do something. . Persuasive writing is often used in practice tests, advertisements to get the reader to buy a product. It is also used in essays and other types of writing to get the reader to full header accept a point of view. In order to convince the reader you need more than opinion; you need facts or examples to back your opinion. Practice Essay? So, be sure to do the research! Persuasive writing follows a particular. 2005 albums , Doctor of Philosophy , Essay 1013 Words | 4 Pages. Tips for writing sentence worksheet, Writing a Persuasive Essay. Tips for Writing a Persuasive Essay :: Persuasive Essay :: =A persuasive . essay is practice tests, written to persuade the reader to think or do something, using convincing points to support the sentence worksheet, thesis statement. First Step The first step is to practice essay find out what you want to patient admissions resume persuade the reader about. You can persuade the reader that blank movie is the best, that the state should pay more money for schools rather than jails, that uniforms in schools are good, etc.
Whatever you want! Second Step Once you've. Dental braces , Dentistry , Edward Angle 1056 Words | 4 Pages. 101 Persuasive Essay Topics By: Mr. Morton Whether you are a student in need of a persuasive essay . Practice Tests? topic, or a teacher looking to assign a persuasive essay , this list of 101 persuasive essay topics should be a great resource. Writing A Thesis Sentence? I taxed my brain to create this huge list of practice, persuasive essay topics relevant to today's society, but I believe I am happy with the results. I appreciate any and all comments or feedback. 1. 2. 3. 4. Bible Intertextuality? 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Practice Essay? 11. 12.
?“A Little Thing Called Optimism” : Conflict and bonding in Callaghan’s “A Cap For Steve” The conflict in “A Cap For . Practice Tests? Steve” that exists between Steve and his father relates to the theme of conservation of forests essay, understanding one another, even when their opinions and tests, way of life greatly differ from one another’s. Steve unknowingly teaches his father Dave that there is more to essays in scriptural life than simply knowing the value of money, despite the practice essay, hardships the Diamond family was faced with at the time. Reference Websites? Steve’s optimism conflicts. Cap , English-language films , Is-a 1033 Words | 3 Pages. English 1021 Diagnostic Essay Some people believe that writing an essay is extremely hard. Practice Essay Tests? They are wrong.
If you have the . correct information, time, and a cup of coffee you should have no problem. There are many different types of essays , for example, an informative essay , a research paper, or a persuasive essay . Of Forests And Wildlife Essay? Although they all have a different overall theme and purpose for tests, being written, they all have the same outline for how exactly to write it. No matter what you always start off with an. Abstraction , Question , Quotation 946 Words | 3 Pages. Michelle Wang Language Arts Persuasive Essay 6/29/2012 Craving Friendship In the book “Of Mice and resume callwave, Men” by . John Steinbeck, the practice tests, characters felt considerable loneliness, even around other people. They feel left out, ignored, and even invisible with no one to talk concerning his own thoughts. Although a person is surrounded by others, feelings of loneliness can occur. For instance, in “Of Mice and Men” the characters ignored by other people at the farm felt. Friendship , Great Depression , John Steinbeck 347 Words | 3 Pages. Persuasive Essay - the Arts in the Education.
THE ARTS IN EDUCATION Lehonti Ramos Index: ? ? ? Directions Essay Where the information for the essay came from 1 2 2 . Directions: Write a persuasive essay about the relative importance of the arts in education. Admissions? (First read at least two of the following). ¦ The Arts are Nice, But. http://education.jhu.edu/newhorizons/strategies/topics/Arts%20in%20Education/The%20Center%20for%20A rts%20in%20the%20Basic%20Curriculum/perrin1.htm Music and the Mind http://www.menc.org/resources/view/music-and-the-mind. Brain , Education , High school 831 Words | 3 Pages. Salary ! isn’t it every ones favorite? Its paid once in month in 5 days or less fully expensed out. We wait eagerly for whole month to receive . the essay tests, same. A Thesis Worksheet? We work hard with full efforts to earn this. When it is credited in tests, bank a/c or received check or cash on pay day, see that smile on your face and specially your family.
So it's your right to bible and quran essays know why employer is deducting TDS (tax) while making payment. Employee is aggrieved when less salary is essay tests, received higher TDS is deducted. Contract , Employee benefit , Income tax 618 Words | 3 Pages.
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Write my Essay | I need help with my School Assignment. Write My Essay We are the most trusted essay writing service. Practice Essay Tests? Get the patient admissions resume, best essays delivered by experienced UK US essay writers at affordable prices. Shelby anticipates the following question toward the end of his article, “Shouldn’t we reject black solidarity and embrace interracial, anti-racist solidarity instead?” (a) Explain what this question means (e.g., explain what ‘black solidarity’ as well as ‘interracial solidarity’ mean in this context). (b) How does Shelby respond to this rhetorical question/challenge? Are his arguments here persuasive? Offer some critical discussion (e.g., Which is the practice essay tests, strongest consideration? What does his discussion establish?
Can his arguments be strengthened?) (c) Briefly consider how this exchange between Shelby and his imagined interlocutor would be different (if at all) if the full width header, question posed had been, “Shouldn’t we reject black solidarity and embrace an interracial solidarity movement against anti-black racism?” Your paper should be no longer than 4 pages (and not under 3 pages). Your paper should be spell-checked and proofread for grammatical correctness. Use 12pt font, Times New Roman, and double-spacing. Do not cite any sources outside of the material assigned. Ethics 112 (January 2002): 231–266. ! 2002 by The University of practice, Chicago.
All rights reserved. 0014-1704/2002/11202- Foundations of Black Solidarity: Collective. Identity or Common Oppression?* We are one with you under the ban of prejudice and writing, proscription— one with you under the slander of inferiority—one with you. in social and political disfranchisement. What you suffer, we suffer;
what you endure, we endure. We are indissolubly united, and practice tests, must. fall or flourish together. [Frederick Douglass]1. In an effort to liberate blacks from the resume callwave, burden of racial oppression, black leaders have frequently called on black Americans to practice essay tests, become a. more unified collective agent for social change.2 And while there are. * Sincere and warm thanks go to thesis full header, my friends and colleagues who commented on. previous drafts of this essay, including Linda Alcoff, Anthony Appiah, Lawrie Balfour, Sylvia. Berryman, Martha Biondi, Bernard Boxill, Derrick Darby, Dan Farrell, Dena Gilby, Robert. Gooding-Williams, Jennifer Hochschild, Bill Lawson, Sarah Loper, Ron Mallon, Howard. McGary, Charles Mills, Lucius Outlaw, Naomi Pabst, John Pittman, Diana Raffman, Kathleen.
Schmidt, and Laurence Thomas. I would also like to tests, thank an anonymous reviewer. for Ethics, as well as the editors of the journal. Resume Callwave? Earlier versions of the practice essay tests, essay were presented. at Howard University, Harvard University, the bible, Du Bois Scholars Institute in New Jersey, the Collegium for practice tests African American Research Biannual Conference, and a special session. of the APA Pacific sponsored by the Committee on Blacks in Philosophy. I am grateful to. the audiences at these venues. 1. Frederick Douglass, “To Our Oppressed Countrymen,” in Black Nationalism in and quran in scriptural intertextuality, America,
ed. John H. Bracey, Jr., August Meier, and Elliott Rudwick (Indianapolis:Bobbs-Merrill, 1970), p. Tests? 58, originally published as an sentence worksheet editorial in the North Star (December 3, 1847). 2. In everyday life, use of the term ‘black’ when referring to practice essay tests, individuals or groups. rarely causes much confusion; context is usually enough to make the speaker’s meaning. relatively clear. Conservation? But the concept “black” is quite vague and thus is not easily accommodated. to theoretical discourse where one would like to be fairly precise. Moreover, the meaning. of ‘black’ as a “racial” designator varies with social context, for practice essay tests there are various systems. of racial classification around the world; and even within a given locale, who is “black”
may shift with political contingencies. My concern in bible and quran essays intertextuality, this essay is primarily with blacks. living in the United States today, including recent African, Caribbean, European, and. Latin American immigrants, though some of what I say here can also be extended to. blacks living in other places as well. For the moment, I will rely on context to set the. 232 Ethics January 2001.
some who think such solidarity irrational, impractical, or perhaps even. morally objectionable,3 I take it that many people (both black and nonblack) believe it to be essential for black people to achieve the full. freedom and social equality that American ideals promise. However, even among those who agree that black solidarity is important for essay tests bringing. about racial justice, there is substantial disagreement over the precise.
meaning of this solidaristic commitment. Such disagreement can be. quite fundamental, as can be seen by writing a thesis sentence worksheet comparing the following two views. on the scope and significance of black political solidarity: Common oppression theory: Blacks should unite and practice essay tests, work together. because they suffer a common oppression; and they can. overcome or ameliorate their shared condition only through black.
Collective self-determination theory: Blacks should unite and work. together because they are an oppressed people, a people with their. own distinctive racial, ethnic, cultural, and/or national identity; and as a people, blacks have interests that are best served by their. becoming a self-determining group. Though they are somewhat similar in underlying motivation, the.
two political theories are importantly different. Patient Resume? The common oppression. theory, the least radical of the two, simply acknowledges the existence. of antiblack racism in America and calls on those who suffer under it. to act collectively to end that oppression or at tests least to reduce its impact. on their lives.
The goal of full, this political program, then, is to free blacks. from antiblack racism, and it sees black solidarity as a necessary means. to that end. The collective self-determination theory, on the other hand, is a form of black nationalism, and it maintains that blacks need to work. together to essay tests, bring about their collective self-realization as a people. Generally. more pessimistic about the prospects for ending antiblack racism, this program seeks relief for black people through collective autonomy.
(political, economic, social, and/or cultural) and calls for black solidarity. to bring this about. My concern in this essay is thesis full header, primarily with the practice essay tests, status of the common. oppression theory, for while it is sometimes misunderstood or outright. rejected, it is resume callwave, a position that I believe blacks should embrace (and of. meaning of the term ‘black’, but in the section titled “Varieties of essay, ‘Black’ Social Identity,”
I will urge a more precise conception of “blackness.” My reasons for patient admissions choosing ‘black’ rather than, say, ‘African-American’, ‘Afro-American’, or ‘person of essay tests, color’ will also become. clearer in that section. 3. See, e.g., Kwame Anthony Appiah, “Racisms,” in Anatomy of writing a thesis worksheet, Racism, ed. David Theo. Goldberg (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1990); Randall Kennedy, “My Race. Problem—and Ours,” Atlantic Monthly (May 1997): 55–66; and practice, Paul Gilroy, Against Race:
Imagining Political Culture beyond the full, Color Line (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, Shelby Foundations of essay tests, Black Solidarity 233. course some already do). Bible And Quran Intertextuality? Though the practice, collective self-determination theory, with its goal of black collective self-realization, certainly has its adherents, and it too is worthy of extended critical discussion, I will not. be concerned to take it up here, at least not directly. However, in an.
effort to defend and reference websites dissertation, clarify the common oppression theory, and to. further distinguish it from black nationalism, I want to scrutinize a. doctrine that is often thought to practice essay tests, be a component of both conceptions. of black solidarity: Collective identity theory: A collective black identity is essential. for an thesis full header effective black solidarity whose aim is liberation from racial. oppression; therefore, blacks who are committed to emancipatory. group solidarity must embrace and preserve their distinctive black. It is essay tests, perhaps obvious why the advocate of black collective self-determination. would embrace this view, since it is the in scriptural intertextuality, distinctive social.
identity of blacks that, on this account, constitutes them as a “people.” Without such an identity, the goal of black collective self-realization loses. its rationale and much of its appeal. But even for those who accept the. more modest common oppression theory, collective identity theory may. seem to have much going for essay tests it, as it would appear to help with overcoming. two serious obstacles to black collective action against antiblack. racism. First, there is the familiar free-rider problem.
While some blacks. are willing to make the relevant sacrifices to patient admissions resume, bring about racial equality, others are much more complacent and practice, narrowly self-interested. The. inaction of the latter weakens the collective effort, and it breeds resentment. and suspicion among blacks, as some are seen as benefiting. from the sacrifices of others without contributing anything of substance. to the collective struggle. Collective identity theory suggests a (partial) solution: by cultivating a common conception of who they are as black. people, blacks can strengthen the bible essays intertextuality, bonds of sympathy and loyalty that.
will enable them to overcome these barriers to collective action. Such. an identity could also give blacks a firmer basis for mutual identification. across class lines, something that is thought to be sorely needed in this. time of increasing intraracial economic stratification. Second, there is. the general problem that the mere acceptance of abstract principles of.
justice is often insufficient to motivate people to contribute the time. and resources necessary for effecting meaningful social change. This. difficulty affects the collective will of blacks as well, despite the fact that. they, perhaps more than any other racialized group in America, desperately. want to see an end to racial oppression. Again, the collective. identity theory seems to help: viewing each other as “black brothers and.
sisters” with a shared social identity may, like the familiar motivating. 234 Ethics January 2001. force of kinship relations, make blacks more inclined to help each other. in a movement to end racial subordination and inequality. Many influential theorists in the history of black political thought. have defended or relied upon the collective identity theory.
The tendency. to tie emancipatory black solidarity to the need for a collective. black identity can be found in the writings and speeches of such diverse. thinkers as Edward Blyden, Alexander Crummell, W. E. B. Practice Tests? Du Bois, Marcus Garvey, Alain Locke, Malcolm X, Amiri Baraka, Harold Cruse, Stokely Carmichael, Maulana Karenga, Molefi Asante, and Lucius Outlaw. 4 For purposes of full header, illustrating this tendency, I will focus on Du Bois. and his well-known essay, “The Conservation of Races.” In that essay, Du Bois explicitly advocates a particularly strong form of emancipatory. black solidarity: “It is our [the American Negroes’] duty to conserve our. physical powers, our intellectual endowments, our spiritual ideals; as a.
race we must strive by race organization, by race solidarity, by race unity. to the practice, realization of that broader humanity which freely recognizes differences in. men, but sternly deprecates inequality in their opportunities of admissions resume, development.”5. Du Bois believed that black solidarity is necessary for practice both overcoming. racial oppression and ensuring that blacks make their unique cultural.
contribution to humanity. Resume Callwave? He also insisted that blacks should “conserve” their racial identity, rather than be absorbed into Anglo-American culture; for, as he saw it, the goals of emancipatory black solidarity cannot. 4. Though not all of essay, these thinkers explicitly defend the collective identity theory, each at least implicitly relies upon admissions resume it. Tests? Moreover, it is arguable that some of them came to.
deemphasize the importance of a collective black identity to black solidarity—e.g., Du. Bois and Malcolm X—which is resume callwave, why I say that the view can be found in their “writings and. speeches.” See Edward W. Blyden, “The Call of Providence to the Descendants of Africa. in America,” in tests, Negro Social and websites dissertation, Political Thought, ed.Howard Brotz (NewYork:Basic,1966); Alexander Crummell, “The Relations and Duties of Free Colored Men in America to. Africa” and “The Race Problem in America,” both in Brotz, ed.; W. E. B. Tests? Du Bois, “The. Conservation of writing sentence worksheet, Races,” in The Seventh Son: The Thought and practice, Writings of W. E. B. Du Bois,
vol. 1, ed. Julius Lester (New York: Vintage, 1971); Marcus Garvey, “Aims and Objects of. Movement for Solution of Negro Problems,” in Brotz, ed.; Alain Locke, “The New Negro,” in The New Negro, ed.
Alain Locke (New York: Atheneum, 1969);MalcolmX, “BlackMan’s. History,” in The End of White World Supremacy: Four Speeches by Malcolm X, ed. ImamBenjamin. Karim (New York: Arcade, 1971); LeRoi Jones (Amiri Baraka), “The Legacy of dissertation, Malcolm. X, and the Coming of the tests, Black Nation,” in his Home: Social Essays (New York: William. Morrow, 1966); Harold Cruse, The Crisis of the Negro Intellectual (New York: William Morrow, 1967); Stokely Carmichael and Charles V. Reference? Hamilton, Black Power: The Politics of Liberation.
in America (New York: Vintage, 1967); Maulana Karenga, “Society, Culture, and the Problem. of Self-Consciousness: A Kawaida Analysis,” in Philosophy Born of Struggle: Anthology of Afro- American Philosophy from practice essay tests 1917, ed. Leonard Harris (Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt, 1983); Molefi Kete Asante, The Afrocentric Idea (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1998); and. Lucius T. Outlaw, Jr., “Against the Grain of Modernity: The Politics of Difference and the. Conservation of ‘Race,’” in thesis full, his On Race and practice essay tests, Philosophy (New York: Routledge, 1996). 5. Patient? Du Bois, “The Conservation of Races,” p. 183; emphasis added.
Shelby Foundations of Black Solidarity 235. be achieved without the preservation of a distinctive black identity: “We. believe it the practice essay, duty of the Americans of Negro descent, as a body, to. maintain their race identity until this mission of the Negro people is. accomplished, and the ideal of writing a thesis, human brotherhood has become a practical. possibility.”6 While it is practice essay tests, clear that Du Bois would like to see black. identity preserved even beyond that time when (if ever) social equality. becomes a reality, here he emphasizes the “duty” of blacks to maintain.
their identity “until” such equality is realized. Even in his reconstruction of the concept of “race,” Du Bois emphasized. the link between racial identity and race solidarity: “[A race] is a vast family of human beings, generally of common blood and language, always of common history, traditions and and wildlife essay, impulses, who are both. voluntarily and involuntarily striving together for the accomplishment of practice, certain. more or less vividly conceived ideals of life.” 7 Recently, there has been a lively. philosophical debate over the exact meaning of Du Bois’s conception.
of race as defined in his “Conservation” essay.8 Much of this debate has. focused on the metaphysics of race, that is, on what “races” are, whether. any really exist, and if so, in what sense. Du Bois was no doubt concerned. with such questions, but his interest in the reality of “races” was in part. based on his desire to lay a firm foundation for black solidarity. Reference Websites? Du Bois. was convinced that a collective black identity—based primarily on a. shared history and practice tests, culture, and only secondarily on resume, a common biology—
is a necessary component of an practice essay emancipatory black solidarity. Much of black social thought has followed him in this. Indeed, among. advocates of black solidarity, collective identity theory is often treated. However, I will argue that we should reject this view of black emancipation, not because black solidarity has no contribution to make to.
black liberation, but rather because cultivating a collective black identity. is unnecessary for forging effective bonds among blacks, would create. (or exacerbate an already) undue constraint on individual freedom, and is likely, in any case, to be self-defeating. I would urge that we. 6. Ibid., p. 186; emphasis added. 7. Ibid., p. 178; emphasis added. 8. See, e.g., Kwame Anthony Appiah, In My Father’s House: Africa in the Philosophy of.
Culture (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992), pp. 28–46; Lucius Outlaw, “On W. E. Reference Websites? B. Du Bois’s ‘The Conservation of Races,’” in Overcoming Racism and essay tests, Sexism, ed. Linda A. Bell. and David Blumenfeld (Lanham, Md.: Rowman Littlefield, 1995); Robert Gooding-
Williams, “Outlaw, Appiah, and Du Bois’s ‘The Conservation of writing, Races,’” in W. E. B. Du. Bois on essay, Race and Culture, ed. Bernard W. Bell, Emily R. Reference Dissertation? Grosholz, and James B. Stewert. (New York: Routledge, 1996); Tommy L. Lott, The Invention of Race: Black Culture and the. Politics of Representation (Malden, Mass.: Blackwell, 1999), pp. 47–66; and Paul C. Practice Essay? Taylor, “Appiah’s Uncompleted Argument: W. E. B. Du Bois and the Reality of Race,” Social Theory. and Practice 26 (2000): 103–28. 236 Ethics January 2001. disentangle the call for an emancipatory black solidarity from the call. for a collective black identity.
A black solidarity that is admissions resume, based on the. common experience of practice essay tests, antiblack racism and admissions, the joint commitment to. bringing it to an end can and should play an important role in the fight. against racial injustice. But an emancipatory black solidarity that emphasizes. the need to affirm a racial, ethnic, cultural, and/or national. identity is essay tests, a legacy of resume callwave, black political thought that must now be abandoned. for the sake of the struggle against racial oppression. Toward the. end of this essay, I will sketch and practice essay, defend a version of the common.
oppression theory that eschews the requirement of a collective black. Before proceeding further, however, two caveats are in order. Conservation Of Forests And Wildlife Essay? First, my concern in this essay is practice tests, with that form of group solidarity that has. as its primary goal the liberation of thesis full header, black people from the burdens of. racial inequality and antiblack racism. Thus, for the remainder of this. essay, ‘black solidarity’ will refer to this type of emancipatory solidarity. But of course not everything that could rightly be called a form of “black. solidarity” is bound up with antiracist politics, since there are other.
collective goals or values that could serve as a basis for building black. unity. For instance, there is practice, a form of black solidarity that has as its end. the nurturing of communal relations among blacks, a solidarity that is. not treated as a means to some other external objective: some may seek. solidarity with other blacks simply because they see intrinsic value in. the social interaction and the feelings of community that it brings. Nothing. I say here should be taken to preclude or disparage this type of. solidarity; the form of emancipatory black solidarity that I would defend. is perfectly compatible with it.
Indeed, under certain conditions, the. former may, even without conscious effort, foster the width, latter and vice. versa. Second, like Du Bois, some blacks might want to essay, work together. to cultivate and preserve “black culture,” because they believe it to be.
distinctive, intrinsically valuable, and in danger of being lost or underappreciated; and, again, they may see this collective project as important. quite apart from its relationship to the struggle against racism. Provided. such a project is thesis full width header, not treated as a necessary component of emancipatory. black solidarity, it is practice, not threatened by the rejection of the collective. identity theory.
However, if blacks are thought to writing a thesis sentence, have an obligation to. commit themselves to this goal of essay, cultural conservation, then the project. will be vulnerable to some of the criticisms I will raise against collective. identity theory below. Before submitting it to critical scrutiny, it will be useful to specify the. collective identity theory in a bit more detail. This will involve two tasks: explaining the meaning of “blackness” and describing the requirements. Shelby Foundations of Black Solidarity 237.
of “solidarity.” I will take up the bible and quran in scriptural intertextuality, latter task first. I want to suggest that. there are four core characteristics that are jointly sufficient for a robust. form of group solidarity. By “robust” here I mean a solidarity that is. strong enough to move people to collective action, and not just a mutual. sympathy born of the recognition of tests, commonality or a feel-good sense.
of group belonging.9. Identification between group members.—One of the more salient characteristics. of group solidarity is the tendency of group members to identify. with each other or with the group as a whole. The basis of patient admissions, mutual. identification can vary greatly. It can, for example, be based on a shared. ethnic or cultural heritage (whether real or imagined). Practice? But its basis may. also be the fact that group members believe themselves to share a similar.
plight or some significant, perhaps life-shaping, experience. Such commonality. often engenders mutual empathetic understanding. This kind. of understanding is not, however, merely a matter of sympathy, which. may be nothing more than an involuntary reaction to the plight of. others. Rather, members of a solidarity group come to view themselves, because of what they have in common, as sharing a special bond; and.
because of this bond, sometimes fellow group members are treated as. if they were an extension of the self, so that one may feel pride when. a member of the group does something praiseworthy or shame when. a fellow member does something embarrassing, almost as if one had. done the deed oneself. It is bible and quran in scriptural, mutual identification that accounts for this.
familiar sense of “we-ness” that is so characteristic of solidarity groups. Shared values or goals.—Members of a solidarity group share a set of. values and/or goals, and each knows (or at least believes) that fellow. group members are committed to these. The values or goals might take. the form of more or less vague ideals (e.g., “Africa for the Africans” or. “Black Power”), specific policies or principles (e.g., civil disobedience. or equal opportunity for all), or broad social programs (e.g., black. capitalism or the practice essay tests, building of a unified African nation-state). A Thesis Sentence? Such common. values and/or goals often (at least partially) define the group,
constituting its distinctive character and self-conception. 9. The characteristics of group solidarity that I discuss below are drawn in tests, part from. recent work in reference, social psychology on group cohesiveness, especially from the essay, social identity. and self-categorization approaches. Writing? I take it that these characteristics are intuitive and. relatively uncontroversial. Moreover, they are compatible with a variety of practice essay, social psychological.
approaches to writing worksheet, group behavior. See, e.g., John C. Practice Essay Tests? Turner, Rediscovering the websites dissertation, Social. Group: A Self-Categorization Theory (Oxford: Blackwell, 1987); Michael A. Hogg and Dominic. Abrams, Social Identifications: A Social Psychology of Intergroup Relations and essay, Group Processes. (London: Routledge, 1988); Michael A. Hogg, The Social Psychology of Group Cohesiveness: From Attraction to Social Identity (New York: New York University Press, 1992); Tom R. Tyler, Roderick M. Kramer, and Oliver P. John, eds., The Psychology of the Social Self (Mahwah, N.J.: Erlbaum, 1999). 238 Ethics January 2001.
Group loyalty.—One of the most important components of solidarity. is group loyalty. Loyalty to resume callwave, one’s group entails allowing the group to. figure significantly in the construction of essay tests, one’s projects and life plans. This will involve, perhaps among other things, faithfulness to reference websites dissertation, the group’s. values, principles, and ideals, and a willingness to exert extra effort to. help members of the group and to advance the group’s interests. Moreover, group loyalty is always (at least somewhat) exclusionary and essay tests, is often.
defined in reference dissertation, opposition to some other group(s), that is, there is usually. an “Us” and essay, a “Them,” or, if you like, an in-group and an out-group. Members of a solidarity group show loyalty to in-group members as. opposed to bible and quran, those of the relevant out-group, whose interests, goals, or. values may differ from or conflict with those of the in-group. Though. it does require that one be willing to resist threats to one’s group created. by its enemies, the partiality that loyalty engenders need not be adversarial. Peaceful coexistence, even coalition, between different solidarity.
groups is essay tests, often possible. Mutual trust.—Group solidarity also requires that group members. trust one another, for mutual trust is the foundation of cooperation. Because of the vulnerability to exploitation that loyalty engenders, wellfounded. trust is necessary to give group members some measure of. security. Each must have reason to believe that the thesis width header, others will not let. him down, betray the values of the practice, group, or free-ride on the sacrifices. of his fellows. Mutual trust enables members of the group to act collectively. to achieve group goals, especially when success is uncertain.
There are many examples of solidarity groups: families, labor unions, fraternities and sororities, some ethnic groups, religious organizations, political parties, police officers, street gangs, military personnel, and organized crime syndicates. Admissions Resume? Rather than focus on any of these quite. complicated (and, with some of these, problematic) forms of solidarity, a simpler and more suitably paradigmatic case is the solidarity between. members of essay, a sports team. Players on a sports team often identify with.
each other. When they do, each thinks in terms of bible essays, “we” rather than “I.” When the team wins a game, all rejoice in victory, and when it loses, everyone suffers “the agony of defeat,” no matter how much or little. each may have contributed to the victory or loss.
Such sports teams will. also be jointly committed to a set of values or goals. For example, they. may be committed to essay tests, fair play and sportsmanship, a particular style of. play, or a win-at-all-costs philosophy. Team solidarity also requires that. each be loyal to the group’s values and to her teammates. So, for instance,
members of the team will work hard during practice sessions, stick to agreed-upon game plans, put aside individual goals when pursuing. them would conflict with the good of the team, and expend as. much effort as is necessary for the team to win—the sports cliche?’s “110. percent.” Finally, members of a sports team must trust one another, Shelby Foundations of writing, Black Solidarity 239. especially if they are to be successful at winning. Each must feel confident. that her teammates will perform their designated roles on tests, the.
team; and each must know that if she makes an honest mistake that. costs the team a game, her teammates will support her with words of. encouragement, rather than berate and blame her. Such trust is often. built by mutual displays of and quran, individual loyalty to the team or by repeatedly.
struggling together against formidable opponents. To briefly summarize: robust group solidarity exists whenever a set. of individuals identify with each other, are jointly committed to certain. values or goals, are loyal to practice tests, the group and its members, and trust one. another. Thus, black solidarity would be robust if blacks, as a group, were to reference websites dissertation, possess each of practice, these four characteristics. VARIETIES OF “BLACK” SOCIAL IDENTITY. According to in scriptural, collective identity theory, black people must embrace and. preserve their distinctive black identity if a politically progressive solidarity.
is to practice essay tests, flourish among them. To fully understand this position, then, we also need to know what group of people ‘black’ is bible intertextuality, supposed to practice, be. picking out here, and what the nature of this “black identity” is that. they must embrace and conservation and wildlife essay, preserve. I want to approach these two questions. by making a distinction between “thin” and “thick” conceptions of black.
identity. Relying on tests, this distinction, we will see, among other things, that the collective identity theorist urges the cultivation of a thick black. On a thin conception of admissions, black identity, “black” is a vague and socially. imposed category of difference that serves to distinguish groups on the. basis of their members having certain visible, inherited physical characteristics, and/or a particular biological ancestry. Practice Tests? The prevailing thin.
conception of black identity in the United States holds that blacks are. those persons who have such inherited physical traits as dark skin, tightly. curled or “kinky” hair, a broad flat nose, and thick lips, and/or those. persons who are descendants of people that are presumed to have such. characteristics. Thus, on writing worksheet, a thin view, blacks are persons who (more or. less) fit a certain phenotypic profile and/or who are thought to practice essay tests, have. biological ancestors that fit the relevant profile.
For those who meet the criterion, there is little room for choice; you cannot simply decide not to be thinly black—as the African American. saying goes, “The only thing I have to do is stay black and die.” If, say, one were to assimilate completely to so-called white culture, one’s. thin blackness would nevertheless remain intact, for cultural conversion. provides no escape.
No amount of wealth or social status can erase one’s. thin blackness—though clearly one’s class status might mitigate some. of its negative consequences. Patient Resume? One might alter her physical appearance. so as not to “look black,” or if she does not have a “black appearance,”
240 Ethics January 2001. she might simply conceal her black ancestry—as those who “pass” do—but in practice, either case, she would still be black, in the thin sense, even. if never found out. Patient Admissions Resume? It is an individual’s thin blackness that makes her. vulnerable to essay tests, antiblack racism despite her nonblack physical appearance, her law-abiding conduct and good character, her class position or. professional status, or the extent of her assimilation to the dominant. A thick conception of black identity (which usually includes a thin. criterion as a component part) always requires something more (or. something other) than a common physical appearance or shared ancestry.
11 Here, the social category “black” has a narrower social meaning, with specific and sometimes quite demanding criteria for conservation of forests and wildlife who qualifies. as black. Drawing on the history of practice essay tests, black social thought, four familiar. versions of thick blackness can be distinguished.
First, relying on K. Anthony Appiah’s terminology, there is the. racialist conception of blackness.12 On this conception, black identity is. based on the supposed presence of a special genotype in the biological. make-up of all (fully) black people that does not exist among nonblacks. On this view, an underlying cluster of genes, transmitted through reproduction, accounts not only for the relatively superficial physical traits. that constitute thin blackness but also for patient admissions more socially significant traits, such as temperament, aesthetic sensibility, and certain innate talents;
and it is the possession of this genotype that defines membership in the. black race. There is of course a racialist conception of essay tests, blackness that. is committed to the view that biological race determines native intelligence, reproductive traits and tendencies, and header, moral character. However, since this strong form of racial determinism is widely accepted as. false and practice essay tests, racially offensive, I will assume that our collective identity. theorist does not endorse it.
Second, there is the ethnic conception of blackness. It treats black. identity as a matter of shared ancestry and common cultural heritage.13. On such an account, there is essay, no assumption that two people of the. same ethnicity must necessarily share the same “racial essence.” To be. sure, the essay tests, members of an ethnic group may share certain physical traits. 10. For a similar conception of blackness, see Bernard R. Thesis Full Width Header? Boxill, Blacks and Social. Justice, rev. Practice Essay Tests? ed. (Lanham, Md.: Rowman Littlefield, 1992), p. 178. 11.
Those thick conceptions that require something other, rather than just something. more, than thin criteria for blackness will entail, if only implicitly, a critique and writing a thesis sentence, rejection. of the thin criteria. 12. Appiah, “Racisms,” pp. 4–5. 13. An ethnic identity becomes a national identity when it is associated with a particular. geographical location that is viewed as a place of essay, origin or “homeland.” However, I will.
treat nationalist conceptions of blackness as a variant of the ethnic conception, for the. differences between ethnicity and nationality will not affect my argument. Shelby Foundations of Black Solidarity 241. as a result of their shared biological ancestry (e.g., dark skin or the. capacity to thesis full width header, grow an afro), and tests, they may even value their possession of.
these traits as part of their ethnic heritage. But these ethnic traits need. not be viewed as indicating an underlying racial genotype that explains. black behavioral or psychological dispositions. Reference? Indeed, the ethnic conception. of blackness is consistent with the complete rejection of. There are two dominant ethnic conceptions of black identity.
One. emphasizes the fact that black people are descendants of certain sub- Saharan African peoples, and it maintains that they share a culture that. is traceable to the culture of those ancestors. The other stresses both. the experiences of blacks with oppression in the New World and the. rich culture they have created in the context of that oppression since. being forcibly removed from tests Africa. Dissertation? On both versions, though, one does.
not have a black ethnic identity unless one both has the relevant biological. ancestry and practice, embraces the appropriate cultural traits. Third, there is the cultural conception of blackness. It rests on the. claim that there is an identifiable ensemble of beliefs, values, behaviors,
and practices that has come to be associated with the thinly black because. of their role in creating it. Though this culture is thought to be. primarily the product of thinly black people and conservation and wildlife, their experiences, its. continued reproduction does not depend solely on the activities of these. blacks, since nonblacks may participate in sustaining and practice essay, developing it. as well—jazz, for example. On this model, thick black identity is tied. neither to thesis full, “race,” nor to biological ancestry.
Anyone could, in practice, principle, embrace and cultivate a black cultural identity, in much the resume, same way. that anyone could, again in principle, become a practicing Christian. Finally, there is the historically influential kinship conception of. blackness. This view understands black identity on the model of the. family—recall Du Bois’s conception of “race” as a “vast family” or consider. the use of “brother” and “sister” to affectionately refer to fellow. blacks. Essay? Of course blacks are not a family, not even an extended one, in.
any ordinary sense.14 So what is and wildlife essay, it about essay tests familial relations that could. plausibly constitute a basis (or suggest an resume callwave analogous foundation) for a. thick black identity? There seem to essay tests, be three possibilities. Websites? First, one could. understand blackness in essay, terms of biological relatedness—that is,“blood. ties.” But then, the kinship conception can be expressed in terms of. the racialist view, the ethnic view, or the reference, thin conception of black identity. 14. For compelling critiques of the family/race metaphor and its invocation in discourses.
of racial solidarity, see Paul Gilroy, “It’s a Family Affair,” in Black Popular Culture, ed. Gina Dent (New York: New Press, 1990); Appiah, “Racisms,” pp. 13–15; and essay tests, Patricia. Hill Collins, Fighting Words: African American Women and the Search for Justice (Minneapolis:
University of Minnesota Press, 1998), pp. 167–74. 242 Ethics January 2001. Second, one could treat black identity as not merely a matter of biology. but of the reproduction of a common way of life. Resume Callwave? But here I would. suggest the idea could be adequately captured by the ethnic conception. of blackness (perhaps with some additional racialist assumptions). Practice Essay Tests? Or. third, like familial relations formed through marriage or adoption, blackness could be thought to rest on voluntary affiliation, custom, or.
(legal) convention. This form of “blackness,” however, would be simply. a version of the sentence worksheet, cultural conception. Thus, the familiar kinship view is. not a distinct conception of blackness from the ones already considered, and thus it will not receive independent critical discussion here.15. There are several things to notice about practice thin and thick black identities. First, one may choose, with varying degrees of difficulty, not to.
define one’s self-conception in terms of a thesis, “blackness” at all; that is, one. may choose not to subjectively identify with the practice essay, label “black” or to conform. to its associated behavioral norms.16 Some contend that those. blacks who do so are denying something important about themselves, perhaps out of full, racially motivated self-hate. But a different, more respectable, reason for rejecting a black identity, one that does not necessarily. involve self-deception, is that one may believe the designation. “black,” with its typical connotations, is tests, not an bible and quran intertextuality apt characterization of. either who one is or who one would like to be.
Or one might think that. a black identity, while perhaps perfectly appropriate for some, is too. crude or limiting in one’s own case. Yet another reason might be that. one believes it to practice essay, be an inherently invidious and repressive social distinction.
and, thus, should be repudiated on political grounds. It should. be clear, however, that the choice not to self-identify as black, whatever. its rationale, does not dissolve the often constraining social realities that. are created by the fact that othersmay insist on ascribing such an resume callwave identity. to one and, consequently, may treat one accordingly, whether for good. Second, given the thin/thick distinction, we can understand what. it would mean to say of someone who is clearly black according to thin. 15. Of course, members of a family often share important experiences that contribute.
to their feelings of connectedness and tests, loyalty. Resume Callwave? In a similar way, black people have a common. history of essay tests, racial oppression and sentence worksheet, share the experience of antiblack racism. Practice Essay Tests? However, as I. will argue below, these commonalities can form the basis for group solidarity without. relying on a “thick” collective black identity. 16. Writing A Thesis? For illuminating discussions of the relationship between third-person racial ascription.
and first-person racial self-identification, see Anna Stubblefield, “Racial Identity. and Non-Essentialism about practice Race,” Social Theory and Practice 21 (1995): 341–68; K. Anthony. Appiah, “Race, Culture, Identity: Misunderstood Connections,” in thesis, Color Conscious: The. Political Morality of Race, by practice K. Anthony Appiah and Amy Gutmann (Princeton,N.J.:Princeton. University Press, 1996), pp. Resume Callwave? 76–80; and practice essay tests, Robert Gooding-Williams, “Race, Multiculturalism. and Democracy,” Constellations 5 (1998): 18–41. Shelby Foundations of resume callwave, Black Solidarity 243. criteria, but who fails to satisfy the relevant criteria for essay thick blackness. (whatever that turns out to be), that he or she isn’t “really” black—a. claim that is sometimes thought to resume callwave, be somewhat paradoxical, if not.
completely incoherent.17 Here is how we might make sense of essay tests, that familiar. charge within the context of dissertation, thinking about the relevance of practice essay tests, a. collective identity for and quran essays in scriptural black solidarity. Though a person cannot choose. whether to be black in the thin sense, she can, as we’ve said, decide. what significance she will attach to her thin blackness. This includes. deciding whether to commit herself to emancipatory black solidarity. But if she does so commit, then she could rightly be criticized for practice essay failing.
to live up to obligations she has accepted as a member of a thesis sentence, that solidarity. group—for example, she might be criticized for not being sufficiently. loyal to other blacks fighting for racial equality.18 If we understand authenticity. not as a matter of acting in tests, conformity to or fully realizing. one’s extravolitional essence but as a matter of websites, being faithful to one’s. chosen principles for action, then for practice tests our purposes black inauthenticity. would be a matter of not living up to and wildlife, one’s solidaristic commitment. (whatever that entails). Thus, if the goals of black solidarity cannot be. achieved without a thick collective black identity, as collective identity. theory maintains, then a person who has signed on practice essay, to this emancipatory.
project, but fails to accept and act in accordance with the relevant thick. identity, can rightly be criticized for bible being “inauthentic.” By using the. thin/thick distinction, then, we can more clearly discuss the practice, politics of. black authenticity and its role in black solidarity. Finally, it is clear that many who satisfy the criteria for thin blackness. spontaneously embrace a thick black identity without treating this as a.
conscious strategy and with little or no regard for how this affects antiracist. politics. For those who do deliberately choose to admissions, cultivate a thick. black identity, they do so for the most varied reasons, some having to. do with resisting antiblack racism, some having more to do with cultivating. self-esteem, wanting a rich and relatively stable conception of. 17.
For someone who doubts “the value of the distinction between being authentically. black and being inauthentically black,” see Gooding-Williams, “Race, Multiculturalism and. Democracy,” p. Essay? 25. For a useful discussion of the conservation and wildlife essay, different claims of authenticity, seeNaomi. Zack, Thinking about Race (Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth, 1998), pp. 70–72. 18.
Now I take it that we all, whether black or not, have an obligation to fight racial. injustice and resist oppression. But it could be argued that blacks have an obligation to. pursue their antiracism through black solidarity—though not necessarily to the exclusion. of other strategies. Practice? If such a position is sound, then blacks who fail to commit to black. solidarity would be justly criticized for this.
And if collective identity theory is full header, correct, then any thinly black person who does not affirm thick blackness as part of their identity, whether they have made a commitment to black solidarity or not, would be vulnerable. to criticism. In this essay, I won’t take a position on whether black solidarity is obligatory. but instead will focus on what is required of those who choose to fight antiblack racism.
through black solidarity. 244 Ethics January 2001. who they are, or desiring a strong sense of community. Essay? Moreover, it is. probably rare that blacks consciously embrace a thick black identity for.
purely political purposes; indeed, in order for reference such an identity to have. a positive effect on essay, black solidarity, blacks may need to embrace it on. grounds apart from resume callwave its political value. The collective identity theorist. could concede all this. But she would insist that were a sufficient number. of blacks, for whatever reason, to reject or distance themselves from. thick blackness, this would seriously hamper, if not undermine, emancipatory. black solidarity, especially given the collective action problems. that blacks currently face.
Indeed, the familiar policing of practice, social identities. that takes place among black Americans—which often annoys. those who seek more freedom in the construction of their social identities— arguably functions to writing a thesis sentence, strengthen the bonds of solidarity necessary. for effective resistance against practice tests, racial oppression. It is for this reason that. the advocate of collective identity theory urges blacks to bible essays in scriptural, accept a thick. black identity, even if many will do so for reasons having little to do.
Given the above distinctions and caveats, the collective identity theory. can be given a more precise formulation: there are persons who. meet the criteria for thin blackness who also have available to them a. black identity that is “deeper,” that is, thicker, than their thin blackness; and these persons must positively affirm and preserve their thick blackness. if collectively they are to overcome their racial oppression through.
group solidarity. Thus, for the remainder of this discussion, when I speak. of the practice essay, alleged need for writing a thesis a common black identity, I will be using ‘black’ in the thick sense, and when I speak of essay, ‘black people’ or simply ‘blacks’, I will mean ‘black’ in the thin sense, unless otherwise indicated. AGAINST COLLECTIVE IDENTITY THEORY. On a racialist conception of blackness, with its commitment to a morethan- skin-deep racial essence, embracing and preserving black identity. would seem to entail, at a minimum, fostering intraracial reproduction. between blacks and, perhaps more important, discouraging interracial. reproduction between blacks and of forests essay, nonblacks.
This practice of racial endogamy. is supposed to help keep the black essence intact and protect. blacks from the dangers of practice tests, racial hybridity. However, this view has a. number of thesis header, problems. Tests? For one thing, it is worksheet, now generally acknowledged. that no “pure” races exist. Indeed, many biologists and anthropologists. question the existence of human races altogether.19 But, even if there. 19. This issue has been much discussed in the recent philosophical literature on race.
See, e.g., Naomi Zack, Race and practice essay, Mixed Race (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1993); Outlaw, “Against the Grain”; Appiah, “Race, Culture, Identity”; Charles W. Mills, “‘But. What Are You Really?’ TheMetaphysics of Race,” in his Blackness Visible (Ithaca,N.Y.:Cornell. Shelby Foundations of Black Solidarity 245. are (or once were) pure racial groups, those who are black by thin. criteria certainly would not qualify as one (or even a proper subset. thereof), since many (by some estimates as many as 80 percent) have. some European or Native American ancestry.20 Limiting black solidarity.
to only “pure(er)” blacks would exclude many victims of antiblack racism, contrary to the point of the enterprise; and it would run the risk. of creating a kind of “reverse” color prejudice—that is, a preference for. darker skin, rather than the more familiar light-skin preference—among. those who identify or are identified as black. Bible And Quran Essays In Scriptural? Given the history of socalled. miscegenation in essay, this country, a politics of black racial purity. would almost certainly undermine emancipatory black solidarity. A racialist justification for the policy of black endogamy would be. no more plausible if the more inclusive “one-drop rule” for blackness. were adopted—that is, the rule that says that if a person has any black.
ancestors, then she is black.21 Such a conception of black identity would. hardly justify prohibiting “race-mixing” in the name of black solidarity. If anything, it suggests that blacks should make it their policy to produce. “mixed” progeny, since this would only increase their numbers and, consequently, their collective strength.22. Given the obvious problems with its racialist version, most advocates. of the collective identity theory have adopted the more plausible position.
that blacks should embrace and preserve their distinctive ethnic. or cultural identity. The main difference between these two conceptions. of blackness, recall, is full width, that the ethnic version emphasizes black ancestry. while the cultural version does not. Practice Essay? But since collective identity theory. calls on blacks to embrace their thick black identity, those who do so. will turn out to thesis header, have the appropriate ancestry by default. Thus, for. present purposes at least, the ethnic and cultural versions of collective. identity theory come to essay, the same thing.23 The remainder of this section,
University Press, 1998); and the essays in Leonard Harris, ed., Racism (Amherst, N.Y.: Humanity Books, 1999). 20. Conservation Essay? Zack, Race and Mixed Race, p. 75. 21.
Gunnar Myrdal, An American Dilemma: The Negro Problem and Modern Democracy. (New York: Harper Row, 1944), pp. 113–17; and practice tests, F. James Davis, Who Is Black? One. Nation’s Definition (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1991).
22. For an instructive—and downright hilarious—discussion of the black “no racemixing” policy, see Charles W. Mills, “Do Black Men Have a Moral Duty to Marry Black. Women?” 25th Anniversary Special Issue, Journal of Social Philosophy (1994): 131–53. Also. see Anita L. Allen, “Interracial Marriage: Folk Ethics in Contemporary Philosophy,” in.
Women of Color and Philosophy, ed. Naomi Zack (Oxford: Blackwell, 2000). 23. Websites Dissertation? But perhaps this is too quick. The ethnic version of collective identity theory may. urge blacks to affirm their black ancestry in some special way. Provided it is devoid of any. racialist assumptions, there seem to practice tests, be three important ways this affirmation could be. carried out.
First, one could honor the memory of one’s black ancestors by embracing. and passing on bible and quran in scriptural, their cultural legacy. This view, however, is just a variant of the cultural. version of collective identity theory. Second, it might be thought that since one’s black. 246 Ethics January 2001. therefore, will treat the ethnic and cultural versions of essay, collective identity. Though they differ on its precise content and boundaries, both the. ethnic and cultural versions of resume callwave, collective identity theory require blacks.
to identify with “black culture,” insisting that blacks view it as (at least. partly) constitutive of who they are as individuals and as a group. Note, though, that if this cultural identity is to have a positive effect on practice tests, black. solidarity—providing a basis for mutual identification, reinforcing common. values and goals, and patient, creating stronger bonds of loyalty and. trust—then it can’t be merely a passive or subjective acknowledgment. of the value of black culture. Practice Essay? Rather, blacks must actively perform their. thick blackness for other blacks (and perhaps nonblacks) to see: they.
must demonstrate their knowledge of black culture and their appreciation. of its value by participating in it, preserving or developing it, exposing others to it (especially their children), and in general allowing. it to be a significant influence on websites dissertation, their lives. There is a strong and weak version of the ethnic/cultural view. On. the strong version, a collective black ethnic/cultural identity is a necessary. component of black solidarity; that is, blacks must share a common.
ethnic or cultural identity if emancipatory black solidarity is to. flourish. Essay Tests? Failing to header, cultivate such a collective identity would, according. to the practice essay tests, strong view, undermine the effort to build black unity. On the.
weak version, a collective black identity is not claimed to be necessary. for black solidarity, since blacks might get by without one, but it is. thought that such an identity would nevertheless strengthen the bonds. of black unity by giving them more in common than just their history. of oppression. However, I don’t think either version is sound.
Focusing. bodily appearance is the result of one’s black ancestry, one should honor one’s black. ancestors by being proud of that appearance and perhaps accentuating it. This might. seem all the more important once one considers the fact that racists have oftenmaintained. that blacks are physically unattractive, even repulsive. Being proud of “looking black” can. be expressed by, e.g., wearing one’s hair “natural” and resume callwave, prominently featuring one’s other. prototypical “black features”—e.g., big lips, noses, and hips. Practice? Doing so, however, would be.
a matter of observing certain norms of behavior or fashion imperatives, and thus this. position, too, is a thesis, a variant of the cultural version of collective identity theory. Third, one. might affirm one’s black ancestry by essay honoring the sacrifices that previous generations of. blacks have made for the benefit of future generations.
Setting aside the option of paying. such homage through cultural identification and of forests, preservation, it would seem that the essay tests, best. way to honor the heroic efforts of previous generations of and quran in scriptural intertextuality, blacks is to essay, continue the writing a thesis sentence, struggle. for racial justice. This view, however, is consistent with the common oppression theory. with or without a thick identity component, as they both would urge blacks to work for. 24. I will not, however, be discussing specific conceptions of black ethnic or cultural. identity (e.g., Pan-African, New Negro, Ne?gritude, Black Muslim, Black Power, or Afrocentric), for the essay tests, particular conception of resume callwave, black ethnicity or culture that our collective. identity theorist advocates will not affect my argument.
Shelby Foundations of Black Solidarity 247. on the strong version first, I will argue that there is little reason to. suppose that blacks must share a collective identity in order for them. to exhibit, as a group, each of the four characteristics of robust solidarity. At the essay tests, outset, it might be thought that if blacks are to identify with. each other, they must share an reference ethnic or cultural identity (or at least. they must believe themselves to share such an identity).
However, there. are clearly other, and essay tests, more reliable, bases for identification. For example, blacks could identify with each other because they believe themselves. to suffer the conservation of forests essay, same form of racial subordination, to have experienced. the degradation and insult of antiblack racism, or to share a. common interest in ending racial inequality. The mutual recognition. of such commonality could produce—and clearly already has produced— empathetic understanding of practice essay, a deeply felt kind between blacks.
Thus, quite apart from their supposed common “racial” characteristics, ethnicity, or culture, each could come to see and resume callwave, feel that a significant. part of herself or himself is to be found in the others, so that it becomes. meaningful to speak about and act on the basis of essay tests, what “we” experience, “we” believe, and of forests and wildlife essay, “we” desire. In fact, often members of a subordinated group suffer a common.
fate because of a social identity that they only appear to share; for it is. not uncommon for a dominant group to construct an identity for practice essay tests those. it oppresses (and for itself) in order to justify the of forests and wildlife essay, ill-treatment and. deplorable condition of the subordinate group.25 Such imputed social. identities are sometimes entirely fictional, maliciously fabricated by oppressor. groups (e.g., consider the view that blacks are the descendants. of Ham and, thus, are forever cursed to essay, toil for thesis width header the benefit of practice essay tests, whites). But even when the ascribed identity is based in something real, the. subordinate group may still find it more practical to build solidarity on. the basis of their common oppression and their desire to overcome it, for not all of its members may value or identify with the resume callwave, ascription.
Black solidarity certainly requires a shared set of values and practice, goals. But this normative commitment need not involve embracing anything. we might want to call “black culture.” One doesn’t have to possess a. black cultural identity—indeed one doesn’t have to be black at thesis full all—in. order to tests, appreciate the value of racial equality or to condemn racism. Of course, values are a component of essays in scriptural intertextuality, culture, and black cultural forms. are among those that sometimes express or embody principles of social. equality, which can be a legitimate source of essay, black pride. Nevertheless, the basis of blacks’ commitment to equality is surely that this is what.
justice demands, not that such values are embedded in black cultural. traditions. If black culture did not extol the sentence worksheet, virtues of racial justice, but. 25. Robert Miles, Racism (London: Routledge, 1989), pp. 11–40. 248 Ethics January 2001. instead emphasized black supremacy or, worse yet, black inferiority, then. blacks would of practice tests, course need to reject this component of their culture. and embrace social equality instead, whatever its cultural roots. Loyalty, too, can exist between blacks with diverse ethnic/cultural.
identities. Consider, for reference websites example, the practice tests, loyalty that sometimes exists between. the diverse members of labor organizations. Despite differences. in age, race, gender, religion, ethnicity, occupation, and many other. things, some workers have, at times, been intensely loyal to one another, especially when confronted with threatening or dire circumstances.
And. they often maintain this loyalty with little more in common than their. shared vulnerability as workers and patient admissions, their will to improve their lot. There. is no reason why blacks cannot do the same, for they too are vulnerable. to a threatening social force—antiblack racism. Thus, black loyalty can. be based on the need for mutual support in an antiblack social environment. and a joint commitment to antiracist politics. It also seems clear that blacks can foster mutual trust among themselves.
without sharing a common black identity. Essay Tests? Undoubtedly, a common. ethnic or cultural identity would create a type of familiarity and. ease of resume callwave, intercourse that could contribute to the building of mutual trust. And, in tests, general, it is writing worksheet, probably easier to trust those with whom one shares.
a social identity. However, trust can be facilitated in other ways as well. For instance, one can demonstrate one’s trustworthiness by openly making. efforts to advance the cause of black liberation. Trust can also be.
fostered by working together with other blacks to accomplish limited, short-term goals—for example, boycotting a known racist establishment. or putting pressure on political leaders to heed black concerns. This. makes the essay tests, participants only minimally vulnerable to one another, while. at the same time creating seeds of trust that can grow through future. collective efforts. In any case, using one’s talents and resources to promote.
the goals and values of resume, antiracism is surely a better sign of one’s. trustworthiness in the struggle against racial oppression than expressing. one’s affiliation with other blacks by displaying one’s black ethnic or. 26. Laurence Thomas suggests that there can be no “genuine cooperation” among. blacks until they develop what he calls a “group narrative”—defined as “a set of stories. which defines values and entirely positive goals, which specifies a set of practice essay, fixed points of. historical significance, and writing a thesis sentence worksheet, which defines a set of ennobling rituals to be regularly performed”— for, according to him, such a narrative provides the basis for mutual trust.
Moreover, Thomas claims that a people cannot genuinely cooperate with each other simply. on account of their desire to defeat a common enemy, since the existence of such an. enemy cannot form the basis of practice essay, mutual trust (see Laurence Mordekhai Thomas, “Group. Autonomy and Narrative Identity,” in Color, Class, Identity: The New Politics of Race, ed. Writing Sentence? John. Arthur and Amy Shapiro [Boulder, Colo.: Westview, 1996], pp. 182–83). Practice? However, I disagree. First, if the civil rights movement did not constitute genuine cooperation among. Shelby Foundations of Black Solidarity 249.
So far I have argued that a collective black identity, whether based. on ethnicity or culture, is not a necessary condition for admissions the creation. and maintenance of robust black solidarity. But, as I mentioned earlier, some collective identity theorists endorse a slightly weaker position. Instead of claiming that a collective black identity is necessary, they claim.
that, while perhaps not necessary for black solidarity, such an identity. would create stronger bonds of black unity. However, the weak version. is also unsound, as it is much more likely, at least presently, that the. requirement of a common black identity would actually weaken black. solidarity. There are a number of reasons for thinking this to be the. For one thing, the push for a collective black identity would probably.
worsen existing intragroup antagonisms, and essay, it might even produce. new ones. The type of internal conflict among blacks that I have in. mind would be likely to conservation of forests and wildlife essay, show up in at least three familiar domains. First, black people would inevitably become bogged down, as they. often have, by disagreements over what constitutes and who possesses.
an “authentic” black identity. Essay? Should blacks see themselves as essentially. tied to Africa, and if so, what African culture(s) should be given privileged. status? Can this shared identity include elements from European.
or Anglo-American culture and still be authentically black, or must it. remain, in some sense, “pure”? How much, if any, of the cultural legacy. of slavery—for example, southern Negro folk culture—should blacks. embrace?
Should blacks from northern urban centers or those with a. southern sensibility be seen as more paradigmatically black? Should. black identity be tied to a particular religious tradition, and a thesis sentence worksheet, if so, should. this be Christianity, Islam, or some indigenous traditional African religion? Are there distinctively black norms of etiquette or black social. values? Is there a black ethics, epistemology, or aesthetic? Are there.
uniquely black styles of dress, hairstyles, or modes of speech? While. some of practice essay, these are, perhaps, interesting questions, there is no reason to. believe that blacks can achieve anything like consensus on such matters. And the endless and often acrimonious disagreements between blacks. over what constitutes authentic blackness can easily become so all-consuming. that they lose sight of the thesis full header, sources of their anxiety about who. blacks, then I’m not sure what would. Practice Tests? Now Thomas may not count that movement as. genuine cooperation, since it didn’t operate on the basis of width, what he calls “group autonomy” (i.e., blacks were not, and still aren’t, generally regarded by others as the foremost interpreters.
of their historical-cultural traditions). Tests? But unless the goal is black collective selfrealization. as a people (which is not my concern here), then the narrative-free black. solidarity that held together the civil rightsmovement should be sufficient for admissions resume our purposes. in this postsegregation era. Second, Thomas’s account of practice essay, “group narrative” would seem. to suggest that blacks need something comparable to an ethnic-based religion if they are. to form bonds of mutual trust. But I see no reason to believe that, since, as I argued. above, there are less restrictive and more reliable routes to reference, black mutual trust.
250 Ethics January 2001. they are—for example, antiblack racism, systematic social exclusion, persistent racial inequality, economic exploitation, and cultural imperialism— which should be the primary focus of their collective energies. Second, class differences among blacks will complicate any attempt. to sustain a common black ethnic or cultural identity.27 First of all, it is. not clear that wealthy blacks, the essay, black middle class, and the black.
(working or nonworking) poor share cultural traits that they do not. also share with many nonblacks. Moreover, for decades now, there has. been an ongoing contest between the black middle class and poorer. blacks over who has the standing to bible in scriptural intertextuality, define black identity, that is, over. who is best positioned to have the authentic black experience and to.
represent “the race.” It is also clear that the growing physical separation. of the practice tests, black middle class from the black urban poor—the former sometimes. living in the suburbs and reference, the latter mainly in urban ghettoes—is. likely to practice essay, exacerbate this conflict. Resume Callwave? Given the increasing intragroup stratification. of blacks and the well-known correlation between class position. and cultural identification, we can expect this internal struggle over the.
meaning of blackness to continue and perhaps intensify. However, if. blacks were to drop the requirement of a common black ethnic or. cultural identity, which, as I’ve argued, is not necessary for the success. of the emancipatory project, this might actually reduce the negative. effects that class differences have on black solidarity.28.
And, third, the requirement of a common black identity would. surely aggravate the antagonism between black men and women over. the meaning of blackness as it relates to practice tests, gender. Historically, the content. of black identity, including gender roles and norms governing family. structure, has largely been prescribed by black men—that is, when it. wasn’t being defined by other ideological and structural forces within. the larger society—most often leading to greater sacrifice and a thesis sentence worksheet, less freedom. for black women. Moreover, the attempt to maintain a “positive”
and cohesive group identity will likely have the effect, as it often has, of subordinating or ignoring the legitimate concerns of black women. 27. For important discussions of essay tests, this issue, see E. Franklin Frazier, Black Bourgeoisie. (New York: Free Press, 1957); William Julius Wilson, The Declining Significance of Race (Chicago:
University of Chicago Press, 1978); Manning Marable, How Capitalism Underdeveloped. Black America (Boston: South End Press, 1983), chap. 5; Michael C. Resume Callwave? Dawson, Behind the. Mule: Race and Class in African-American Politics (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1994); Kevin K. Tests? Gaines, Uplifting the reference, Race: Black Leadership, Politics, and Culture in the Twentieth. Century (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996); and Adolph Reed, Jr.,
Stirrings in the Jug: Black Politics in essay, the Post-Segregation Era (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota. 28. Reduce, not eliminate, for class differences among blacks pose a real and serious. threat to emancipatory black solidarity. I cannot, however, address this rather complex. issue in this essay. My main point here is that insisting on a common black ethnic or. cultural identity can only worsen this already difficult problem. Shelby Foundations of Black Solidarity 251.
Because black women are situated at the intersection of of forests and wildlife, racial and gender. oppression, they have experiences and practice essay, interests that are peculiar. to their complex social condition. Resume Callwave? But many black men fail to acknowledge. or take seriously these gendered experiences and interests. Essay? When. black women voice (let alone attempt to aggressively deal with) their. political concerns—for example, rape, domestic violence and abuse, inequality and exploitation within the domestic sphere, sexual and reproductive.
freedom, gender discrimination and harassment on the job, access to thesis full width header, political power and to practice, positions of thesis full, leadership—this is practice essay, often. seen as a divisive attempt to embarrass black men or as an a thesis sentence imprudent. move that threatens to worsen the practice essay tests, public image of blacks. Rather than. listening to black women and thinking of their concerns as integral to. black freedom struggles, many black men have tried to a thesis sentence worksheet, silence black.
women and have remained complicit in the perpetuation of patriarchy, often in the name of maintaining “unity.” Given the practice tests, prevalence of sexist. attitudes and behavior among black men (and even some women), taken. with the and wildlife essay, continuing unequal power relations between the sexes, malecentered. conceptions of practice, blackness are likely to websites, predominate, though. not of practice essay tests, course without resistance—for example, witness the mixed reception. of the Million Man March among black Americans, especially. black women. Though black feminist perspectives are growing in influence, even among some black men, until greater strides are made against.
(black) male hegemony, a shared and progressive view of what it means. to be a thick black woman or man is unlikely to develop.29. However, all blacks, given their vulnerability to antiblack racial discrimination, have a vested interest in racial equality, regardless of their. cultural leanings, class position, or gender (though the resume callwave, urgency with. which one pursues racial justice will likely depend, among other things, 29. Tests? For important discussions of the relationship between black identity, gender, and. politics, see Michele Wallace, Black Macho and the Myth of the Superwoman (New York: Dial. Press, 1978); Angela Y. Davis, Women, Race, and Class (New York: Random House, 1981); bell hooks, Ain’t I a Woman: Black Women and Feminism (Boston: South End Press, 1981),
esp. chap. 3; Gloria T. Hull, Patricia Bell-Scott, and Barbara Smith, eds., All the essay, Women Are. White, All the Men Are Black: But Some of practice essay, Us Are Brave (Westbury: Feminist Press, 1982); Paula Giddings, When and reference, Where I Enter: The Impact of Black Women on Race and Sex in America. (New York: William Morrow, 1984); Patricia Hill Collins, Black Feminist Thought: Knowledge, Consciousness, and practice essay tests, the Politics of Empowerment (New York: Routledge, 1990); Cornel West, Race Matters (New York: Vintage, 1993), chap.
2; Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham, Righteous. Discontent: The Women’s Movement in the Black Baptist Church, 1880–1920 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1993); Kimberle? W. Conservation Of Forests And Wildlife Essay? Crenshaw, “Mapping theMargins: Intersectionality, Identity Politics, and practice essay tests, Violence against Women of conservation of forests and wildlife essay, Color,” in Critical Race Theory, ed. Kimberle? Crenshaw, Neil Gotanda, Gary Peller, and Kendall Thomas (New York:New. Press, 1995); Hazel V. Carby, Race Men (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1998); and E. Frances White, Dark Continent of Our Bodies: Black Feminism and the Politics of Respectability. (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2001). 252 Ethics January 2001. on whether one also suffers under class exploitation, male domination,
both, or neither). Recognition of this common interest can lend motivational. strength to a morally based joint commitment to practice essay, ending racism. 30 Frankly, it’s doubtful that blacks will ever agree on the meaning. of blackness, but they can and worksheet, should agree to collectively resist racism, since it negatively affects them all, albeit to varying degrees and in. different ways.
Mobilizing and coordinating such collective efforts will. be difficult enough without adding the unnecessary and divisive requirement. that blacks embrace and preserve a distinctive ethnic/cultural. Another reason to practice tests, doubt that insistence on a common black identity. would contribute to black solidarity, and thus to resume, the elimination of racial. oppression, is that if blacks were to push for a thicker common black. identity, this would actually strain the—already somewhat delicate— bonds of black unity. For while most blacks believe in practice essay tests, the struggle. for social equality and the value of black communal relations, they also. value the reference, freedom to choose their cultural affiliations.32 If there is group.
pressure to conform to practice tests, some prototype of intertextuality, blackness, which collective. identity theory would seem to require, this would create “core” and. “fringe” black subgroups, thus alienating those on practice, the fringe and providing. them with an incentive to defect from the collective struggle. Those who only marginally fit the resume callwave, black prototype may feel that accepting. a conventional black identity is unduly burdensome and, consequently, may only halfheartedly participate, if at all, in the black fight. against racism, especially if acting alone they can manage, perhaps. 30. Moreover, as Orlando Patterson has argued, while both blacks and whites have.
an interest in overcoming racism, blacks must play a larger part in practice tests, bringing this about, not only because they stand to gain more from it but because whites have much less to. lose by conservation and wildlife doing nothing. Orlando Patterson, The Ordeal of Integration: Progress and Resentment. in America’s “Racial” Crisis (Washington, D.C.: Civitas, 1997), p. 202. 31. Though I cannot discuss them all here, there are obviously other important sites. of contestation over the meaning and scope of blackness that have to do with the intersection. of racism with other forms of oppression—e.g., interracialism (the problematics.
surrounding so-called mixed-race identities and interracial relationships) and essay, sexuality. (antihomosexual hostility and intolerance of and quran essays intertextuality, nonheterosexual lifestyles). See Zack, Race. and Mixed Race; Lisa Jones, “Is Biracial Enough? (Or, What’s This about a Multiracial. Category on the Census?): A Conversation,” in tests, her Bulletproof Diva: Tales of Race, Sex, and. Hair (New York: Anchor, 1994); Naomi Zack, ed., American Mixed Race: The Culture of. Microdiversity (Lanham, Md.: Rowman Littlefield, 1995); Werner Sollors, ed., Interracialism: Black-White Intermarriage in American History, Literature, and and quran intertextuality, Law (Oxford: Oxford.
University Press, 2000);West, pp. 119–31; Kobena Mercer,Welcome to the Jungle: New Positions. in Black Cultural Studies (New York: Routledge, 1994); and Cathy J. Cohen, The Boundaries. of Blackness: AIDS and the Breakdown of practice essay tests, Black Politics (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 32. Resume Callwave? For helpful discussions of the threat to individual freedom posed by racial identities, see Stubblefield; and Appiah, “Race, Culture, Identity,” pp. 97–99. Shelby Foundations of practice tests, Black Solidarity 253. through their superior class position, to escape some of the more severe.
forms of racial oppression. Thus, a prescribed black identity could actually. reduce black unity, and it might even have the unintended consequence. of inviting those who fail to identify with the prevailing conception. of blackness to form alternative alliances, to admissions resume, become excessively.
individualistic, or to be simply complacent. One response to these considerations is to insist that there already. exists an inclusive and widely shared black identity, so that blacks need. only to preserve and perhaps cultivate it. But this claim is implausible. Blacks, taken in the thin sense, are clearly an ethnically and culturally. diverse group; this diversity includes differences in physical appearance, language, customs, religion, political outlook, moral and aesthetic values, cuisine, fashion, traditions, national origin, and many other things.33.
The cultural and ethnic diversity of practice essay tests, blacks should be especially clear. once one considers the various cultural traits embraced by resume callwave recent black. immigrants from Africa, Latin America, Europe, and the Caribbean, who are of course themselves subject to antiblack prejudice. Essay Tests? One could.
of course mean to include under “black identity” all of the conservation and wildlife essay, cultural and. ethnic traits that are embraced by black people. However, this would. have the tests, effect of rendering collective identity theory vacuous, since. blacks cannot help but embrace cultural traits of one sort or other, and. thus the imperative to “conserve blackness” would have no prescriptive. Alternatively, one might argue that it is possible to construct a. pluralistic and resume, nuanced conception of essay, black identity, rather than a monolithic. and unduly restrictive one. Resume? But no matter where one sets the. boundaries of thick blackness, if it is practice essay tests, meaningful enough to have prescriptive.
force, some blacks will be left out or forced into submission. Now the collective identity theorist might not be troubled by this result, since he may insist that not all blacks are needed in the struggle against. antiblack racism and resume callwave, some will be indifferent to the fight for racial. equality anyway. However, it can’t simply be assumed on practice essay tests, the basis of. cultural identification alone who will or won’t be willing to make such. a solidaristic commitment, and thus it is more reasonable to be as inclusive.
as possible. Reference Dissertation? Indeed, it may turn out that the practice tests, least “black” among. us are actually among those most dedicated to the cause of racial justice, despite the widespread assumption to the contrary. In any case, insisting. on a specific conception of black identity, regardless of how pluralistic. it is taken to be, is still vulnerable to the criticisms raised earlier against. the politics of black authenticity: blacks will find themselves in an un- 33. Michael Omi and Howard Winant, Racial Formation in the United States: From the. 1960’s to the 1990’s (New York: Routledge, 1994), pp.
22–23; and Appiah, “Race, Culture, Identity,” pp. Full Width? 85–90. 254 Ethics January 2001. necessary, contentious, distracting, and interminable debate over what.
counts as “black” and practice tests, who will decide.34. What must be recognized here is that the concept “black” is an. ideological construct; and, like many such constructs, it is extremely. malleable and bible and quran in scriptural intertextuality, capacious. Consequently, “blackness” can be, and has. been, given multiple and divergent interpretations, varying with who is. interpreting it, their motives for using the notion, and the social circumstances. under which they employ it. Thus, the practice, most that can be.
truly said is and quran intertextuality, that there are a number of loosely associated and variously. interpreted black identities. The one link that often does exist between. these multiple identities, however, is essay, that many of them have been. formed in header, an antiblack social environment, and each, in its own way, will likely bear the marks of race-based ill-treatment. I would urge blacks to identify with each other on essay tests, the basis of their. common oppression and commitment to resisting it; and, from writing sentence the. standpoint of black solidarity, each should be allowed, without molestation,
to interpret “blackness” however she or he sees fit (provided the. interpretation does not advocate anything immoral and is consistent. with the principles and tests, goals of antiracism).35 In this way, I am not. 34. Let us suppose for a moment that cultivating a collective black identity were a. realistic possibility. It might nevertheless be too dangerous to writing a thesis worksheet, try to bring this about; for. it is practice tests, possible to go too far in creating group cohesiveness. The attempt to forge a collective. black identity could unwittingly produce a “groupthink” mentality, a sociopsychological.
phenomenon well documented by social psychologists. The symptoms of resume callwave, groupthink include. collective efforts to rationalize the group’s subordinate condition; social pressure. on fellow members who reject in-group or out-group stereotypes; self-censorship of deviations. from the presumed group consensus; and allegiance to ideologues who screen.
the group from information that might threaten the essay tests, group’s self-image. Striving to create. a shared black identity could lead to this type of uncritical and often unconscious drive. for unanimity and positive self-conception. Bible And Quran? This would have disastrous consequences for.
the cause of black liberation by engendering defective decision making, such as assuming. that traditional solutions to black oppression must be correct; failing to practice essay tests, reconsider initially. discarded strategies or programs of action; dismissing criticisms of group narratives and. ideals; and ignoring expert advice. These are pitfalls that blacks obviously need to reference websites, avoid. but unfortunately have not always done so in the past. (The symptoms of “groupthink” are summarized in Hogg, pp. 135–37.
Hogg bases his summary on I. Practice Essay? L. Janis, Groupthink: Psychological Studies of Policy Decisions and Fiascoes, 2d ed. [Boston:HoughtonMifflin,1982].) 35. Paul Gilroy, on one reading at least, would seem to be advocating a conception. of black identity that is reference websites, based on a set of related narratives which have been produced in. response to the experience of trans-Atlantic black oppression. The multiple discursive. practices that reproduce these stories can be viewed as constituting a sort of “tradition”
that blacks may identify with and essay tests, participate in. Such an account would allow us to speak. intelligibly of “black identities”; however, such a conception of black identity would be of. little help to the collective identity theorist, for at least two reasons. First, as Gilroy emphasizes, the black Atlantic tradition is not rooted in a particular culture or ethnic heritage. but is websites, transnational, syncretic, unstable, and always mutating. Part of this lack of “purity” has to do with the practice tests, inclusion of many European and Anglo-American cultural traits and. Shelby Foundations of Black Solidarity 255.
suggesting, as some have, that individual blacks should give up their. various black identities in thesis width, favor of an practice tests American, cosmopolitan, or simply. “human” identity. Though there should clearly be more mindfulness of. its dangers and dissertation, limitations, I see no reason to practice, object, at least not in. principle, to blacks identifying with (what they take to be) their culture. or ethnic heritage. Of Forests And Wildlife Essay? What I want to resist, though, is the essay tests, tendency to. think that blacks must share a distinctive black identity if they are to be. a unified force against antiblack racism. BLACK SOLIDARITY WITHOUT BLACK CULTURAL.
At this point, I would like to confront a well-known argument in favor. of the ethnic/cultural version of collective identity theory. This argument. takes various forms, but here is a general characterization.36 American. slaveholders prevented slaves from reproducing their African cultural. forms, and historically blacks have often been misinformed or. prevented from learning about their African heritage. Such actions have. deprived generations of bible and quran in scriptural intertextuality, blacks of knowledge of their ethnic origins. Moreover, a racist ideology has spread which maintains that blacks have.
no worthwhile culture of their own—neither past nor present—and that. therefore they should allow themselves to be assimilated into a “civilized,” that is, “white,” culture. Practice Essay Tests? Thus, part of the dissertation, oppression that blacks. have experienced involves the malicious deprecation of black culture. This assault on the value of the cultural contributions of black people. has been so thoroughly damaging to the self-esteem of blacks that many. fail to identify with and take pride in their unique cultural heritage.
Instead, some accept the essay tests, inherent superiority of the culture of their. oppressors and, sadly, embrace it rather than their own. Such persons. are often fraudulent, self-hating, or servile, and therefore they cannot. be trusted by other blacks with a more authentic, self-affirming, and. modes of expression. Thus, while blacks can identify with and claim the reference dissertation, black Atlantic. tradition, so can many whites. Second, the tests, black Atlantic tradition, as Gilroy conceives of.
it, is nonessentialist; therefore, it does not determine who should identify with it or how. any individual should relate to it. A black person who fails to self-identify is not being. inauthentic, and one may appreciate its depth and value without necessarily defining one’s. social identity in terms of it. Given the essays in scriptural, abstract and inclusive nature of the black Atlantic. tradition, there is room for many black identities and no basis for insisting on any one. of them as the “real” social identity of blacks. See Paul Gilroy, The Black Atlantic: Modernity. and Double Consciousness (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1993); also see bell.
hooks, “Postmodern Blackness,” in her Yearning: Race, Gender, and Cultural Politics (Boston: South End Press, 1990); and Linda Marti?n Alcoff, “Philosophy and Racial Identity,” Philosophy. Today 41 (1997): 67–76. 36. Essay Tests? See, e.g., Carter G. Woodson, The Mis-Education of the Negro (Trenton, N.J.: Africa.
World Press, 1990); Haki R. Madhubuti, Enemies: The Clash of of forests and wildlife essay, Races (Chicago: Third World. Press, 1978); Maulana Karenga, Introduction to Black Studies (Los Angeles: University of. Sankore Press, 1982); and Asante. 256 Ethics January 2001. liberated black consciousness. Thus, in practice, order both to reclaim their selfrespect. and dignity as a people and to foster group solidarity, blacks. must participate in, celebrate, and identify with black culture. Once we. fully understand this, we will see that a collective black identity is not. only a necessary component of width, black solidarity, it is a constitutive part.
of black liberation from the effects of white domination. Historically, and even now, this has been a very influential argument. And, like so many others, I too have been tempted to accept its. conclusion. But this urge must be resisted, powerful as it is, for while. much of essay tests, what the argument suggests is both true and important, it simply. does not follow that our best or only resume callwave response to the issues it raises is. to make a collective black identity a component of black solidarity. To.
show this, I will examine what I take to practice essay, be the thesis full header, three most important. questions for which this argument was intended as an answer. Question 1.—How can blacks restore and maintain their dignity in. the face of white cultural hegemony and the devaluation of black. For decades now, blacks have fought the wide acceptance of white. supremacist values and the stigma attached to essay tests, their cultural ways by. celebrating, both privately and publicly, black history and black cultures. This has been done through a variety of vehicles, including Black History. Month; African American, African, Latin American, and Caribbean cultural. festivals; black periodicals, books, and websites dissertation, documentaries; African.
American museums and archives; the BET network; black religious and. political organizations; black private schools and colleges; Black Studies. programs at predominantly white universities; and, more recently, numerous. sites on the World Wide Web. These are all essential efforts to. educate blacks and nonblacks about black history and black struggles, to instill a sense of pride in black people about what they’ve accomplished. and overcome, and to cultivate a greater appreciation for essay the. cultural contributions of black people to this country and the world.
In. addition, the very act of cultural expression has an important role to. play in black liberation. One way to fight against conservation essay, the dissemination of. racist ideology is through cultural forms, such as literature, film, music, theater, dance, humor, painting, sports, theology, modes of speech, dress, and hairstyle. Black people have a long and remarkable history. of using cultural practices—including those traditionally considered. “white”—not only to express themselves aesthetically and spiritually but. to resist and practice, subvert the resume, forms of racial domination that oppress them.
Moreover, black people, in particular black intellectuals and social critics, must continue to practice, be defiant and vigilant in the face of the continuing, and sometimes subtle, presence of white cultural domination, submitting it to incisive critique and exposing its ideology for the fraud. Shelby Foundations of Black Solidarity 257.
However, in thesis full, doing these important things, we do not need to follow. the collective identity theorist in the view that blacks must also embrace. a common black ethnic/cultural identity. One can acknowledge the. importance of learning about tests black history and understanding black. cultures without treating cultural blackness, however delimited, as defining. who one is or allowing it to set the boundaries of conservation of forests essay, one’s choices. Black people can also resist white cultural domination, even using elements.
of culture itself, without establishing a common culture of practice essay tests, resistance. that all must embrace and celebrate. There is no doubt that. blacks should be informed about black history and cultures—as should. nonblacks—for, at a minimum, this will help them to better understand. the nature of their racial subordination and the possible routes out conservation, of. it. Essay Tests? But, I would add, in coming to this greater understanding of the. past, present, and reference, possible future, blacks should be careful not to be.
seduced by the project of essay, black cultural redemption. Writing Sentence Worksheet? Black people. should not be in essay tests, the business of sentence worksheet, “proving” the greatness of their cultural. heritage, for tests this is to be pulled into the all too familiar discourse of. racial chauvinism, an conservation of forests and wildlife essay ideology that wrongly treats cultural achievement. as a function of “race.” Question 2.—Setting aside mass psychotherapy, what kind of remedy. is there for the problem of internalized racial oppression among. blacks—the so-called black inferiority complex? Before discussing this question, first notice that the practice essay, ideological attack.
on blacks not only involves the devaluation of black cultures but. also extends to the denigration of the intelligence, physical beauty, and. moral character of black people. At various times, blacks have been. viewed as childlike, stupid, and lazy, and thus in writing, need of white paternalism. 37 At other times, blacks are depicted as wild, vicious, and tests, impulsive,
and therefore in reference websites dissertation, need of being controlled and contained.Worse. yet, and this is the heart of the matter, these negative images have also. seeped into the consciousness of many blacks, often without their being. Part of the remedy for this type of self-alienation is to be found in. the strategies already mentioned: spreading accurate information about. black history and cultural forms; using various forms of practice essay tests, cultural expression. to resist and subvert antiblack racism; and engaging in the. relentless critique of the doctrine and practice of racial domination. 37. Eugene D. Genovese examines how the ideology of and quran intertextuality, paternalism served to rationalize. and reproduce the slave system of the South in his Roll Jordan, Roll: The World the.
Slaves Made (New York: Vintage, 1976). Howard McGary provides a philosophical discussion. of this ideology in “Paternalism and Slavery,” in Between Slavery and tests, Freedom: Philosophy and. American Slavery, by HowardMcGary and Bill E. Bible And Quran Intertextuality? Lawson (Bloomington: IndianaUniversity. 258 Ethics January 2001. However, there is still more that can be done.
Black people can also. bond together to essay, collectively combat their racial oppression in thesis full width header, a more. coordinated way. Practice? Indeed, the need to overcome the thesis full, self-contempt produced. by antiblack racism is an important part of the justification for. black solidarity.38 Given the widespread internalization of antiblack race. prejudice, it becomes necessary for black people to be a significant, if. not the primary, force behind their liberation from racial subordination. It is tests, not enough for black people to be freed from writing their subordinate. position by their nonblack allies and sympathizers; theymust participate, in a meaningful way, in freeing themselves.
The collective struggle for. self-emancipation, even if unsuccessful, can itself enhance the participants’ sense of essay, dignity and self-respect.39 Moreover, fighting together to. free themselves from websites racial exclusion and domination is one way, in. addition to the ones already mentioned, for blacks to strengthen their. conviction that the practice, doctrine of white supremacy is a vicious lie.40. No doubt, blacks should have a liberated consciousness, one that.
is as free as possible from the devastating effects of racist ideology. However, in bible, freeing their minds from the grip of such degrading and. essentialist images of themselves, they don’t need to, nor should they, replace these representations with another essentialized group identity, no matter how positive or group affirming some may think it to be.41. Question 3.—But what about the assimilated black who rejects his. black identity in favor of a “white” persona and cultural lifestyle; can. he really be trusted by essay other blacks in resume callwave, the collective struggle when he. shows no loyalty to black culture?
It depends on how he conducts himself in tests, other contexts, especially. 38. For a useful discussion of the ways in which supportive black communities have. aided blacks in their struggle against this type of alienation, see Howard McGary, “Alienation. and the African-American Experience,” in his Race and Social Justice (Malden, Mass.: Blackwell, 1999), pp. And Quran? 19–24. 39. This was well understood by those blacks who voluntarily fought in the Union. Army war against the slaveholding Confederate States.
The same can be said of those. blacks who walked miles to work in order to boycott segregation on southern buses, and. of those who marched in protest for their civil rights, often risking severe beatings, police. dog attacks, and practice essay tests, even being killed. 40. Bernard R. Boxill develops this and related points in reference websites dissertation, his “Self-Respect and Protest,” Philosophy Public Affairs 6 (1976): 58–69. Also see Laurence Thomas, “Self-Respect: Theory and Practice,” in Harris, ed., Philosophy Born of Struggle, pp.
174–89. 41. As Robert Birt cautions us, “We must resist the stultifying images of ourselves. created by the oppressor. But we must also resist the temptation to create an essentialized. black consciousness which reifies black identity while (or by) glorifying it. Maintaining. racial essentialism while only practice tests inverting the negative valuations imposed by essays whites may. appear liberating but ultimately leads to new reifications—and a whole framework of rigid. roles, rigid identities and contempt for freedom” (“Existence, Identity, and practice essay, Liberation,” in Existence in Black: An Anthology of Black Existential Philosophy, ed.
Lewis R. Gordon [New. York: Routledge, 1997], pp. 211–12). Shelby Foundations of bible and quran, Black Solidarity 259. those that bear directly on antiracist struggles. Granted, sometimes when. a black person chooses not to identify with (what he or she takes to be) black culture, this is accompanied by a lack of identification with black. struggles against racism. But clearly we would be unjustified in assuming. that this is always the case.
As was argued earlier, we cannot simply infer. a black person’s lack of loyalty and trustworthiness in the fight against. racial oppression from the fact that he does not define himself in practice, terms. of “black culture.” Many so-called assimilated blacks have played important. roles in the struggle against racism; and it would be unreasonable. and insulting to doubt the sincerity of their commitment to black. solidarity simply because they did not embrace a black ethnic/cultural.
The fact is a person can show her loyalty to the cause of black. liberation, and thus her trustworthiness as an ally in black resistance to. racism, in bible essays in scriptural, ways other than through cultural identification. She can, for. example, work to essay tests, help ensure that the next generation of blacks has a. lighter burden of patient admissions, racial oppression than the present one. Tests? Such hard. work and protest against racism should be sufficient to eliminate any.
suspicion that might arise due to the person’s lack of reference websites, black cultural. identification. If the practice, person were truly self-hating and thesis width header, servile, then she. would be unlikely to openly struggle and sacrifice to essay tests, advance the thesis header, interests. of the very group whose abject status is the source of her selfcontempt. We should be careful not to reject potential allies in our. collective effort to end racism on the ground that they do not share. our ethnic/cultural identity. It is much more important, indeed critical,
that those we seek solidarity with share our antiracist values and essay, our. commitment to eliminating racial oppression and dissertation, the social problems. COMMON OPPRESSION AS A BASIS FOR BLACK SOLIDARITY. The conception of black solidarity advocated in this essay is hardly new. Though it is often conflated with similar positions (including various. forms of practice essay, black nationalism) and at times wrongly thought to resume, require a.
thick black identity, it is, I believe, widely held among blacks. Indeed, in the later part of essay, his life, Du Bois himself comes around to something. like this view. In Dusk of Dawn, Du Bois reflects on his deeply felt tie to. Africa, which he “can feel better than [he] can explain”:
But one thing is sure and that is the fact that since the fifteenth. century these ancestors of writing worksheet, mine and their other descendants have. had a common history; have suffered a common disaster and have. 42. As Boxill wisely reminds us, “It is false and vicious to infer that every assimilated. black, or every black-skinned writer or poet who does not display ‘soul,’ is imitative and. servile” (Blacks and Social Justice, p. 181).
260 Ethics January 2001. one long memory. The actual ties of heritage between the individuals. of this group, vary with the essay tests, ancestors that they have in. common and many others: Europeans and sentence, Semites, perhaps Mongolians, certainly American Indians.
But the physical bond is least. and the badge of color relatively unimportant save as a badge; the. real essence of practice essay tests, this kinship is of forests and wildlife, its social heritage of slavery; the. discrimination and insult; and practice essay, this heritage binds together not. simply the children of full width header, Africa, but extends through yellow Asia and. into the essay tests, South Seas. Of Forests? It is practice, this unity that draws me to Africa.43. Of course Du Bois is bible in scriptural intertextuality, here describing a Pan-African vision of black solidarity, which is beyond the scope of black solidarity defended here. But.
he does root this broader conception of practice essay, black solidarity, not in a thick. collective identity as he does in his “Conservation” essay, but in the. common experience of racialized oppression throughout the admissions, world. In the space remaining, I want to briefly summarize the common. oppression conception of black solidarity that I have been defending. here and essay tests, anticipate a few objections to writing a thesis sentence worksheet, it. Practice? As I’ve emphasized, themutual. identification between blacks, that familiar sense of “we-ness,” can be. founded on the shared experience of antiblack racism. That common.
experience, made possible by conservation essay our racial ascription as “black” people, includes such things as bearing the weight of the stigma attached to. looking and acting “black”; being subject to the vicissitudes of a racially. segmented labor market; suffering discrimination on the basis of presumed. incompetence; enduring the systematic exclusion from certain. neighborhoods, schools, and social circles; recognizing that one is often. the object of unjustified hatred, contempt, suspicion, or fear; feeling. powerless to change one’s inferior racial status; functioning as the practice, perennial. scapegoat for social problems and economic crises; and living. with the knowledge that one is vulnerable to being victimized, at almost.
any time, by an antiblack attitude, action, social practice, or institutional. As an emancipatory solidarity group, blacks must be committed to. social equality and respect for writing a thesis sentence worksheet group differences, which means rooting. out racism wherever it exists, even within our own ranks. For while we. identify with each other because of our common suffering under antiblack. oppression, our stance against practice essay, our oppressors must be a principled. one if our indignation and resentment are to be justified. It is. important to resume callwave, see that an oppression-centered black solidarity is not a.
matter of practice tests, being antiwhite, or even problack, but of being antiracist. Consequently, solidarity with other racially oppressed groups, and even. with committed antiracist whites, is not precluded by it. Thus, progres- 43. W. E. B. Du Bois, Dusk of Dawn: An Essay toward an Autobiography of a Race Concept.
(New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction, 1997), p. Resume Callwave? 117. Shelby Foundations of tests, Black Solidarity 261. sive individuals, regardless of their “race,” ethnicity, cultural identifications, or national origin, have no reason to oppose black solidarity, once its basis and point are properly understood. Group loyalty and mutual trust can be cultivated through our individual. and collective struggles against racial domination and resume callwave, inequality. Those we most seek solidarity with, then, are not necessarily.
those who most exhibit a thick black identity but rather those who stand. firm against all forms of essay, racism, regardless of their racial or cultural. identifications. Rather than being rooted in “race,” ethnicity, or culture, the group’s self-conception is grounded in its antiracist politics and its. commitment to racial justice. There must be room within an emancipatory black solidarity for. disagreement over the precise content of our antiracist politics. The. ideals of racial equality and respect for group difference are open to a.
variety of interpretations, and reasonable people can disagree over both. the appropriate strategies for overcoming racial oppression and the. exact meaning of “black liberation.” Some of these disagreements may. run deep (say, between radicals and resume callwave, conservatives), and practice, thus it is reference, unlikely. that we can reach consensus on essay tests, a comprehensive political program.
However, we know that we all want to live in a society where being. (thought to be) “black” is not a disadvantage or stigma and where all. can live with dignity and self-respect regardless of their so-called race. These somewhat vague ideals and goals can provide black solidarity with. a roughnormative guide, which can bemademore precise and complete. through open-ended dialogue about where to and quran essays in scriptural intertextuality, go from here and how. to get there. Though there will inevitably be, perhaps intense, disagreement. among blacks over the details of our antiracist politics, we. should debate these matters with open minds and without allowing. ourselves to be sidetracked by the irresolvable controversy over what it.
means to be “really” black. Should it happen that our bonds begin to. fracture because of the depth of our political disagreements—and perhaps. that time is practice tests, now, again, upon us—we each should remind ourselves. and each other, as Frederick Douglass urged long ago, that the conservation of forests essay, mutual. recognition of our common subordinate position and our collective will.
to rise above it are the bases of our unity. Some might wonder why black solidarity is needed at essay tests all, especially. since racism is not unique to the experience of blacks and, as was conceded. earlier, solidarity between antiracist blacks and nonblacks is both. possible and desirable. Shouldn’t we just reject black solidarity and embrace.
interracial, antiracist solidarity instead?44 While I certainly would. 44. Appiah raises a similar objection against the later Du Bois’s conception of conservation, “race” (see his In My Father’s House, p. 42). While Appiah’s criticismof Du Bois’s Pan-Africanism. is quite telling, it has little force against the version of practice, black solidarity defended here, for. 262 Ethics January 2001.
strongly encourage blacks to work with antiracist nonblacks against racism, I do not see why blacks must give up their solidaristic commitment. to each other in order to do so. And Quran? There is room for tests nested and overlapping. forms of patient, antiracist solidarity, just as there is space for more or less. exclusive and practice essay tests, inclusive collective struggles at bible and quran other sites of oppression— for example, class, gender, sexuality, and their intersections. However, though broader forms of antiracist solidarity should be cultivated, there are at practice essay least three reasons why it is prudent for admissions blacks to hold on. to this narrower commitment as well, at least for the time being.
First, antiblack racial oppression (like anti-Semitism, anti-Asian racism, and the oppression of Native Americans) has features that make. it unique as a formof racial subjection. The peculiar content of practice essay, antiblack. racist ideology (with its images of blacks as lazy, stupid, hypersexual, and disposed to acts of aggression), the enslavement and brutal treatment.
of Africans in the New World, and the subsequent exclusion of. blacks from the mainstream of American civic and social life have combined. to give antiblack race prejudice a distinctive character among. American forms of racism. There are also severe social problems—for.
example, joblessness, high rates of incarceration, concentrated poverty, failing schools, a violent drug trade—that plague some black communities. and that are partly the result of essays in scriptural intertextuality, (past and present) racial discrimination. against black people in particular.45 While a joint commitment. to fighting racial injustice in essay tests, all its forms can help create interracial. solidarity, it is often the and quran essays in scriptural intertextuality, common experience of specific forms of racial. oppression that creates the strongest and most enduring bonds among. victims of practice tests, racism. Second, the black experience with racism in reference dissertation, America makes it difficult. for many blacks to fully trust nonblacks when it comes to fighting. against racism, for they have too often been victimized by the racism.
of nonblacks, even by some who are racially oppressed themselves. Add. to this the fact that other “racial” minorities have solidaristic commitments. of their own (e.g., Jews, Native Americans, and some Asian. groups), and it should be clear that many blacks justifiably feel the need. to protect themselves against the dangers that may result from practice competing. group loyalties and interests. A unilateral laying down of solidaristic. arms, as it were, would increase black vulnerability to.
that version, in thesis header, contrast to tests, Du Bois’s, does not rely on conservation and wildlife, the doctrine of racialism, it does. not presuppose a common “black culture,” and tests, it is rooted in conservation and wildlife, the specificity of black. oppression in America. 45. See William Julius Wilson, When Work Disappears: The World of the practice essay, New Urban Poor. (New York: Knopf, 1999); and Douglass S. Massey and Nancy A. Denton, American Apartheid:
Segregation and the Making of the Underclass (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, Shelby Foundations of Black Solidarity 263. And, third, the common experience of bible essays, antiblack racism has for. centuries now provided a firm and tests, well-recognized basis for mutual. identification between blacks, and this shared experience partially accounts. for the solidarity between them that continues to exist today. As. we seek to conservation and wildlife essay, form interracial coalitions in our fight against racism, we. should not underestimate or devalue this social bond. Historically, it.
has been a great source of strength and hope for blacks, and a highly. effective means for creating greater social equality. I believe that it can, and should, continue to do so. In saying this, however, I am not suggesting. that black collective action, founded on an oppression-centered. black solidarity, would be sufficient to eliminate racism.
Indeed, it could. turn out that nothing we do, even with the help of members from other. “racial” groups, will end racism, especially antiblack racism.46 Perhaps. the most that can be hoped for, at least in the foreseeable future, is. that black solidarity will afford blacks a limited form of collective selfdefense.
against some of the more burdensome forms of racial oppression. But this, I should think, would be sufficient to make the effort. An oppression-centered black solidarity does not, however, require. a common black identity. Though black oppression may be based on, or rationalized in terms of, an ascribed black identity, this ascription.
need not be well founded in essay tests, order for the oppression to be real or for. bonds of solidarity among the racially oppressed to resume callwave, form. The advocate of collective identity theory might here object: surely. an oppression-centered black solidarity must at practice least require that blacks. identify with their thin blackness; for without such a common identity, they will lack a stable foundation for thesis width header mutual identification. This objection. fails, however. To see why, consider the following variant of the.
well-worn but still instructive witch analogy.47 The trial and subsequent. punishment of alleged “witches” was ostensibly based on the claim that. the accused had communed with the forces of the underworld. Though. this accusation was most certainly unfounded, these so-called witches. nevertheless suffered a common fate. But now let’s suppose for a moment. that some of the accused really did practice witchcraft, that is, that they engaged in “sorcery,” sought to conspire with the Devil, surreptitiously.
corrupted good Christians, and so on. Suppose further that, at various points, some of their number, for whatever reason, ceased. 46. See Derrick Bell, Faces at practice tests the Bottom of the reference websites dissertation, Well: The Permanence of Racism (New York: 47. While philosophers often invoke the “witch” as an example of essay, a nonexistent entity, I think Appiah was the first to patient admissions resume, use the witch analogy in the context of the metaphysics of. race.
See, e.g., his article on “race” in tests, Africana: The Encyclopedia of African and African- American Experience, ed. Kwame Anthony Appiah and Henry Louis Gates, Jr. (New York: 264 Ethics January 2001. practicing witchcraft and no longer identified themselves as “witches.” And, finally, suppose that at least some of resume, these practitioners of witchcraft. believed that some among them were frauds, that is, not “really”
witches, according to some commonly accepted criteria for being a witch. or according to practice tests, some more controversial and strict criteria. Thesis Full Width Header? Now despite. all this, it seems clear that all of practice essay tests, these former, pseudo-, and would-be. witches could share bonds of solidarity with each other, not based on. their common “witch identity” (for ex hypothesi the existence of a. shared identity was in doubt), but based on their common persecution. They simply could have put aside the question of who is and who is not. an authentic witch and resume callwave, focused their attention and energy on overcoming.
their common plight. Black solidarity could have, and should have, an analogous foundation. Attachment to their thin black identity is not the practice, basis of the. group’s solidarity, but rather the shared experience with antiblack racism. and the joint commitment to ending it. Blacks need only recognize.
that part of the header, reason they often suffer mistreatment is that others see. them as thickly “black” (their thin blackness being merely a “sign” of a. deeper difference); and this “racialized perception” leads their oppressors. (sometimes unconsciously) to treat them as a devalued “other.”48. Identification between members of the racially oppressed group can. therefore be based on their mutual recognition of essay, this sad and disturbing. fact.
It would not undermine black solidarity if, apart from the. unjust treatment that they engender, the characteristics that constitute. their thin blackness were to have little or no significance for admissions resume the members. of the united oppressed group. Once liberation is achieved, thin. blackness may in fact (though it need not) lose all social and political. But now some might suggest that even this stripped-down common. oppression theory commits itself to practice essay tests, a version of the collective identity. view, for it nevertheless endorses the cultivation of resume callwave, a thick collective.
black identity: it urges blacks to see themselves as racially oppressed. This shared identity is not based on “race,” ethnicity, or culture, but on. the common experience of practice essay tests, antiblack racism. Thus, those blacks who. are united by ties of resume callwave, solidarity will still have a collective identity, and. one that is not reducible to their political principles or antiracist politics. This identity might aptly be described as “victims of practice tests, antiblack racial. 48. For illuminating discussions of the subtle workings of the “racial gaze,” see Adrian. M. S. And Quran Intertextuality? Piper, “Higher-Order Discrimination,” in Identity, Character, and Morality: Essays in.
Moral Psychology, ed. Owen Flanagan and Amelie Rorty (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1990); and Linda Marti?n Alcoff, “Towards a Phenomenology of Racial Embodiment,” Radical Philosophy 95 (1999): 15–26. Shelby Foundations of Black Solidarity 265. We could of practice tests, course respond to this objection by simply conceding. it; that is, we could accept that the one “thick” collective black identity. that continues to be a realistic possibility is writing sentence, constituted by our victim. status in an antiblack world. Practice Essay? This approach to full, the meaning of essay tests, blackness. is not self-defeating or divisive like the resume, other conceptions we considered,
since the vast majority of blacks rightly accept that antiblack racism. continues to exist (though of course they have no wish to preserve the. conditions under which an tests oppression-based identity would be advantageous. or desirable).49 Such an identity would not gratuitously add to. individual unfreedom, for it is nonracialist and perfectly consistent with. cultural/ethnic diversity. Moreover, we should not have to writing a thesis worksheet, go to practice tests, great. lengths to cultivate this identity, for there is more than enough antiblack. sentiment and discrimination still around to patient admissions resume, sustain it—though, admittedly,
it may be necessary to tests, convince people of the depth of the. problem.50 But this view of “blackness” would not give the thesis full header, (typical) collective identity theorist all that he wants, for the search for a collective. black identity has generally been a struggle to essay tests, discover or construct a. positive social identity, one that could be a basis for pride, dignity, and. collective self-affirmation.
A common identity based on writing sentence worksheet, nothing more. than our shared experience of racism cannot provide such an identity, for this would, perversely, treat victimhood as something of which to be. proud—which is not of course to practice essay, say that it is something of which we. should be ashamed.51. 49. Jennifer L. Hochschild, Facing Up to the American Dream: Race, Class, and essay, the Soul. of the Nation (Princeton. N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1995). 50. Practice Essay Tests? According to Orlando Patterson (p.
61), “all things considered, it is reasonable. to estimate that about a quarter of the Euro-American population harbors at least mildly. racist feelings toward Afro-Americans and that one in five is resume, a hard-core racist.…However. one may wish to practice essay tests, quibble over the meaning of attitude surveys and admissions, other data, this is practice tests, real. progress, an enormous change from the resume callwave, fifties and essay tests, sixties, when the great majority of.
Euro-Americans were openly racists, measured by whatever means. Reference Websites? Nonetheless, when. roughly a quarter of all Euro-Americans are racists, it still remains the case that for every. two Afro-American persons there are three Euro-American racists. In spite of all the. progress among Euro-Americans, this is still an practice essay outrageous situation for any Afro-American.” See also Howard Schuman, Charlotte Steeh, Lawrence Bobo, and resume callwave, Maria Krysan, Racial Attitudes in America: Trends and Interpretations, rev. ed. Essay? (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard. University Press, 1997); David O. Sears, Colette van Laar, Mary Carrillo, and Rick Kosterman, “Is It Really Racism?
The Origins of White Americans’ Opposition to Race-Targeted. Policies,” Public Opinion Quarterly 61 (1997): 16–53; and websites, David O. Practice Essay? Sears, Jim Sidanius, and. Lawrence Bobo, eds., Racialized Politics: The Debate about Racism in America (Chicago: University. of Chicago Press, 2000). 51. And Quran Essays In Scriptural Intertextuality? Some might argue that a collective identity constituted by our oppressed condition. can be seen to be positive and group affirming if we view it from a black theological. perspective (whether Christian or Muslim). On this view, God embraces blacks because. they are oppressed; and He is concerned to help them liberate themselves from their evil.
oppressors. (See, e.g., James H. Cone, A Black Theology of Liberation [Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis, 266 Ethics January 2001. If the arguments presented in essay tests, this article are sound, then black solidarity. can survive the now well-known critique of racial/ethnic essentialism; it can be sustained despite the loss of “race” as a viable biological concept; it can flourish despite the cultural and ethnic diversity of black. people; and it need not unduly constrain individuality or our freedom. to construct a pluralistic identity. However, this reconstructed black solidarity. will have to be sustained without the demand for resume a collective. black identity, for this requirement can only impede the collective struggle.
that lies ahead. 1990]; and essay, Elijah Muhammad, Message to the Blackman in America [Atlanta: Messenger Elijah. Muhammad Propagation Society, 1997].) However, the positive dimension of this kind of. “blackness” is surely derived, not from the oppression itself, but from the and wildlife essay, virtue associated. with the steadfast pursuit of truth and tests, justice despite being oppressed and/or from the.
promise that, through faith and collective struggle, we will ultimately be delivered from. that oppression. If God did not love what is good and thesis width header, hate what is evil, or if He could. help liberate us from undeserved domination but did not, then we could hardly take. much pride in practice tests, being “chosen” by Him.
But even if black theology could find in thesis header, black. oppression something of which to be proud, it is clear that a religious narrative of this. sort is not one that will resonate with all blacks, since not all of us are religiously inclined. At best, then, “victims of antiblack racial oppression” will be a positive identity for practice essay tests some, though not all, black people. Is this question part of websites, your Assignment?
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Now the first step in working with any templating engine is to actually put a template together. Essentially, you want to put together a basic HTML page that properly lays out your various page components, be it the header, the footer, a navigation pane and a core content window. Page templates with HTML and CSS. There are two basic approaches to creating a basic template, one of which is essay tests bad, and one of which is good. Resume Callwave! The bad way? To use HTML tables, laying out headers and footers and all of the other various elements using rowspan and colspan elements. Practice Essay! Don’t be offended if that was your go-to mechanism of the past.
There are plenty of tools and thesis header, technologies on the market that still use HTML tables for laying out essay, content. Resume Callwave! In fact, if you’re still doing work with WebSphere Portal 6.1, you’re essentially forced to. But if you’ve been doing modern web development, and essay tests, when I say modern, I mean circa 2002, you should be using stylesheets and DIV elements instead. By the resume callwave way, we said that there were two ways: tables and stylesheets. It might be worth adding that there is an option that lies somewhere between two and three, which is HTML5 with CSS3. HTML5 adds a variety of new template based tags, such as footer and header, but that is outside of the scope of this particular tutorial. They're easy to essay use though, so if you are using the HTML5 standard, check them out after going through this tutorial. Here's a simple page layout, with all of the patient resume key elements included. As you can see from the code below, the HTML is little more than a bunch of DIV tags with id attributes describing the area, be it sidebar, footer or messages-container. The code behind the essay tests curtain.
With the HTML page coded, the manner in reference websites, which the various elements get arranged on the page is determined by the accompanying stylesheet. The magic behind CSS based layouts. Key attributes used for laying out the page include height, width, and the float attribute which determines how different DIV elements interact with each other. Notice that the content DIV and the sidebar DIV use a float:left setting. This allows them to sit side by side, so long as they fit within the confines of the containing DIV tag. The clear:both setting in the footer-container ensures that the footer is not placed in line with any other DIV that may have a float attribute assigned to it. And that is how a software developer initially attacks the practice essay job of developing a dynamic template for their website. But of course, the code we currently have is static. The next step is to introduce a templating technology. Since we're interested in JSF and Java EE, Facelets will be the thesis header technology we'll be using to add some life to this application.
You can follow Cameron McKenzie: @cameronmcnz. Interested in more articles and opinion pieces from Cameron McKenzie? Check these out: Dig Deeper on Software programming languages. IBM, Lightbend team up on tests, cognitive application development platform. The reasons the COBOL language is irrelevant -- and resume callwave, why Java's okay.
Choose your own adventure: Ottinger's advice about simple code and complex models. Best programming languages for enterprise development. IBM, Lightbend team up on cognitive application development platform. Choose your own adventure: Ottinger's advice about simple code and complex models. DevOps software development promise aided by practice tests OpenStack. How to use Java conditional statements effectively. This Java programming example will help you learn the language. Essay! Learning modern programming languages like Ruby made easy.
Learning Ruby for Java developers: A comparative tutorial. Tests! Best programming languages for enterprise development. Why Java is the most popular programming language. The most exciting new parts of Java EE 7 and Java 8. The reasons the COBOL language is irrelevant -- and why Java's okay. Find more PRO+ content and admissions resume, other member only offers, here. By submitting you agree to receive email from practice essay, TechTarget and its partners. If you reside outside of the United States, you consent to having your personal data transferred to and processed in the United States. Privacy. Please create a username to comment. Learn how to resume callwave use Java development tooling at practice tests JavaOne 2017.
Leading enterprise architects and developers will discuss a variety of resume callwave, improvements to Java development tooling, including . How cloud computing platforms fuel digital transformation. Experts advise attendees to focus on data stewardship and essay tests, orchestration to make the most of digital transformation strategies at . Twilio Studio brings low-code development to DevOps. Twilio has introduced Twilio Studio, a new, low-code visual development environment that enables developers and business users to. AI in reference, software testing has arrived. Machine learning can make many software testing tasks easier, faster and more reliable. Here's how AI is going to change the . Practice Essay Tests! Why private APIs are the hottest thing around and other news. We all know APIs are popular, but a new survey from full header, Postman shows just how important they are. In other news, Sauce Labs offers . Why the future of IT jobs may give techies a pass.
Citizen data scientists are now equipped with tools like low-code platforms, AI and essay tests, automation and are revolutionizing the world . Finance IT case study: Reporting secrets of Derek Rose. CEO Sacha Rose says specialist reporting tools have saved the company thousands by avoiding unnecessary mistakes. Of Forests! WestJet turns to gamification to help its Oracle ERP users soar. WestJet's initial gamification project focuses on essay tests, expense reporting. The Transformation of admissions resume, HR is Underway. Practice! HR is patient admissions resume being transformed while we watch. Swisscom makes gains by shrinking data warehouse systems. Essay Tests! When Swisscom needed to merge two SAP ERP systems and several SAP BW data warehouses, it upgraded to one SAP BW on HANA system to. Swisscom makes gains by shrinking data warehouse systems. SAP Data Hub debuts at thesis header SAP TechEd 2017.
SAP bolstered its claim as a cloud-first company with several announcements at practice essay tests TechEd 2017, including Data Hub and ABAP running . ERP upgrade ushers in mobile apps, upends paper processes. An ERP upgrade sent a manufacturer's existing company culture into a tailspin. Would paper processes or digitization prevail? Fears about Prism's long-term impact on cloud declared overblown Forrester claims the fallout from the 2013 Prism surveillance scandal has had a minimal effect on of forests, the cloud industry. Finding the right distribution inventory management plan.
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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. The personal statement might just be the hardest part of your college application. Practice Tests? Mostly this is because it has the least guidance and is the most open-ended. One way to a thesis worksheet, understand what colleges are looking for when they ask you to write an essay is to check out the practice essay tests, essays of students who already got in—college essays that actually worked. After all, they must be among the most successful of this weird literary genre. In this article, I’ll go through general guidelines for what makes great college essays great. I've also compiled an enormous list of resume callwave, 100+ actual sample college essays from 13 different schools. Finally, I’ll break down two of these published college essay examples and practice tests, explain why and how they work. With links to 125 full essays and essay excerpts , this article will be a great resource for learning how to craft your own personal college admissions essay! What Excellent College Essays Have in Common.
Even though in admissions resume, many ways these sample college essays are very different from one other, they do share some traits you should try to emulate as you write your own essay. Building out from a narrow, concrete focus. Practice Essay? You’ll see a similar structure in many of the essays. The author starts with a very detailed story of an event or description of a person or place. Width Header? After this sense-heavy imagery, the essay expands out to make a broader point about the author, and essay, connects this very memorable experience to the author’s present situation, state of conservation essay, mind, newfound understanding, or maturity level. Knowing how to tell a story.
Some of the essay, experiences in these essays are one-of-a-kind. But most deal with the stuff of everyday life. What sets them apart is the way the author approaches the topic: analyzing it for resume callwave, drama and humor, for its moving qualities, for what it says about the author’s world, and for how it connects to the author’s emotional life. A killer first sentence. You’ve heard it before, and you’ll hear it again: you have to suck the reader in, and essay tests, the best place to do that is the first sentence. Great first sentences are punchy. They are like cliffhangers, setting up an exciting scene or an patient admissions resume, unusual situation with an unclear conclusion, in practice, order to make the reader want to writing a thesis, know more. Don’t take my word for practice, it—check out these 22 first sentences from Stanford applicants and tell me you don’t want to thesis full width, read the rest of those essays to find out tests what happens!
A lively, individual voice. Writing is for readers. In this case, your reader is an admissions officer who has read thousands of essays before yours, and will read thousands after. Your goal? Don’t bore your reader.
Use interesting description, stay away from cliches, include your own offbeat observations—anything that makes this essay sounds like you and not like anyone else. Enchanted Prince Stan decided to stay away from any frog-kissing princesses to retain his unique perspective on ruling as an amphibian. Technical correctness. No spelling mistakes, no grammar weirdness, no syntax issues, no punctuation snafus—each of these sample college essays has been formatted and proofread perfectly. If this kind of exactness is not your strong suit, you’re in luck! All colleges advise applicants to have their essays looked over several times by parents, teachers, mentors, and anyone else who can spot a comma splice. Your essay must be your own work, but there is absolutely nothing wrong with getting help polishing it. Links to patient admissions, Full College Essay Examples. Some colleges publish a selection of their favorite accepted college essays that worked, and I've put together a selection of over tests 100 of these (plus some essay excerpts!). Please note that some of patient, these college essay examples may be responding to prompts that are no longer in use.
The current Common App prompts are as follows: 1. Practice Tests? Some students have a background, identity, interest, or talent that is so meaningful they believe their application would be incomplete without it. If this sounds like you, then please share your story. 7. Share an essay on any topic of thesis, your choice. It can be one you've already written, one that responds to a different prompt, or one of your own design.
These essays are answers to past prompts from either the Common Application or the Universal Application, both of which Johns Hopkins accepts. Essay Examples Published by Other Websites. 7 Common Application essays from applicants admitted to Stanford, Duke, Connecticut College, NYU, Carleton College, Washington University, and essay, the University of Pennsylvania 2 Common Application essays (1st essay, 2nd essay) from applicants admitted to Columbia. Here is a smaller collection of essays that are college-specific, plus 22 essay excerpts that will add fuel to your essay-writing fire. The University of Chicago is well known for its off-the-wall, often wacky supplementary essay prompts.
These seven sample essays respond to a variety of bible in scriptural, thought-provoking questions. Sometimes it's helpful to see how others managed to practice, get over the difficult first-line hump. We're guessing all these monkeys would write different first sentences. Analyzing Great Common App Essays that Worked. I've picked out resume callwave two essays from the examples collected above to examine in more depth so that you can know exactly what makes a successful college essay work. Full credit for these essays goes to the original authors and the schools that published them. Example #1: Breaking Into Cars, by Stephen, Johns Hopkins Class of '19 (Common App Essay, 636 words long) I had never broken into a car before.
We were in Laredo, having just finished our first day at a Habitat for Humanity work site. The Hotchkiss volunteers had already left, off to enjoy some Texas BBQ, leaving me behind with the college kids to clean up. Not until we were stranded did we realize we were locked out of the van. Someone picked a coat hanger out of the dumpster, handed it to me, and took a few steps back. “Can you do that thing with a coat hanger to practice essay tests, unlock it?” “Why me?” I thought. More out of amusement than optimism, I gave it a try. I slid the hanger into the window’s seal like I’d seen on crime shows, and spent a few minutes jiggling the apparatus around the inside of the frame. Thesis Full? Suddenly, two things simultaneously clicked. One was the lock on the door. (I actually succeeded in springing it.) The other was the realization that I’d been in practice, this type of width header, situation before. In fact, I’d been born into this type of situation.
My upbringing has numbed me to unpredictability and practice essay, chaos. With a family of seven, my home was loud, messy, and spottily supervised. My siblings arguing, the dog barking, the phone ringing—all meant my house was functioning normally. My Dad, a retired Navy pilot, was away half the time. Reference Dissertation? When he was home, he had a parenting style something like a drill sergeant. At the age of essay tests, nine, I learned how to clear burning oil from the surface of reference websites dissertation, water. My Dad considered this a critical life skill—you know, in case my aircraft carrier should ever get torpedoed. “The water’s on fire! Clear a hole!” he shouted, tossing me in the lake without warning. While I’m still unconvinced about tests that particular lesson’s practicality, my Dad’s overarching message is unequivocally true: much of life is unexpected, and full, you have to tests, deal with the twists and turns. Living in my family, days rarely unfolded as planned. A bit overlooked, a little pushed around, I learned to roll with reality, negotiate a quick deal, and resume callwave, give the improbable a try.
I don’t sweat the small stuff, and essay, I definitely don’t expect perfect fairness. So what if our dining room table only has six chairs for seven people? Someone learns the importance of punctuality every night. But more than punctuality and a special affinity for musical chairs, my family life has taught me to thrive in situations over which I have no power. Growing up, I never controlled my older siblings, but I learned how to thwart their attempts to control me. I forged alliances, and patient, realigned them as necessary. Sometimes, I was the poor, defenseless little brother; sometimes I was the omniscient elder. Different things to different people, as the situation demanded. I learned to adapt. Back then, these techniques were merely reactions undertaken to ensure my survival.
But one day this fall, Dr. Hicks, our Head of School, asked me a question that he hoped all seniors would reflect on throughout the tests, year: “How can I participate in thesis width, a thing I do not govern, in essay, the company of people I did not choose?” The question caught me off guard, much like the thesis header, question posed to me in essay, Laredo. Then, I realized I knew the answer. I knew why the coat hanger had been handed to resume callwave, me. Growing up as the practice essay tests, middle child in my family, I was a vital participant in a thing I did not govern, in websites dissertation, the company of people I did not choose. It’s family. It’s society.
And often, it’s chaos. You participate by practice letting go of the writing a thesis, small stuff, not expecting order and perfection, and facing the unexpected with confidence, optimism, and preparedness. My family experience taught me to face a serendipitous world with confidence. It's very helpful to tests, take writing apart in order to see just how it accomplishes its objectives. Stephen's essay is conservation of forests essay very effective. Let's find out essay tests why! An Opening Line That Draws You In. I had never broken into patient resume a car before.
In just eight words, we get: scene-setting (he is essay tests standing next to conservation essay, a car about to break in), the idea of crossing a boundary (he is maybe about to essay, do an illegal thing for the first time), and a cliffhanger (we are thinking: is he going to get caught? Is he headed for a life of and quran essays intertextuality, crime? Is he about to be scared straight?). We were in Laredo, having just finished our first day at a Habitat for Humanity work site. The Hotchkiss volunteers had already left, off to enjoy some Texas BBQ, leaving me behind with the essay tests, college kids to clean up. Not until we were stranded did we realize we were locked out of the van. Someone picked a coat hanger out header of the dumpster, handed it to me, and took a few steps back.
“Can you do that thing with a coat hanger to practice essay tests, unlock it?” “Why me?” I thought. More out of amusement than optimism, I gave it a try. Admissions? I slid the hanger into the window’s seal like I’d seen on crime shows, and spent a few minutes jiggling the apparatus around the inside of the frame. It’s the practice tests, details that really make this small experience come alive. Notice how whenever he can, Stephen uses a more specific, descriptive word in bible and quran intertextuality, place of a more generic one. Practice Tests? The volunteers aren’t going to get food or dinner; they’re going for “Texas BBQ.” The coat hanger comes from “a dumpster.” Stephen doesn’t just move the coat hanger—he “jiggles” it. Details also help us visualize the emotions of the people in the scene. The person who hands Stephen the and quran essays intertextuality, coat hanger isn’t just uncomfortable or nervous; he “takes a few steps back”—a description of movement that conveys feelings. Practice Essay Tests? Finally, the detail of actual speech makes the scene pop.
Instead of writing that the other guy asked him to unlock the reference, van, Stephen has the guy actually say his own words in a way that sounds like a teenager talking. Coat hangers: not just for crows' nests any more! (Gotz/Wikimedia) Turning a Specific Incident Into a Deeper Insight. Suddenly, two things simultaneously clicked. One was the essay, lock on the door. Full? (I actually succeeded in practice tests, springing it.) The other was the admissions, realization that I’d been in this type of essay, situation before. In fact, I’d been born into bible and quran essays in scriptural this type of situation.
Not only does Stephen make the locked car experience a meaningful illustration of how he has learned to be resourceful and ready for anything, but he also makes this turn from the specific to the broad through an elegant play on practice essay, the two meanings of the word “click.” Using Concrete Examples When Making Abstract Claims. My upbringing has numbed me to unpredictability and chaos. With a family of seven, my home was loud, messy, and spottily supervised. My siblings arguing, the dog barking, the reference websites, phone ringing—all meant my house was functioning normally. “Unpredictability and chaos” are very abstract, not easily visualized concepts. Not only that, but they could mean any number of things—violence, abandonment, poverty, mental instability. By instantly following up with highly finite and unambiguous illustrations like “family of seven” and “siblings arguing, the dog barking, the phone ringing,” Stephen grounds the abstraction in practice essay tests, something that is easy to picture: a large, noisy family.
Using Small Bits of Humor and Casual Word Choice. My Dad, a retired Navy pilot, was away half the time. When he was home, he had a parenting style something like a drill sergeant. At the websites, age of nine, I learned how to clear burning oil from the surface of water. My Dad considered this a critical life skill—you know, in practice, case my aircraft carrier should ever get torpedoed. Obviously, knowing how to clean burning oil is not high on the list of things every 9-year-old needs to know. To emphasize this, Stephen uses sarcasm by bringing up a situation that is clearly over-the-top: “in case my aircraft carrier should ever get torpedoed.” The humor also feels relaxed.
Part of this is because he introduces it with the websites dissertation, colloquial phrase “you know,” so it sounds like he is talking to us in person. This approach also diffuses the potential discomfort of the tests, reader with his father’s strictness—since he is making jokes about it, clearly he is OK. Notice, though, that this doesn’t occur very much in the essay. This helps keep the reference websites, tone meaningful and serious rather than flippant. Mr. President? There's been an essay tests, oil spill! Then I want our best elementary school students on it, STAT. An Ending That Stretches the Insight Into the Future. But one day this fall, Dr. Hicks, our Head of bible and quran, School, asked me a question that he hoped all seniors would reflect on throughout the year: “How can I participate in a thing I do not govern, in the company of people I did not choose?”
The question caught me off guard, much like the question posed to me in practice tests, Laredo. Then, I realized I knew the answer. I knew why the coat hanger had been handed to me. Growing up as the reference dissertation, middle child in my family, I was a vital participant in essay tests, a thing I did not govern, in the company of resume callwave, people I did not choose. It’s family. It’s society. And often, it’s chaos. Tests? You participate by letting go of the small stuff, not expecting order and perfection, and facing the unexpected with confidence, optimism, and preparedness. My family experience taught me to face a serendipitous world with confidence. The ending of the essay reveals that Stephen’s life has been one long preparation for the future.
He has emerged from chaos and his dad’s approach to parenting as a person who can thrive in a world that he can’t control. This connection of past experience to current maturity and self-knowledge is a key element in all successful personal essays. Colleges are very much looking for mature, self-aware applicants. Resume Callwave? These are the qualities of practice essay tests, successful college students, who will be able to navigate the independence college classes require and resume callwave, the responsibility and practice tests, quasi-adulthood of college life. What Could This Essay Do Even Better?
Even the resume callwave, best essays aren't perfect, and even the world's greatest writers will tell you that writing is never finished—just due. So what would we tweak in this essay if we could? Replace some of the cliched language. Stephen uses handy phrases like twists and turns and essay tests, don’t sweat the small stuff as a kind of shorthand for explaining his relationship to chaos and unpredictability. But using too many of resume callwave, these ready-made expressions runs the risk of practice essay tests, clouding out your own voice and replacing it with something expected and boring. Use another example from recent life. Stephen's first example (breaking into the van in Laredo) is essay a great illustration of being resourceful in an unexpected situation.
But his essay also emphasizes that he learned to adapt by being different things to different people. It would be great to see how this plays out outside his family, either in the situation in Laredo or another context. Example #2: By Bridget Collins, Tufts Class of '19 (Common App Essay, 608 words long) I have always loved riding in cars. After a long day in first grade, I used to fall asleep to the engine purring in my mother's Honda Odyssey, even though it was only practice, a 5-minute drive home. As I grew, and resume callwave, graduated into the shotgun seat, it became natural and enjoyable to look out the window. Seeing my world passing by practice essay tests through that smudged glass, I would daydream what I could do with it. In elementary school, I already knew my career path: I was going to resume callwave, be Emperor of the World. While I sat in the car and watched the miles pass by, I developed the plan for my empire.
I reasoned that, for the world to run smoothly, it would have to look presentable. I would assign people, aptly named Fixer-Uppers, to fix everything that needed fixing. Practice Tests? That old man down the street with chipping paint on his house would have a fresh coat in no time. The boy who accidentally tossed his Frisbee onto dissertation, the roof of the school would get it back. The big pothole on Elm Street that my mother managed to essay tests, hit every single day on the way to bible in scriptural, school would be filled-in. It made perfect sense! All the people that didn't have a job could be Fixer-Uppers. I was like a ten-year-old FDR. Seven years down the road, I still take a second glance at the sidewalk cracks and think of my Fixer-Uppers, but now I'm doing so from the driver's seat. As much as I would enjoy it, I now accept that I won't become Emperor of the World, and essay tests, that the Fixer-Uppers will have to remain in full width, my car ride imaginings.
Or do they? I always pictured a Fixer-Upper as a smiling man in an orange T-Shirt. Maybe instead, a Fixer-Upper could be a tall girl with a deep love for Yankee Candles. Maybe it could be me. Bridget the practice essay tests, Fixer-Upper will be slightly different than the imaginary one who paints houses and width, fetches Frisbees. I was lucky enough to discover what I am passionate about when I was a freshman in high school.
A self-admitted Phys. Ed. Tests? addict, I volunteered to help out with the Adapted PE class. On my first day, I learned that it was for developmentally-disabled students. To be honest, I was really nervous. Resume? I hadn't had too much interaction with special needs students before, and wasn't sure how to handle myself around them. Long story short, I got hooked. Three years have passed helping out in essay, APE and eventually becoming a teacher in conservation of forests and wildlife essay, the Applied Behavior Analysis summer program.
I love working with the students and watching them progress. When senior year arrived, college meetings began, and my counselor asked me what I wanted to do for a career, I didn't say Emperor of the World. Practice? Instead, I told him I wanted to admissions, become a board-certified behavior analyst. A BCBA helps develop learning plans for students with autism and other disabilities. Tests? Basically, I would get to do what I love for the rest of my life. He laughed and writing, told me that it was a nice change that a seventeen-year-old knew so specifically what she wanted to do. I smiled, thanked him, and left.
But it occurred to me that, while my desired occupation was decided, my true goal in essay, life was still to become a Fixer-Upper. So, maybe I'll be like Sue Storm and her alter-ego, the writing sentence, Invisible Woman. Tests? I'll do one thing during the patient resume, day, then spend my off-hours helping people where I can. Instead of flying like Sue, though, I'll opt for a nice performance automobile. My childhood self would appreciate that. Bridget takes a somewhat different approach than Stephen, but her essay is just as detailed and engaging. Let's go through some of the strengths of her essay.
A Structure That’s Easy to Follow and Understand. The essay is practice essay arranged chronologically. And Quran In Scriptural? Bridget starts each paragraph with a clear signpost of where we are in time: Paragraph 1: “after a long day in first grade” Paragraph 2: “in elementary school” Paragraph 3: “seven years down the practice essay, road” Paragraph 4: “when I was a freshman in high school” Paragraph 5: “when senior year arrived” This keeps the reader oriented without being distracting or gimmicky. I would assign people, aptly named Fixer-Uppers, to fix everything that needed fixing. That old man down the resume, street with chipping paint on his house would have a fresh coat in no time. Practice Essay Tests? The boy who accidentally tossed his Frisbee onto writing a thesis, the roof of the school would get it back. Seven years down the road, I still take a second glance at the sidewalk cracks and think of my Fixer-Uppers, but now I'm doing so from the driver's seat. As much as I would enjoy it, I now accept that I won't become Emperor of the World, and essay tests, that the Fixer-Uppers will have to remain in my car ride imaginings.
Or do they? I always pictured a Fixer-Upper as a smiling man in an orange T-Shirt. Maybe instead, a Fixer-Upper could be a tall girl with a deep love for Yankee Candles. Maybe it could be me. I wanted to become a board-certified behavior analyst. A BCBA helps develop learning plans for students with autism and other disabilities. Basically, I would get to do what I love for the rest of my life. …But it occurred to me that, while my desired occupation was decided, my true goal in life was still to thesis full width header, become a Fixer-Upper. What makes this essay fun to read is that Bridget takes a child’s idea of a world made better through quasi-magical helpers and turns it into a metaphor for the author’s future aspirations. Practice? It helps that the bible and quran essays in scriptural, metaphor is a very clear one: people who work with students with disabilities are making the world better one abstract fix at a time, just like imaginary Fixer-Uppers would make the world better one concrete physical fix at a time.
Every childhood Fixer-Upper ever. Ask your parents to explain the back row to you. (JD Hancock/Flickr) This essay uses many techniques that make Bridget sound genuine and make the reader feel like we already know her. Technique #1: humor. Notice Bridget's gentle and practice essay tests, relaxed humor that lightly mocks her younger self’s grand ambitions (this is a thesis different from the practice essay tests, more sarcastic kind of humor used by Stephen in the first essay—you could never mistake one writer for the other). In elementary school, I already knew my career path: I was going to resume callwave, be Emperor of the World. I was like a ten-year-old FDR.
Technique #2: invented terminology. The second technique is the way Bridget coins her own terms, carrying them through the whole essay. It would be easy enough to tests, simply describe the people she imagined in childhood as helpers or assistants, and to simply say that as a child she wanted to rule the admissions resume, world. Instead, she invents the capitalized (and thus official-sounding) titles “Fixer-Upper” and “Emperor of the World,” making these childish conceits at once charming and iconic. What's also key is that the essay tests, titles feed into the central metaphor of the essay, which keeps them from sounding like strange quirks that don’t go anywhere. Technique #3: playing with syntax. The third technique is to and quran intertextuality, use sentences of varying length, syntax, and essay, structure. Most of the essay's written in standard English and uses grammatically correct sentences. However, at reference websites, key moments, Bridget emphasizes that the reader needs to sit up and practice, pay attention by websites dissertation switching to short, colloquial, differently punctuated, and sometimes fragmented sentences. The big pothole on Elm Street that my mother managed to hit every single day on the way to school would be filled-in.
It made perfect sense! All the people that didn't have a job could be Fixer-Uppers. When she is narrating her childhood thought process, the sudden short sentence “It made perfect sense!” (especially its exclamation point) is basically the essay version of practice tests, drawing a light bulb turning on over someone’s head. As much as I would enjoy it, I now accept that I won't become Emperor of the World, and that the Fixer-Uppers will have to remain in my car ride imaginings. Or do they? Similarly, when the essay turns from her childhood imagination to her present-day aspirations, the turn is marked with “Or do they?”—a tiny and arresting half-sentence question. Maybe instead, a Fixer-Upper could be a tall girl with a deep love for patient admissions resume, Yankee Candles.
Maybe it could be me. The first time when the comparison between magical fixer-upper’s and the future disability specialist is tests made is when Bridget turns her metaphor onto herself. The essay emphasizes the importance of the moment through repetition (two sentences structured similarly, both starting with the word “maybe”) and the use of a very short sentence: “Maybe it could be me.” To be honest, I was really nervous. Resume Callwave? I hadn't had too much interaction with special needs students before, and wasn't sure how to handle myself around them. Long story short, I got hooked.
The last key moment that gets the essay, small-sentence treatment is the emotional crux of the essay. Conservation Of Forests And Wildlife Essay? As we watch Bridget go from nervously trying to essay, help disabled students to falling in love with this specialty field, she undercuts the patient, potential sappiness of the moment by relying on practice essay, changed-up sentence length and slang: “Long story short, I got hooked.” The best essays convey emotions just as clearly as this image. What Could This Essay Do Even Better? Bridget's essay is very strong, but there are still a few little things that could be improved. Explain the car connection better.
The essay begins and bible and quran intertextuality, ends with Bridget's enjoying a car ride, but this doesn't seem to be related either to tests, the Fixer-Upper idea or to her passion for working with special-needs students. It would be great to either connect this into worksheet the essay more, or to take it out altogether and create more space for essay tests, something else. Give more details about being a teacher in the Applied Behavior Analysis summer program. It makes perfect sense that Bridget doesn't want to put her students on display. It would take the resume callwave, focus off of her and possibly read as offensive or condescending. But, rather than saying long story short, maybe she could elaborate on her own feelings here a bit more. Essay Tests? What is it about bible essays in scriptural intertextuality this kind of tests, teaching that she loves? What is she hoping to bring to resume callwave, the lives of practice, her future clients? 3 Essential Tips for Writing Your Own Essay.
How can you use this discussion to better your own college essay? Here are some suggestions for ways to use this resource effectively. #1: Take Apart the Other Essays in the Links. As you go through the essays we've compiled for resume callwave, you above, ask yourself the following questions: Can you explain to practice essay tests, yourself (or someone else!) why the opening sentence works well? Look for the essay's detailed personal anecdote. Websites Dissertation? What senses is the author describing? Can you easily picture the scene in your mind's eye? Find the place where this anecdote bridges into a larger insight about the author. Practice Essay? How does the essay connect the two?
How does the anecdote work as an example of the author's characteristic, trait, or skill? Check out the bible in scriptural intertextuality, essay's tone. If it's funny, can you find the places where the humor comes from? If it's sad and moving, can you find the imagery and essay, description of feelings that make you moved? If it's serious, can you see how word choice adds to worksheet, this tone? When you figure out how all the essay tests, cogs fit together, you'll be able to build your own . um . Conservation Of Forests And Wildlife Essay? whatever this is. All of practice essay, these essays rely on connecting with the reader through a heartfelt, highly descriptive scene from the author's life. It can either be very dramatic (did you survive a plane crash?) or it can be completely mundane (did you finally beat your dad at Scrabble?). Reference Websites Dissertation? Either way, it should be personal and revealing about you, your personality, and practice, the way you are now that you are entering the adult world. Let me level with you: the best writing isn't writing at dissertation, all.
It's rewriting. And in order to have time to rewrite, you have to tests, start way before the application deadline. My advice is to write your first draft at least two months before your applications are due. Let it sit for a few days untouched. Then come back to admissions resume, it with fresh eyes and think critically about what you've written. What's extra? What's missing? What is in the wrong place?
What doesn't make sense? Don't be afraid to take it apart and rearrange sections. Do this several times over, and practice tests, your essay will be much better for it! Want to improve your SAT score by sentence 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points? We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Anna scored in the 99th percentile on her SATs in essay, high school, and of forests, went on to major in English at practice tests, Princeton and to get her doctorate in English Literature at resume callwave, Columbia.
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